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... Some texts made a pronounced reference to national parks (Boo, 1990), protected areas (Boo, 1990;Valentine, 1992) and rural areas (Wallace and Pierce, 1996). Similarly, the activity's advocated impacts included biodiversity conservation (Ziffer, 1989;Butler, 1991;Boo, 1991;Ashton, 1991;Blangy and Eplerwood, 1992;Wight, 1993; The index of sustainable ecotourism impacts: The case of Wadi El Gemal 40 Anderson, 1994;Lindberg and Johnson, 1994;Buckley, 1994;Orams 1997;Sirakaya et al., 1999;Quebec Declaration, 2002;Fennell 2003), education (Ceballos-Lascurain, 1987Boo, 1990;Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Williams, 1992;Young, 1992;Buckley, 1994;Wallace and Pierce, 1996;Orams, 1997;Quebec Declaration, 2002;Fennell, 2003), and generating socio-economic benefits to the local communities (Ziffer, 1989;Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Boo, 1991;Place, 1991;Blangy and Eplerwood, 1992;Fennell, 2003). ...
... Some texts made a pronounced reference to national parks (Boo, 1990), protected areas (Boo, 1990;Valentine, 1992) and rural areas (Wallace and Pierce, 1996). Similarly, the activity's advocated impacts included biodiversity conservation (Ziffer, 1989;Butler, 1991;Boo, 1991;Ashton, 1991;Blangy and Eplerwood, 1992;Wight, 1993; The index of sustainable ecotourism impacts: The case of Wadi El Gemal 40 Anderson, 1994;Lindberg and Johnson, 1994;Buckley, 1994;Orams 1997;Sirakaya et al., 1999;Quebec Declaration, 2002;Fennell 2003), education (Ceballos-Lascurain, 1987Boo, 1990;Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Williams, 1992;Young, 1992;Buckley, 1994;Wallace and Pierce, 1996;Orams, 1997;Quebec Declaration, 2002;Fennell, 2003), and generating socio-economic benefits to the local communities (Ziffer, 1989;Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Boo, 1991;Place, 1991;Blangy and Eplerwood, 1992;Fennell, 2003). ...
... An example of a country that effectively develops non-cost and non-conflict environmental management, which includes ecotourism, is Costa Rica (Fennell & Eagles, 1990;Menkhaus & Lober, 1996). Since the mid-1980s, when ecotourism was first in Vogue, Costa Rica, with 20% of its territory allocated to national parks, began to turn protected areas into profitable enterprises. ...
... On the American continent, Costa Rica (Fennell & Eagles, 1990;Menkhaus & Lober, 1996) is the most clean in environmental terms country. The advantage of this state to neighbouring countries is that Costa Rica has embarked on the path of cutting down the famous Amazon forests. ...
Article
Theses for search of new types of ecological tourism on the basis of allocation of the prevailing signs of the territory are formed. Currently, ecotourism is spread all over the world: Latin America, Asia and Africa. As a result of natural and cultural features, the existing models of ecotourism have been transformed and new types of ecotourism have appeared. The Middle East is the centre of the origin of the planet's religions. A distinctive feature of Iran, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Israel is the orientation of tourism on pilgrimage tours to sacred places. In Africa and Australia, there is a type of ecotourism, such as ethnic or aboriginal tourism, the cultural landscape of which includes the territory of traditional nature management of local tribes. A special feature of ecotourism in Central and Latin America is the organisation of national parks for the preservation of ancient landscape complexes of extinct civilisations. In Russia, a new type of ecotourism has emerged—expeditionary tourism, which is less dependent on the transport accessibility of the territory and its routes cover large areas. Ecological and cultural synthesis, going beyond the protected areas to the cultural landscape, the greening of the local economy—these can and should be the new principles of the Russian strategy of ecotourism. Each macro region is characterised by its model of environmental and cultural values, which should form national eco-tourism concepts. Keywords: Ecological tourism, American (North American, Australian) ecotourism model, Western European (German) ecotourism model, recreational tourism, educational tourism, scientific tourism, rural tourism, ethnic tourism.
... As principais propostas que subsidiam o ordenamento da atividade ecoturística na região estudada, apontam para a adequação do traçado e de infra-estrutura das trilhas, monitoramento periódico dos impactos ambientais decorrentes do uso público, recuperação das áreas de APP e, estabelecimento de parcerias entre os poderes público e privado para a promoção do ecoturismo como uma alternativa viável de desenvolvimento sustentável. (BOO, 1990;BOYD;BUTLER, 1996;DE GROOT, 1983;FENNEL;EAGLES, 1990) • Mapear e caracterizar trilhas de atrativos naturais nos municípios de Viçosa do Ceará, Tianguá e Ubajara; ...
... As principais propostas que subsidiam o ordenamento da atividade ecoturística na região estudada, apontam para a adequação do traçado e de infra-estrutura das trilhas, monitoramento periódico dos impactos ambientais decorrentes do uso público, recuperação das áreas de APP e, estabelecimento de parcerias entre os poderes público e privado para a promoção do ecoturismo como uma alternativa viável de desenvolvimento sustentável. (BOO, 1990;BOYD;BUTLER, 1996;DE GROOT, 1983;FENNEL;EAGLES, 1990) • Mapear e caracterizar trilhas de atrativos naturais nos municípios de Viçosa do Ceará, Tianguá e Ubajara; ...
Thesis
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Ecotourism is an ideal component for a sustainable development strategy in which the natural resources must be used as touristic attractives without damaging the environment. Tourism based on nature has been introduced in determined places with potential preservation thus contributing for the development of some countries while the environment quality is maintained. The development of the touristic activities in sensible areas may cause damage if an evaluation and the monitoring of the effects over the environment are not carried on. Most part of ecotourism activities is developed in trails which must be planned, controlled and maintained in order to reduce the impacts and to increase the opportunities of amusement. Information about the visitors and about the kind of visit are essential tools to make the analysis and to take decisions related to the control of the impacts and of a visitors educational programme. So, this research aimed to map, to characterize and to make an environment diagnosis of natural protected areas trails of Ibiapaba Mountain as well as to identify the characteristics of its visitors. Five trails were analyzed in Viçosa do Ceará, Tianguá and Ubajara, inside of “Environmental Protected Area” and “Permanent Preservation Area”. The mapping was carried on using GPS (Global Positioning System) and also based on the Visitor Impact Management (VIM) methodologies. To identify the kind of visitors of the APA, semi-structured questionnaires developed were applied. The main results of the analysis that were made showed that for the lack of a trials continuous planning and a constant use without control, the area presented itself intensively impacted thus functioning as a source of relevant ecological and environmental modifications that might negatively influence the regional tourist demand of 84% of the people, who travel to enjoy natural resources. The results referring to the questionnaires showed a great diversity of users (visitors) that means a multiplicity of opportunities for the improvement of environment educational strategies for the concerned region. The main propositions that subsidize the arrangement of the ecotourist activity in the studied area show that a trials infrastructure drawing fitness must happen, the control of the seasonal environment impacts came after the visitors usage, the APP areas recuperation must take place and that the establishment of a partnership between the public and the private authorities must be arranged in order to promote ecotourism, a viable alternative of sustainable development.
... Given the above problems, Western countries have taken corresponding measures in the early stage. For example, the cities of Cleveland in the United States and Montes in Germany first carried out the construction of an "ecological city" based on the theory of a circular economy and achieved remarkable results (Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Nelson et al., 1993). China has learned from the advanced experience of other countries and begun to implement waste classification policies in some cities. ...
Article
The municipal solid waste (MSW) classification policies have been officially implemented in many cities of China. In this paper, study 1 is a scenario experiment that investigates whether the information intervention can help to increase the residents' willingness of MSW sorting and the intention to pay for MSW sorting services. Study 2 is conducted based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explore how the information intervention has the above impacts. The results of the structural equation models (SEM) show that the information intervention can directly promote the generation of MSW sorting willingness. In addition, the information intervention can enhance residents’ behavioral attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control and satisfaction with policy. Among them, behavioral attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control can further enhance residents' willingness of MSW sorting. And the willingness to pay for the third-party organizations' MSW sorting service can be strengthened through the behavioral attitude, perceived behavioral control, and satisfaction with policy. The results of hierarchical regression show that residents who own their own real estate are more motivated to take the initiative in waste sorting rather than paying for sorting services. Finally, this paper concludes by putting forward corresponding policy recommendations.
... In addition, adventure tourism is talked about in some texts of ecotourism, outdoor recreation and park management, but not explored in much detail. Authors such asChristiansen (1990), Fennel andEagles (1990), Beeh (1999), Fennel (1999, Page and, Page and Dowling (2001),Wilks and Page (2003), as well asWeed (2008)include adventure tourism typologies within their publications. However, it appears to be onlyHudson (2002), Swarbrooke et al. (2003, as well as Buckley and Cater (2007) whose books wholly focus on the notion of adventure tourism. ...
Conference Paper
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Different adventure activities and experiences constantly evolve because individuals, motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. This paper focuses on the psychographic profile of adventure tourists, who used the products/services of adventure tourism companies within Pretoria, to assist adventure tourism companies to promote and sell specific activities and experiences that will meet the specific needs and wants of their identified target markets. Using a descriptive quantitative approach, results indicate that these tourists travel for holiday and adventure purposes. Furthermore, their destination, accommodation, transport and activity preferences were identified. The respondents indicated that they prefer outdoor activities that are land-based and low-risk; however, the cost of adventure activities would most likely limit their future purchases. This study established that there is a need for further researching of comprehensive adventure tourist profiles that is equally accepted and interpreted.
... In little over a decade international arrivals have grown from about 376,000 in 1989 to over one million visitors in 1999. Despite these new initiatives Costa Rica still carries the reputation as a first-rate ecotourism destination, drawing ecotourists who have been typified in the literature as hard core (Fennell and Eagles 1990), and who maintain attitudes and values which may be characterized as highly ecocentric. ...
Article
This study examines the values and environmental attitudes of three independent samples of ecotourists, including (i) Polish ecotourists, (ii) Canadian ecotourists visiting Costa Rica, and (iii) American ecotourists visiting Mexico. The purpose is to provide a base of cross-cultural data on contemporary measurement scales which have utility in allowing researchers to better understand the ecotourist. The paper further discusses these groups in the context of the ACE tourism framework, which suggests that ecotourists can be differentiated on the basis of adventure, culture, and natural history according to programme offerings, setting, and other factors.
... In recent decades, Costa Rica has gained a global reputation as a premiere destination for natural sciences fi eld trips and study programs. This politically stable nation has developed a thriving ecotourism industry (e.g., Laarman and Perdue, 1989;Fennell and Eagles, 1990;Lumsdon and Swift, 1998;Weaver, 1999) and is recognized internationally as a center for scientifi c fi eld research (e.g., Clark, 1985;Stone, 1988;Silver and Dixon, 2001;León and Hartshorn, 2003;Bundschuch and Alvarado, 2007;Silver et al., 2007). Many U.S. universities now offer study abroad programs and fi eld courses in Costa Rica focused on the natural and environmental sciences (e.g., McLaughlin, 2005;Parrott, 2005;Vadino, 2005). ...
Article
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International field experiences offer exceptional opportunities for effective student learning in the geosciences. Over the 10 yr period between 1998 and 2008, more than 40 undergraduate students from 14 institutions participated in field research investigating active tectonics on the Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica. Three different project models were used: (1) a month-long summer research project, (2) a series of 1 to 2 wk independent field study projects, and (3) a week-long field research module. These projects shared a common research theme (active tectonics), field area (Nicoya Peninsula), and pedagogy (experiential learning), thus allowing for easy comparison of teaching methods, logistics, and learning outcomes. Each model has unique pedagogical benefits and challenges, and is therefore better suited for a different group size, student to faculty ratio, project duration, and budget. Collectively, these student research projects generated significant publishable data relevant to ongoing investigations of forearc tectonics and earthquake hazards along the Costa Rican Pacific margin. Individual student projects were carefully designed to provide a quality field learning experience, while adding a new piece to the larger research puzzle. Indicators of project success include levels of student engagement; gains in technical and cognitive field skills; and productivity of student-authored publications, reports, and presentations. Students commonly described these projects as instrumental in shaping their professional identity as geoscientists. Blending international field research with experiential learning pedagogy creates a powerful synergy that captures student imagination and motivates learning. By placing students beyond the comfort of their home learning environment, international field projects pique student curiosity, sharpen awareness and comprehension, and amplify the desire to learn. Experiential learning pedagogy encourages students to define their own research agenda and solve problems through critical thinking, inquiry, and reflection. The potent combination of international fieldwork and experiential learning helps students to develop the self-confidence and reasoning skills needed to solve multifaceted real-world problems, and provides exceptional training for graduate school and professional careers in the geosciences.
... Yapılan çalışmalarda rehberlerin aracılık ve yorumcu rolü kadar ilgi gören rolleri ise doğaya dayalı dinlence ve turizm etkinlikleri içerisindeki rolleridir. Fennell ve Eagles (1990), Weiler ve Davis (1993), McArthur (1994), Moscardo (1998), Kline (2001), Howard vd. (2001), Weiler ve Ham (2002), Haig ve McIntyre (2002), Randall ve Rollins (2005), Black ve Weiler (2005), Ormsby ve Mannle (2006), Reisinger ve Steiner (2006) ile Randall ve Rollins (2009) tarafından yapılan çalışmalarda rehberlerin doğaya dayalı turizm etkinlikleri içerisindeki rolleri araştırılmıştır. ...
Article
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Other than being a profession that extends beyond only providing information on the historical monuments, tour guiding is a job that has positive effects on the holistic holiday experience. Thus, this profession in its context embodies many different roles that are necessary. With this context, the purpose of this study is primarily to analyze the effects of the leadership and mediation roles on certificated tour guide performance evaluation and then on holistic tour experience. Consequently, in order to determine the relationships between parameters, a field survey at Sarigerme tourism region was conducted on the guided nature tours during the months of May, June and July in 2013. Through the data obtained by the questionnaires, the relationship between the leadership role / mediator role of tour guides on tour guides‟ performance and holistic tour experience basing on two different models was analyzed with Structural Equation Method (SEM). As an outcome of the survey, it was found that the leadership role/mediator role of tour guides on the evaluation of the tour guides‟ performance and that the tour guide performance has positive effects on the evaluation holistic tour experience
... Much of the study of adventure tourism to date relates to notions of risk and danger (see Ewert, 1985;Ewert & Hollenhorst, 1989;Hall, 1992;Priest, 1990Priest, , 1992, desire for challenge (see Csikszentmihalyi & Selega, 1990;Ewert, 1985;Lewis, 2004;Rubens, 1999), the commodification of nature and wilderness (see Braun, 2002;Cloke & Perkins, 1998Fletcher, 2014;Johnson & Edwards, 1994;Palmer, 2002;Varley, 2006), and environmental and economic sustainability of adventure practices (see Costa & Chalip, 2005;Davidson & Stebbins, 2011;Fennell & Eagles, 1990;Swarbrooke, 2003). Underlying much of this work are notions of neoliberal rights to access the world's natural and wild places, at the right price. ...
Article
This paper examines the discourses of authenticity and ethics employed by adventure tourists regarding the use of the natural environment. In one case, full-time traveling rock climbers use their dedication to the sport and annual visits to the Red River Gorge as evidence for their authoritative voice on ethical climbing practice. While they identify the growing numbers of leisure climbers as a problem for sustainability, many also take up temporary employment as guides and are directly involved in the introduction of new climbers to the area. In another case, two groups of wilderness enthusiasts – “ADK 46ers” and “Summit Stewards” – lament the environmental and social impacts of other recreational users in the Adirondack Park. Despite being visitors themselves, Summit Stewards and 46ers use their sense of place and knowledge of Adirondack history and ecology to substantiate their authority as purveyors of ethical practice. In both cases, senses of responsibility are inspired by senses of place, but are articulated through notions of authenticity and used as justification for ethical authority. While validating their presence in these outdoor spaces, the use of such rhetoric also minimizes their own impacts yielding further tensions among user groups.
... One way to portray overlying concepts in research is the use of Venn diagrams. They have been used to explore the overlaps between geography and tourism (Faulkner, 1998), commonality and special interest tourism (Wright, 1993), forms of service and tourism operations (Fennell and Eagles, 1996) and to distinguish risky sex behaviour in sexual activity of the adult population (Bancroft, 2000). Figure 1 depicts the conceptual framework for this paper, focussing on the intersections of The Future of Tourism, Porn in Tourism, Portraying Porn as a Future Dimension and The Future of Porn Tourism which will be discussed in the proceeding sections. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Sex tourism is well documented in the literature, but what about porn tourism? Whether it is a Ping Pong show in Phuket or the Banana show in Amsterdam, porn and tourism have an encounter and gaze no different from the Mona Lisa in the Louvre or magnificent views of New Zealand’s Southern Alps. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This paper explores the intersections of tourism, porn and the future as a conceptual framework. Findings Four intersections are derived from the conceptual framework. Intersection 1, the Future of Tourism, portrays the evolution of tourism and explores its technological future. Interaction 2, Porn in Tourism, distinguishes between soft- and hard-core porn tourism. Intersection 3, Portraying Porn as a Future Dimension, delves into futurism, science fiction and fantasy. The fourth intersection, the Future Gaze, conveys the thrust of the paper by exploring how technological advancement blends with authenticity and reality. Thus the porn tourist seeks both the visual and the visceral pleasures of desire. The paper concludes with four future gazes of porn tourism, The Allure of Porn, The Porn Bubble, Porn as Liminal Experience and Hardcore. Originality/value The originality of this paper is that this is the first paper to systematically examine porn tourism beyond sex tourism overlaying with a futures dimension. Porn tourists actively seek to experience both visual and visceral pleasures. Tourism and pornography both begin with the gaze. The gaze is an integral component of futures thinking. Technology is changing us, making us smarter, driving our thirst for liminal experiences. Like the transition from silent movies to talking pictures the porn tourism experience of the future is likely to involve more of the bodily senses.
... As environmental problems and the destruction of the nature have had an irreparable impact on the earth and human life, environmental protection organizations have been established to minimize such destructive effects. The main goal of these organizations is to protect the nature and also to define frameworks and regulations concerning the presence of humans in the nature and putting a limit on their influence and intervention in it in order to minimize exploiting the nature by humans [9]. Accordingly, protected areas have been form to protect natural attractions and ecosystems, special economic, social, cultural, and historical conditions and values of natural areas and landscapes, and improve material and spiritual power of these natural landscapes by Nature and Natural Resources Protection Organization [10]. ...
Article
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Protected areas are considered as suitable environments for tourism development where the performance of tourism, consumer, and economic activities consistent with each region based on total management plan provides the context for sustainable tourism development. Therefore, the aim of the present study1 was to explore the role of ecotourism potentials in the environmental development of Miankaleh Protected Region using a descriptive, analytical, survey method. It also aimed to examine factors affecting sustainable tourism development in the region under study. The data were collected using documentation and library techniques, field methods, questionnaires, note taking, observation, and conducting interviews with people, tourists, and authorities in charge of ecotourism development. The research population included people living in Noushahr, of whom 384 families, 30 experts, and 100 tourists were selected as the respondents in the research sample using Cochrane formula. The collected data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics, and Spearman test through SPSS. The results of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between ecotourism potentials, environmental, economic and sociocultural development in the region under study.
... Ecotourists vary, from minimal to extreme ecotourist according to the degree they assume at these levels. Fennell and Eagles [27] referred to individuals visiting a natural setting as ''ecotourists.'' Others [21] [24] [28] [29] challenged this assumption and argued that ecotourists are individuals who spend a predetermined number of days engaged in environmentally based activities, have unique motives for visiting natural areas, etc. ...
Article
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Mangrove forests play an important role in providing ecological and societal goods and services to coastal communities including stabilizing shorelines and helping reduce the devastating impact of natural disasters such as tsunamis and hurricanes, serving as breeding and nursing grounds for many marine and pelagic species, and providing food, medicine, fuel, and building materials as well as opportunities for recreational activities. Sustainable usage of these ecosystems consists of wise exploitations of resources without any harm effect on ecosystem. Ecotourism is a promising option to guarantee maximum benefits as well as minimum hazard to the environment. From an ecotourism point of view, a visitor not only enjoys the aesthetics of wetlands, but also contributes in conservation of soil and water and protection of fauna and flora. At the same time a perfect ecotourist never destroys the facilities or reduces the natural richness. According Ramsar Convention documents, Hara biosphere reserve with its high biodiversity has been ranked among top important wetlands in Iran. Hara biosphere reserve attracts plenty of visitors every year and the study of visitors' behavior is a definite obligation for any assessment of the wetland potential. This study which was conducted during the spring and summer 2015, examined the visitors' activities alongside the Hara biosphere reserve. Multivariate analyze based on the results from the questionnaires distributed between 100 visitors, clearly showed that the way of expending leisure time of the visitors of Hara biosphere reserve is ecological friendly, and they can be recognize as true ecotourists. Their activity can be use as a template for evaluating other visitors of the mangroves of Iran.
... The expectations for ecotourism were high. It was meant to provide sustainable economic development (17,63), effective mechanisms for biodiversity conservation (18,40,62,64,65), strategies for empowering marginalized peoples (66,67), ethical practices for The literature referring to ecotourism has increased substantially since 1990. A search on Web of Science recovered 737 journal articles with "ecotourism" in the title. ...
Article
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Ecotourism originated in the 1980s, at the dawn of sustainable development, as a way to channel tourism revenues into conservation and development. Despite the “win-win” idea, scholars and practitioners debate the meaning and merits of ecotourism. We conducted a review of 30 years of ecotourism research, looking for empirical evidence of successes and failures. We found the following trends: Ecotourism is often conflated with outdoor recreation and other forms of conventional tourism; impact studies tend to focus on either ecological or social impacts, but rarely both; and research tends to lack time series data, precluding authors from discerning effects over time, either on conservation, levels of biodiversity, ecosystem integrity, local governance, or other indicators. Given increasing pressures on wild lands and wildlife, we see a need to add rigor to analyses of ecotourism. We provide suggestions for future research and offer a framework for study design and issues of measurement and scaling. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Environment and Resources Volume 44 is October 17, 2019. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... Eco-tourism is the result of the 1980s' concept, the world conservation union (I-UCN) special adviser Ceballos Lascurain first proposed it in 1983 [2] . At that time, this term was not used extensively, some scholars also used the natural tourism, ecological tourism and green tourism to express [3][4] . According to the definition of the first world congress on "tourism and the environment" (1992), eco-tourism is the natural tourism that with the view to appreciate and study the natural landscape, wild animals and plants and relevant characteristic culture, and through the way of raising money for nature reserve, creating employment opportunities for local residents and providing environmental education for social public to be help for the natural conservation [5] . ...
... Source: Swarbrooke et al. (2003) adapted from Fennell and Eagles (1990). ...
Thesis
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Adventure is one of the greatest trends in tourism today (ATTA - Adventure Travel Trade Association, 2018a), through which tourists seek to escape ordinary living (Beames, et al., 2019). It has been growing at higher rates than the general tourism market (ATTA, 2013; 2018a), comprising new challenges to adventure providers. The market has been changing very fast, bringing new tourists’ profiles and increases in the competition (Cloutier, 2003; Buckley, 2010a). Competitiveness, but also technology, the search for transformative travel (ATTA, 2018a), and the difficulty in providing experiences to tourists with unrealistic expectations (Lindberg & Østergaard, 2015; Lindberg & Eide, 2016) have highlighted the need to develop new products and business models. The liminal and escapist nature of extraordinary adventure experiences (Arnould & Price, 1993), as well as the intense personal meaning derived from them (Pomfret, 2012), seem appropriate for addressing those market demands. However, the business side of adventure tourism has received little research attention (Buckley, 2006a; Cheng, et al., 2018). The present study has been developed with the aim to investigate differences between adventure tourists’ idealizations, motivations, and preferences, and the perceptions of adventure providers regarding those features. Questionnaires for tourists and tourism professionals allowed the collection of quantitative data and the application of statistical methods. Qualitative data was collected through interviewing adventure tourism professionals, as well as through direct observation and participation in adventure experiences. As a general conclusion, it can be remarked that tourism professionals need to have a better understanding of their clients' motivations, but it also seems that tourists have unrealistic expectations that can affect how their experiences unfold and how products are being structured. Still, it seems clear that both sides agree that tourists’ desire to escape enables a transition into a liminal world of adventure, where a different contact with nature, peak experiences, and contrasting emotions create moments of elation and deep satisfaction. Using the Experience Economy (Pine & Gilmore, 1999) framework, and considering Cloke and Perkins’ (2002) commodification variables, adventure providers might have the tools to orchestrate experiences that will endure in the memory of their customers, while keeping efficiency, safety, and high satisfaction.
... The increased awareness of the environmental impacts of tourism led to the emergence of a new group of tourists called, among others, eco-tourists, green tourists or responsible tourists. Though researchers have found it difficult to clearly define 'ecotourists', primarily because of the motivation overlap with those of other types of tourists and the products in which they express interest (Wight, 1996), studies have commonly referred eco-tourists as individuals who visit a natural setting (Fennel and Eagles, 1990), are more aware of the importance of protecting the environemnt and/ or more engaged in environmentally-based activities (e.g., Eagles, 1992;Valentine, 1993;Palacio and McCool, 1997). In other words, eco-tourists differ from mass tourists in terms of the benefits they seek from nature and therefore primarily travel with the intent of observing, experiencing and learning about nature. ...
Article
Full-text available
The European economic crisis in the Euro zone is not a one-off situation that can be secluded simply on a geographical area, as it impacts the systemic consciousness of economic development. With an analysis focused specifically on the Indian economy, there are clear advantages to be extracted from the European economic crisis that India can profit from by becoming a more present player in the global economic scene. In parallel, it will entail that the country will have to reevaluate its internal political decision making processes, as well as seeking opportunities, without delay, on rethinking its internal structural pillars: Regulatory, Infrastructure, Education, and Urbanization concepts. In addition, repositioning and rebranding the Indian strategic vision vis-à-vis the World economies may attract additional FDI and can help refocus the country’s external strategic investments both in Europe and in the rest of the World – accelerating therefore, India’s increasing relevance as an established economic power.
... It has grown tremendously in last two decades (Kontogeorgopoulos & Chulikavit, 2010) and has generated a great deal of interest from scholars, development organizations and practitioners (Gray, 2003;Fennel, 2002). It is multi-dimensional in nature (Narayan, 1998;Cirit & Thatte, 2008;Somarriba-Chang, 2010;Montaguti & Mingotto, 2015) and has been defined at times by various researchers as smallscale, sustainable, responsible, minimal impact, education, highly benefitable, local community oriented, dependence on parks and protected areas, contributes to conservation, interest in nature with elongated benefits, tool for biodiversity conservation, concurrent benefits to local ecosystems, positive guest host relationship, builds environmental and cultural awareness and respect, community conservation centric, alternate income source and environment awareness (Kutay, 1989;Ziffer, 1989;Fennell & Eagles, 1990;Valentine, 1993;Western, 1993;Brandon, 1996;Goodwin, 1996;Wallace & Pierce, 1996;Fennell, 2003;Stronza & Durham, 2008;Mclaughlin, 2011;Sharma & Pradhan, 2011;Arts et al., 2012;Kiper, 2013;Wabnitz et al., 2018;Ebiloma & Ayodele, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Being composite in nature, ecotourism involves various stakeholders for its successful practice. Stakeholders are a group of individuals who are vital for the successful ecotourism development of any region. It may involve supply-side stakeholders like local government, ecotourism operators, local people, and community organizations and demand-side stakeholders i.e. the tourists. The current study assesses the role of supply-side stakeholders in promotion of ecotourism in Himachal Pradesh, a state in north western Himalaya. For this purpose, field research was conducted in the October month of the year 2015, through in-depth interviews, interactions, and observations with the operators/owners/managers of ecotourism units/operators/ organizations in four districts i.e. Kullu, Kangra, Shimla and Solan of the state. The study was based on the pillars and principles of ecotourism given by Hetzer (1965) and Er (2010) respectively. Results revealed that the ecotourism units/organizations have emphasized on minimizing environmental impacts, generating respect towards local culture, providing maximum benefits to local people and maximizing tourist satisfaction. Also, the recommendations are made for supply-side stakeholders for the sustainable development of ecotourism in the state.
... The increased awareness of the environmental impacts of tourism led to the emergence of a new group of tourists called, among others, eco-tourists, green tourists or responsible tourists. Though researchers have found it difficult to clearly define 'ecotourists', primarily because of the motivation overlap with those of other types of tourists and the products in which they express interest (Wight, 1996), studies have commonly referred eco-tourists as individuals who visit a natural setting (Fennel and Eagles, 1990), are more aware of the importance of protecting the environemnt and/ or more engaged in environmentally-based activities (e.g., Eagles, 1992;Valentine, 1993;Palacio and McCool, 1997). In other words, eco-tourists differ from mass tourists in terms of the benefits they seek from nature and therefore primarily travel with the intent of observing, experiencing and learning about nature. ...
... It has grown tremendously in last two decades (Kontogeorgopoulos & Chulikavit, 2010) and has generated a great deal of interest from scholars, development organizations and practitioners (Gray, 2003;Fennel, 2002). It is multi-dimensional in nature (Narayan, 1998;Cirit & Thatte, 2008;Somarriba-Chang, 2010;Montaguti & Mingotto, 2015) and has been defined at times by various researchers as smallscale, sustainable, responsible, minimal impact, education, highly benefitable, local community oriented, dependence on parks and protected areas, contributes to conservation, interest in nature with elongated benefits, tool for biodiversity conservation, concurrent benefits to local ecosystems, positive guest host relationship, builds environmental and cultural awareness and respect, community conservation centric, alternate income source and environment awareness (Kutay, 1989;Ziffer, 1989;Fennell & Eagles, 1990;Valentine, 1993;Western, 1993;Brandon, 1996;Goodwin, 1996;Wallace & Pierce, 1996;Fennell, 2003;Stronza & Durham, 2008;Mclaughlin, 2011;Sharma & Pradhan, 2011;Arts et al., 2012;Kiper, 2013;Wabnitz et al., 2018;Ebiloma & Ayodele, 2019). ...
Article
The rapid expansion of tourism in Leh district of Jammu and Kashmir State, India over the last decade has changed the pattern of economic activities, and therefore it becomes quite significant to understand how the residents’ perceive the tourism development as well as their perception towards impacts brought by the tourism industry. This study investigates the perception of residents’ regarding the impacts of tourism development in Leh district. A survey based on convenience sampling method was conducted. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) using principal component analysis with Varimax Rotation was carried out to identify the residents’ perception of the various impacts of tourism development. The findings from both descriptive statistics and factor analysis suggest that tourism has generated significant positive economic impacts. However, although tourism has generated huge benefits, the local residents’ felt that the huge influx of tourists and increasing tourism activities in the region have also generated negative impacts like regional imbalances, seasonality, increase in the price of land and housing, littering, overcrowding and traffic congestion, increases crime and anti-social activities, cosmopolitan culture. It is also found that tourism stakeholders are very critical about environmental impacts. Keywords: Tourism Development, Tourism Impacts, Residents’ Perception, Leh-Ladakh
... It has grown tremendously in last two decades (Kontogeorgopoulos & Chulikavit, 2010) and has generated a great deal of interest from scholars, development organizations and practitioners (Gray, 2003;Fennel, 2002). It is multi-dimensional in nature (Narayan, 1998;Cirit & Thatte, 2008;Somarriba-Chang, 2010;Montaguti & Mingotto, 2015) and has been defined at times by various researchers as smallscale, sustainable, responsible, minimal impact, education, highly benefitable, local community oriented, dependence on parks and protected areas, contributes to conservation, interest in nature with elongated benefits, tool for biodiversity conservation, concurrent benefits to local ecosystems, positive guest host relationship, builds environmental and cultural awareness and respect, community conservation centric, alternate income source and environment awareness (Kutay, 1989;Ziffer, 1989;Fennell & Eagles, 1990;Valentine, 1993;Western, 1993;Brandon, 1996;Goodwin, 1996;Wallace & Pierce, 1996;Fennell, 2003;Stronza & Durham, 2008;Mclaughlin, 2011;Sharma & Pradhan, 2011;Arts et al., 2012;Kiper, 2013;Wabnitz et al., 2018;Ebiloma & Ayodele, 2019). ...
... Çünkü turistler o yerin kültürü, yaşam biçimi ve orada neler olduğunu anlamak için, kesinlikle iyi dil becerilerine sahip bir turist rehberine ihtiyaç duymaktadırlar (Turan, 2017: 67). Örneğin dil bilme ile ilgili, Fennell & Eagles (1990) doğaya yönelik gerçekleştirilen faaliyetlerde, turist rehberlerinin dil yeterliliği eksikliklerinden kaynaklı olarak, pek çok bitki adını ya kendi dillerinde söylediklerinden ya da yanlış telaffuz ettiklerinden bahsetmişlerdir. Bu hatalı kullanımların da yanlış anlaşılmalara sebebiyet verdiğini vurgulamışlardır. ...
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Alternatif turizm türlerinin artması, seyahat sürelerinin kısalması ve tatil sürelerinin uzaması turist hareketliliğini arttırmıştır. Farklı milletlerden turistlerin seyahat ve tura katılma isteği, tercih edilen destinasyonlarda, tercih edilen dillerde turist rehberi ihtiyacını arttırmıştır. Dolayısıyla, turist rehberliği mesleğinin özü olan kültürlerarası iletişimin gerçekleşmesinde "farklı dillerde rehberlik hizmeti" zorunluluğu ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu çalışmada, turist rehberlerinin dil seçimlerinin, nadir diller ve nadir dillerin kullanım düzeylerinin turist rehberliği hizmetinde ve turizm sektöründeki öneminin ortaya konması amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmada nitel araştırma yöntemi temel alınarak doküman incelemesi tekniği kullanılmıştır. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı TUREB ve Turist Rehberleri Meslek Odalarından alınan veriler titizlikle incelenerek yıl bazında sunulmuştur. Turist rehberlerinin çalışma kartlarında nadir dillerden birinin yazmasının hem turist rehberleri hem ülkeleri için prestij ve kazanç sağlayacağı hem de turist memnuniyetini arttırıcı etkide bulunacağı belirtilmiştir. Araştırmanın nadir dil konuşan turist rehberi sayısındaki artış ile kaçak rehberlik ve taban ücret altında çalışma gibi usulsüz uygulamaların engellenebilmesi açısından önemli bir katkısı olduğu vurgulanmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Nadir Diller, Turist Rehberliği, Turist Rehberliğinde Dil Seçimi. Abstract Increasing of alternative tourism types, shortening of travel times and extension of vacation periods have increased tourist mobility from different nationalities. So this has increased the requirement of tourist guidance service in different languages. In this study, it is aimed to reveal the importance of language choices, rare languages, and effects of rare languages in tourist guidance profession and tourism sector. In the research, on the basis of qualitative research method, the document review technique was used. The data obtained from the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, TUREB and Tourist Guides Professional Chambers have been carefully examined and tabulated on a yearly basis. Having one of the rare languages will provide prestige and gain both for tourist guides and countries and also will increase tourist' satisfaction. This research has a significant effect in preventing improper practices such as illegal guidance, working under the base wage etc. with the increase in the number of tourist guides in rare languages.
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در سال 2012 میلادی برای اولین بار تعداد گردشگران جهان از مرز یک میلیارد نفر در سال گذشت و این موضوع با وجود آمارهایی که طبیعت گردی را پررشدترین زیر شاخه گردشگری نشان میدهد، اهمیت پرداختن به مقوله طبیعت گردی را دوچندان میکند. طبیعت گردی ای که اکنون به صورت جامع تر از پیش تعریف شده و موضوع احترام به جوامع محلی در آن پر رنگ شده است و طبیعت گردانی که امروزه با دیدی مسئولانه تر از گذشته به طبیعت و جامعه میزبان قدم می گذارند. علیرغم رشد سریع این صنعت نوپا، بسیاری از کشورهای اسلامی با وجود منابع طبیعی و مردم محلی مهمان نواز، از قافله جذب طبیعت گردان عقب مانده و همچنان طبیعت گردی را عامل تهاجم فرهنگی می دانند. این در حالی است که در میان همین جوامع مسلمان، کشورهایی چون ترکیه و مالزی، گوی سبقت را از بسیاری از کشورهای دنیا ربوده اند و در ردیف 10 کشور اول جذب کننده ی گردشگر قرار گرفته اند. هم زمان با شکل گیری صنعت نوپای طبیعت گردی، و هم راستا با سایر کسب و کارها و به دلیل حساسیت های بالا در این صنعت، استانداردهای مختلف در صدد وضع قوانین و دادن گواهی نامه به مشاغل مختلف طبیعت گردی برآمدند. با وجود انتقادهای زیادی که بر این گونه استانداردها وارد می شود و معمولا آنها را فاقد قوانین واضح و مشخص می دانند، اما این استانداردها به کامل تر کردن قوانین و مقرارات خود در زمینه طبیعت گردی پرداخته و بر مفاهیم کلیدی این صنعت از جمله پایداری محیط زیست و پایداری جامعه محلی پافشاری کرده اند. در حال حاضر سازمان¬هایی از جمله: استاندارد مدیریت محیط سازمان جهانی استاندارد (ISO 14000)، زمین سبز (Green Globe 21)، برنامه¬ی محیط زیست سازمان ملل متحد (UNEP) و جامعه بین المللی طبیعت گردی (TICS) استانداردهایی معتبر در زمینه¬ی طبیعت گردیبین¬المللی صادر میکنند که هر کدام نامی آشنا برای علاقه مندان طبیعت گردی است. در کنار استانداردهای بین المللی فوق، بسیاری از کشورها خود با توجه به شرایط جامعه، به صورت دولتی و یا خصوصی به ارائه¬ی استانداردهای ملی می¬پردازند. به لطف استانداردهای فوق و مفاهیم جدید طبیعت¬گردی، تمامی کشورها از جمله کشورهای مسلمان می توانند به صورت منسجم تر و با ارائه¬ی خدمات استاندارد به طبیعت¬گردان آگاه، هم جامعه و طبیعت خود را به صورت پایدارتر حفظ نمایند، هم از طریق برندهای استاندارد، زیبایی های طبیعی و فرهنگی خود را به جهانیان بشناسانند و با نشان دادن طبیعت و جامعه ای با استاندارد بالا و ریسک کم و ارائه خدمات مطلوب، خاطره هایی را برای آنها رقم بزنند که طبیعت گردان، خود مبلغ طبیعت و فرهنگ این کشورها باشند.
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En los ultimos anos han aparecido nuevas formas de turismo mas sostenibles, donde existen elementos relacionados con el descanso, el disfrute y la proteccion del medio ambiente o el conocimiento de la cultura local, a traves de politicas que favorecen la sostenibilidad del destino. En este sentido, el ecoturismo se configura como una tipologia turistica que se desarrolla en contacto con la naturaleza. Este turismo ayuda a mejorar el desarrollo socioeconomico de las comunidades locales, a la vez, que fomenta la conservacion de los recursos naturales y el respeto hacia el medio ambiente. Aunque, esta tipologia de turismo tambien genera importantes impactos negativos. El objetivo principal de esta investigacion es analizar los impactos socioeconomicos, culturales y medioambientales percibidos por el ecoturismo por parte de los residentes de comunidades rurales de Republica Dominicana. La tecnica de recoleccion de datos utilizada ha consistido en un cuestionario. Entre las principales conclusiones, cabe destacar que actualmente no se perciben impactos negativos, pero si hay una serie de elementos que hay que ir considerando, con la finalidad de que no se conviertan en un impacto a corto plazo para la comunidad rural.
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The objective of this report produced for the French Agency for Development and the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs is to analyze different forms of responsible tourism in several areas: Madagascar, Namibia, Tunisia, Argentina and Costa Rica. This is to identify the effects of different forms of responsible tourism in light of the requirement of sustainability (environmental and socio-economic). The aim is also to present some recommendations after analyzing the factors of success and failure of different experiences in the different areas studied.
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I dentifying species distributions is fundamental to understanding their ecology and guiding conservation and management strategies. We compiled 756 unique range-wide Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) detections via camera trapping of track/sign surveys in eight countries. We then estimated the distribution of suitable tapir habitat within a Maxent-modeling framework. Though there are some clear areas of over-and under-predicted habitat, the resultant models allowed us to significantly update the potential distribution map of Baird's tapir. We estimate that 39.4% of the available area is suitable for tapirs, but only 27.2% of that habitat occurs in protected areas. We discuss the areas that comprise suitable tapir habitat, and identify global and local threats in each country.
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Frameworks are the foundation of good scholarship. They structure, organize and communicate research, underpin individual studies and shape the field of study as a whole. This book provides the first comprehensive and systematic review and critique of frameworks for tourism research. Theoretical, conceptual, analytical and integrative frameworks are all covered in detail, with the features, use, strengths and limitations of each form discussed and illustrated using a wide range of examples and applications across the field of tourism studies.
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El turismo se configura como un sector económico importante a nivel mundial, adquiriendo más importancia en los países en vías de desarrollo. Así, en los últimos años se ha pasado de un turismo de masas dominante a un disfrute de un turismo alternativo, que contribuye al desarrollo sostenible. Un ejemplo es el ecoturismo en áreas en vías de desarrollo. De esta manera, el objetivo de esta investigación es evaluar la calidad percibida por los ecoturistas que visitan áreas protegidas República Dominicana, en concreto, en el Monumento Natural Saltos de la Damajagua, principal oferta complementaria de sol y playa en Puerto Plata. Para ello, se ha realizado un cuestionario a la demanda ecoturística. Entre los principales resultados destacar que los visitantes son generalmente de nacionalidad extranjera, que perciben una calidad elevada del servicio ofertado en esta área protegida. En consecuencia, la satisfacción es también alta, generando esto una lealtad elevada, sobre todo en el caso de recomendar el lugar. Como conclusión, esta área protegida que se gestiona en forma de co-manejo es un ejemplo de turismo sostenibl, que genera resultados positivos tanto para los visitantes como para las comunidades locales, y por tanto, puede ser implementado en otros destinos dominicanos.
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The main objective of this study is to verify the impact relation between perception of ecotourism, recreation experience, and willingness to revisit for the visitors to recreational farms. A questionnaire survey was conducted on the visitors to four recreational farms. A total of 400 questionnaires were distributed, and 342 effective questionnaires were collected. Statistical analysis of the data from this study shows: 1. perception of ecotourism directly and positively affects recreation experience; 2. perception of ecotourism directly and positively affects willingness to revisit; 3. recreation experience directly and positively affects willingness to revisit. Finally, the study will provide managerial suggestions for businesses.
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در اقتصاد عواملی وجود دارند که به عنوان عوامل کشنده شناخته می شوند. این عوامل با توسعه و پیشرفت خود دیگر حوزه ها را نیز تحت تاثیر قرار داده و به دنبال خود می کشند. صنعت گردشگري نیز به عنوان یک عامل کشنده بیش از هر فعالیت اقتصادي و صنعتی دیگر در جهان موجب حرکت سرمایه ها شده است، مصارف و درآمدهاي حاصل از جهانگردي به مراتب بیش تر و سریع تر از تولیدات ناخالص ملی و صادرات جهانی کالا و خدمات رشد می یابد. مطالعات سازمان جهانی گردشگري 3 نشان می دهد که صنعت گردشگري فرامرزي در پنج دهه اخیر از نرخ رشد بالاتري نسبت به نرخ رشد صنایع تولیدي و تجارت برخوردار بوده است. گردشگري به عنوان یک منبع درآمد و ایجاد اشتغال در سطح ملی، می تواند راهی براي توسعه اقتصادي در قلمرو ملی باشد. برآوردهاي موجود نشان می دهد که در برخی کشورها، صنعت گردشگري سهم قابل ملاحظه اي از تولید ناخالص داخلی را به خود اختصاص 8 درصد و / می دهد. براي نمونه در کشور مکزیک سهم درآمد ناشی از گردشگران بین المللی حدود 2 87 درصد از تولید ناخلص داخلی است. وجه دیگري از اثرات مثبت / در کشور مالدیو این سهم برابر 7 گردشگري در حوزه اقتصادي ایجاد اشتغال است. بر اساس تخمین هاي شوراي جهانی سفر و 10 درصد یا / گردشگري 4، سهم صنعت گردشگري از کل اشتغال در دنیا در سال 2002 میلادي برابر 7 255 میلیون نفر بوده است. این سهم بالاي صنعت گردشگري از کل اشتغال بدان سبب است که این صنعت در مقایسه با تولید صنعتی و تجارت نسبتا کاربر 5 است. موارد مذکور معطوف به تاثیرات مستقیم صنعت گردشگري است. اما این صنعت می تواند به عنوان یک عامل کشنده نقش ارزنده اي در رشد ملی کشورها داشته باشد زیرا این صنعت با ایجاد یک سلسله فعالیت هاي جدید در جامعه، موجب فعال شدن سایر بخش هاي اقتصادي خواهد شد. به عبارت دیگر این صنعت آثار غیرمستقیم و القائی 6 نیز در اقتصاد هاي ملی دارد. با توسعه صنعت توریسم، تقاضا براي سایر تولیدات و خدمات بخش هاي دیگر اقتصادي مانند بخش هاي حمل و نقل، مواد غذایی، سوخت و انرژي، صنایع دستی و بخش هاي ساختمانی نیز افزایش پیدا می کند که به اثرات غیرمستقیم توریسم تعبیر شده است. همچنین ارز حاصل از جذب گردشگران که به شکل دستمزد در اختیار خانوارها قرار می گیرد، بصورت هزینه هاي خانوار خود رامجددا در اقتصاد نشان می دهد که از آن تحت عنوان اثرات القائی توریسم تعبیر می گردد. بنابراین صنعت گردشگري با مجموعه اثرات مستقیم، غیر مستقیم و القائی خود بر توسعه اقتصاد کشورها هم موثر است و سبب تحول در ساختار اقتصادي این کشورها می شود. از این رو در این مقاله با استفاده از تحلیل دینامیکی سیستم ها که یک شیوه تفکر مبتنی بر مدلسازي است و هدف آن، مطالعه سیستم هاي پیچیده اقتصادي - اجتماعی است سعی در ترسیم مدل علت و معلولی اثرات صنعت گردشگري به عنوان یک عامل کشنده بر اقتصاد و اشتغال داریم تا از این طریق حلقه هاي تقویت کننده که موجب رشد اقتصادي و حلقه هاي تعادلی که موجب ثبات و پایداري اقتصادي می شوند را شناسایی نمائیم و راه کارهایی جهت بهره برداري هر چه بهتر از این صنعت ارائه نمائیم.
Book
Tourism is a major industry in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) as well as a growing field of academic study. For many cities and regions tourism is also increasingly recognised as being integral to economic, social and sustainable development. In addition, tourism also contributes to Nordic identity through destination promotion and tourism activities, including winter tourism and the tradition of access to common land, as well as specific forms of tourism, such as second homes. Nordic Tourism is the first comprehensive and accessible introduction to tourism in the region that links Nordic tourism research and concerns with key concepts in tourism studies. The book consists of eleven chapters dealing with issues ranging from, for example, marketing and policy to nature-based tourism, culture and the contribution of tourism to environmental change. The inclusion of case studies from leading Nordic researchers on specific destinations, attractions, resources, sectors and developments also provides a valuable learning tool for all students of tourism. © 2009 C. Michael Hall, Dieter Müller and Jarkko Saarinen. All rights reserved.
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Focusing on an array of economic, social and ecological inconsistencies that continue to plague ecotourism in theory and practice, this third edition continues to examine the evolution of ecotourism in reference to other related forms of tourism, impacts, conservation, sustainability, education and interpretation, policy and governance and the ethical imperative of ecotourism as these apply to the world's greenest form of tourism. This revised and updated edition of ecotourism provides a broad introduction, including: New information on the magnitude of the tourism industry, nature-based tourism, wildlife tourism and the pros and cons of mass ecotourism. Revised chapters on development, economics, marketing, policy, ecotourism in practice and biodiversity conservation. A section on governance models, ecotourism programmes, operators and guides, interpretation, certification and ecolodge design. A discussion of ecotourism as an ethical or responsible form of tourism. Approximately 300 new references. This critical overview of ecotourism is a useful reference for students, lecturers and researchers. It includes a range of case studies, and considers the perspectives of many adjacent fields, including geography, economics, business, philosophy, biology and environmental studies.
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It is difficult to maintain long-term tourism development if without local residents 'supporting, and without understanding residents' attitudes and opinions. This paper is a case study that sets out to explore the extent to which the pond residents of Taoyuan have attitudes and behavior intentions towards pond ecotourism ventures for sustainable development. The investigation of the attitudes and behavior intentions of the pond community residents was carried out using a questionnaire as research tool that was drawn up specifically for the needs of this study, and moderated hierarchical regression analysis. We investigated how two primary types of psychological philosophies, subjective norm and perceived difficulty, influence the relationship between the attitudes and behavior intentions. Significant findings were determined for these relationships. Age of pond resident doesn't affect to these relationships. The moderating effects of subjective norm and perceived difficulty showed that in some cases with certain attitudes, the inclusion or exclusion of subjective norm and perceived difficulty might cause worse or better behavior intention. Moreover, pond ecotourism development implications were also identified in this study.
Chapter
Modern tourism uses natural environments increasingly for the growth basis of the industry. This has created a variety of positive and negative effects for the environment. In order to reduce the negative and optimize the positive impacts, new modes and forms of tourism utilizing nature have been developed. These new nature-based forms of tourism include terms such as ecotourism, aiming at sustainable development in tourism. However, at the same time other forms of nature-based tourism have emerged, including adventure tourism and safari tourism, which may not always have explicit practices aiming towards sustainability. This chapter takes an overview of the role of natural environments for tourism and tourists. The special focus is on tourism in national parks and wilderness contexts. In addition, the chapter discusses the changing modes and forms of tourism in nature and existing and emerging issues of conflicts in nature-based tourism.
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The presence of Baird’s tapir Tapirus bairdii in the Sierra Madre de Oaxaca in Southern Mexico has been previously reported by Lira et al. (2006), using track records and information obtained through interviews. Seven years later, its presence was confirmed with pictures (Lavariega et al., 2013), bone remains, and tracks (Peña et al., in press). Subsequently, after three surveys with camera traps in the Sierra de Villa Alta (17°29’23”N 96°7’45.6”W; 1499 masl), additional pictures of adult animals have been obtained (personal observation, Mario C. Lavariega; Figure 1).
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Adventure activities and experiences constantly evolve because individuals, motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. In order to assist adventure tourism companies to promote and sell specific activities and experiences that will meet the specific needs and wants of their identified target markets, this paper focuses on the demographic profile of adventure tourists who used the products/services of adventure tourism companies within Pretoria, South Africa. The realised sample was 234, providing a 93.6% response rate. The research instrument used was a self-completing questionnaire. Based on the results, these adventure tourists were Afrikaans speaking individuals between the ages of twenty-eight and forty-nine years. Their households consisted of two to four people and there were generally two income earners per household. This study established that there is a need for further researching of comprehensive adventure tourist profiles.
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This study sought to identify the factors involved in the eco-friendly behavior of students, evaluating the extent they were effective in that regard. The population of this survey study comprised of 320 students of the University of Tehran and Science and Culture University who were equally selected through systematic random sampling and classified into two groups of eco-tourism related students and non-ecotourism ones. Having administered a standard relevant questionnaire, we analyzed the data collected from the survey through which the questionnaires were filled, in each individual university, by the two groups of students, half of whom belonged to the first group and the others belonged to the second. The findings of the study indicated significant differences between the ecotourism behavior of male and female students and those of the ecotourism and non-ecotourism students. A significant positive relationship was also found between eco-friendly behavior and environmental awareness, attitude, and active membership in environmental NGOs.
Conference Paper
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The question of the degree of the optimum utilization of natural resources is one of the key determinants when considering the potential of adventure tourism in a particular tourist region/area. The monitoring process of current situation and the performance of possible evaluation must be preceded by corresponding models of systematization of the adventure activities according to their spatial predisposition. There is no completely satisfactory organizational framework from which could be make an adequate review and assessment of the situation in Montenegro, in accordance with the model observing of overall adventure offer. The aim of this theoretical-empirical study is to point to one of these models, which would involve more complex classification of activities (based on world developmental trends and an increasing number of appearance modalities), and thus facilitate the implementation of organizational management models based on simplifying and more precise structuring of tourist offer. The used methodological methods are: concretization, partial analysis-of structural type, specialization-of classificatory type and division-of polythomic type. The current important sites of adventure tourism were singled out by adding new forms of thematically predetermined activities conceptually aligned with the proposed typology. The study also emphasized the importance of systematic approach in harmonizing and organizing elements of destination structure, by which the basis for its further elaboration is provided.
Conference Paper
1 Tourism is not a new phenomenon Tourism has grown significantly, affecting environments and/or attracting new markets People voluntary experience unfamiliar environments 2 Associated risks and hazards in people’s lack of knowledge Tourists adapt their behavior to reduce or increase potential risks 3 Research Problem Different activities and experiences evolve – individuals motives, behaviors and experiences differ Companies promote and sell a vast array of activities to a diverse range of markets as novel and exclusive experiences 4 Research Objectives Primary Research Objective To compare significant demographic descriptors of adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa, with essential psychographic preferences in order to assist adventure tourism companies 5 Secondary Research Objectives -To explore market segmentation, targeting and positioning -To identify demographic and psychographic descriptors applicable to adventure tourists Research Objectives 6 Research Methodology Applied research Descriptive research Quantitative methodology 7 Research Methodology Sampling Sample – using products/services of companies within Pretoria Perceived sample: 250 (50% male & 50% female) Actual sample: 234 (93.6% response rate) Perceived company participation: 35 Actual company participation: 20 (57.1% participation rate) Sample  companies = equal responses 8 Measurement Self-completing questionnaire: -Demographic variables (age, place of residence, ethnic group, family life cycle stage, household type, income and expenditure rates) -Psychographic variables (personality, social class & lifestyle) Research Methodology 9 Data collection -Pilot study Thirty first and second year adventure tourism students - Research study 26 September 2009 to 2 December 2009 10 Research Methodology Data analysis -Statistical consultation -Microsoft Access  SAS format  SAS Access module -Descriptive bivariate analysis 11 Findings Secondary research objective 1: Companies cannot appeal and approach all consumers in the same way Companies should identify lucrative markets 13 Findings Secondary research objective 2: To identify demographic and psychographic descriptors 14 Findings BABY BOOMERS (BORN 1943-1960) MARRIED/ DIVORCED FAMILY/LATE FAMILY SOFT ADVENTURE E.G. HIKING & SNORKELING OWN VEHICLES SELF- CATERING/ CAMPING/ FAMILY & FRIENDS 15 Findings GENERATION Y (BORN 1982-2001) SINGLE DEPENDANT HARD ADVENTURE E.G. ABSEILING & SCUBA- DIVING UNCONVENTI ONAL TRANSPORT ECCENTRIC ACCOMMODATION 16 Recommendations General recommendations Identify consumer behavior patterns for the silent generation and generation X age group Broaden the target population 17 Recommendations for future research Tourism definitions should be accepted and interpreted Increase adventure tourists classification research to gain insight Include behavioural components in adventure tourism research – provide information about consumer travel behaviour Encourage adventure tourism marketing – beneficial to industry.
Preprint
Lakes are among water’s most captivating features which embodies the mesmeric ripples and reflections to crystal clear bodies of water. The world has millions of lakes, from tiny ponds to massive areas of freshwater. A few of these bodies of water owe their charm to climate, or their geographical surroundings, whilst some are man-made such as artificial lakes. Lakes have long been a prominent setting for leisure and tourism activity, however, studies on the role of lakes for tourism are limited although the impact of tourism on the environment has been acknowledged and researched by many scholars. Many countries have promoted lakes extensively as tourist destinations, either as the main destination or an additional attraction to other leisure activities (Hall and Härkönen, 2006). These beautiful lakes can be seen across many continents, for example, the Lake District in northwest England, Loch Duich in the Scottish Highlands, Lake Como in Lombardy, Italy, Malagne Lake in Alberta, Canada, Lake Tahoe in California and Nevada, Lake Wakatipu in New Zealand, Lake Pichola in Udaipur, India, Lake Bratan in Bali, Indonesia, and Lake Kawaguchi in Japan amongst others. Lakes can be defined as a bounded body of usually freshwater which is contained by land and has no direct access to the sea (Thomas, Meybeck and Beim, 1996). A lake might be secluded and is different from a river because it has no apparent direct water input and sometimes without a direct output (Asyraf, et. al., 2013). Lakes can be found anywhere within a river basin. There are lakes such as headwater lakes which are supported by inflow from many small tributary streams, especially from rainfall and groundwater inflow (Thomas et al., 1996). For a variety of human activities, lakes are a valuable natural resource for development of utilities (Hall and Härkönen, 2006). During ancient times, lakes were considered an important resource for human survival, as a source of food and a medium for transportation. The use of lakes has transformed civilisation, including the creation of artificial lakes for industrial or agricultural use, hydroelectric power generation and as a reliable water supply (Sharip and Jusoh, 2010). In modern times, lakes are not such a necessity for human survival, but are an important source for socioeconomic development (Otiang’a-Owiti and Oswe, 2007). There are many opportunities for tourism development using lakes, especially nature-based tourism for activities such as cruising, observing wildlife, swimming, picnicking and kayaking. This has been helped by the growing range of accommodation, from resorts, to hotels and lodgings (Yusof et al., 2012a). This natural environment, rich in biodiversity has made the tourists’ experience well worthwhile especially among avid environmentalist (ibid). This chapter aims to establish an understanding of lakeland settings for tourism activities and an acknowledgement of the environmental practices on the supply side (resorts’ managers/owners) in ensuring the sustainability of the ecosystem.
Chapter
Lakes are among water’s most captivating features which embodies the mesmeric ripples and reflections to crystal clear bodies of water. The world has millions of lakes, from tiny ponds to massive areas of freshwater. A few of these bodies of water owe their charm to climate, or their geographical surroundings, whilst some are man-made such as artificial lakes. Lakes have long been a prominent setting for leisure and tourism activity, however, studies on the role of lakes for tourism are limited although the impact of tourism on the environment has been acknowledged and researched by many scholars. Many countries have promoted lakes extensively as tourist destinations, either as the main destination or an additional attraction to other leisure activities (Hall and Härkönen, 2006). These beautiful lakes can be seen across many continents, for example, the Lake District in northwest England, Loch Duich in the Scottish Highlands, Lake Como in Lombardy, Italy, Malagne Lake in Alberta, Canada, Lake Tahoe in California and Nevada, Lake Wakatipu in New Zealand, Lake Pichola in Udaipur, India, Lake Bratan in Bali, Indonesia, and Lake Kawaguchi in Japan amongst others. Lakes can be defined as a bounded body of usually freshwater which is contained by land and has no direct access to the sea (Thomas, Meybeck and Beim, 1996). A lake might be secluded and is different from a river because it has no apparent direct water input and sometimes without a direct output (Asyraf, et. al., 2013). Lakes can be found anywhere within a river basin. There are lakes such as headwater lakes which are supported by inflow from many small tributary streams, especially from rainfall and groundwater inflow (Thomas et al., 1996). For a variety of human activities, lakes are a valuable natural resource for development of utilities (Hall and Härkönen, 2006). During ancient times, lakes were considered an important resource for human survival, as a source of food and a medium for transportation. The use of lakes has transformed civilisation, including the creation of artificial lakes for industrial or agricultural use, hydroelectric power generation and as a reliable water supply (Sharip and Jusoh, 2010). In modern times, lakes are not such a necessity for human survival, but are an important source for socioeconomic development (Otiang’a-Owiti and Oswe, 2007). There are many opportunities for tourism development using lakes, especially nature-based tourism for activities such as cruising, observing wildlife, swimming, picnicking and kayaking. This has been helped by the growing range of accommodation, from resorts, to hotels and lodgings (Yusof et al., 2012a). This natural environment, rich in biodiversity has made the tourists’ experience well worthwhile especially among avid environmentalist (ibid). This chapter aims to establish an understanding of lake land settings for tourism activities and an acknowledgement of the environmental practices on the supply side (resorts’ managers/owners) in ensuring the sustainability of the ecosystem.
Article
While it is often suggested that the ecotourism sector is growing rapidly, in conjunction with a growth in environmental consciousness amongst consumers, others have questioned the extent to which such demand is driven by an interest in the underpinning environmental objectives of ecotourism experiences. Utilising post-consumption evaluations of ecotourism experience through online user-generated content, this study sought to understand the relative importance that ecotourism consumers place on various aspects of their experience. This paper reports on an analysis of more than 3000 online tourist post-purchase reviews of ecotourism experiences in Australia which examined reflective self-reports of ecotourism experiences to determine the prominence of the eco aspects of the experience vis-à-vis the attributes of the tourism experience more broadly.
Chapter
Full-text available
Adventure tourism is an increasingly widespread phenomenon, appealing to an expanding proportion of the population who seek new destinations and new experiences. This timely, edited volume offers new theoretical perspectives of this emerging subset of Tourism. it uses philosophical and cutting edge empirically grounded research to challenge existing thinking and develop the conceptual framework underpinning definitions of adventure, interrogating the adventure tourism experience and further building upon recent advances in adventure education. The book brings together adventure literature from range of disciplines and applies it to focused study of Adventure Tourism. By doing so it significantly furthers understanding and moves forward this development of this area of Tourism. This significant volume is written by leading academics in the area, and will be valuable reading for all those interested in Adventure Tourism.
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