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Management derailment: Personality assessment and mitigation

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  • Kaiser Leadership Solutions
... Other individual costs include missed opportunities for promotion, demotions, and forced resignations and retirements (Kruse-Smith 2015). Organizations also suffer when employees do not reach their full potential (DeVries and Kaiser 2003;Hogan, Hogan, and Kaiser 2010;Lombardo, Ruderman, and McCauley 1988). For example, several studies report organizations may fail to meet profit and/or programmatic goals and objectives Braddy et al. 2014;Gentry et al. 2015). ...
... Dysfunctional behaviors in interpersonal relationships have often been characterized as a warning sign or cause for career derailment ( Van Velsor and Leslie 1995;Leslie and Velsor 1996;Hogan, Hogan, and Kaiser 2010;) and include treating others poorly, overlooking others' good work and input, ineffectively handling disagreements with one's supervisor, and lacking composure under pressure (Lombardo and Eichinger 1988;Velsor and Leslie 1995). Other examples of dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors linked to career derailment are having emotional outbursts, bullying, intimidating, and acting arrogantly (Furnham and Taylor 2004;Leslie and Velsor 1996). ...
... For instance, aligning with research by , Leslie and Velsor (1996), and Lombardo and Eichinger (1989), reacting emotionally or without thinking; being arrogant, rude, or egotistical; and engaging in power struggles are all examples of dysfunctional interpersonal behaviors. In addition, resisting change and acting rigidly are different ways individuals can manifest inflexibility, identified by other studies as an important factor in derailment (Braddy et al. 2014;Hogan, Hogan, and Kaiser 2010;Lombardo and Eichinger 1989). ...
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Using focus group data, this exploratory study examines beliefs about leadership derailment among local elected officials across North Carolina. Our respondents generally conceptualized derailment as the consequences that had happened to elected leaders, particularly no longer being in office, and identified a range of problematic behaviors that can derail officials. Compared to the private sector, derailment in a public setting can impact a wider segment of society. It can occur when elected public officials violate not only professional but also broader public service values or when they have missteps outside of their governance roles.
... However, in leadership research, studies have shown that between 30% and 67% of individuals in leadership positions fail or derail because of their inability to learn new competencies, adapt and change in new and unfamiliar situations (Burke, 2019;Hoff & Burke, 2017;Hogan et al., 2010;Lombardo et al., 1988). Selecting and developing leaders who can quickly learn new competencies while remaining flexible under pressure is no longer a necessity but an economic requirement (Burke, 2019;Dai et al., 2013;De Meuse, 2019;DeRue et al., 2012a;Goleman et al., 2013;Gravett & Cladwell, 2016). ...
... At first notice, these executives were likely to be successful as they advanced into senior roles. However, the studies found that one common derailment factor was the inability and unwillingness to adapt and learn new competencies and an overdependence on the skills that no longer served them in their current position (Hogan et al., 2010). Furthermore, a lack of self-management and interpersonal skills and a lack of adaptability when faced with unprecedented challenges were also contributing factors that led to derailment (Hogan et al., 2010;McCall & Lombardo, 1983;McCall et al.,1998;Yukl & Mahsud, 2010). ...
... However, the studies found that one common derailment factor was the inability and unwillingness to adapt and learn new competencies and an overdependence on the skills that no longer served them in their current position (Hogan et al., 2010). Furthermore, a lack of self-management and interpersonal skills and a lack of adaptability when faced with unprecedented challenges were also contributing factors that led to derailment (Hogan et al., 2010;McCall & Lombardo, 1983;McCall et al.,1998;Yukl & Mahsud, 2010). The two series of studies highlighted how people learn and develop differently from their experiences in the workplace. ...
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The recent global pandemic in 2020 and numerous other political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors have heightened the importance of individuals developing emotional intelligence and learning agility. This phenomenological qualitative dissertation research study explored the perceptions of 35 management consultants in North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa regarding learning experiences in new and challenging situations. Qualitative data were analyzed using an inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Two key findings emerged from this study: 1) Emotional intelligence competencies at the individual level facilitate learning new competencies quickly while flexibly integrating lessons from previous experiences into new and challenging situations; 2) Metacognitive Awareness, Self-Efficacy, and Psychological Safety influence learning quickly and flexibility from workplace experience. This study offers insights regarding how emotional intelligence competencies and learning agility enable individuals to transform themselves and adapt new learning behaviors in new and challenging situation and evolving business environments.
... Besides rarely leading their groups to their objectives in a sustainable manner, such leaders cause distress and negative consequences for many of their followers (Kiliç and Günsel, 2019). Although there are some successful leaders, leadership failures abound; research shows that leadership failure rates are much higher than ideal (Aasland et al., 2010;Hogan et al., 2010). The second issue is the inequality in representation in leadership positions (Bebbington and Özbilgin, 2013). ...
... Besides the unequal representation, other problems can also be traced back to today's universal leadership culture. It might also be the reason behind the high prevalence of unethical and exploitative leader behaviors and the alarming rates of failure among leaders (Aasland et al., 2010;Hogan et al., 2010). These performance-related issues might be due to the gap between characteristics that predict an effective leadership and the features that help to emerge as leaders (Hogan et al., 2018). ...
... On the other hand, the literature on leader emergence depicts a very different picture (Hogan et al., 2010(Hogan et al., , 2018. Political ability and manipulativeness work better for success in emerging as a leader (Luthans, 1988). ...
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There are two big problems related to leadership today: unequal representation and high failure rates among leaders. This conceptual paper argues that commonly shared values, assumptions, and beliefs about leadership, i.e., universal leadership culture, are the common cause of both problems. After the concepts and levels related to leadership culture were explained, we introduce a multilevel, multi-actor process model named the bottleneck metaphor of leadership culture. This metaphor describes how leadership cultures are co-constructed by multiple actors based on their involvement in leader selection and reproduce themselves in groups over time based on emergent leaders' characteristics. Next, a diagnostic tool called “the leadership mirror” is proposed for organizations that want to assess their leadership culture's current state as a starting point for further interventions. Specific suggestions are made for various actors, ranging from individuals to organizations, for their possible roles in preventing undesired leadership cultures.
... These results also contribute to the derailment literature (Hogan et al., 2010;Skogstad et al., 2007), offering a competing perspective to the notion that leadership changes are harmful. For instance, Hogan et al., (2018) state that leadership changes result in lost intellectual and social capital, damaged reputations, missed business opportunities, and low productivity associated with alienated employees. ...
... To the extent that these ideas align with actual workforce characteristics, it would be reasonable to suspect that at least some subset of employees experience leadership changes. Leadership change may also be seen as important due to notable research on derailment (Hogan, Hogan & Kaiser 2010;Hogan et al., 2018). This research estimates that the base rate of management failure is anywhere from 30% to 67%, with significant resulting costs to organizations. ...
Article
Two consistent predictors of salesperson job performance include goals and leadership. Much of the research related to these domains, however, has two limitations. First, it is removed from an understanding of how effects operate when performance is viewed as a dynamic system, or a construct with inherent feedback loops and a tendency to ebb and flow over time. Second, it focuses on leadership behaviors rather than leadership changes (i.e., experiencing a change in one’s supervisor), even though employees in today’s workforce often experience the event of having a leader replaced. We extend this literature by establishing and testing a theory of performance system dynamics such that key principles of dynamics regarding performance over time are integrated and tested. Moreover, these two predictors, salesperson goals and leadership changes, are represented as exogenous inputs or shocks. Repeated measures data on sales employees obtained over six months provide evidence of performance system dynamics, reflecting not only patterns of consistency but also responses to external forces. Findings also reveal that company-assigned goals (i.e., quotas) are a significant predictor of effort and performance beyond the employees’ typical behavior and nullify any potential negative impact of leadership changes. The paper concludes with implications for both research and practice.
... The effect of personality on leadership is subjected to countless studies in management-organization, organizational behaviour, leadership and organizational psychology literatures (Finkelstein et al., 2009;Hogan et al., 2010;Spain, et al., 2014). Research which adopted great man and traits approaches have produced conflicting results regarding to the relationship between concepts and induced to develop behavioural, competency based, situational, contingent, transformational and other contemporary leadership theories . ...
... Base rate of managerial failure is asserted to average around 50 percent (Aasland et al., 2010;Hogan et al., 2010) and studies focusing on failed executives (Bentz, 1967; revealed that overriding personality defect is an important underlying cause for the inefficiency (Kaiser et al., 2015). Researches conducted in cross country and cultural contexts have supported these findings, suggesting generalizability of the results (Gentry and Chappelow, 2009;Leslie and Van Velsor, 1996;McCall and Hollenbeck, 2002). ...
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Aim of this research is to examine effects of dark triad personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy) on Transformational, Transactional and Laissez Faire leadership styles. Data for the research are collected through questionnaire surveys using convenience sampling method. To measure Dark Triad traits Dirty Dozen scale developed by Jonason and Webster (2010), to measure leadership styles Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ 5x) developed by Bass and Avolio (1995) are used. Exploratory Factor Analyses are conducted to dirty dozen and MLQ 5x scales. Dark triad traits are extracted into three, transformational leadership is extracted into two, transactional leadership is extracted into three and laissez faire leadership is extracted into a single factor. Correlation, General Linear Model and multiple regression analyses are conducted using all factors obtained. Results showed significant effect of Dark Triad traits on leadership styles. Also, regression analyses indicated positive effect of dark triad constructs on laissez faire, negative effect of Machiavellianism and psychopathy on trans-formational and contingency reward, positive effect of narcissism and psychopathy on management by exception passive, positive effect of Narcissism on management by exception active leadership styles. The implications of the results are discussed and future research areas are suggested.
... OC surveys routinely show that for about 75 percent of working adults the most stressful aspect of their job is the immediate boss (J. Hogan et al. 2009). Another study by Vijayakumar (2007) implied that the role of management style in shaping work climate perceptions of employees is crucial. ...
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The growing significance placed on understanding of employees and their behaviour within the organization has produced a great deal of interest in investigating employees perceptions of climate within the organization especially, at times of significant change is taking place. The study aimed at determining the level of Organizational Climate (OC) as perceived by the civil servants and find out whether there is meaningful relationship between OC and Organizational effectiveness (OE). The research followed a quantitative approach and descriptive and causal designs while the data was analyzed using parametric statistical tools such as multiple linear regressions, Pearson's Product-moment Correlation Coefficients, Independent-samples T-test, and One-way ANOVA T-test. Overall, the findings are: the independent aggregate variables; Human Relations Values (HRV) and Open Systems Values (OSV) positively and significantly predicted the dependent variable (OE) and 32.5% of the variation in OE is explained by HRV and OSV combined. The research results will have implications to policy makers and future researches in that it might contribute for promoting a fundamental improvement in efficiency and performance of organizations as well as job satisfaction of employees.
... Personality is will appear in organization which affecting individual actions, group or team, behaviour and organizational-level outcomes [23][24][25] and has a rich history of study within management research. The evolution of this research in management, as well as related disciplines included social psychology and finance. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework for determining factors of women's leadership in the manufacturing industry. The theory used in this study is trait theory. Several keywords are identified such as women leadership, work-life balance, personality, emotional intelligence, and motivation. Besides, several electronic data sources and online websites, such as Mendeley, Emerald Insight, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, Proquest, and Wiley have been referred. There were two factors that have predictive potential and can be related to the moderator. Limitations and implications of the study have been discussed.
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This study investigates the within-domain exacerbation phenomenon in relation to employees’ perception of their supervisors’ leadership behaviors. This phenomenon proposes that exposure to supervisors relying on a combination of destructive leadership behaviors (DLB; operationalized as petty tyranny) and constructive leadership behaviors (CLB; operationalized as transformational leadership) should have more negative consequences on followers’ levels of thriving and behavioral empowerment than exposure to supervisors relying more exclusively on DLB or CLB. This phenomenon was tested using a person-centered mixture regression approach with a sample of 2104 Canadian employees from a police organization. Three profiles of employees were identified, representing those exposed to moderately transformational (mostly CLB), destructive (mostly DLB), and inconsistent (CLB and DLB) supervisors. Members of the inconsistent profile displayed the lowest levels of thriving and behavioral empowerment, followed by members of the destructive profile, and finally by members of the moderately transformational profile. Results also suggest that the inability to determine if a supervisor is more destructive or constructive might explain the within-domain exacerbation phenomenon. Indeed, in the inconsistent profile, leadership clarification seemed beneficial for employees. Increases in DLB resulted in a matching increase in empowered behaviors centered on the group and organization, while increases in CLB resulted in increases in thriving and empowered behaviors centered on individual performance.
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In the current paper, we were interested in examining a series of predictors of organizational moral disengagement, namely Machiavellianism and psychopathy, along with a series of demographic variables (i.e., gender, age, and work experience). Our sample consisted of 114 IT employees aged 21 to 54 (M=28.51, 62% males). We used a cross-sectional approach and an original scale to measure organizational moral disengagement. The hierarchical regression analysis suggested that the most important predictor of organizational moral disengagement was Machiavellianism, followed by gender (i.e., males). A significant, negative association emerged between organizational moral disengagement and age, suggesting that the older we grow, the lower the organizational moral disengagement. Machiavellianism and psychopathy were significantly associated with all moral disengagement mechanisms, except one-diffusion of responsibility. The most powerful association we found were between Machiavellianism and moral justification and between psychopathy and euphemistic language. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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