Article

On the relationship between emotion and cognititon

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Et deux autres réseaux. L'un centré autour de l'amygdale, structure pivot connectée à de multiples régions impliquées dans le traitement des émotions (cortex préfrontal médian, cortex orbitofrontal, cortex cingulaire antérieur, jonction temporo-pariétale, gyrus frontal inférieur et sillon temporal supérieur) (LeDoux, 2000;Pessoa, 2008). L'amygdale aurait un rôle central dans ce réseau, de la détection de stimuli socialement saillants, au déclenchement de la réponse émotionnelle et de l'exécution de comportements sociaux (Haxby et al., 2000;Adolphs et al., 2002;Adolphs, 2010). ...
... Outre son rôle dans les fonctions exécutives, la mémoire de travail et l'attention sélective (Buschman & Miller, 2007;Lebedev et al., 2004), le cortex préfrontal serait le principal générateur de signaux top-down vers le cortex sensoriel et les colliculi (via le pulvinar) (Baluch & Itti, 2011). Ces signaux fusionnent avec d'autres signaux top-down liés au système de la récompense, générés par le striatum (Hikosaka et al., 2006;Shires et al., 2010) et aux émotions, générées par l'amygdale (Vuilleumier et al., 2004;Pessoa, 2008) Le mécanisme d'inhibition de retour, qui favorise la recherche d'éléments nouveaux en suivant l'ordre décroissant établi dans la carte de priorité visuelle et en évitant de revenir sur des éléments déjà inspectés (Wang & Klein, 2010;Hilchey et al., 2012;Luke et al., 2014), dépendrait du cortex orbitofrontal (Bichot & Schall, 2002;Fecteau & Munoz, 2003), du cortex postérieur (Mirpour et al., 2009;Van Koningsbruggen et al., 2010;Bourgeois et al., 2012; Lorsque le réseau attentionnel fronto-pariétal dorsal est activé (réseau de l'influence top-down), le réseau cérébral par défaut, ou réseau de repos (« default mode network » ou « resting-state network ») se désactive, et inversement (Fox et al., 2005). Ce réseau cérébral par défaut, constitué du cortex cingulaire postérieur, du cortex préfrontal médial, du cortex pariétal inférieur et du lobe temporal interne, est plus activé lorsque l'individu est au repos que lorsqu'il est engagé dans une tâche cognitive (Chiong et al., 2013;Baez et al., 2016a;2016bBastin, 2018. ...
... L'amygdale jouerait le rôle de détecteur de stimuli socialement saillants présents dans l'environnement (Adolphs, 1999), en particulier les stimuli ayant une pertinence affective négative, ces derniers étant dans la plupart des cas les plus pertinents à traiter en priorité (Sander, 2012). Elle modulerait, de manière bottom-up d'abord, l'orientation de l'attention vers le visage et en particulier vers les yeux (Adolphs & Spezio, 2006), puis serait impliquée dans un second temps dans l'influence top-down de l'attention pour la recherche de stimuli sociaux (Vuilleumier et al., 2004;Pessoa, 2008) en agissant sur les réseaux attentionnels frontopariétaux (Pourtois & Vuilleumier, 2006). Plus globalement, l'amygdale est une structure clé du réseau de la saillance (salience ...
Thesis
La cognition sociale regroupe plusieurs capacités, comme la reconnaissance des émotions faciales (REF), la Théorie de l’Esprit (TDE) et l’empathie. Celles-ci sont sévèrement altérées dans la variante comportementale de la Dégénérescence Fronto-Temporale (DFT-c) et plus légèrement dans la Maladie d’Alzheimer (MA) et la Maladie de Parkinson (MP), avec pour conséquences des troubles du comportement (TDC), désinhibition et apathie en particulier, qui conduisent à l’épuisement de l’aidant familial. Dans ces trois maladies une diminution des capacités top-down et une modification des capacités bottom-up de guidage de l’attention lors de la recherche d’informations visuelles sont aussi observées. Or, la REF, la TDE et l’empathie s’appuient sur la détection visuelle d’indices sociaux, sur le visage en particulier. Enfin, de nombreux chevauchements existent entre les structures, les faisceaux et les réseaux cérébraux impliqués dans la cognition sociale et dans l’exploration visuelle. A travers trois études expérimentales, cette thèse a pour premier objectif de mettre en évidence que l’atteinte de la cognition sociale dans la DFT-c, la MA et la MP, et les TDC qui en découlent, sont liés à une modification des stratégies d’exploration visuelle. L’objectif secondaire est de montrer qu’une remédiation des stratégies d’observation des visages exprimant une émotion chez les personnes atteintes de maladie neurodégénératives permet une amélioration de la REF, entraine une diminution des TDC et un allègement du fardeau de leurs aidants familiaux. Nos résultats confirment le triple lien entre stratégies de regard, cognition sociale et TDC. Les difficultés de REF sont associées à une perturbation des mécanismes d’orientation de l’attention sur les régions saillantes du visage liées à chaque émotion. Dans la DFT-c l’altération de ces mécanismes est sévère, le pattern d’exploration des visages exprimant une émotion étant similaire à celui d’un visage neutre. Pour la MA et la MP, cela concerne une perte d’attractivité de la région des yeux et une capture attentionnelle accrue de la région de la bouche. La TDE quant à elle est principalement impactée par une altération des stratégies top-down de recherche d’indices visuels permettant de prendre la perspective d’autrui et d’inférer ses états mentaux. Là aussi c’est dans la DFT-c que le pattern d’observation est le plus perturbé, avec une perte de stratégies d’observations et une insensibilité aux informations données qui conduisent à une prise de perspective d’autrui décalée dans le temps. Ces types d’observations de scènes sociales sont corrélés à la production de TDC. Enfin, la remédiation de la REF menée auprès d’un groupe MA montre que l’amélioration des performances est conjointe à une modification des stratégies d’observation des visages, avec une observation plus importante de la région des yeux, et entraîne une diminution des TDC et du fardeau de l’aidant. Nos résultats suggèrent donc une forte participation des mécanismes attentionnels dans le déficit de cognition sociale dans les maladies neurodégénératives. Par conséquent une prise en charge des TDC axée sur une remédiation des stratégies de recherche d’indices visuels sociaux semble être une piste intéressante afin de prévenir l’épuisement de l’aidant familial et de retarder l’institutionnalisation.
... Our structural and functional findings demonstrate that age of onset is related to alterations in emotion-regulation networks (Mayberg, 1997;Pessoa, 2008;Roiser et al., 2012) even in rMDD patients with minor residual symptoms. We found increased GMV in the ventromedial PFC (vmPFC), the insula, as well as the hippocampus. ...
... The hippocampal subiculum, the peak GMV alteration locus (Geng et al., 2016). Summarizing, the PFC, amygdala and hippocampus coordinate their activity and likely share pathological effects related to an early age of onset in an extensively interconnected emotion-regulation network (Dahl et al., 2018;Pessoa, 2008;Straub et al., 2019). ...
... The convergence of regional morphometry in the hippocampus and its functional integration procure complementary evidence relating the onset of depression to the state of full remission. Not only are these regions robustly implicated in the neurobiology of MDD, particularly in emotion regulation (Pessoa, 2008;Roiser et al., 2012), but they also undergo critical transitions during human brain maturation in tandem (Andersen and Teicher, 2008;Dahl et al., 2018). Interestingly, AO patients showed volumetric differences depending on residual mood and sleep symptoms, respectively, while EO patients demonstrated different regional brain volumes irrespective of symptom recovery. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early‐onset (EO) major depressive disorder (MDD) patients experience more depressive episodes and an increased risk of relapse. Thus, on a neurobiological level, adult EO patients might display brain structure and function different from adult‐onset (AO) patients. Methods A total of 103 patients (66 females) underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Structural measures of gray matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity networks during resting state were compared between EO (≤19 years) and AO groups. Four residual major depression symptoms, mood, anxiety, insomnia, and somatic symptoms, were correlated with GMV between groups. Results We found comparatively increased GMV in the EO group, namely the medial prefrontal and insular cortex, as well as the anterior hippocampus. Functional networks in EO patients showed a comparatively weaker synchronization of the left hippocampus with the adjacent amygdala, and a stronger integration with nodes in the contralateral prefrontal cortex and supramarginal gyrus. Volumetric analysis of depression symptoms associated the caudate nuclei with symptoms of insomnia, and persisting mood symptoms with the right amygdala, while finding no significant clusters for somatic and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The study highlights the important role of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex in EO patients as part of emotion‐regulation networks. Results in EO patients demonstrated subcortical volume changes irrespective of sleep and mood symptom recovery, which substantiates adolescence as a pivotal developmental phase for MDD. Longitudinal studies are needed to differentiate neural recovery trajectories while accounting for age of onset.
... Indeed, studies of emotion regulation on a larger time scale have shown reduction in activation in prefrontal areas after successful emotion regulation treatment (Beauregard, 2014). The fact that medial PFC activations are not seen under conditions of effortful emotion regulation supports this hypothesis and could be demonstrative of a mechanism or an outcome of this process, echoing correspondingly reduced activation of subcortical areas, such as amygdala, with which MPFC is reciprocally interconnected with (Pessoa, 2008;Phan et al., 2004). Furthermore, in our study both fNIRS (reflecting PFC activity) and EDA (reflecting peripheral ANS activity), show blunted activation during emotion regulation, a finding which we believe validates our initial hypothesis. ...
... It has been argued (Pessoa, 2008) that valuation of the significance of emotive stimuli and choice of ensuing behavior is impacted both by top-down frontoparietal attentional systems and bottom-up emotion modulatory systems in the orbitofrontal PFC and amygdala. In other words, emotion induction per se is likely to essentially entail parallel processes of emotion evaluation and implicit or explicit emotion regulation that would result in the activation of widespread prefrontal areas. ...
... It has also been proposed that emotion generation and regulation are two sides of the same coin, engaging the same neural networks (Clark-Polner, 2016) and experientially differing only in regard to whether one perceives agency over this experience or not (Gross & Barrett, 2011). Our findings showing greater PFC activation during the emotion induction task (representing different affective processes such as detection, identification, evaluation and implicit regulation) compared to the emotion regulation task, where subjects had successfully downregulated the ensuing emotion by roughly 45%, and now not requiring activation to a similar extent of the various affective processes described above, is congruent with the views of those proposing a continuum of processes relevant for both emotion generation and regulation (Clark-Polner, Johnson & Barrett, 2017;Gross, 2015;Gross & Barrett, 2011;Pessoa, 2008Pessoa, , 2018. As is known, fNIRS has low cortical penetration and does not capture activity in deeper areas like the insula and amygdala, which could have given important information in relation to the PFC activations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Affective processing, including induction and regulation of emotion, activates neural networks, induces physiological responses, and generates subjective experience. Dysregulation of these processes can lead to maladaptive behavior and even psychiatric morbidity. Multimodal studies of emotion thus not only help elucidate the nature of emotion, but also contribute to important clinical insights. In the present study, we compared the induction (EI) and effortful regulation (ER) with reappraisal of fear and disgust in healthy subjects using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in conjunction with electrodermal activity (EDA). During EI, there was significant activation in medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) for fear and more widespread activation for disgust, with right lateral PFC significantly more active during disgust compared to fear. ER was equally effective for fear and disgust reducing subjective emotion rating by roughly 45%. Compared to baseline, there was no increased PFC activity for fear during ER, while for disgust lateral PFC was significantly more active. Significant differences between the two negative emotions were also observed in sympathetic nerve activity as reflected in EDA during EI, but not during ER. Lastly, compared to men, women had higher emotion rating for both fear and disgust without corresponding differences in EDA. In conclusion, in the present study we show that emotion induction was associated with differential activation in both PFC and sympathetic nerve activity for fear and disgust. These differences were however less prominent during emotion regulation. We discuss the potential interpretation of our results and their implications regarding our understanding of negative emotion processing.
... According to the presumption of the distribution of external stimuli across the brain with a high degree of interactivity between cortical and subcortical brain regions including the cerebellum, a highdegree of local connectivity is mixed with long-range connections that allow all regions of the brain to be linked by very short paths (Pessoa, 2013). Indeed, these networks are communicating through extensive reciprocal connections between the primary and associative sensory, temporal, visual, and auditory regions, the parietal regions as part of the dorsal attention network, and subareas including the insula and the cingulate cortex of the PFC (Bowers, 1991;LeDoux, 2000;Adolphs, 2004;Pessoa, 2008). The PFC, in particular the neuroanatomically separated DLPFC and VMPFC, plays an important role in attending to and comprehending external emotional cues like facial expressions or salient events, especially in response to negativeaversive, like sad, fearful or angry facial expressions (Sprengelmeyer et al, 1998), preparatory to mounting an appropriate emotional response. ...
... The observations of topographically spread cerebellar activity in analysing subtle emotion information present in a single salient event, for example a striking landscape engendering positive affect versus a scene of a criminal couple engendering negative affect, as displayed in the IAPS catalogue, might point to a methodological approach to disentangling the parallel and therefore integrative processing of complex stimuli at cerebellar computational stages. Given that the thalamus strategically allocates cerebellar output to cerebral areas, the observed impaired activities within these circuits may result in altered affective network processing of such discrete information regarding emotional ingredients, like salient visual or auditory cues with a different valence and/ or arousal of the environment such as facial or vocal expression from the visual and auditory cortices passing through the thalamus and onto other substantial hubs in the amygdala, the parietal and ventrolateral, ventromedial and orbitofrontal regions of the PFC (LeDoux, 2000;Pessoa, 2008). Thus the cerebellum is assigned a key role in the rapid synchronization of motor and sensory information processing (Aso et al., 2010). ...
Chapter
Neuroscientific investigation of the detailed neurophysiology of emotion processing is a rapidly progressing field, which has opened discussion on key findings regarding the timing characteristics of the neuronal networks involved. Study designs incorporating quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) and event-related potentials (ERP) have mapped neuronal representations at various stages of emotion processing, identifying early and late stages corresponding to cerebral activity in attention and in appraisal of emotion. Interestingly, in addition to confirming aspects of cerebral cortex involvement, these investigations have also implicated the cerebellum in emotion processing. This has led to research aimed at distinguishing the contributions of cerebellar and cerebral networks and how these may interrelate. With respect to underlying neurophysiological mechanisms, ERP studies confirm that the cerebellum is involved in both early and late stages of processing of salient emotion cues, and also in capturing emotions in facial expressions. Topological analyses indicate direct connections between the vermis, Crus I, and Crus II areas of the cerebellum and the cerebral area of lateral prefrontal cortex. This suggests a broad evolutionary development of large-scale cerebral networks in emotion. In this chapter, we highlight findings to date of neurophysiological activity related to cerebellar participation in emotion processing. The neurophysiological findings, which by inference represent underlying neural activity, emphasize an integrative role of the cerebellum in emotion.
... [24]. Emotions also can provide selectively an individual's attention to particular stimuli [25]. This paper mentions that neural correlates of emotional memories and cognition is done from processes such as memory, attention, language, problem-solving, and planning. ...
... Signal processing of emotional brain described in Ref.25. This paper ...
Article
This paper deals with emotion-based self-directed teaching and learning in online education. Teachers and learners cannot understand how much their communication exchanges well with each other. So, their teaching and learning efficiency decreases than their expectation. To increase teaching and learning efficiency, this paper analyzes face emotional patterns to figure out which emotion segments have dominant facts in teaching and learning through Korean women’s face data. These dominant factors are sent to control for improving self-directed learning. In the control system, deep learning compares face data with reference data and finally decides the control signal to improve self-directed learning. Keywords: Face Emotion, Online Education, Self-Directed Teaching and Learning, Emotion Reinforcement.
... In the past decade, theoretical models of modular architectures with cold cognitive and hot affective-emotional systems have been progressively revised [1][2][3]. Nowadays, these mechanisms are suggested to be interwoven [4][5] and even processed in shared underlying neurocircuitry (e.g., [1,3]). Particularly in naturalistic environments, we are confronted with complex, (socio-)emotional stimuli claiming attentional and working memory resources (e.g., a crying baby during home office or laughter in open-plan offices). ...
... In the past decade, theoretical models of modular architectures with cold cognitive and hot affective-emotional systems have been progressively revised [1][2][3]. Nowadays, these mechanisms are suggested to be interwoven [4][5] and even processed in shared underlying neurocircuitry (e.g., [1,3]). Particularly in naturalistic environments, we are confronted with complex, (socio-)emotional stimuli claiming attentional and working memory resources (e.g., a crying baby during home office or laughter in open-plan offices). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Motivation and Aim: In the past decade, theoretical models of modular architectures with cold cognitive and hot affective-emotional systems have been progressively revised [1-3]. Nowadays, these mechanisms are suggested to be interwoven [4-5] and even processed in shared underlying neurocircuitry (e.g., [1,3]). Particularly in naturalistic environments, we are confronted with complex, (socio-)emotional stimuli claiming attentional and working memory resources (e.g., a crying baby during home office or laughter in open-plan offices). However, the precise nature of emotion-cognition interactions is still subject to research [5-8]. Previous studies revealed detrimental effects of emotional distraction on cognitive processes [9-11] with strongest interference when cognitive load is low and distractors' valence deviates from neutral [1,12]. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a technique that provides separable brain correlates for emotional and cognitive states. EEG research suggested the frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) as a suitable correlate indicating emotional states [13-15] and the ratio of frontal theta (4-7 Hz) and parietal alpha (8-12 Hz) power to index cognitive load (workload (WL); [16-17]). Here, we investigate whether these correlates can capture interactions between cognitive control and affective-emotional distraction processes. More precisely, we are interested in how auditory distractors and their affective valence influence neurophysiological indices associated with valence and cognitive load (here working memory load, WML). We assume stronger detrimental effects (i) under low WML because of sufficient available resources to process emotional distractors fully, and (ii) for (potentially harming) stimuli with low valence due to a higher salience and relevance (cf., [1,18]).
... In the past, the relationship between emotion and cognition was widely discussed and often contested in the psychological literature [10,22,52]. However, recent findings in neuroscience (e.g., [30,31]) support the view that emotion and cognition influence each other and are closely related. More work is needed to understand whether and how this plays out across a variety of topics subject to misinformation within social media. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Misinformation spread through social media has become a fundamental challenge in modern society. Recent studies have evaluated various strategies for addressing this problem, such as by modifying social media platforms or educating people about misinformation, to varying degrees of success. Our goal is to develop a new strategy for countering misinformation: intelligent tools that encourage social media users to foster metacognitive skills "in the wild." As a first step, we conducted focus groups with social media users to discover how they can be best supported in combating misinformation. Qualitative analyses of the discussions revealed that people find it difficult to detect misinformation. Findings also indicated a need for but lack of resources to support cross-validation of information. Moreover, misinformation had a nuanced emotional impact on people. Suggestions for the design of intelligent tools that support social media users in information selection, information engagement, and emotional response management are presented.
... On a neuronal level it has been observed [13] that the classical characterization of brain regions as 'affective' and 'cognitive' is misleading [14]. The reason is that complex cogno-emotional behaviors are based rather on dynamic coalitions of networks of brain areas [15], than on the specific activation of a single structure, such as the amygdala [16]. ...
Preprint
Biological as well as advanced artificial intelligences (AIs) need to decide which goals to pursue. We review nature's solution to the time allocation problem, which is based on a continuously readjusted categorical weighting mechanism we experience introspectively as emotions. One observes phylogenetically that the available number of emotional states increases hand in hand with the cognitive capabilities of animals and that raising levels of intelligence entail ever larger sets of behavioral options. Our ability to experience a multitude of potentially conflicting feelings is in this view not a leftover of a more primitive heritage, but a generic mechanism for attributing values to behavioral options that can not be specified at birth. In this view, emotions are essential for understanding the mind. For concreteness, we propose and discuss a framework which mimics emotions on a functional level. Based on time allocation via emotional stationarity (TAES), emotions are implemented as abstract criteria, such as satisfaction, challenge and boredom, which serve to evaluate activities that have been carried out. The resulting timeline of experienced emotions is compared with the `character' of the agent, which is defined in terms of a preferred distribution of emotional states. The long-term goal of the agent, to align experience with character, is achieved by optimizing the frequency for selecting individual tasks. Upon optimization, the statistics of emotion experience becomes stationary.
... For example, cognitive theories are required to understand people's motivation to seek information (e.g., Locke & Latham, 1990) as "cognition is involved in the use of information: the processes of understanding and learning are central to recognize the relevance of the information discovered to the need it may satisfy" (Wilson, 2016). Research in cognitive, behavioral, and neurobiological sciences reveals a close and interdependent relationship between cognition and emotion (e.g., Dolan, 2002;Lazarus, 1991;Lyons, 1999;Ochsner & Phelps, 2007;Pessoa, 2008). Emotion substantially influences humans' cognitive processes, including perception, attention, learning, memory, reasoning, and problem-solving (e.g., Kort et al., 2001;Sambrano et al., 2020;Tyng et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the potential importance of emotional aspects in information seeking, there is a lack of adequate attention to emotions' role in facilitating serendipitous information encountering. This paper contributes to this research gap by investigating the role of emotions during the process of perceiving and experiencing serendipitous information encountering in a controlled laboratory setting. The results show that applying a sketch game can stimulate participants' emotions. Our findings indicate that participants are more likely to experience serendipitous information encountering under the influence of positive emotions. This study contributes to an understanding of the relationship between emotions and the perception of serendipitous information encountering. The implications of the possibilities of facilitating positive emotions to induce serendipitous information encountering are discussed.
... Ideas consistent with those reviewed above have come from research suggesting that a child's capacity for endogenous attention control can positively predict their long-term capacity for affective control (Posner & Rothbart, 2007, 2009Bush, Luu, & Posner, 2000Kelly et al., 2009;Pessoa, 2008). Consistent with this, one study found that anticipatory looking in 24-and 30-month-old children correlated with parent-related affective control (Rothbart, Ellis, Rueda, & Posner, 2003 see also Rothbart, 2007). ...
Article
In this review, I consider the developmental interactions between two domains sometimes characterised as at opposite ends of the human spectrum: early-developing arousal/regulatory domains, that subserve basic mechanisms of survival and homeostasis; and the later-developing ‘higher-order’ cognitive domain of effortful control. First, I examine how short-term fluctuations within arousal/regulatory systems associate with fluctuations in effortful control during early childhood. I present evidence suggesting that both hyper- and hypo-arousal are associated with immediate reductions in attentional and affective control; but that hyper-aroused individuals can show cognitive strengths (faster learning speeds) as well as weaknesses (reduced attentional control). I also present evidence that, in infancy, both hyper- and hypo-aroused states may be dynamically amplified through interactions with the child’s social and physical environment. Second, I examine long-term interactions between arousal/regulatory systems and effortful control. I present evidence that atypical early arousal/regulatory development predicts poorer attentional and affective control during later development. And I consider moderating influences of the environment, such that elevated early arousal/regulatory system reactivity may confer both cognitive advantages in a supportive environment, and disadvantages in an unsupportive one. Finally, I discuss how future research can further our understanding of these close associations between attentional and affective domains during early development.
... En neurociencias, la idea de un sistema límbico ha caído mayormente en desuso (ver Barrett, 2017). Varias investigaciones han mostrado que la idea de un sistema neuronal dedicado a las emociones es improbable porque la cognición y la emoción se superponen ampliamente a nivel cerebral (Pessoa, 2008;Hamann, 2012;Lindquist et al., 2012), por lo que toda conducta, estado y proceso cognitivo es también afectivo. Las recientes teorías construccionistas psicológicas de la emoción (Barrett et al., 2007) han introducido la noción de afecto central (core affect) para referirse a los sentimientos afectivos más elementales y bipolares de placer y disgusto, tensión o relajación, depresión y euforia (Russell y Barrett, 1999), sentimientos que reflejan la manera personal en que los sujetos son afectados por su ambiente. ...
Article
Full-text available
La investigación reciente en psicología cognitiva sobre la memoria emocional ha estudiado las distintas formas en que las emociones afectan a la memoria, sin profundizar no obstante en la comprensión de la manera en que los aspectos emocionales, afectivos y mnemónicos se encuentran estrechamente entrelazados en el contenido mismo de un acto de reminiscencia. En este artículo propongo un marco conceptual de análisis que nos permite entender los recuerdos personales como recuerdos esencialmente afectivos, y que se articula en torno a dos variables continuas e independientes: por un lado, la intencionalidad del recuerdo, es decir, el objeto hacia el cual el recuerdo está dirigido, que puede ser descriptiva o evaluativa; por el otro, la perspectiva afectiva del recuerdo, que puede fluctuar desde la perspectiva de primera persona hasta la perspectiva de tercera persona. Las dos dimensiones son analizadas en profundidad y las limitaciones de este marco y las futuras líneas de investigación son igualmente presentadas.
... anxiety), which leaves the results slightly more subtle, and all memory/cognitive assays were left out although a clear relationship between mood and cognition have been reported. 81 ...
Article
Full-text available
Neuropsychiatric disturbances (NPDs) are considered hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Nevertheless, treatment of these symptoms has proven difficult and development of safe and effective treatment options is hampered by the limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. Thus, robust preclinical models are needed to increase knowledge of NPDs in AD and develop testable hypotheses and novel treatment options. Abnormal activity of the hypothalamic‐pituitary‐adrenal (HPA) axis is implicated in many psychiatric symptoms and might contribute to both AD and NPDs development and progression. We aimed to establish a mechanistic preclinical model of NPD‐like behavior in the APPPS1 mouse model of AD and wildtype (WT) littermates. In APPPS1 and WT mice, we found that chronic stress increased anxiety‐like behavior and altered diurnal locomotor activity suggestive of sleep disturbances. Also, chronic stress activated the HPA axis which, in WT mice, remained heightened for additional 3 weeks. Chronic stress caused irregular expression of circadian regulatory clock genes (BMAL1, PER2, CRY1 and CRY2) in both APPPS1 and WT mice. Interestingly, APPPS1 and WT mice responded differently to chronic stress in terms of expression of serotonergic markers (5‐HT1A receptor and MAOA) and inflammatory genes (IL‐6, STAT3 and ADMA17). These findings indicate that, although the behavioral response to chronic stress might be similar, the neurobiochemical response was different in APPPS1 mice, which is an important insight in the efforts to develop safe and effective treatments options for NPDs in AD patients. Further work is needed to substantiate these findings.
... investigaciones han mostrado que la idea de un sistema neuronal dedicado a las emociones es improbable porque la cognición y la emoción se superponen ampliamente a nivel cerebral (Pessoa, 2008;Hamann, 2012;Lindquist et al., 2012), por lo que toda conducta, estado y proceso cognitivo es también afectivo. Las recientes teorías construccionistas psicológicas de la emoción (Barrett et al., 2007) han introducido la noción de afecto central (core affect) para referirse a los sentimientos afectivos más elementales y bipolares de placer y disgusto, tensión o relajación, depresión y euforia , sentimientos que reflejan la manera personal en que los sujetos son afectados por su ambiente. ...
Article
Full-text available
Dossier memoria y emoción Trakas - Memoria y emoción: introducción al dossier Ramirez, Ruetti et al. - Memoria emocional en niñas y niños de diferentes condiciones socio-ambientales Saive - Reír para recordar: mejora de la memoria en relación con el humor Diaz Abrahan, Justel et al. - Memoria emocional. Una revisión sistemática de la capacidad modulatoria de la música, de la actividad física y del bilingüismo Bonilla, Forcato et al. - Mejora de las memorias maladaptativas durante el sueno y la vigilia: una visión interdisciplinaria Fierro - Eros el memorioso Trakas - Dimensiones de análisis de los recuerdos personales como recuerdos afectivos Vieira Lopes - Sentimientos existenciales y memoria corporal: dos casos en la filosofía de la psiquiatría
... The purported inseparability of cognitive and affective processing (Kiverstein and Miller, 2015;Pessoa, 2008), coupled with the deep link between physiological and emotional feeling states Gu et al., 2019), make affect a prime target for embodied theories of active inference. It is noteworthy, then, that some active inference models of affective experience do not ascribe any special role to the body, relying instead on domain-general computational principles pertaining to prediction error dynamics (Hesp et al., 2021;Joffily and Coricelli, 2013;Van de Cruys, 2017). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This thesis sets out to understand how biological systems deal with uncertainty. In particular, it investigates the relation between mind and body as understood in philosophy and cognitive science, and the way perception, action, and thought are adaptively co-ordinated in order to cope with complex environmental dynamics.
... In cognitive neuroscience cognition refers to a collection of processes such as attention, executive function, learning, memory, consciousness, and language. Cognition is often understood to be distinct from emotion, but this distinction is generally overstated (Pessoa 2008(Pessoa , 2013. Sociologists have long been interested in how attention, learning, memory and so on are influenced by social interactions and social structures (Brekhus and Ignatow 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article advances an argument first made fourteen years ago (Ignatow 2007) that sociologists interested in culture and cognition should theorize cognition as an embodied phenomenon rather than in terms of abstract information processing. I further develop the theoretical element of the 2007 argument by considering the implications of research on the microbiome‐gut‐brain axis (MGB) from contemporary biology for the theoretical foundations of cognitive sociology. I also further develop the argument methodologically by considering how nutritional surveys and other tools developed within the life sciences and psychiatry can be used productively by sociologists in research on crime, social and political attitudes, and religion. I conclude that MGB research challenges core assumptions of contemporary cognitive sociology, and that cognitive sociology will advance more rapidly if sociologists recognize the fundamental electrochemical mechanisms through which cognition is embodied, and that what is happening in the brain is at all times inseparable from what is happening in the microbiome and the gut.
... Ainsi, selon ce neuromythe, certaines régions du cerveau seraient responsables de nos émotions (comme le système dit limbique) et les régions corticales plus évoluées seraient dédiées à la cognition. Cependant, non seulement les structures cérébrales liées aux émotions ou à la cognition ne sont pas isolées, mais une même région est souvent caractérisée de « cognitive » ou « d'émotionnelle » selon les études (Pessoa, 2008). Par exemple, l'amygdale (une structure sous-corticale) est considérée comme émotionnelle, car impliquée dans la détection des évènements ayant une pertinence affective pour l'individu, mais elle est aussi considérée comme un élément clé pour les processus cognitifs que sont l'attention et la mémoire. ...
... This lack of consensus and clarity impacts the specificity of theories of decision-making and hampers insight into a variety of psychopathologies that are canonically associated with deficits in both reward and emotion processing [34][35][36][37] . For instance, it has not been determined whether emotion and reward independently or jointly impact socially maladaptive behaviours accompanying mood disorders, such as depression 38 . Therefore, to gain a holistic understanding of the mechanisms guiding adaptive social decision-making 39,40 , it is critical to map the relative contributions of reward and emotion PEs to behaviour. ...
Article
Full-text available
People make decisions based on deviations from expected outcomes, known as prediction errors. Past work has focused on reward prediction errors, largely ignoring violations of expected emotional experiences—emotion prediction errors. We leverage a method to measure real-time fluctuations in emotion as people decide to punish or forgive others. Across four studies (N = 1,016), we reveal that emotion and reward prediction errors have distinguishable contributions to choice, such that emotion prediction errors exert the strongest impact during decision-making. We additionally find that a choice to punish or forgive can be decoded in less than a second from an evolving emotional response, suggesting that emotions swiftly influence choice. Finally, individuals reporting significant levels of depression exhibit selective impairments in using emotion—but not reward—prediction errors. Evidence for emotion prediction errors potently guiding social behaviours challenge standard decision-making models that have focused solely on reward. Heffner et al. show that violations of emotion expectations—emotion prediction errors—motivate social choice, such as punishing norm transgressors. Emotion prediction errors often outperformed reward prediction errors in predicting choice and were selectively impaired in those at risk of depression.
... Their results stated that taboo superiority in short-term recall reflects context-specific required processes, instead of emotion related differences in rehearsal, processing time, output interference, time-based decay, or guessing biases. Additionally, Pessoa [43] showed that individuals with damage to parts of the brain that process emotional information, show impaired learning and decision making, despite maintaining intact those part of the brain (i.e., neocortex) responsible for reasoning, memory and attention. ...
Article
This study analyzes electroencephalography (EEG) measurements during short-term memory retention under different emotional states. A public-domain library with emotion-annotated images (IAPS) was used to stimulate neutral, negative, and positive emotions. The associated EEG data were acquired from twelve volunteers (between 20 and 26 years old; ten males and two females). Each participant was exposed to three sessions back-to-back on the same day. Each session corresponded to the induced emotional states (positive, negative and neutral) and consisted of relaxation, memorization of a list of ten words and ten numbers, watching a set of images to arouse emotion, and recalling the words and numbers memorized earlier. Statistical and spectral features of EEG data were analyzed for two instances: emotion recognition (neutral, negative, and positive) and recall events under the three emotional states. By designing two baseline machine-learning models, support vector machines (SVMs) and K-nearest neighbor (KNN), the significance of the EEG bands and the brain lobes were studied. Experimental results suggest that the short-term (working) memory recalls after exposure to neutral, negative, and positive images (to arouse neutral, negative, and positive emotions) differ from each other significantly (at alpha level 0.001). We have found that each EEG band carries unique information in both emotion and memory recall classification tasks and recommend that the entire EEG signal frequency range must be analyzed in future similar studies. On the other hand, we also have found that each brain region carries similar information as it relates to each task (i.e., memorization, recall), thus only one of the brain regions can be analyzed in future studies in order to avoid complexity and high computation time.
... Ainsi, selon ce neuromythe, certaines régions du cerveau seraient responsables de nos émotions (comme le système dit limbique) et les régions corticales plus évoluées seraient dédiées à la cognition. Cependant, non seulement les structures cérébrales liées aux émotions ou à la cognition ne sont pas isolées, mais une même région est souvent caractérisée de « cognitive » ou « d'émotionnelle » selon les études (Pessoa, 2008). Par exemple, l'amygdale (une structure sous-corticale) est considérée comme émotionnelle, car impliquée dans la détection des évènements ayant une pertinence affective pour l'individu, mais elle est aussi considérée comme un élément clé pour les processus cognitifs que sont l'attention et la mémoire. ...
... 17 Negative cognitions, or appraisals, contribute to maladaptive psychological and behavioral functioning. [18][19][20][21][22] Posttraumatic cognitions about oneself (eg, "My reactions since the frightening event mean that something is seriously wrong with me") and the world (eg, "I am a coward") 23 develop after a traumatic event and may persist if a person continues to process the event as a serious ongoing threat. 24 Emerging literature consistently documents the associations between posttraumatic cognitions and PTSS among children and adolescents who have experienced trauma. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives The impact of posttraumatic cognitions on the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) is understudied among children and adolescents who have experienced commercial sexual exploitation/trafficking (CSE/T). The objectives of this study were to (1) explore posttraumatic cognitions among help-seeking young people aged 11-19 who have experienced CSE/T; (2) determine whether experiencing direct violence, witnessing violence, polyvictimization (ie, multiple exposures to different categories of potentially traumatic events), or demographic characteristics differentially affect whether these young people meet clinical criteria for posttraumatic cognitions using established cutoffs; and (3) explore associations between posttraumatic cognitions and PTSS among young people who have experienced CSE/T. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of a baseline cross-sectional survey of 110 young people with substantiated CSE/T experiences who started trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (mean [SD] age = 15.8 [1.5]) from August 1, 2013, through March 31, 2020, in a southeastern US state. We used descriptive statistics, adjusted modified Poisson regression, and adjusted linear regression to test study objectives. Results Fifty-seven of 110 (51.8%) young people aged 11-19 met clinical criteria for posttraumatic cognitions. Increased age and a greater number of trauma categories experienced were significantly associated with meeting clinical criteria for posttraumatic cognitions. On average, higher posttraumatic cognition scores were associated with higher PTSS scores, controlling for demographic characteristics (β = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.64-1.26). Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of assessing comprehensive trauma history and PTSS of young people who have experienced CSE/T, with added usefulness of measuring cognitive appraisals to inform a therapeutic treatment plan. Measuring cognitive appraisals that may influence PTSS and therapeutic success can ensure an effective public health response for this population.
... Los ganglios de la base o núcleos grises centrales son los encargados de evaluar el error de predicción. Este circuito nervioso es esencial en procesos muy relevantes como la motivación y los aprendizajes (Pessoa, 2008). ...
Book
Full-text available
p>La Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil reúne en esta obra una serie de artículos con propuestas para la promoción de una nueva agenda bioética, apoyando la importancia de la preservación de la privacidad como derecho humano. La privacidad implica no tener acceso a datos personales, la protección de los mismos y su tratamiento ético.Diversas legislaciones alrededor del mundo han promulgado leyes para garantizar la protección de datos personales respetando los derechos humanos y la dignidad, El Marco normativo requiere ajustes en las sanciones de su incumplimiento, debido al creciente valor económico que han adquirido los datos como consecuencia de los adelantos tecnológicos, dichas sanciones suelen estar por debajo de las ganancias. En instituciones públicas y privadas así como en la sociedad, la creación de una cultura del respeto, que no distinga en edad, género, origen o lugar de residencia de los beneficiarios La ética debe estar estrechamente relacionada con el derecho y el acceso a las tecnologías de información y comunicación </p
... In the past, the relationship between emotion and cognition was widely discussed and often contested in the psychological literature [10,22,52]. However, recent findings in neuroscience (e.g., [30,31]) support the view that emotion and cognition influence each other and are closely related. More work is needed to understand whether and how this plays out across a variety of topics subject to misinformation within social media. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Misinformation spread through social media has become a fundamental challenge in modern society. Recent studies have evaluated various strategies for addressing this problem, such as by modifying social media platforms or educating people about misinformation, to varying degrees of success. Our goal is to develop a new strategy for countering misinformation: intelligent tools that encourage social media users to foster metacognitive skills "in the wild." As a first step, we conducted focus groups with social media users to discover how they can be best supported in combating misinformation. Qualitative analyses of the discussions revealed that people find it difficult to detect misinformation. Findings also indicated a need for but lack of resources to support cross-validation of information. Moreover, misinformation had a nuanced emotional impact on people. Suggestions for the design of intelligent tools that support social media users in information selection, information engagement, and emotional response management are presented.
... Recent views of brain function and neuroanatomy have described highly overlapping networks between emotion and cognition (Pessoa, 2012(Pessoa, , 2016. Emotional information, regardless of the level of awareness, has an enormous adaptive value, probably interacting with many cognitive domains, such as planning, attention, memory, decision-making, or language (Ashby et al., 1999;Mitchell and Phillips, 2007;Pessoa, 2008;Vissers et al., 2010;Jiménez-Ortega et al., 2012;Martin-Loeches et al., 2012). Evidence suggests that a large part of emotional information is processed automatically, without awareness. ...
Article
Full-text available
Syntactic processing has often been considered an utmost example of unconscious automatic processing. In this line, it has been demonstrated that masked words containing syntactic anomalies are processed by our brain triggering event related potential (ERP) components similar to the ones triggered by conscious syntactic anomalies, thus supporting the automatic nature of the syntactic processing. Conversely, recent evidence also points out that regardless of the level of awareness, emotional information and other relevant extralinguistic information modulate conscious syntactic processing too. These results are also in line with suggestions that, under certain circumstances, syntactic processing could also be flexible and context-dependent. However, the study of the concomitant automatic but flexible conception of syntactic parsing is very scarce. Hence, to this aim, we examined whether and how masked emotional words (positive, negative, and neutral masked adjectives) containing morphosyntactic anomalies (half of the cases) affect linguistic comprehension of an ongoing unmasked sentence that also can contain a number agreement anomaly between the noun and the verb. ERP components were observed to emotional information (EPN), masked anomalies (LAN and a weak P600), and unmasked ones (LAN/N400 and P600). Furthermore, interactions in the processing of conscious and unconscious morphosyntactic anomalies and between unconscious emotional information and conscious anomalies were detected. The findings support, on the one hand, the automatic nature of syntax, given that syntactic components LAN and P600 were observed to unconscious anomalies. On the other hand, the flexible, permeable, and context-dependent nature of the syntactic processing is also supported, since unconscious information modulated conscious syntactic components. This double nature of syntactic processing is in line with theories of automaticity, suggesting that even unconscious/automatic, syntactic processing is flexible, adaptable, and context-dependent.
Preprint
Full-text available
This meta-analysis explored whether being in nature and emotional social support are effective in reducing levels of stress through a Registered Report. We retrieved all the relevant articles that investigated a connection between one of these two strategies and various components of stress (physiological, affective and cognitive) as well as affective consequences of stress. We followed a stringent analysis workflow (including permutation-based selection models and multilevel regression-based models) to provide publication bias-corrected estimates. We found [no evidence for the efficacy of either strategy/evidence for one of the two strategies/evidence for both strategies] with an estimated mean effect size of [xx/xx] and we recommend [recommendation will be provided if necessary].
Article
Ketamine is an anesthetic drug which is now used to treat chronic pain conditions and psychiatric disorders, especially depression. It is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with additional effects on α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, opioid receptors, and monoaminergic receptors. This article focuses on ketamine’s role in treating depression and pain, two commonly comorbid challenging conditions with potentially shared neurobiologic circuitry. Many clinical trials have utilized intravenous or intranasal ketamine for treating depression and pain. Intravenous ketamine is more bioavailable than intranasal ketamine and both are effective for acute depressive episodes. Intravenous ketamine is advantageous for post-operative analgesia and is associated with a reduction in total opioid requirements. Few studies have treated chronic pain or concurrent depression and pain with ketamine. Larger, randomized control trials are needed to examine the safety and efficacy of intravenous vs. intranasal ketamine, ideal target populations, and optimal dosing to treat both depression and pain.
Article
Full-text available
Different functional networks exhibit distinct longitudinal trajectories throughout development, but the timeline of the dynamics of functional connectivity across the whole brain remains to be elucidated. Here we used resting-state fMRI to investigate the development of voxel-level changes in functional connectivity across the first six years of life. Globally, we found that developmental changes in functional connectivity are nonlinear with more changes during the first postnatal year than the second, followed by most significant changes from ages 2 to 4 and from ages 4 to 6. However, the overall global difference observed between the first and second year appears to have been driven by girls. Limbic and subcortical areas consistently demonstrated the most substantial changes, whereas primary sensory areas were the most stable. These patterns were consistent in full-term and preterm subgroups. Validation on randomly divided subsamples as well as in an independent cross-sectional sample revealed global patterns consistent with the main results. Overall, the derived developmental heatmaps reveal novel dynamics underlying functional circuit development during the first 6 years of life.
Article
Although the amygdala plays an important part in the pathogenesis of anxiety and generation of exteroceptive fear, recent discoveries have challenged the directionality of this brain-behavior relationship with respect to interoceptive fear. Here we highlight several paradoxical findings including: (1) amygdala lesion patients who experience excessive fear and panic following inhalation of carbon dioxide (CO2), (2) clinically anxious patients who have significantly smaller (rather than larger) amygdalae and a pronounced hypersensitivity toward CO2, and (3) epilepsy patients who exhibit apnea immediately following stimulation of their amygdala yet have no awareness that their breathing has stopped. The above findings elucidate an entirely novel role for the amygdala in the induction of apnea and inhibition of CO2-induced fear. Such a role is plausible given the strong inhibitory connections linking the central nucleus of the amygdala with respiratory and chemoreceptive centers in the brainstem. Based on this anatomical arrangement, we propose a model of Apnea-induced Anxiety (AiA) which predicts that recurring episodes of apnea are being unconsciously elicited by amygdala activation, resulting in transient spikes in CO2 that provoke fear and anxiety, and lead to characteristic patterns of escape and avoidance behavior in patients spanning the spectrum of anxiety. If this new conception of AiA proves to be true, and activation of the amygdala can repeatedly trigger states of apnea outside of one’s awareness, then it remains possible that the chronicity of anxiety disorders is being interoceptively driven by a chemoreceptive system struggling to maintain homeostasis in the midst of these breathless states.
Article
Full-text available
Accumulating evidence identifies emotions as drivers of effective learning. In parallel, game-based learning was found to emotionally engage learners, allegedly harnessing the fundamental tie between emotions and cognition. Questioning further whether and how game-based learning elicit emotional processes, the current fMRI study examined the neurofunctional correlates of game-based learning by directly comparing a game-based and a non-game-based version of a digital learning task. We evaluated neurofunctional activation patterns within a comprehensive set of brain areas involved in emotional and reward processes (e.g. amygdala or ventral tegmental area) when participants received feedback. With only a few exceptions, decoding of these brain areas’ activation patterns indicated predominantly stronger relative activation in the game-based task version. As such, our results substantiate on a neurofunctional level that game-based learning leads to an invigoration of learning processes through processes of reward and emotional engagement.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) has demonstrated abnormalities of static intrinsic brain activity measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF). Recent studies regarding the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have found the brain activity is inherently dynamic over time. Little is known, however, regarding the temporal dynamics of local neural activity in MDD. Here, we investigated whether temporal dynamic changes in spontaneous neural activity are influenced by MDD. Methods: We recruited 81 first-episode, drug-naive MDD patients and 64 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls who underwent rs-fMRI. A sliding-window approach was then adopted for the estimation of dynamic ALFF (dALFF), which was used to measure time-varying brain activity and then compared between the two groups. The relationship between altered dALFF variability and clinical variables in MDD patients was also analyzed. Results: MDD patients showed increased temporal variability (dALFF) mainly focused on the bilateral thalamus, the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, the right middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral cerebellum posterior lobe, and the vermis. Furthermore, increased dALFF variability values in the right thalamus and right cerebellum posterior lobe were positively correlated with MDD symptom severity. Conclusions: The overall results suggest that altered temporal variability in corticocerebellar–thalamic–cortical circuit (CCTCC), involved in emotional, executive, and cognitive, is associated with drug-naive, first-episode MDD patients. Moreover, our study highlights the vital role of abnormal dynamic brain activity in the cerebellar hemisphere associated with CCTCC in MDD patients. These findings may provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of MDD.
Article
Full-text available
Background The COVID-19 pandemic has led to observed increases in reported mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety symptoms. There is evidence attentional bias is associated with depression and anxiety, and it has been further suggested that anxiety sensitivity has a role in both the development and maintenance of depression and anxiety symptoms. Understanding these relationships may help inform preventative interventions for those at risk of mental health concerns. The present study explores the role of anxiety sensitivity, specifically physical and cognitive concerns, as a potential mediator of the relationship between attentional bias with depression and anxiety symptoms. Method Participants ( n = 460) were recruited from the general population in China, and completed an online survey between February and March, 2020 which included the Attention to Positive and Negative Information Scale (APNI), Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). After exploring the correlations between the measures, mediation analysis was performed to explore the role of anxiety sensitivity (physical and cognitive subscales) in the relationship between attentional bias and depression and anxiety (as measured by the DASS-21). Results The results indicated that negative attention bias was significantly positively correlated with physical and cognitive concerns, physical and cognitive concerns were significantly positively correlated with depression and anxiety, and negative attention bias was significantly positively correlated with depression and anxiety (all ps < 0.001). Physical and cognitive anxiety sensitivity mediated the relationship between negative attention bias and both anxiety and depression symptoms. Conclusion Negative bias was associated with levels of anxiety and depression, and physical and cognitive anxiety sensitivity mediated associations between negative bias and anxiety and depression symptoms. The study provides theoretical support for intervention and guidance on individual mental health during the pandemic, and helps individuals increase their concern to negative emotions.
Presentation
Full-text available
“Language and Emotion: Two Distinct but Overlapping Cognitive Domains” Presentation at Allameh Tabataba’i Unversity Brain and Cognition Student Association (2021)
Article
Dispositional traits can be protective or contribute to increased vulnerability in individuals with chronic pain. This study aims to evaluate the association between two dispositional trait measures, affect balance style and multi-domain trait groups, with psychosocial measures, clinical pain, functional pain, and experimental pain at two years in individuals with chronic knee pain. The study is a prospective analysis of 168 community dwelling individuals aged 45-85 years old with knee pain with or at risk for knee osteoarthritis. At baseline, affect balance style and multi-domain trait groups were associated with psychosocial measures, clinical pain, and functional status. At the two-year time point, the multi-domain trait groups were associated with the clinical pain measures. Interestingly, individuals with previously demonstrated vulnerable traits showed more variability in dispositional trait status at the two-year time point compared to those with dispositional traits previously demonstrated as more protective. Findings reiterate that dispositional traits are predisposing but are not predetermining regarding pain-related experiences. Perspective Vulnerable and protective dispositional traits are positively and negatively associated with clinical pain and functional limitations respectively. Although considered relatively stable, a 30-50% shift in dispositional traits was indicated over a two-year period. Findings highlight that dispositional traits are modifiable and thus, predisposing but not predetermining for persisting chronic pain.
Article
The default mode network (DMN) is activated when constructing and imagining narrative events, with functional brain activity in one region, the medial-prefrontal cortex, hypothesized to be modulated during emotional processing by adding value (or pleasure) to the episodic representation. However, since enhanced reactivity during emotional, compared to neutral, content is a more frequent finding in both the brain and body in physiological, neural, and behavioral measures, the current study directly assesses the effects of pleasure and emotion during narrative imagery in the DMN by using a within-subject design to first identify the DMN during resting state and then assess activation during pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant imagery. Replicating previous findings, enhanced functional activity in the medial prefrontal cortex was found when imagining pleasant, compared to unpleasant, events. In addition, emotion-related activation was found when imagining either pleasant or unpleasant, compared to neutral, events, in other nodes of the DMN including the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), angular gyrus, anterior hippocampus, lateral temporal cortex, temporal pole, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC). Pervasive emotional modulation in the DMN is consistent with the view that a primary function of event retrieval and construction is to remember, recreate, and imagine motivationally relevant events important for planning adaptive behavior.
Article
Cognitive abilities and affective experience are key human traits that are interrelated in behavior and brain. Individual variation of cognitive and affective traits, as well as brain structure, has been shown to partly underlie genetic effects. However, to what extent affect and cognition have a shared genetic relationship with local brain structure is incompletely understood. Here we studied phenotypic and genetic correlations of cognitive and affective traits in behavior and brain structure (cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes) in the pedigree-based Human Connectome Project sample (N = 1091). Both cognitive and affective trait scores were highly heritable and showed significant phenotypic correlation on the behavioral level. Cortical thickness in the left superior frontal cortex showed a phenotypic association with both affect and cognition. Decomposing the phenotypic correlations into genetic and environmental components showed that the associations were accounted for by shared genetic effects between the traits. Quantitative functional decoding of the left superior frontal cortex further indicated that this region is associated with cognitive and emotional functioning. This study provides a multi-level approach to study the association between affect and cognition and suggests a convergence of both in superior frontal cortical thickness.
Article
Full-text available
Livestock animals are sentient beings with cognitive and emotional capacities and their brain development, similar to humans and other animal species, is affected by their surrounding environmental conditions. Current intensive production systems, through the restrictions of safely managing large numbers of animals, may not facilitate optimal neurological development which can contribute to negative affective states, abnormal behaviors, and reduce experiences of positive welfare states. Enrichment provision is likely necessary to enable animals to reach toward their neurological potential, optimizing their cognitive capacity and emotional intelligence, improving their ability to cope with stressors as well as experience positive affect. However, greater understanding of the neurological impacts of specific types of enrichment strategies is needed to ensure enrichment programs are effectively improving the individual's welfare. Enrichment programs during animal development that target key neurological pathways that may be most utilized by the individual within specific types of housing or management situations is proposed to result in the greatest positive impacts on animal welfare. Research within livestock animals is needed in this regard to ensure future deployment of enrichment for livestock animals is widespread and effective in enhancing their neurological capacities.
Article
Aversive motivation plays a prominent role in driving individuals to exert cognitive control. However, the complexity of behavioral responses attributed to aversive incentives creates significant challenges for developing a clear understanding of the neural mechanisms of this motivation-control interaction. We review the animal learning, systems neuroscience, and computational literatures to highlight the importance of experimental paradigms that incorporate both motivational context manipulations and mixed motivational components (e.g., bundling of appetitive and aversive incentives). Specifically, we postulate that to understand aversive incentive effects on cognitive control allocation, a critical contextual factor is whether such incentives are associated with negative reinforcement or punishment. We further illustrate how the inclusion of mixed motivational components in experimental paradigms enables increased precision in the measurement of aversive influences on cognitive control. A sharpened experimental and theoretical focus regarding the manipulation and assessment of distinct motivational dimensions promises to advance understanding of the neural, monoaminergic, and computational mechanisms that underlie the interaction of motivation and cognitive control.
Thesis
Full-text available
Ces dernières années, les émotions et la cognition, et en particulier le lien entre ces deux domaines, ont fasciné les scientifiques du monde entier, donnant naissance à de nombreux travaux de recherche en psychologie, sciences cognitives et neurosciences. L’une des fonctions cognitives qui a éminemment attirée l’attention des chercheurs, en lien avec la modulation émotionnelle à laquelle elle est assujettie, est la mémoire épisodique. Aussi, les travaux de recherche réalisés chez l’Homme se sont largement accordés sur un point : les émotions participent à l’amélioration de la mémoire épisodique, un phénomène qui, dans la littérature, porte le nom de Emotional Enhancement of Memory (EEM). Si ce phénomène a amplement été étudié dans la population adulte, la nature de l’interaction entre mémoire et émotions reste largement inexplorée au cours du développement ontogénétique. Or, l’enfance est une période charnière durant laquelle des modifications majeures émergent au niveau du fonctionnement cérébral, sous-tendant le développement cognitif et émotionnel de l’enfant jusqu’à l’âge adulte. Ce travail de thèse s’est donc centré, dans un premier temps, sur l’étude de l’EEM chez l’enfant au développement typique (DT) afin de mettre en exergue de potentielles modulations développementales comparativement à la population adulte. Dans un deuxième temps, afin d’élargir nos connaissances sur l’EEM au cours du développement, ce travail de thèse a adopté une approche neuropsychologique avec l’étude de ce phénomène auprès d’enfants et d’adolescents porteurs d’un trouble neuro-développemental appelé syndrome de Williams-Beuren (SWB). Ainsi, plusieurs études expérimentales ont été conduites afin d’évaluer l’EEM chez l’enfant au DT et dans le SWB, à la fois avec des évaluations comportementales, comprenant des tâches d’encodage et de récupération en mémoire de stimuli émotionnels (négatifs et positifs) et neutres, ainsi qu’avec des mesures neurophysiologiques grâce à l’électro-encéphalographie (EEG). En particulier, les évaluations comportementales se sont intéressées à l’analyse de la mémoire épisodique dans sa globalité, c’est-à-dire en tenant compte de ses deux composants principaux qui sont la mémoire de l’item et la mémoire associative. Les résultats obtenus dans ce travail de recherche ont permis, pour la première fois, de mettre en évidence l’émergence d’un EEM à la fois en mémoire de l’item et en mémoire associative chez les enfants au DT âgés de 8 à 11 ans, et ceci de façon similaire à des jeunes adultes. Des premiers indices de la modulation des réponses neuronales lors de l’encodage de stimuli émotionnels pouvant prédire les performances comportementales en mémoire, ont également été apportés chez les enfants au DT. Par ailleurs, ce travail de recherche a contribué à fournir des premières preuves de l’émergence d’un EEM chez les enfants et adolescents porteurs du SWB âgés de 8 à 18 ans, qui apparaissait de façon similaire à un groupe de jeunes enfants au DT. Dans l’ensemble, ce travail de thèse a permis de démontrer que l’EEM est un phénomène robuste, qui se mettrait en place précocement au cours du développement et qui ne semblerait pas être affecté par l’immaturité de certains processus mnésiques observée chez les enfants au DT, ni par l’altération de ces processus dans le cas du SWB.
Article
Emotions are time-varying internal states that promote survival in the face of dynamic environments and shifting homeostatic needs. Research in non-human organisms has recently afforded specific insights into the neural mechanisms that support the emergence, persistence, and decay of affective states. Concurrently, a separate affective neuroscience literature has begun to dissect the neural bases of affective dynamics in humans. However, the circuit-level mechanisms identified in animals lack a clear mapping to the human neuroscience literature. As a result, critical questions pertaining to the neural bases of affective dynamics in humans remain unanswered. To address these shortcomings, the present review integrates findings from humans and non-human organisms to highlight the neural mechanisms that govern the temporal features of emotional states. Using the theory of affective chronometry as an organizing framework, we describe the specific neural mechanisms and modulatory factors that arbitrate the rise-time, intensity, and duration of emotional states.
Preprint
Full-text available
Natural sensory inputs in everyday situations induce unique experiences that vary between individuals, even when inputs are identical. This experiential uniqueness stems from the representations of sensory signals in each brain. We investigated whether genetic factors control individual differences in sensory representations in the brain by studying the brain representations of natural audiovisual signals in twin-pairs. We measured the brain response to natural movies in twins using functional magnetic resonance imaging and quantified the genetic influence on the multivoxel-pattern similarity of movie clip representations between each twin. The whole-brain analysis revealed a genetic influence on the multivoxel-pattern similarity in widespread brain regions, which included the occipitotemporal sensory cortices as well as the frontoparietal association cortices and subcortical structures. Our findings suggest that genetic factors exhibit an effect on natural audiovisual signaling by controlling audiovisual representations in the brain.
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have shown that our perception of stimulus properties can be affected by the emotional nature of the stimulus. It is not clear, however, how emotions affect visually-guided actions toward objects. To address this question, we used toy rats, toy squirrels, and wooden blocks to induce negative, positive, and neutral emotions, respectively. Participants were asked to report the perceived distance and the perceived size of a target object resting on top of one of the three emotion-inducing objects; or to grasp the same target object either without visual feedback (open-loop) or with visual feedback (closed-loop) of both the target object and their grasping hand during the execution of grasping. We found that the target object was perceived closer and larger, but was grasped with a smaller grip aperture in the rat condition than in the squirrel and the wooden-block conditions when no visual feedback was available. With visual feedback present, this difference in grip aperture disappeared. These results showed that negative emotion influences both perceived size and grip aperture, but in opposite directions (larger perceived size but smaller grip aperture) and its influence on grip aperture could be corrected by visual feedback, which revealed different effects of emotion to perception and action. Our results have implications on the understanding of the relationship between perception and action in emotional condition, which showed the novel difference from previous theories.
Chapter
Emotion is central to human daily experience, influencing cognition, perception, and everyday tasks such as learning, communication, and even rational decision‐making. However, the large number of emotion states and the overlaps between the corresponding brain regions make analysis of emotion very challenging for technologists and neuroscience researchers. A hybrid of the somatic and cognitive theories of emotion is the perceptual theory. Skin impedance can be checked using a galvanic skin response sensor. Electromyography is used to measure the muscle activities of the face, neck, and shoulder which are very likely to change due to certain emotions. Study of emotion using electroencephalography has become more attractive due to many algorithms developed by the signal processing community. Direct detection and classification of emotion signal sources are generally complex and advanced methods in signal processing are needed.
Article
Full-text available
How do affect and cognition interact in managerial decision making? Over the last decades, scholars have investigated how managers make decisions. However, what remains largely unknown is the interplay of affective states and cognition during the decision-making process. We offer a systematization of the contributions produced on the role of affect and cognition in managerial decision making by considering the recent cross-fertilization of management studies with the neuroscience domain. We implement a Systematic Literature Review of 23 selected contributions dealing with the role of affect and cognition in managerial decisions that adopted neuroscience techniques/points of view. Collected papers have been analyzed by considering the so-called reflexive (X-) and reflective (C-) systems in social cognitive neuroscience and the type of decisions investigated in the literature. Results obtained help to support an emerging "unified" mind processing theory for which the two systems of our mind are not in conflict and for which affective states have a driving role toward cognition. A research agenda for future studies is provided to scholars who are interested in advancing the investigation of affect and cognition in managerial decision making, also through neuroscience techniques-with the consideration that these works should be at the service of the behavioral strategy field.
Article
Nell’ambito delle associazioni simbiotiche ha acquisito credito crescente la cosiddetta prospettiva “olobiontica”, secondo cui animali e piante non dovrebbero più essere considerati entità autonome, con confini chiaramente delimitati, ma li si dovrebbe vedere come unità funzionali che consistono di reti inter-relazionali tra specie diverse. In quest’ottica le funzioni precedentemente attribuite a un singolo componente devono essere riviste alla luce della prospettiva relazionale e considerate quindi come prodotto di un’unità funzionale, ossia dell’olobionte. Nella prospettiva funzionalista, il noto concetto di mente estesa considera la possibilità per cui il veicolo della cognizione possa andare oltre il cervello e anche oltre i limiti del corpo, mediante dispositivi artificiali. Questo lavoro intende offrire una variante della teoria della mente estesa intesa non solo come possibilità teoretica ma anche come ipotesi compatibile con alcuni recenti sviluppi nella ricerca biologica e biomedica. Si sosterrà quindi che l’attività del microbiota umano (i batteri che vivono in associazione con le specie umane) svolgono un ruolo funzionale nella regolazione dei nostri processi cognitivi, suggerendo che il microbiota costituisce un’estensione funzionale del sistema cognitivo precedentemente descritto come “umano”. La revisione e l’estensione dell’individuo biologico in favore dell’olobionte come unità funzionale (il vero creatore delle funzioni cognitive) porta anche alla necessità di aggiornare i confini dell’individuo come agente cognitivo.
Article
Full-text available
Biological as well as advanced artificial intelligences (AIs) need to decide which goals to pursue. We review nature's solution to the time allocation problem, which is based on a continuously readjusted categorical weighting mechanism we experience introspectively as emotions. One observes phylogenetically that the available number of emotional states increases hand in hand with the cognitive capabilities of animals and that raising levels of intelligence entail ever larger sets of behavioral options. Our ability to experience a multitude of potentially conflicting feelings is in this view not a leftover of a more primitive heritage, but a generic mechanism for attributing values to behavioral options that can not be specified at birth. In this view, emotions are essential for understanding the mind. For concreteness, we propose and discuss a framework which mimics emotions on a functional level. Based on time allocation via emotional stationarity (TAES), emotions are implemented as abstract criteria, such as satisfaction, challenge and boredom, which serve to evaluate activities that have been carried out. The resulting timeline of experienced emotions is compared with the “character” of the agent, which is defined in terms of a preferred distribution of emotional states. The long-term goal of the agent, to align experience with character, is achieved by optimizing the frequency for selecting individual tasks. Upon optimization, the statistics of emotion experience becomes stationary.
Article
Full-text available
Road safety represents one of the main public health issues worldwide, and risky driving behaviour is one of the most predominant factors in traffic road accidents. The primary objective of this research was to clarify the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) abilities and the probability of engaging in risky behaviour during driving. Previous literature linking these constructs is limited, and research has yielded mixed findings. In the present study, 555 drivers from a Spanish community sample (Mage = 39.34, ranging from 18 to 79 years old; 49.19% women) were assessed on risky driving behaviour using the Dula Dangerous Driving Index while self-reported ability EI was measured using the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale. Gender, age, and driving experience were controlled. The results of this study revealed that a higher self-reported ability EI, particularly the ability to regulate emotions, was related to a lower tendency to engage in risky driving behaviours. In turn, self-reported ability EI was negatively and indirectly related to the number of road accidents and traffic tickets through the mediating effect of risky driving. The regulation of emotions (via direct and indirect effect) and the appraisal of the emotions of others (via direct effect) were the EI abilities that better predicted the number of accidents and traffic tickets. We discuss the practical implications of these findings, along with suggested future lines of research.
Preprint
Full-text available
Natural sensory inputs in everyday situations induce unique experiences that vary between individuals, even when inputs are identical. This experiential uniqueness stems from the representations of sensory signals in each brain. We investigated whether genetic factors control individual differences in sensory representations in the brain by studying the brain representations of natural audiovisual signals in twin-pairs. We measured the brain response to natural movies in twins using functional magnetic resonance imaging and quantified the genetic influence on the multivoxel-pattern similarity of movie clip representations between each twin. The whole-brain analysis revealed a genetic influence on the multivoxel-pattern similarity in widespread brain regions, which included the occipitotemporal sensory cortices as well as the frontoparietal association cortices and subcortical structures. Our findings suggest that genetic factors exhibit an effect on natural audiovisual signaling by controlling audiovisual representations in the brain.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.