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The theory of economic development

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The theory of economic development

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... Uslu (2012)'ya göre girişimin yenilikçi girişim olabilmesi, yeni ürünün yeni pazarlarda pazarlanabilir olmasını gerektirir. Schumpeter (1934), yenilikçi girişimi; yeni bir endüstride, yeni tedarik yollarıyla yeni hammadde ve kaynaklar temin ederek, yeni üretim yöntemleri yardımıyla yeni ürünler üreterek, yeni pazarlarda satmak olarak tanımlamıştır. ...
... Yenilikçi girişimciler tarafından kurulan yeni organizasyonlar, başarılı olmak için faaliyetlerini ve stratejilerini, kurumsal çevrenin sunduğu fırsat ve sınırlamalara uyarlamak zorundadırlar (Aidis, Estrin ve Mickiewicz, 2012). Kurumların etkili bir şekilde faaliyet gösterdiği ekonomilerde, yenilikçi girişimcilerin aldığı riskler çevresel etkenlerden çok girişimlerin kendi doğasından ve girişimcilerin kişisel özelliklerinden kaynaklanmaktadır (Schumpeter 1934;Kirzner 1973). Öte yandan; daha az gelişmiş ve kurumların etkili biçimde faaliyette bulunamadığı ekonomilerde, kurumlar piyasa ekonomisinin işleyişine yeterli katkıyı sunamamakta ve bu durum hem yenilikçi girişimcilik faaliyetinden elde edilen potansiyel getirileri hem de beklenen gelir akışını olumsuz yönde etkilemektedir (Kirzner, 1973 Bir ülkedeki bireysel gelir dağılımları, devlet kalkınma planlarının gelişmişliği ile doğru orantılıdır. ...
... Eğer kadınlar ve erkeklerden oluşan bütün potansiyel girişimciler aynı girişimci varsayımları değerlendirselerdi; aynı girişimci karı yakalamak için rekabet edip, fırsatı takip etmeyi teşvik eden kar ortadan kalkana kadar girişim karını bölüşürlerdi (Schumpeter, 1934).Fakat gerçekte kadın ve erkek girişimciler arasında böyle bir durumun varlığı söz konusu bile değildir. Şekil 6'dan görüleceği üzere Kuzey Amerikada kadın girişimciler arasında yenilikçi girişimcilik başlatanların oranı %13 iken, bu oran sırasıyla Asya ve Pasifik ülkelerinde %23, Orta Doğu ve Kuzey Afrika ülkelerinde %24, Avrupa ve Orta Asya ülkelerinde %25, Latin Amerikada %30 ve Güney Amerikada ise %36'dır. ...
... Girişimcinin kişisel özellikleri çoğunlukla bağlamından koparılarak anlatılmaktadır. İster yeni ürün veya süreçlerin yaratılması (Schumpeter, 1934), ister yeni pazarlara giriş (Lumpkin ve Dess, 1996), isterse yeni girişimlerin yaratılması olarak kavramsallaştırılsın (Gartner, 1985), girişimcilik en genel tanımıyla, kişisel girişimin bir takım faaliyet ve sonuçları doğurduğu bir olgudur. ...
... Burada girişimcinin kimliğinin bir önemi yoktur, önemli olan birisinin o faaliyette bulunmasıdır. Bu yaklaşımı savunanlar için girişimcilik iktisadi gelişme ve kalkınmanın temel unsurlarındandır (Schumpeter, 1934). Bir diğer yaklaşıma göreyse, girişimcinin kişilik özellikleri ön plandadır. ...
... For example, Goel et al. Another channel for green growth is the development of the financial sector, emphasized by the pioneering theoretical works of Schumpeter (1911), Kuznets (1955), and Lewis (1956). Schumpeter's (1911) work on the relationship between finance and growth shows that a welldeveloped financial sector stimulates growth by reallocating resources from sectors that are less productive to more productive sectors, thereby enhancing technological innovations. ...
... Another channel for green growth is the development of the financial sector, emphasized by the pioneering theoretical works of Schumpeter (1911), Kuznets (1955), and Lewis (1956). Schumpeter's (1911) work on the relationship between finance and growth shows that a welldeveloped financial sector stimulates growth by reallocating resources from sectors that are less productive to more productive sectors, thereby enhancing technological innovations. Kuznets (1955) argues that the effect of financial markets on growth is only noticeable once the economy approaches the intermediate stage of the process of growth while Lewis (1956) divulges that a well-functioning financial market is a result of economic growth, which of course drives real economic activity in the long run. ...
Article
Global warming and other significant climatic changes arising from the accumulation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have placed great policy puzzles on whether to slow or not to slow gross domestic product (GDP) growth. This paper presents and estimates empirical models of growth using standard tools of growth empirics for 23 OECD countries over the period 1990–2017. The main objective is to examine the role of green energy consumption and investment on economic growth. Using the Method of Moments Quantile Regression (MMQR) with fixed effects, empirical results suggest that green energy consumption and investment—in the sense of renewable energy consumption and expenditure in renewable energy research and development (R&D)—have small, although positive effects on economic growth. These effects are heterogeneous, leading to asymmetric patterns over the conditional quantile distribution of per-capita GDP with stronger effects found in the lower quantiles. The implication of our findings is that capacity utilization in green energy consumption and investment has not been developed to a viable level that will mitigate greenhouse effects and spur sustainable development in the long run.
... Debate on finance-growth nexus has started since Schumpeter (1911) later supported by Patrick (1966), Goldsmith (1969, McKinnon (1973) and Shaw (1973) who view the importance of financial sector development for economic growth, the considered finance as the lubricant of the main engine of economic growth. Schumpeter (1911) argued that development of the financial sector is essential for economic growth. ...
... Debate on finance-growth nexus has started since Schumpeter (1911) later supported by Patrick (1966), Goldsmith (1969, McKinnon (1973) and Shaw (1973) who view the importance of financial sector development for economic growth, the considered finance as the lubricant of the main engine of economic growth. Schumpeter (1911) argued that development of the financial sector is essential for economic growth. His argument is that money supply served as a monetary instrument and private sector credit affects economic growth by providing sufficient fund to the firms that have a best productive use. ...
... Based on the theory of economic development, Schumpeter (1911) argued that financial intermediaries mobilize savings, evaluate projects, manage risk, monitor managers, and facilitate transactions, which makes external financing more affordable for firms, contributing to technological innovation and economic growth, thereby supporting environmental sector activities through this channel. Theoretically, equity markets and credit markets are seen to play different roles in the development of innovation. ...
... An effective and functional financial sector contributes to economic growth (Schumpeter, 1911;King and Levine, 1993). According to Levine (2005), the development of financial systems (banks, capital markets, laws and regulations about banks, and capital markets) is geared towards reducing barriers to financing, monitoring, and gaining access to financial information at a lower cost, thereby supporting environmental sector activities through this channel. ...
Article
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We show that innovative activities exacerbate environmental degradation based on data covering 52 countries between 1990 and 2014. Yet, innovative activities carried out in countries with greater financial development pose less environmental harm. Additionally, we show the equity market is more effective concerning dampening effect of innovation on carbon emissions. With a dynamic panel threshold method, we find that innovation is significantly associated with improvements in environmental quality when the private sector credit and market capitalization of listed domestic companies exceed threshold levels of about 65 and 16% as a share of GDP respectively. We also look into the relationship between financial structure and the innovation-pollution nexus. We show that innovation promotes environmental quality in countries that have a relatively more equity-based financial system. Our empirical evidence calls for policymakers to identify the optimal level of finance to mitigate pollution resulting from innovative activities and realign the financial structure in accordance with the innovation-pollution nexus.
... Austrian economist Joseph Schumpeter coined the term innovation in 1934 as the formation of new combinations (Schumpeter, 1934). Since then, several scholars have studied it from various perspectives (Love & Roper, 2015;Marques et al., 2019;Wijngaarden et al., 2019). ...
... Innovation has been frequently regarded as a vital source of a firm's competitive advantage (Schumpeter, 1934;Chand et al., 2014;Dunk, 2011). For these reasons, manufacturing firms and, especially, handicrafts, need to keep up with the new industrial challenges in order to maintain a competitive edge on the market (Girón et al., 2007;Yang & Shafi, 2020). ...
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Despite being rich in cultural heritage, traditional handicrafts require innovation to achieve competitiveness. This study addresses the understanding of innovation in traditional handicrafts for sustainable development. The paper emphasizes the importance and potential advantages of innovation and its synergistic effect with cultural traditions leading to sustainable development. Apart of the explanation of most important issues regarding this topic, publications containing the following keywords selected for the study were identified in the WOS database. A total of 500 different publications from 1975 to 2021 were identified. The database was used for text-mining analyses. The clustering method (data mining) was used. The systematic literature review was carried out with the use of VOSviewer software. This tool was used to identify and analyse clusters and dominant research areas and to identify potential new research directions. This has never been done by any author before. We show that future studies should focus on the issue of measuring incremental innovation in cultural creative industries, especially handicraft since this topic is not enough analysed in the literature. The findings can help academics and practitioners to improve the knowledge about the topic and concentrate on identified priority areas to fulfil the assumptions of sustainable development.
... This concept has been imbedded in both the entrepreneurship and innovation literatures dating back to classical and neoclassical economics (Casson et al., 2006). This interdependent relationship was formalised in the works of Knight (1921) and Schumpeter (1934), who together see the entrepreneur as bearing uncertainty in the innovation process. The former emphasises uncertainty as a precondition for entrepreneurship, while the latter focuses on the relationship between the entrepreneur and innovation (Antonelli, 2015;Brouwer, 2000). ...
... The roots of innovation theory are usually attributed to Schumpeter (1934) and Knight (1921). Schumpeter stresses innovation, while Knight emphasises uncertainty as preconditions for entrepreneurship (Brouwer, 2000). ...
Article
Innovation theory clearly differentiates between innovation processes and entrepreneurial processes through its distinction between uncertainty and risk. The authors’ premise is that innovation and entrepreneurship are interdependent, where the role of the innovator is to reduce uncertainty, while the role of the entrepreneur is to manage uncertainty to a point where risk can be assessed. Taking an effectual innovation approach, innovation is modelled as uncertainty management requiring experimentation and flexibility, while entrepreneurial risk management is modelled as pre-commitments and affordable loss. Using data from the innovation processes of 169 US SMEs, the authors propose and test an exploratory empirical model which distinguishes uncertainty from risk and its impact on innovation and firm performance. The authors contend that once uncertainty and risk management aspects are isolated, their relationship to innovation performance can be investigated. The results indicate that uncertainty management does positively impact innovation performance, while a risk management approach impacts firm performance. Our model suggests that it may be helpful to segregate uncertainty and risk at the entrepreneurship–innovation interface.
... The last section covers the conclusion. [20] theory of financial intermediation, financial intermediaries have a critical role to play in the process of growth by shifting financial resources from net savers to net borrowers, thereby affecting investment and, in turn, economic growth. According to the theory, financial intermediaries can eliminate information asymmetry and market inefficiencies by altering the risk characteristics of assets (Nzotta and Okereke [21]). ...
... According to Tobin [22], the concept of transaction costs includes costs associated with searches, monitoring, and auditing in addition to exchange or monetary transaction costs (Benston and Smith [23]). The idea that efficient financial intermediaries might increase overall economic efficiency is supported by Schumpeter's study [20]. Intermediation roles of the financial sector encourage creativity and the development of entrepreneurship, which are essential elements for economic progress, by pooling and adequately allocating these resources (Karimo and Ogbonna [24]). ...
Article
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This study examines the impact of financial deepening and sustainable energy supply on domestic investment inWest African countries. The data for the study range from 1990 to 2020 and were sourced from the World Development Indicator database. We used the cross-sectional autoregressive distributed lag (CS-ARDL) estimator for the analysis. Empirical findings showed that credit to the private sector significantly impacts domestic investment in West Africa. It was also revealed that access to electricity significantly impacts domestic investment in West Africa. This demonstrates that funding for the private sector and adequate power generation improve investment in any economy. The study concludes that financial deepening has a significant impact on domestic investment. The study, therefore, recommends that the management of banks should be encouraged to pursue policies that will deepen the efficient allocation of financial services for domestic investment in the region.
... Innovation is one of the most important mechanisms for achieving a sustainable competitive advantage (Miller, 1983). As suggested by Schumpeter, economic crises trigger creative destruction, whereby old technologies, products and industries often decline while new innovative ones emerge (Schumpeter, 1934). Several researchers suggest that innovation enhances the probability of firms' increasing their sales and employment growth (Abubakar and Mitra, 2017). ...
... We justified this selection by the relative importance of these three constructs in defining the EO in the context of informal enterprises. Likewise, most scholars have defined entrepreneurship using these dimensions (Miller and Friesen, 1982;Schumpeter, 1934), which further influenced our decision to choose them in the context of this research. We adapted the original nine items from Covin and Slevin (1989) and Miller (1983) and used five Likert scales to assess EO. ...
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Purpose The global economic crisis triggered by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused the closure of countless ethnic minority businesses (EMBs) worldwide, partly due to the public policy responses. This paper investigates whether EMBs’ entrepreneurial orientation (EO) mediates the impact of public policy responses to COVID-19 on their survival. Design/methodology/approach Utilizing institutional theory, the authors developed a novel conceptual framework that divides policy responses to COVID-19 into aggressive (imposing restrictions on movement, e.g. lockdowns) and less aggressive policy responses (not imposing restrictions on movement, e.g. social distancing). The authors then surveyed intra-regional EMBs, specifically businesses owned by ethnic minorities in the Kano and Katsina provinces of Nigeria, and analysed the data using structural equation modelling and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Findings The authors found that intra-regional EMBs in developing countries are very vulnerable to the public policy responses imposed by governments to curb COVID-19. Aggressive policy responses have a more significant negative effect on the survival of intra-regional EMBs than their less aggressive counterparts. Furthermore, the authors found that EO as a crisis response strategy significantly supports intra-regional EMBs in managing their vulnerability to the hostile institutional environment, reduces the adverse effect of public policy responses and stimulates their survival during the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value This paper contributes to the institutional theory of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)/entrepreneurship and the literature on EMBs by showing the role of EO in mediating the effects of COVID-19 institutional policies on the survival of intra-regional EMBs.
... On the other hand, more attention should be given to growth enhancing policies in the case of demand following situations (Calderon & Liu, 2003). Authors like Schumpeter (1934), Goldsmith (1969), McKinnon (1973), and King and Levine (1993) considered finance as an important component of economic growth. Due to its intermediary role in investment, Schumpeter (1934) foresaw banking sector as the engine of economic growth. ...
... Authors like Schumpeter (1934), Goldsmith (1969), McKinnon (1973), and King and Levine (1993) considered finance as an important component of economic growth. Due to its intermediary role in investment, Schumpeter (1934) foresaw banking sector as the engine of economic growth. A highly competitive financial sector increases the availability of funds for investment and innovation in technology. ...
Article
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Abstract Due to the inherent instability of the conventional financial system, the demand for Islamic finance has increased. Islamic finance is more stable because it does not rely on debt-based financing. Currently, Islamic finance is one of the fastest growing sectors of economy in the Muslim world in general and in Pakistan in particular and it plays a vital role in the real sector development. This paper investigated the impact of Islamic viz a viz conventional finance on economic growth of Pakistan. For empirical analysis, quarterly data for the period 2006Q3– 2017Q4 was utilized. For Islamic finance, the study used total financing (finance plus investment) by Islamic banks, whereas credit given to the private sector by conventional banks was used as the measure of conventional finance. Using GMM method of estimation, our findings revealed that Islamic finance enhances economic growth and also fulfills some specific needs of economic agents which otherwise would have remained unfulfilled by conventional finance. Further, the study also used government spending, investment, trade openness and inflation as control variables.
... W konsekwencji określone zostały nowe czynniki, które wyróżniane są jako podstawowe z punktu widzenia sukcesu w organizacji działalności. Można do nich obecnie zaliczyć (Ashkenas, Ulrich, Jick, i in., 2002): szybkość działania, elastyczność, integrację działania, innowacje i e-biznes (Schumpeter, 2017). W dzisiejszym świecie zachodzą niezwykłe zmiany, które wykraczają poza samą nierównowagę podaży i popytu czy postęp technologiczny. ...
Book
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The monograph is the result of many years of studies on the issue of business efficiency. The research procedure adopted is reflected in the layout of the book, which consists of: three chapters, an introduction, an introduction to the conclusion and a bibliography. The first chapter contains the characteristics of enterprises in the SME sector, with particular emphasis on the individuality of small enterprises, their representative features and the specifics of their management. It shows success as the desired result of managing a small business on the way to building efficiency. In the second chapter, the issue of organisational efficiency as a determinant of the success of a small organisation is discussed. Consideration has been given to the ordering of its three components: manufacturing efficiency, effectiveness, and economic efficiency. Various approaches to efficiency found in the source literature are presented and interpreted. The types of organisational efficiency are discussed and its dimensions are presented. The third chapter contains the theoretical bases for the efficiency of small enterprises, which are the substrate for building the model. It presents measures to assess the efficiency of these enterprises. The factors shaping the efficiency of small enterprises are distinguished and described, and an attempt is made to determine their typology and aggregation in various systems. Business objectives are presented as the overriding basis for building the efficiency of a small organisation. The issue of the economic efficiency of small enterprises is presented. The dilemmas concerning their growth and development were discussed, treating growth as a measure of manufacturing efficiency and development as a measure of effectiveness. The issue of efficiency management in a small enterprise is presented from the perspective of results, growth and development. This chapter also contains detailed model solutions related to the adopted methodology of research on the efficiency of small enterprises. The research was carried out on a sample of 455 small business owners throughout Poland in 2018. (The aim was to ensure the transparency of research material with the same environmental parameters). The chapter also contains the final conclusions of the study. As a whole, it is a statistical statement and model validation.
... Ez a sajátosság magyarázza, hogy a tulajdonos-vezetők döntéseit a tisztán pénzügyi szempontokat meghaladó megfontolások is vezérlik, a részvényesi érték esetükben nem az egyetlen és legfontosabb cél. Ez természetükből fakadóan jellemző egyébként mind az alapítói (Schumpeter, 1934), mind a családi (Sharma, Chrisman & Chua, 1997, in Zellweger & Dehlen, 2012 vállalkozásokra. ...
Article
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A társas-érzelmi vagyon (röviden: TÉV) kitüntetett szerepet élvez a családi vállalkozási elméletek között, köszönhetően a családi vállalkozásokat a nem családiaktól megkülönböztető szerepének. A társas-érzelmi vagyon koncepciója 2007 óta széles körben használt a családi vállalkozások sajátosságainak magyarázatára, miközben a nemzetközi tudományos közösségben az elméletet kritizáló hangok is erősödtek. A tanulmány célja egy friss, magyar nyelvű szakirodalmi áttekintést adni a társas-érzelmi vagyonról, fókuszáltan a TÉV prioritásainak változásáról a többgenerációs családi vállalkozásokban, mely méltatlanul elhanyagolt kutatási terület, figyelembe véve a családi vállalkozások dinasztikus aspirációt és a családi kontroll megőrzésére gyakorolt következményeket. A szerzők az eredményeik ismertetését követően propozíciókat és jövőbeni kutatási irányokat fogalmaznak meg.
... This mechanism can be explained by the fact that technological change stimulates economic growth via productivity increases (Acs & Audretsch, 2005), which translates into additional opportunities for profit, thereby enhancing entrepreneurship. Theoretically, it was Joseph Schumpeter (1934) who first stipulated how relevant the existence of opportunities is; this is conditioned by the development of new knowledge (Kirzner, 1973) such as technological change, which is why evolutions in terms of R&D can be a source of opportunities (Casson, 1995). The creation of innovations -based on R&D activities, among others -is often favored by new businesses. ...
Article
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The eclectic theory of entrepreneurship has identified several macro-determinants of national entrepreneurial activities. Taking advantage of the availability of new databases, several recent empirical studies have sought to test these determinants in multicountry studies using multivariate regression models. Due to the lack of consensus around their results, this paper posits that this empirical literature may be subject to endogeneity bias, which seriously threatens its accuracy, consistency, and reliability, as well as the effectiveness of the resulting management and policy recommendations. Consequently, we methodologically demonstrate why and how endogeneity occurs in these studies by analyzing their empirical and theoretical models. We also provide a step-by-step guide to help researchers understand how to detect and correct endogeneity using IV techniques applied to a panel data analysis of the macro-determinants of early-stage entrepreneur-ship in a sample of 48 countries between 2000 and 2019. A 'toolkit' of generic STATA software commands specifying the tests, methods, and assumptions performed in this analysis is included. In doing so, we aim to raise awareness of endogeneity bias among researchers and to empirically guide future studies in order to avoid its hazards. Finally, after correcting for endogeneity, our analysis identifies the protection of property rights, entrepreneurial culture, income, and economic development as the most consistent macro-determinants of early-stage entrepreneurship, providing important policy and business insights.
... Start-ups are paramount to the development of any economy. [1][2] Previous scholars identified various roles of start-ups in the economy, including driving force for modern economic development, [3][4][5][6] source of technological creativity [7][8] and engines for innovation. Start-ups are supposed to grow more rapidly, [9][10] and deal more flexibly with difficulties than conventional businesses. ...
Article
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Despite being received increasing attention from academic scholars, there have yet any review study on the topic of start-up success. This work fulfills this research gap by investigating 1554 start-up success documents collected from Scopus dataset between 1981 and 2019. Using bibliometric analysis, we reveal that the topic of start-up success only receives more attention from academic scholars since 2011 onwards. Regarding geographical distribution, the US, Germany, and the UK are the three countries contributing the highest number of start-up success related documents. Besides, it’s revealed that 305 (or 19.6%) start-up success documents were published in the top 20 journals. The co-author analysis found that the research groups of start-up success are still small and dispersed and there was a lack of continuity in the research. The science mapping identified six main topics of start-up success, including: (1) Business in General, (2) Start-up Ecosystem, (iii) Academic Start-up, (iv) Drivers of Start-up Success, (v) Resources for start-up, and (vi) Start-up Model. The study’s findings provide implications for stakeholders, including academic scholars, policymakers, start-up owners, entrepreneurs, and practitioners.
... One of the first authors to conduct research on innovation was Schumpeter (1934), who argues that companies should identify new opportunities to exploit the relevant economies based on the resources these firms control and the capabilities they have (see also Murcia et al., 2022). This strategy should contribute to a continuous process of introducing new products or services into the appropriate markets and making these solutions better and more innovative than those that already exist. ...
Article
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The world is going through an unprecedent experience marked by one of the most serious pandemic to date. Companies currently face multiple challenges, including maintaining their organizational culture while defining and validating new working and business models and completely rethinking past competitive advantages. Innovation is a fundamental part of these processes. This study identifies the main findings in the literature on company culture and the promotion of innovation within organizations. Problem structuring methods (i.e., design thinking (DT) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)) were applied to explore innovation culture further and apply the results to the multinational advertising agency VMLY&R Lisboa in order to delineate this company’s culture and enhance its potential for innovation. An expert panel was recruited to develop a fuller understanding of the cause-effect relationships between factors that influence innovation and to enable a more collaborative, constructivist approach to this decision problem. The main findings were validated by VMLY&R Lisboa’s chief executive officer, and concrete initiatives were proposed that can enhance this company’s innovation culture. The study’s contributions and limitations are also discussed.
... The classicalists' view of innovation argues that economic mechanisms are framed with a static Walrasian balance among markets, implying that there is no change. However, Schumpeter (1934) introduced the concept of entrepreneurship, which can play a key role in creating a variation in the situation, such as balance, causing complete competition. In response to this, dynamic economic structures and economic fluctuations emerge, along with the innovation of entrepreneurs. ...
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The overriding objective of this study is to examine the impact of different types of innovations (overall, process, and R&D) on different segments of labour (productivity and employment) in selected African countries, namely, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Ghana, Cameroon, Senegal, and Cote d'Ivoire. The study employs data from the World Bank Enterprise Survey and converts it into pseudo panel data based on legal status, firm size, and industry type as all these three exogenous variables are common in all countries. The study uses the Propensity Score Matching method and the Dose-Response Model to capture the impact of innovation and the dosage of innovation on labour productivity and employment. The descriptive analysis indicates that 2,673 firms are engaged in at least one of the innovation activities, and 250 firms do not have any innovation activities. The Propensity Score Matching finds that process and R&D innovations have statistically significant impacts on employment. But the process of innovation has a negative effect on the productivity of non-production and skilled employees. R&D innovation has a negative and statistically significant impact on the productivity of permanent, non-production, skilled, and unskilled workers. In addition to these, the Dose-Response-Model exhibits the positive relationship between innovation and employment of full-time permanent employees, full-time production, and full-time nonproduction workers, and the impact becomes greater when the dose increases. However, there is a negative relationship between innovation and employment of unskilled production workers, after which their relationship becomes positive. Classification code JEL: O31, O32
... Ez a sajátosság magyarázza, hogy a tulajdonos-vezetők döntéseit a tisztán pénzügyi szempontokat meghaladó megfontolások is vezérlik, a részvényesi érték esetükben nem az egyetlen és legfontosabb cél. Ez természetükből fakadóan jellemző egyébként mind az alapítói (Schumpeter, 1934), mind a családi (Sharma, Chrisman & Chua, 1997, in Zellweger & Dehlen, 2012 vállalkozásokra. ...
Article
A társas-érzelmi vagyon (röviden: TÉV) kitüntetett szerepet élvez a családi vállalkozási elméletek között, köszönhetően a családi vállalkozásokat a nem családiaktól megkülönböztető szerepének. A társas-érzelmi vagyon koncepciója 2007 óta széles körben használt a családi vállalkozások sajátosságainak magyarázatára, miközben a nemzetközi tudományos közösségben az elméletet kritizáló hangok is erősödtek. A tanulmány célja egy friss, magyar nyelvű szakirodalmi áttekintést adni a társas-érzelmi vagyonról, fókuszáltan a TÉV prioritásainak változásáról a többgenerációs családi vállalkozásokban, mely méltatlanul elhanyagolt kutatási terület, figyelembe véve a családi vállalkozások dinasztikus aspirációt és a családi kontroll megőrzésére gyakorolt következményeket. A szerzők az eredményeik ismertetését követően propozíciókat és jövőbeni kutatási irányokat fogalmaznak meg.
... Diffusion is as well the action as the result of phenomena of expansion of ideas, practices or objects, which are usually referred as 'innovations' when they are perceived as new or different by an individual or other unit of adoption. According to Schumpeter (1934), to innovate is to introduce something 'new' or different by propagating it in an environment and generating irreversibilities in the evolution of this environment. The more complex the innovation, the more influence its diffusion process will have on transformation of its propagation environment, as effects induced by its adoption will be all the more increased. ...
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The Late Bronze Age in Europe represents a perfect case study to test different and competing hypotheses of social dynamics and cultural changes in small-scale societies. Among the most relevant changes which took place in the 2nd millennium BC, the introduction and the development of the cremation rite deserves a particular attention for its relevance. Traditionally, the origin of the so-called Urnfield culture has been placed in the Charpato-Danubian area. From this region cremation burials would have expanded across space and along time toward western and southern territories. It follows that the presence of the cremation rite in the north-east of Iberian Peninsula has been explained as a consequence of such east to west people movements. Recently, scholars started to assume the inner complexity, which characterizes the introduction and the development of the cremation practice, as shown by the variability in grave types, the magnitude of the dispersal area and the social and ideological deep transformations following the adoption of such innovation. In this paper we want to adopt an innovative approach. Through the chrono- and geostatistical analysis of a comprehensive dataset of radiocarbon-dated cremation burials we aim to model the spread of the cremation practice in the time span 1800-800 BC in central and southwestern Europe. The basic assumption is the detection of a spatio-temporal gradient which is an outcome of an expansive phenomenon, i.e. a dynamic system in which every location, at some well-specified underlying space, has a distinctive behavior through time. When a system expands through time, we can foresee a certain degree of dependence between locations, and this dependence is exactly what gives unity to the process. Obtained results show the existence of a consistent East to West space-time gradient, which could be explained as a result of spreading movements from the northwestern Alpine region and the Swiss Plateau to western and southern territories.
... Joseph Schumpeter's (1934) concept of the 'agent of innovation' signified the central role of entrepreneurial innovation in economic and social development. Yet, although academic discourse on innovation is largely tied to advancements in research and development, this is not a good description of innovations in the informal sector. ...
Book
COVID-19 had a global impact on health, communities, and the economy. As a result of COVID-19, music festivals, gigs, and events were canceled or postponed across the world. This directly affected the incomes and practices of many artists and the revenue for many entities in the music business. Despite this crisis, however, there are pre-existing trends in the music business – the rise of the streaming economy, technological change (virtual and augmented reality, blockchain, etc.), and new copyright legislation. Some of these trends were impacted by the COVID-19 crisis while others were not. This book addresses these challenges and trends by following a two-pronged approach: the first part focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on the music business, and the second features general perspectives. Throughout both parts, case studies bring various themes to life. The contributors address issues within the music business before and during COVID-19. Using various critical approaches for studying the music business, this research-based book addresses key questions concerning music contexts, rights, data, and COVID-19. Rethinking the music business is a valuable study aid for undergraduate and postgraduate students in subjects including the music business, cultural economics, cultural management, creative and cultural industries studies, business and management studies, and media and communications.
... Innovation is understood as generating, accepting and implementing new ideas, as well as resulting in new products, services or transactions, etc. (Hjalager, 2010). Unsurprisingly, for organizations, innovation has long been the best mechanism for coping with fierce competition and an effective strategy for achieving sustainable growth (Schumpeter, 1934). Hjalager (2010) summarizes five levels of innovation, including product/service innovations, process innovations, managerial innovations, management innovations and institutional innovations. ...
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Although festival tourism is an excellent fertile ground for improving individual emotions, few studies have been conducted on the influencing factors and formation mechanisms of festival tourists’ subjective well-being. To address the current research gap, this paper draws on Arnold’ s theory of emotion to examine a comprehensive formation model of tourists’ subjective well-being. The findings from 581 samples indicate that event design innovation, cultural innovation and aesthetic innovation of festival tourism are positive stimulus factors of tourists’ subjective well-being. Both experience quality and perceived festival value mediate the effects of cultural innovation and aesthetic innovation on subjective well-being, yet have no mediating effect on the relationship between event design innovation and well-being. However, it can only be achieved when festival authenticity contributes to a positive moderating effect. This study provides new ideas for the collaborative advancement of innovative development and authentic inheritance in festival tourism destinations.
... Innovation is known as a key driver for productivity and economic growth and can take various forms including novel products and new material sources, new production methods, opening of new markets as well as creating new industry structures (Schumpeter, 1934). Notwithstanding, what is still left to debate is what factors are in turn impacting the innovation activities of firms. ...
Article
Purpose Knowledge competencies and (R&D) activities are one of the most important sources of innovation and have been widely discussed in the literature. In comparison, the role of the competitive environment for the innovation activities of firms is still open to debate and has not been fully understood yet. Therefore, this paper intends to provide new evidence on the interaction between knowledge competencies and R&D activities of firms on the one side and their competitiveness in the market environment on the other. In particular, the moderating function of market competition is explored. In this respect, the analysis covers the main innovation types as well as both sectors, manufacturing and services. Design/methodology/approach The empirical analysis is based on a three years panel dataset of German manufacturing and service firms obtained from Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP) and Community Innovation Surveys (CISs: 2011, 2013 and 2015). For the estimation, a binary instrumental variable treatment model with Heckman selection method is used. Also, it provides a suitable approach to estimating the binary variables in order to cope with endogeneity concerns. Findings The estimation results show that R&D activities and knowledge competencies are positively related to innovation activities of different types conditioned on firms' specific perception of their competitive environment, in terms of outdated products/services as well as strong competition from abroad. Most importantly, the results from the moderation estimation reveal that there is a significant difference between the manufacturing and service sector. Service firms engage more in internal R&D activities on generating product innovations while the manufacturing firms conduct more external R&D on specific types of innovation. Further, the authors find that strong competition from abroad positively and significantly reinforces the effect of knowledge competencies on innovation activities for more types in services than in manufacturing. In contrast, outdated products and services tend to decline the effect of knowledge competencies for some innovation types in both sectors. The authors also observe a positive and significant reinforcement effect on knowledge competencies. However, it is found more beneficial for service firms since they can employ more innovation strategies. Originality/value The focus of the study is mainly on the impact of firms' competitive environment on innovation activities in various types through its interaction with knowledge competencies and R&D activities, across manufacturing and service firms.
... Prominent contemporary theories such as neo-Schumpeterian theories (Schumpeter, 1934;Pyka & Andersen, 2012) and neoclassical growth theory (Solow, 1956) have highlighted the existence of a significant positive relationship between Information Technology (IT) and economic growth. These theories suggest that IT enters as an input into the economic supply in the form of capital and causes the improvement of the production process through deepening capital and making advancements in technology and labor force quality. ...
... Desde este punto de vista, las innovaciones son procesos de aprendizaje y autodescubrimiento en toda la economía que ayudan a las empresas a cubrir sus balances y proporcionan vínculos analíticos entre la estabilidad financiera macroeconómica y el comportamiento microeconómico de las empresas (Minsky, 1982: 22-29). Si las empresas tienen confianza en las futuras oportunidades tecnológicas y de mercado, invertirán y tratarán de innovar, y si no tienen confianza o ven pocas oportunidades de mercado, no invertirán ni innovarán (Schumpeter, 1983). Por lo tanto, una estrategia industrial no solo debe tratar de mejorar las condiciones en las que las empresas invierten, sino que también debe tener como objetivo estimular la demanda y aumentar las expectativas empresariales acerca de dónde pueden estar las futuras oportunidades de crecimiento. ...
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Through well-defined objectives, or more specifically «missions» focused on solving important societal challenges, policymakers have the opportunity to determine the direction of growth by making strategic investments in many different sectors and fostering new industrial landscapes, which the private sector can further develop and, as a result, induce cross-sectoral learning and increase macroeconomic stability. This approach seeks to provide direction to growth and raise business expectations about future growth areas and catalyze activity that would not otherwise occur. Tilting the playing field in the direction of desired societal goals requires a policy framework, that we call the «ROE» framework, which involves strategic thinking about the desired direction, the structure and capacity of public sector Organizations, the policy evaluation, and the incentive structure for the public and private sectors.
... Estas afirmaciones encajan dentro de las bases teóricas de emprendimientos tales como: la Teoría de Schumpeter de la innovación que describe la iniciativa emprendedora como un motor de los sistemas basados en el mercado (Schumpeter, 1934); la Teoría de Papanek y Harris que indican que cuando ciertas condiciones económicas son favorables, el emprendimiento y el crecimiento económico toman lugar (Papanek, 1962); (Harris & Todaro, 1970); y la Teoría del equilibrio de mercado de Hayek donde destaca que los servicios del emprendedor pueden ser (1) combinar los medios y recursos de producción; (2) acometer la función de planificación, programación y toma de decisiones; y (3) garantizar ingresos, ganancias e intereses fijos que irán al emprendedor como recompensa (Hayek, 1948). ...
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Una de las problemáticas generadas por la pandemia del COVID 19 es la contracción económica que ha afectado a diferentes naciones, las cuales han visto en los emprendimientos una vía para salir de la crisis, sin embargo, no se conoce qué tipo de emprendimiento tendrá el impacto y alcance más eficiente en una reactivación económica. La presente investigación realiza un análisis más específico, enfocándose en el impacto de los emprendimientos sociales como medio de reactivación económica en respuesta al impacto negativo ha tenido el COVID 19 en las economías. El objetivo de la investigación es analizar la literatura existente y actualizada que permita entender la relevancia de los emprendimientos sociales en el desarrollo económico e impulsores de la agroindustrial y de la calidad de vida de las zonas rurales con el desarrollo de negocios inclusivos. La metodología utilizada fue la revisión literaria donde se analizaron artículos científicos en diferentes idiomas de revistas publicadas en base de datos de alto impacto con una antigüedad no superior a cinco años, en el cual se hace un análisis de la indexación de las revistas de los artículos científicos consultados para asegurar la calidad de la información usada para el desarrollo del presente trabajo. Entre los resultados relevantes se resalta que la sostenibilidad de los emprendimientos sociales se puede lograr mediante el desarrollo de políticas públicas. Finalmente se pudo concluir que los emprendimientos sociales como los negocios inclusivos se posicionan como una respuesta viable a la reactivación económica post COVID 19.
... The issues relating to KMO were adapted from Wang et al. (2008) and Wang et al. (2009). Innovativeness was adapted from Schumpeter (1934), Avlonitis et al. (1994), Miller & Friesen (1983), and Ward (2004. The performance metrics were adapted from Kaplan & Norton (1996), Singer & Edmondson (2008), and Lin (2015. ...
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The objective of this research was to examine the effect of knowledge management orientation (KMO) on performance for small and medium-sized companies (SMEs) in the Thai food sector via the mediating role of innovativeness. Two hundred and fifty-three SMEs in the Thai food sector participated in providing information for this study. Data analysis included descriptive and inferential statistics, with structural equation modelling (SEM) being used for the latter. The study discovered that KMO, across four dimensions (organizational memory, knowledge sharing, absorption, and receptivity), had a substantial direct influence on innovativeness. In terms of performance, however, the results showed that the effects of KMO on this were not significant and that this orientation must be mediated by innovativeness. All dimensions of KMO must be pursued simultaneously to encourage innovativeness and performance. Thus, entrepreneurs wanting to improve their performance should promote effective KMO involving all four of the above identified dimensions, along with the support of innovativeness.
... The paper estimates the influence of firm performance on innovation in three developing countries in sub-Sahara: Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania using a two-stage least squares (2SLS) model based on survey data from enterprise survey-World Bank. Innovative firms are often regarded as drivers to economic growth, established as early as Schumpeter (1911). I have attempted to comprehend better the alternative notion of understanding different ways a firm may be innovative and empirically examine the dimension of firm innovation from the firm's perspective. ...
Chapter
Situated in the heart of Mumbai, Dharavi is one of the largest slums in the world and home to a burgeoning rap and hip-hop movement. Driven by dissatisfaction with living with poverty, crime and corruption, young rappers and producers have emerged out of Dharavi, employing multilingual vernacular to convey the many struggles of living in the slums. They personify the concept of innovation at the margins by improvising effective solutions using limited resources—the quintessentially Indian philosophy of jugaad. Based on fieldwork and semi-structured interviews conducted in Dharavi, this study explores the innovative entrepreneurial activities that have emerged due to a lack of institutional and infrastructural support. The study found, first, that the underground rap culture is increasingly being validated as a creative outlet in Indian society, with consumers across socio-economic classes. Second, user innovation through the employment of jugaad in production, cheap technology and intrinsic motivation are some of the key factors behind this flourishing culture. And finally, informal practices in the face of financial constraints have given way to innovative entrepreneurial activities, such as hip-hop schools, DIY record labels, studios, cyphers and tours aimed at creating a sustainable ecosystem of hip-hop culture in the streets of Dharavi.
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How can we guide children towards a self-directed, successful life and support them in developing a growth mindset? By guiding them to act in an agile and solution-oriented way, to believe in themselves, to recognise learning opportunities in mistakes and to persevere confidently even when things get difficult. This is the goal of EACH CHILD STRENGTHEN - a holistic learning programme for entrepreneurship for primary school children.
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This paper sheds light on the role of population aging in convergence of household credit. Using data from 32 economies over the period of 1995–2015, it shows that household credit tends to converge across countries over time, but aging populations hinder this convergence process. The result is also robust to controlling for various country-specific factors. Focusing on a further breakdown of credit to households, population aging weakens the convergence process in the case of housing loans, while it does not have a pronounced role in convergence of consumer credit. These findings can have implications for macroeconomic and financial policies, given the potential effects of household credit on economic growth and stability.
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The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) published the KNMI’06 Climate Scenarios in 2006. These scenarios give the possible states of the climate in The Netherlands for the next century. Projections of changes in precipitation were made for a time scale of 1 day. The urban drainage sector is, however, more interested in projections on shorter time scales. Specifically, time scales of 1 hour or less. The aim of this research is to provide projections of precipitation at these shorter time scales based on the available daily scenarios. This involves an analysis of climate variables and their relations to precipitation at different time scales. On the basis of this analysis, one can determine a numeric factor to translate daily projections into shorter time scale projections. Eventually, these synthetic data can be used as an input for an urban drainage model. With such a drainage model and synthetic data for design storms the effects of climate change on the systems’ performance can be assessed and the efficiency of adaptive measures can be investigated.
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In this study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) method was used to examine the environmental impact of the rice pulse production system (RPPS) in Cauvery Deltaic Region (CDR), Tamil Nadu, India. The LCA considered the entire system required to produce 1 t of rice and 1 quintal of the pulse. The analysis included resource utilization and greenhouse gases emissions (GHGEs) under two different rice cultivation methods followed by a residual pulse crop. The result shows the significance of environmental impacts, followed by eutrophication, water depletion, global warming, and energy depletion. As such, reducing nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensity and increasing utilization efficiency are the key points to control the life cycle environmental impacts of rice and its fallow crops, which would decrease resource consumption and emissions in the upstream production stages. Streamlinig water management, particularly in the early growth stage, and reduction of rice field water discharge are also significant measures with which to minimize nitrogen and phosphorus runoff losses and control eutrophication and GHGEs so as to reduce life cycle environmental impacts of the rice-based cropping system. Keywords: Eutrophication, Global warming, Greenhouse gases, Life cycle assessment, Rice-pulse
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Drawing on key concepts from management theory, corporate strategy, and economic geography, we argue that the time has come for “Locational Strategy.” Locational strategy is a framework for understanding how the locational decisions of organizations fit into broader corporate strategy. Locational strategy is particularly relevant given rise of knowledge and talent as key factors of productions and the fact that these inputs are so clustered in space. We lay out several principles to guide further work in this area, and briefly anticipate the role for locational strategy in the post‐pandemic economy. Such an approach is well suited to the study of the sprawling modern firm, the footloose geography of talent, and the hyper‐competitive field of regional economic policy. Management needs to consider locational strategy as a key element of broader corporate strategy. This is because location and firm location decisions are ever more central to firm strategy. We review key ideas from the academic literature that bear on how managers can get the best access to talent, knowledge, and customers. Access to talent and embeddedness in complex knowledge systems is a defining feature of Locational strategy over and above simple input cost concerns. Furthermore, firms need to consider the actions and reactions of jurisdictions as they decide how to locate and deploy resources across in places across the world. Management training typically does not feature the geographic considerations of location strategy. The authors have refined their approach while teaching students in their course on The City and Business in the MBA program at the University of Toronto's Rotman School.
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Regional imbalance always inspires a person to dependent more on government benefits and such tendency is dangerous as it does not encourage boosting up the quality of a rural entrepreneurs. Absence of infrastructure and unavailability of government facilities cannot help any endeavor to be sustained. But in this respect only assertiveness of an individual, like better utilization of mere government facilities to upgrade skill, helps an entrepreneur to take any risk for economic development. This study found that people of a land locked state have been trying to be more motivated to continue their enterprise. Tripura is Northeastern hilly and geographically land locked state of India. The aim of this study is to observe the entrepreneur's attitude towards their economic development, importance of rural institutions to the entrepreneurs, and their indigenous dealing method on teething troubles. Every day rural people are trying to tackle the augmented problems by their own way but it is inundated and remains unsettled owing to regional disparity, faulty and mismatched plan of the local government and ruinous work culture of the rural institutions. The participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tool has been applied in the six interior villages of Tripura to reckon the spirit and life-force of the rural entrepreneurs which have been sustaining without difficulty in the detrimental environment of the society, politics and government administration. Attitudinal variations do not just originate out of the azure. Study has come up that rural entrepreneurship has created employment opportunity for rural villagers, created assets, developed entrepreneurial infrastructure and also expanded rural business at local, regional, national and international level based on utilizing available meager government facilities, self-motivational attitude and high level of culture i.e. self-reliant.
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This study aims to determine the entrepreneurial tendencies of Syrian higher education students on their entrepreneurial intentions. When the literature is examined, no such study has been found that covers this subject and the target audience. The aim of this study is to investigate this group of young peoplereceived Syrian education and have a high potential to be an entrepreneur, for the economic and cultural enrichment of the country from the mass migration movement from Syria to Turkey. Mixed method, whichquantitative and qualitative methods are used togetherused in the research. Although the Syrian higher education students participating in the research know Turkish, surveyalso translated into Arabic in order to reach more accurate results. After validity and reliability analyzes of the quantitative data in the research made, correlation, difference tests (ANOVA and T-test) and regression analysis performed to test main hypothesis of research. As a result of analysis, it determined that participants' locus of control, self-confidence and risk taking tendencies positively and significantly affect their entrepreneurial intentions. As a result of examination of qualitative data in the study, it determined that intention and tendency of being an entrepreneur is high in parallel with the findings in quantitative study.
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The technological stagnation of large bureaucratic organizations in the seventies led to a revival of “Schumpeterian” entrepreneurship. This is explained as a consequence of the search for flexibility induced by an increase of structural uncertainty. The role of credit in promoting technological flexibility is also considered. Its basic function today is seen to consist not so much in a rapid redistribution of productive resources, as Schumpeter maintained, but rather in a proper reallocation of technological risk.
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Abstract: Intrapreneurship is defined as entrepreneurial activities inside existing organizations. It is a process in which employees proactively act to implement innovative and creative ideas which improve the processes, products or services of the company. Intrapreneurship has a positive effect on firm’s growth, profitability and wealth. This paper explores and deliberates on those factors which stimulate Intrapreneurship in an organization. A pool of variables was formed and refined using literature survey. The questionnaire designed from this pool was administered to the managers of software industry from different organizations. The analysis of data supplies us multi dimensional approach for stimulating intrapreneurial orientation of employees such as organization culture, leadership, entrepreneurial orientation of the organization and flexibility of organization structure. This study also helps us to understand that rewards are not the most significant factor in motivating employees for taking risk and innovation. The implications of the study and future research directions are also discussed in this paper. Key words: Intrapreneurship, Organizational Culture, Leadership
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Bu makale belediyelerde inovasyon faaliyetinin anlaşılmasını, yaygın ve sürdürülebilir seviyeye gelmesini, bu yönde kentleri inovasyon laboratuarı olarak gören, sunulan ürün ve hizmetlerle vatandaşların yaşam kalitelerini artırmayı hedefleyen, vatandaş ve diğer aktörlerin katılımını önemseyerek inovasyonu demokratikleştiren, Avrupa Birliği tarafından inovasyon aracı şeklinde betimlenen “Living Lab” ekosisteminin tanıtılmasını, living lab oluşumunun inovasyon aracı olarak kullanılabilirliğinin sorgulanmasını amaçlamaktadır. Teorik ve görgül araştırmayı içeren çalışmada büyükşehir belediyelerine yönelik alan araştırması ile inovasyon projeleriyle living lab ağı tarafından ödüle layık görülmüş Türkiye’de ilk ve tek etkin living lab olan Başakşehir Living Lab ile Finlandiya, İngiltere, İspanya living lablerinin inovasyon projelerine ve karşılaştırmalı analizine yer verilmiştir. Alan araştırmaları ile belediyelerde gelecekte yapılacak inovasyon çalışmalarına katkı sağlanması hedeflenmiştir. Araştırma bulguları belediyelerde hizmet, süreç inovasyonlarını içeren akıllı şehircilik kapsamında yer alan inovasyon çalışmaları ile sosyal inovasyon alanında projelerin hayata geçirildiğini göstermektedir. Living lablerde ise projelerin yarıdan fazlasının teknoloji ağırlıklı olduğu Başakşehir Living Lab ekosisteminin diğer living lablere göre inovasyon projeleri bağlamında yakın seviyede bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. Çalışma bulguları uluslararası belge ve politikalarda önemi vurgulanan ve teşvik edilen inovasyonun ihtiyaç, istek ve teknolojik gelişmeler vb. faktörlerin etkisiyle belediyelerde uygulanmasının kaçınılmaz olduğunu, kentlerin inovasyon laboratuarı haline getirilmesi gerektiğini ve bu doğrultuda living lab ekosisteminin belediye inovasyonunu hızlandırıcı yönde etkilediğini ortaya koymaktadır.
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This research evaluates whether the regulatory change in the setting of the usury rate applicable to microcredit corresponds to an adequate development of the constitutional mandate of the democratization of credit. To this end, it interprets this mandate, analyzes the support that justifies the adoption of the normative change on usury applicable to microcredit, and evaluates the impact derived from said change. It finds that democratization is based on indebtedness as an instrument to improve the well-being of debtors, therefore, access to financing is relevant, but even more so, the conditions of access allow satisfying the underlying need that motivates the credit and produces a positive effect on the debtors. As such, the regulatory change that modifies the usury rate applicable to microcredit does not implement the mandate. The approach to microcredit that underpins the increase in usury is formulated for lenders, using a financial microcredit model that emphasizes banking without considering debtor´s well-being. In addition to this, the aforementioned change did not generate greater financial inclusion and increased interest rates. This justifies the adoption of the demand perspective as a mechanism that privileges the effects on debtors when studying, formulating, and evaluating credit regulation.
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In this study we aim to analyze the transformations in the productive and institutional environment of the Brazilian socio-historical context which can enable us to verify the manifestation of an ideology based on the broad concept of entrepreneurship aimed at conforming the worker to precarious work relationships. On the one hand, the entrepreneurship ideology values creativity, autonomy, flexibility, a naturalization of risks, and the possibility of social mobility; while on the other hand, it legitimizes work intensification, the loss of legal security, maintenance of the worker's structural subordination, enabling to expand exploitation in various forms of labor relations-as pointed out in the brief historical review of the political condition of labor relations in Brazil. Among the main conclusions, we indicate that the entrepreneurship ideology materially manifests itself in particular ways in the various class fringes and contributes to dampening the class struggle. The entrepreneurship ideology and its expression in Brazil-dependent capitalism Abstract In this study we aim to analyze the transformations in the productive and institutional environment of the Brazilian socio-historical context which can enable us to verify the manifestation of an ideology based on the broad concept of entrepreneurship aimed at conforming the worker to precarious work relationships. On the one hand, the entrepreneurship ideology values creativity, autonomy, flexibility, a naturalization of risks, and the possibility of social mobility; while on the other hand, it legitimizes work intensification, the loss of legal security, maintenance of the worker's structural subordination, enabling to expand exploitation in various forms of labor relations-as pointed out in the brief historical review of the political condition of labor relations in Brazil. Among the main conclusions, we indicate that the entrepreneurship ideology materially manifests itself in particular ways in the various class fringes and contributes to dampening the class struggle.
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