And the wall came tumbling down.

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ContextSecurity in general, and database protection from unauthorized access in particular, are crucial for organizations. Although it has been long accepted that the important system requirements should be considered from the early stages of the development process, non-functional requirements such as security tend to get neglected or dealt with only at later stages of the development process.Objective We present an empirical study conducted to evaluate a Pattern-based method for Secure Development – PbSD – that aims to help developers, in particular database designers, to design database schemata that comply with the organizational security policies regarding authorization, from the early stages of development. The method provides a complete framework to guide, enforce and verify the correct implementation of security policies within a system design, and eventually generate a database schema from that design.Method The PbSD method was evaluated in comparison with a popular existing method that directly specifies the security requirements in SQL and Oracle’s VPD. The two methods were compared with respect to the quality of the created access control specifications, the time it takes to complete the specification, and the perceived quality of the methods.ResultsWe found that the quality of the access control specifications using the PbSD method for secure development were better with respect to privileges granted in the table, column and row granularity levels. Moreover, subjects who used the PbSD method completed the specification task in less time compared to subjects who used SQL. Finally, the subjects perceived the PbSD method clearer and more easy to use.Conclusion The pattern-based method for secure development can enhance the quality of security specification of databases, and decrease the software development time and cost. The results of the experiment may also indicate that the use of patterns in general has similar benefits; yet this requires further examinations.
Washington and Bonn pursued a shared strategy of perpetuating U.S. preeminence in European security after the end of the Cold War. As multilingual evidence shows, they did so primarily by shielding the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) from potential competitors during an era of dramatic change in Europe. In particular, the United States and West Germany made skillful use in 1990 of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's political weakness and his willingness to prioritize his country's financial woes over security concerns. Washington and Bonn decided to bribe the Soviets out, as then Deputy National Security Adviser Robert Gates phrased it, and to move NATO eastward. The goal was to establish NATO as the main postCold War security institution before alternative structures could arise and potentially diminish U.S. influence. Admirers of a muscular U.S. foreign policy and of NATO will view this strategy as sound; critics will note that it alienated Russia and made NATO's later expansion possible. Either way, this finding challenges the scholarly view that the United States sought to integrate its former superpower enemy into postconflict structures after the end of the Cold War.
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