Article

Home grown: The case for local food in a global market

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

People everywhere depend increasingly on food from distant sources. In the last 40 years, the value of international trade in food has tripled, and the tonnage of food shipped between nations has grown fourfold, while population has only doubled. In the United States, food typically travels between 2,500 and 4,000 kilometers from farm to plate, up to 25 percent farther than in 1980. In the United Kingdom, food travels 50 percent farther than it did two decades ago. For those who can afford it, the long-distance food system offers unprecedented and unparalleled choice-any food, anytime, anywhere. But the "global vending machine" often displaces local cuisines, varieties, and agriculture. Products enduring long-term transport and storage depend on preservatives and additives, and encounter endless opportunities for contamination on their long journey from farm to plate. Long-distance food erodes the pleasures of face-to-face interactions around food and the security that comes from knowing what one is eating. A more diffuse, but potentially more powerful, actor is the food consumer. Consumers may seek out local food because of the superior taste of products harvested at the peak of ripeness and flavor, and because of the high level of control it gives over the food they eat. Well-publicized food safety concerns-such as mad cow disease and genetically modified foods-have stirred consumers everywhere to determine the origins of their food. This depends heavily on shortening the distance between food producers and consumers.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... vii Introduction Shorter, more localized food supply chains have been proposed as a vehicle for sustainable development (Lyson 2004;Halweil & Worldwatch Institute 2002;Rosset & Land Research Action Network. 2006;Desmarais 2007;Vía Campesina n.d.). ...
... Localized food systems thus contribute to reducing usage of harmful agro-chemicals and preserve natural resources for future generations (Norberg-Hodge et al. 2002). Halweil & Worldwatch Institute (2002) also point out that in localized food systems, a small number of farms are expected to produce a variety of crops, thus increasing on-farm biodiversity. ...
... While there is no consensus among academics, geopolitics, corporate culture, neoliberal ideology, technology, demographics or a combination thereof are the usual suspects. Moving beyond such grand questions, Halweil (2002) points to public policies that have contributed to the rise of the globalized agro-food industry. Certain policies act as directly as barriers for smallscale producers by making it harder for them to enter markets (e.g. ...
Research
Full-text available
This paper reviews the state of knowledge about local food systems (LFS). We identify LFS as an effective mean to achieve food sovereignty [...and...] examined which public policies have been identified as effective means to support the emergence, consolidation and further development of LFS. We have come up with a large inventory of such policies proposed in the literature, although few have been tested systematically. We found that the problems related to financing, to the market power of large firms in food values chains, and to the lack of knowledge—both from the producers and consumers side—were often raised as obstacles to the scaling-up of LFS. [...E]ven though there is no national policy to promote LFS, provincial governments have been active with various programs in this area. There is much variations from one provinces to another, but the existing programs tend to cluster on the demand side, focusing on consumer education and marketing projects, even running some themselves (the origin labelling and promotion programs). To a lesser extent, we saw some program to support organic farming (transition programs) but very few focusing on processing and distribution. Full text: https://legacy.equiterre.org/sites/fichiers/Local_Food_Systems_and_Public_Policy_-_A_Review_of_the_Literature_0.pdf
... The global growth of food manufacturing operations and associated supply and distribution networks has generated an unprecedented manufacturing systems capacity to continuously supply growing demand for high quality safe food [1]. However, such large-scale globalised systems are often linked to significant environmental impacts; for example, the food sector is one of the largest contributors to carbon emissions in the majority of developed countries [2]. In ...
... The global growth of food manufacturing operations and associated supply and distribution networks has generated an unprecedented manufacturing systems capacity to continuously supply growing demand for high quality safe food [1]. However, such large-scale globalised systems are often linked to significant environmental impacts; for example, the food sector is one of the largest contributors to carbon emissions in the majority of developed countries [2]. In addition, the centralised facilities, created to operate within these systems, are also becoming a concern due to significant demand for a large volume of water and discharge of waste water with many different organic and nonorganic contents [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The globalisation of manufacturing systems has generated many economic benefits, but in some areas such as the food sector, it has also increased resource requirements to manufacture, preserve and transport raw ingredients as well as finished products. ‘Distributed Localised Manufacturing’ (DLM) has been identified as a potential solution for the food sector to adopt a more sustainable approach based on a make-to-order manufacturing strategy. This has the potential to minimise food waste, optimise resource usage, and support product customisation. However, DLM performance analysis at product, process and system levels is vital to ensure its long-term ecological and economic viability. This paper highlights four possible models for implementation of DLM in the food sector, defines nine key metrics to aid with selection of the most suitable DLM model for a specific food product family, and explores metrics future applications to support long-term sustainability of food manufacturing.
... The global growth of food manufacturing operations and associated supply and distribution networks has generated an unprecedented manufacturing systems capacity to continuously supply growing demand for high quality safe food [1]. However, such large-scale globalised systems are often linked to significant environmental impacts; for example, the food sector is one of the largest contributors to carbon emissions in the majority of developed countries [2]. In ...
... The global growth of food manufacturing operations and associated supply and distribution networks has generated an unprecedented manufacturing systems capacity to continuously supply growing demand for high quality safe food [1]. However, such large-scale globalised systems are often linked to significant environmental impacts; for example, the food sector is one of the largest contributors to carbon emissions in the majority of developed countries [2]. In addition, the centralised facilities, created to operate within these systems, are also becoming a concern due to significant demand for a large volume of water and discharge of waste water with many different organic and nonorganic contents [3]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The globalisation of manufacturing systems has generated many economic benefits, but in some areas such as the food sector, it has also increased resource requirements to manufacture, preserve and transport raw ingredients as well as finished products. ‘Distributed Localised Manufacturing’ (DLM) has been identified as a potential solution for the food sector to adopt a more sustainable approach based on a make-to-order manufacturing strategy. This has the potential to minimise food waste, optimise resource usage, and support product customisation. However, DLM performance analysis at product, process and system levels is vital to ensure its long-term ecological and economic viability. This paper highlights four possible models for implementation of DLM in the food sector, defines nine key metrics to aid with selection of the most suitable DLM model for a specific food product family, and explores metrics future applications to support long-term sustainability of food manufacturing.
... This also happens to the development of Minangkabau customs and culture that continues to spread as a result of social interactions that move dynamically so that it becomes a culinary cultural heritage. However, the demand for the authenticity of traditional food is still always expected by consumers through local processing, and the skill of serving food locally shows commitment in maintaining cultural traditions and forms of appreciation expressed as cultural heritage [14,15,[23][24][25]. The authenticity of Minangkabau cuisine as a cultural heritage of food is ethnic food that has characteristics compared to other regions. ...
... According to the previous research [8,25,30], it is said that enterprise cultural heritage is a source of a sustainable competitive advantage by prioritizing past history and the knowledge has to be more valuable and unique than their competitors. Homogeneity in the era of globalization breeds consumer tastes so that the authenticity and past traditions of culinary heritage are highly valued by consumers in the current era because they can reminisce about their past memories about food [10,23,24,27]. Choosing to consume traditional cuisine is not just a choice of one's lifestyle but gives a symbolic meaning to one's cultural identity [31,32] which further binds a local identity and local specialization [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The enterprise cultural heritage of the Minangkabau cuisine, West Sumatra in Indonesia was formed by several factors such as history, knowledge, and inheritance of processing procedures to the presentation of cuisine. Minangkabau cuisine has a wealth of assets in the form of heterogeneity of culinary heritage resources that are thick with a unique value of a unique taste. Thus, Minangkabau cuisine with its cultural heritage becomes the strength of cultural identity for the Minangkabau people in the process of selecting food. The sustainability of the Minangkabau restaurant business cannot be separated from the ownership of its valuable, scarce, inimitable, and non-substitute resource assets so that it is not easy to move to competitors. The findings in this study have never been answered in previous literature reviews; furthermore, this paper is able to explain treasures about the history, geographical, cultural, and social significance of ethnic food Minangkabau with scientific evidence, the enterprise culture heritage in achieving the sustainable competitive advantage of Minangkabau cuisine with a more interesting scientific approach. This review aims to explain scientifically the identity of food and culture from Minangkabau cuisine, West Sumatra, Indonesia, namely reviewing the history and food culture of Minangkabau cuisine related to its origin, the authenticity of Minangkabau food, and the enterprise cultural heritage as a restaurant for Minangkabau cultural cuisine as a source of sustainable competition in this global business era. In the end, it was found that Minangkabau cuisine has high heterogeneity resource assets as a source of achievement of sustainable competitive advantage by heritage value.
... ‫مواد‬ ‫نقل‬ ‫و‬ ‫حمل‬ ‫از‬ ‫ناشی‬ ‫ای‬ ‫گلخانه‬ ‫های‬ ‫گاز‬ ‫انتشار‬ ‫نتیجه‬ ‫در‬ ‫غذای‬ ‫مقوله‬ ‫در‬ .) Pirog et al., 2001 Lyson and Green, 1999;Halweil, 2002;Magdoff, ‫عموم‬ ‫و‬ ‫کشاورزان‬ ‫بین‬ ‫نزدیک‬ ‫روابط‬ ‫چنین‬ ‫هم‬ .)2007 ‫به‬ ‫مربوط‬ ‫های‬ ‫مسئله‬ ‫مورد‬ ‫در‬ ‫آگاهی‬ ‫افزایش‬ ‫سبب‬ ‫مردم‬ .) ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Localization of the food system has become in line with sustainable agriculture for many reasons including ecological advantages, economic benefits, and social considerations. Yet the question is that to what extent food can be locally produced. To answer this question, the concept of foodshed can be considered. The concept provides a framework for analyzing local food production at any scale. The foodshed is a land that can supply all or parts of a given population’s nutritional needs within a given geographical area. So far, no foodshed study has been conducted in Iran, so this study proposed a model to study foodsheds. By taking a sustainable food system into account, the current research examined the concept of foodshed, the status of food production and consumption in Tehran Province, and the capacity of this province to meet its nutritional needs. Material and methods: The model was used in Tehran Province using a unit named “plant equivalent” to calculate and compare the amount of food produced in the study area and the nutritional requirement of the province’s population. Production of each crop (based on the plant equivalent unit) in each region was calculated by multiplying the crop cultivation land area in the crop yield. The amount of need for each plant equivalent unit in each region was calculated by multiplying the population of that area in the weight of food that is needed of a person in a year. Then, using self-sufficiency formulas, we estimated how much of the population’s needs are being supported by the existing production. To calculate self-sufficiency, a concept known as threshold production was used. Calculation of threshold production was done with Matlab using conditional programming and coding. Excel, Matlab, and GIS were used in this research. Results and discussion: One of the most important achievements of the present study was the foodshed assessment of Tehran Province considering its increasing population and providing food security in this province. In the present study, which was carried out on a provincial scale, self-sufficiency in providing the desired food basket for the population of Tehran Province was 22% and the highest and lowest self-sufficiency was estimated in Pishva and Tehran counties, respectively. Self-sufficiency percent in producing crops to provide the desired food basket in Tehran Province was higher in fodder corn (100%) (self-sufficient), vegetables (79%), fruits (56%), barley straw (53%), wheat straw (45%), barley grain (16%), wheat bran (8%), wheat grain (5%), forage crops except corn (4%), rapeseed meal (01%), rapeseed (006%), respectively. However, in legumes, rice hull, root, pulp, and molasses of sugar beet, corn, and soybean meal self-sufficiency percent was estimated zero percent, meaning non-self-sufficient or total dependence. Conclusion:The results of this study indicated that the percentage of foodshed self-sufficiency in providing the desired food basket for the population of Tehran Province was 22%. Although localization has benefits, it seems that considering the small area and the overcapacity population of Tehran Province and the environmental issues (water scarcity and soil erosion), the boundaries of Tehran Province foodshed should be broadened and the foodshed radius must be increased. Keywords:Consumption, Economy, Food basket, Food security, Production, Sustainable agriculture.
... However, it results in substantial environmental costs, which are not taken into account in food prices, such as erosion, loss of biodiversity, water resource depletion, or pollution of rivers from surface runoff (Knudsen et al. 2006;Nellemann 2009). Furthermore, food producers and consumers are disconnected due to the fact that food travels far distances to nourish our population (Halweil 2002). The continuous reduction of arable land on the one hand, and the increasing demand for locally produced food on the other hand, highlights the urgency to put urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) on the political and research agenda. ...
Chapter
Urban agriculture describes the growing of plants and animals in and around cities and it involves activities such as production, processing, delivery, and marketing of agricultural products. Urban fabrics can be composed of manifold urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on spatiality (e.g., rooftop gardens and indoor farming), the actors involved (e.g., family farms and community-supported agriculture), and the organizational perspective (e.g., market orientation including urban farming or subsistence activities such as urban gardening). This chapter aims to contribute to an increased understanding about the impacts and framework conditions for the implementation of urban agriculture taking into account various types of urban food production such as allotment gardens (Breuste and Artmann), community gardens (Liu), community-supported agriculture (La Rosa), home gardens (Dissanayake and Dilini), and the edible city concept (Artmann and Sartison). Thereby, the case studies used cover a wide range of geographical backgrounds from the Global South and North such as Pakistan (Waseem and Breuste), Sri Lanka (Dissanayake and Dilini), China (Liu), Spain (Breuste and Hufnagl), Italy (La Rosa), Austria (Breuste and Artmann), and Germany (Artmann and Sartison). This chapter aims at the development of a comprehensive understanding of urban agriculture and the challenges and changes in food production in cities.
... Food travelled 50 per cent farther in the early 21 st century to reach the UK and 25 per cent further to reach the USA compared to distances travelled in the 1980s (Halweil 2002). The increase in food transport distances and the reduction in maritime transport costs and logistical and port costs has not only negatively impacted the environment but also increased the risks related to food quality, biosafety, invasive species, and traceability. ...
... Zum Umfang urbaner Manufakturen gibt es keine Angaben der amtlichen Statistik, die es ermöglichen würden, sie nach Größe, Branche und Standorten genauer zu analysieren (Mistry/Byron 2011 handelt sich dabei um professionelle landwirtschaftliche und gartenbauliche Aktivitäten in städtischen (urbanen) Räumen. Geringere Transportwege ermöglichen es, Lebensmittel schneller, ohne lange Lagerungszeiten und Zusatzstoffe zum Endverbraucher zu bringen (Halweil 2002). Auch wenn der stadtökonomische Beitrag vergleichsweise gering erscheint, kann urbane Landwirtschaft eine ökonomische (und damit auch beschäftigungspolitische) und ökologische Bedeutung haben, wenn es nicht nur um die primäre Produktion, sondern auch um die Weiterverarbeitung bzw. ...
Article
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Viele Städte sind im Zuge der Industrialisierung gewachsen und wurden durch Arbeitsnachfrage zu Zuzugsorten und Orten der Integration. Nicht nur aufgrund von Marktkräften (Produktion hat eine vergleichsweise geringe Flächenrendite) und der stadtplanerischen Funktionstrennung, sondern auch durch eine fortschreitende Tertiarisierung und eine damit einhergehende stadt- und regionalpolitische Förderung der Dienstleistungsentwicklung ist der Produktionssektor in größeren Städten und in altindustriellen Agglomerationen stark zurückgegangen. Jedoch stellen neue städtebauliche Leitbilder, altindustrielle Flächenbrachen und emissionsarme Produktionstechniken Potenziale dar, um neue Produktionsarbeitsplätze im städtischen Raum zu generieren und bestehende Betriebe zu erhalten. In diesem Artikel wird diskutiert, ob die sogenannte urbane Produktion einen Beitrag leisten kann, strukturell geschwächte Städte zu stärken und die Forderung der Leipzig-Charta nach der nutzungsgemischten Stadt zu ermöglichen.
... Die urbane Produktion von landwirtschaftlichen Erzeugnissen hat den Vorteil der Nähe zu Verbraucherinnen und Verbrauchern und Absatzmärkten, was sich günstig auf bestimmte Produktionszweige, insbesondere den intensiven Gemüse-und Obstbau, auswirkt (ebd.). Kurze Transportwege ermöglichen es, die Lebensmittel ohne lange Lagerungszeiten und Zusatzstoffe zur Endkundschaft zu bringen (Halweil 2002). Aufgrund einer zunehmenden Wertschätzung lokaler Lebensmittel gibt es immer mehr Betreiberinnen und Betreiber, die ihre Produkte auf dem eigenen Hof, auf Märkten oder in Restaurants verkaufen und über ein spezielles lokales Produktsortiment verfügen (ebd.). ...
... There is an increasing demand for food manufacturing operation flexibility to reduce some of the most severe sector related environmental impacts which are compromising the long term sustainability of the sector [2]. The growing consumer demand for local food products with high-quality ingredients can only be enabled through production strategies alternative to large-scale centralised systems [3]. Technological innovation can support the transition towards a more sustainable food sector due to the enabling capabilities that it can provide to the actors involved in the different activities across the food supply chain [4]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Food processing technology research and development activities have historically been driven by large-scale manufacture upscaling drivers to profit from economies of scale. Increasing demand for high-quality food with pioneering texture profiles, consumer needs for personalised products impacting product formulation (i.e., fat, sugar and micronutrient content), and constrained availability of ingredients and resources are pressuring industrialists to utilise alternative technologies to enable a more sustainable food supply. Distributed and localised food manufacturing (DLM) has been identified as a promising strategy towards future sustainable systems with technology representing one of its cornerstones. Innovative methods and tools to support the selection of the best alternative technologies for DLM are required. This paper provides an overview of food processing technologies and includes a novel classification created to support future assessments. A novel qualitative assessment method encompassing multiple criteria to understand specific food technologies suitability for future DLM systems is presented. Finally, research benefits are explored through the application of the assessment method to several selected technologies with promising potential in future food manufacturing. The results demonstrate that this methodological approach can assist in the adoption of DLM food systems through the selection of the best technologies integrating individual manufacturer requirements.
... T he demand for locally and organically grown produce has grown over the past 15 years (Halweil, 2002;Hinrichs, 2003;Morrison et al., 2011;Peters et al., 2009;Rose et al., 2008). This demand stems primarily from the general public, but the United States has also developed several federal programs, such as the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act, with a mission to bring more nutritious food to school kitchens (USDA, 2017a), and the USDA Farm to School Grant Program, dedicated to implementing projects focused on increasing local foods accessibility in public schools (USDA, 2017b). ...
Article
Full-text available
In a two-part study, we examined the effect of sowing date and harvest schedule on the yield of spinach ( Spinacia oleracea ) grown during the winter in 16 × 32-ft-high tunnels in northern New Mexico. Each part of the study was conducted for two growing seasons and took place between 2012 and 2015. In Study A (2012–13 and 2013–14), spinach was sown four times at roughly 2-week intervals (mid-October, early November, mid-November, and early December) and plant density (plants per square foot), plant height (centimeters), and yield (grams per square foot) were measured for three harvests in mid-January, mid-February, and mid-March. The earliest sowing date had the least-dense stands, and plant density increased with each subsequent sowing. The two earliest sowing dates had significantly higher season-long yield than the later two sowings. In Study B (2013–14 and 2014–15), all plots were sown in mid-October, but harvest schedule treatments were staggered such that harvests began at 9, 11, 13, or 15 weeks after sowing and continued at irregular intervals. Treatment 2, with harvests beginning after 11 weeks, had the greatest season-long yield, slightly greater than when harvests began at 9 weeks, and significantly more than when harvest began 13 weeks or later. More importantly, a staggered harvest schedule can provide spinach weekly for direct marketing opportunities.
... El modelo neoliberal tiene efectos negativos sobre el campo mexicano, afectando la sustentabilidad rural. Además, está directamente relacionado con el proceso de la globalización (Morales, 2004;Halweil, 2002). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
El modelo neoliberal tiene efectos negativos sobre el campo mexicano, afectando la sustentabilidad rural. Además, está directamente relacionado con el proceso de la globalización (Morales, 2004; Halweil, 2002). Muchos productores no se han beneficiado de esta tendencia (Toledo, 2000) y actualmente sigue existiendo pobreza y deterioro de los recursos naturales. Esto nos lleva a reflexionar sobre la globalización y su entendimiento desde supuestos neoliberales, siendo entonces un proceso sumamente excluyente (Beck, 1992). Esta exclusión ha causado una desestructuración y desarticulación de las economías campesinas, migración hacia las zonas urbanas y Estados Unidos, pérdida de conocimientos y tradiciones productivas, entre otros (Morales, 2004).
... In the United States, food travels between 2,500 and 4,000 kilometers from farm to plate, as much as 25 percent farther than in 1980's. In the UK, food travels 50 percent farther than it did two decades ago [Halweil, 2002]. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Au cours des soixante dernières années, la population mondiale a connu un sursaut spectaculaire, passant de 2,5 milliards d’habitants à la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale à 7 milliards en 2011. Cette croissance démographique se distingue des précédents épisodes tant par son importance que par l'apparition conjointe d'une tendance nouvelle et soutenue à la concentration des populations au sein des villes. Appelée à se renforcer partout dans le monde, cette tendance au grossissement des villes lance un véritable défi à la communauté internationale en matière de durabilité de notre système économique en général et alimentaire en particulier. Cette thèse propose un traitement théorique de la question de la durabilité des systèmes d'approvisionnement alimentaires en milieu urbain. A la frontière entre économie publique et économie géographique, elle poursuit comme objectif principal de permettre la conduite d'une analyse formalisée des arbitrages environnementaux et sociaux dans un cadre spatial explicite. En outre, l'idée selon laquelle aucune réponse ne saurait être satisfaisante sans qu'une attention spécifique soit portée aux interactions spatiales, économiques et écologiques entre espaces urbains et agriculture constitue l'un des positionnements clés défendus dans ce travail. De manière générale, les travaux de cette thèse font apparaître l'élément majeur suivant: du fait de la forte et inextricable interconnexion entre milieux urbain et rural, l'évaluation environnementale, sociale et économique d'un système alimentaire ne peut se faire qu'en connaissance des caractéristiques démographique et physique de la ville concernée.
... Some scholars advocate for more radical changes such as new technological systems, genetic engineering or precision farming (Fedoroff et al. 2010), whereas others argue that agricultural production does not need a revolution and that we simply need to improve current farming practices (Connor and Mínguez 2012). Others, still, argue for organic agriculture (Hole et al. 2005) or local food systems (Halweil 2002). Here, we highlight that whichever pathway is chosen to achieve a sustainable future it will have important and differential impacts on biodiversity. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Land use change is an undisputed major driver of biodiversity change, affecting species richness patterns from local to global scales. Yet, current assessments of biodiversity change frequently neglect that species often face habitat change instead of habitat loss and that not all species respond equally to it. Here, I expand our understanding of species responses to habitat change, while refining a tool to predict biodiversity change across scales. The countryside SAR framework presented here emerges as a unifying framework that retains the heuristic property of the classic SAR model while being capable of accounting for the wider effects of the landscape on biodiversity. Above all, conservation and prioritization strategies that consider a broad spectrum of habitat responses from multiple species groups have the potential to be more successful in safeguarding the multiple levels of biodiversity.
... (2) reconnects us with the seasons; (3) is more nutrient dense; (4) supports the local economy; (5) benefits the environment; (6) promotes a safer food supply; (7) connects consumers and growers and improves awareness of where food comes from (Halweil, 2002;Klavinski, 2013;). A report published by the University of California Davis also attributes considerable positive social, health, and economic impacts to urban agriculture (2015), and an MIT study documents the economic impact of urban aquaponics (Goodman, 2012). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The Landgrant College of the University of the District of Columbia embodies the university's unique mission as the only exclusively urban land-grant university in the United States. With most of the world's population now living in urban areas, this mission is relevant to cities worldwide. The UDC urban food hubs reimagine our food system as diversified, urban, and encompassing food production, food preparation, food distribution, and waste and water recovery. The hubs utilize bio-intensive hydroponic and aquaponic systems and green roofs to maximize productivity on small urban spaces; kitchens as business incubators and training facilities for food processing and nutrition education; waste and water reuse through composting, rain water capture, and green infrastructure. Each of these components offers opportunities for business startups and capacity building. The hubs also re-connect urban neighborhoods to nature. This chapter describes the urban food hubs, their locations, and the training, wellness, and leadership opportunities they offer to UDC students and DC residents.
... Éstos se han venido sustituyendo por aquellos productos que el mercado demanda. El productor, que antes guardaba alimento para el autoconsumo y para el comercio local, ahora produce con sacrificio para bocas extranje- ras (Halweil, 2002), mientras que en su localidad la comida es cada vez de menor calidad. ...
Chapter
Este libro analiza dos temas emergentes en el ámbito de los estudios rurales: los Sistemas Agroalimentarios Localizados (SIAL) y el consumo. El primero, aborda el papel que juegan los SIAL en el contexto de la globalización. El segundo, analiza el gasto en frutas, hortalizas, pescados, mariscos y productos orgánicos en contextos locales. No deja de llamar la atención que ambos objetos de estudio puedan considerarse polémicos desde una visión ortodoxa de las investigaciones sobre la ruralidad. Sin embargo, son importantes porque representan una evolución en los enfoques y conceptos pertinentes al análisis y comprensión de nuevos fenómenos de la producción y el consumo de alimentos, así como de la interrelación entre el campo y la ciudad. La reflexión sobre los fenómenos emergentes en las aéreas rurales está indisolublemente ligada a los movimientos de los consumidores urbanos. Así, En el marco de los estudios rurales ha surgido un creciente interés por el consumo, que de manera esquemática ha sido abordado de dos formas en el marco de dichos estudios. La primera, mediante investigaciones de carácter económico tradicional, basadas en la recopilación estadística del ingreso y gasto de los hogares para analizar las preferencias de los consumidores. La segunda, valora más los métodos cualitativos con el objetivo de entender las motivaciones que llevan a estos actores a buscar alternativas al consumo masivo en la comida orgánica, saludable o con sellos de identidad geográfica.
... They also propose to create an agrarian farm where young people from the Amalgama Association can be responsible for work in the agricultural 418/527 sector and value-added agri-food production. EI Portal Berguedà is a member of the Agrosocial Network (Fundació Catalunya-La Pedrera) 15 , which promotes the "2147 Hands" 23 cooperative that markets the network's products under a joint brand name. They have received financial support to expand their economic and social activity from the Ship2B Foundation, a collaborator with the Social Entrepreneurship Program of Catalonia. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Europe, Social Farming (SF) and agritourism are multifunctional agriculture activities that arise when agricultural land is abandoned in rural and peri-urban areas; it is difficult to develop commercial agriculture if it is not intensive. In our research, we studied SF in Catalonia, carrying out a census and classification of 161 initiatives and a more in-depth analysis of 10 projects (or 9 in some cases), identifying their viability and the economic, social, and environmental return on investment (SROI) for the resources used in each case. The methodology included questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and Canvas and SROI analyses. Although SF has developed in many European countries, it is incipient in the Iberian Peninsula. The projects in Catalonia combine agrarian activity, socio-health care and social policies, with the aim of offering innovative solutions to the needs of different groups at risk of social exclusion.
... The most common distance is 100 miles proposed by Smith and Mckinnon (2009). In their book "100-mile diet", the others have different distance manners such as; 74km in Iowa, 250km in Washington D.C. (Halweil 2002); 30-40 miles in most of the UK, and 100 miles in London (La Trobe 2002). ...
... Although this enables the almost constant availability of food, regardless of seasonal conditions, consumers are increasingly worried about the transparency and safety of their foods, as they can no longer understand the complex dynamics of today's food supply chains. In addition to these concerns, the latest sequence of food scandals has threatened the credibility of the global food market (Aung and Chang, 2014;Beulens et al., 2005;Halweil, 2002;Marucheck et al., 2011;Trienekens et al., 2012;Trienekens and Zuurbier, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Given the lack of state regulation and the growing consumer demand for local foods, several retailers have started to promote “locally” grown food using different labeling strategies. However, there has been relatively little analysis of consumers' preferences for these different labeling strategies. The aim of the present study is hence to explore whether consumers prefer specific local food labeling strategies to others and where there is a difference between fresh and processed tomatoes. For this purpose, a choice experiment was conducted with a representative sample of 640 German consumers. The respondents had to choose the preferable alternative from various products (fresh tomatoes/ketchup), varying in origin, production method, and price. The main findings of the choice-based conjoint analysis revealed the highest part-worth utilities for the generic “local” food label. The results did not differ greatly between processed and fresh tomatoes in the choice experiment setting. Additionally, the findings indicated that most of the consumers view food as local if it is sold in the same state as it was grown. This finding is particularly interesting in view of the absence of a unified definition of the term local. Latent class segmentation of the data identified four segments, of which two placed high importance on local food origin. Thus, the findings indicated high market potential for locally grown tomatoes in Germany. This is an important finding, as most tomatoes in Germany are imports from either European Union member states or non-European Union countries.
... Al igual que los teóricos que abogan por la "localización" de las economías frente a la globalización (Halweil, 2002;Hines, 2000;Nonini, 2013), los partidarios de la "soberanía alimentaria" raras veces consideran qué tipo de aparato regulador sería necesario para ges- tionar las cuestiones relacionadas con el tamaño de las empresas y las explotaciones, el uso de tecnologías y productos convencionales y alternativos, y el comercio de larga distancia e internacional. 16 La "soberanía alimentaria" implica límites a todo esto. ...
... Although imported foods are becoming popular, mainly in upper class urban households [66], they do not contribute to the national economy as much as domestic foods do. For example, in West Africa, each US$ 1 spent on local produce boosts the local economy by US$ 1.96 -2.88 [67]. Additionally, most of the smallholder farms in Africa can be construed as closed systems with inadequate transportation networks and the consumption of much of what is locally produced [68]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The human-environment connection in the mostly rural drylands of Africa forms a complex, interlinked system that provides ecosystem services. This system is susceptible to climatic variability that impacts the supply of its products, and high population growth, which impacts the demand for these products. When plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through the process of photosynthesis, they use some of this carbon to maintain plant cellular structure. The rest is stored as plant tissue and forms plant biomass. The annual accumulation of this plant biomass is called net primary production (NPP). On an annual basis, NPP supplies the provision of crops, animal feed and pasture. The societal implications of reduced NPP can be severe, possibly leading to crop failure and eventual food insecurity. This paper focuses on a method of quantifying the human impact on ecosystems using satellite-derived estimates of NPP and quantitative data on the demand for food, feed, and fuel. This work leans on three main sources (see footnote) and streamlines key concepts introduced therein. The first section is an introduction to the link between humans and the environment in the drylands of Africa. The second section describes the role of climate and the concept of primary production, and the history of its estimation using data from Earth-observing satellites. The third section presents the various consumable components necessary for human survival and their statistical derivation. The fourth section details the conceptual framework that is based on the supply and demand of NPP. The fifth section broadly discusses the framework’s advantages and limitations, other studies that attempt to quantify human impact on ecosystems as well as knowledge gaps and future research needs.
... Similarly, the use of regionally produced proteinrich feedstuffs for dairy production in Austria was found to result in lower greenhouse gas emissions than feeding dairy cattle with soybean meal imported from South America, predominantly due to high emission resulting from land use changes (Hörtenhuber et al., 2011). Additionally, there is an increasing interest of consumers in locally grown food for reasons such as taste and concerns regarding food safety or genetically modified food (Halweil, 2002). All those reasons call for the reinforcement of home grown grain legumes in Central Europe. ...
Article
Full-text available
Soybean crop management have not been studied much in Central Europe as compared with cereals. We assessed the effect of variety, row spacing, seeding rate and nitrogen (N) fertilization on yields and yield components of soybean in a two-year experiment in Gleisdorf, Austria. The varieties Lenka, Naya and Xonia were tested in row spacings of 13 cm, 38 cm and 76 cm with 30 germinable seeds m ⁻² . Additionally, 60 seeds m ⁻² were tested at 13 cm row spacing, and 38 cm row spacing was additionally established with N fertilization. Faster soil coverage was obtained with a high seeding rate or narrower row spacings. First pod height differed between varieties and increased with higher seeding rate. Grain yield was not affected by treatments but yield components differed. The widest row spacing resulted in a lower plant density but more pods plant ⁻¹ , grains plant ⁻¹ , grains pod ⁻¹ (in one year) and a higher thousand kernel weight (TKW). The higher seeding rate resulted in a higher plant density but less pods plant ⁻¹ whereas grains pod ⁻¹ and TKW did not differ. N fertilization did not affect the grain yield. Correlation analysis showed a high adaptability of soybean to different seeding rates and row spacings through modulation of yield components.
... This recent engagement in eating locally, making food at home, or engaging in "personal" agriculture (e.g., gardening, raising backyard chickens) has implications for long-term humanenvironmental sustainability. Generally speaking, producing and eating local foods promotes a shorter and more resilient supply chain (Reisch et al., 2013) and more environmentally sustainable practices and community-based distribution methods (e.g., farmer's markets, local restaurant sales) ( Fig. 3b; Halweil, 2002), and increases the likelihood of eating fresh healthy foods (Kortright and Wakefield, 2010). Local food production also avoids many risks that industrialized agriculture poses for the emergence of novel infectious disease, including "rendering" animal waste products into livestock feed (Walters, 2014) and use of antibiotics (Khachatourians, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pandemics have accelerated in frequency in recent decades, with COVID-19 the latest to join the list. Emerging in late 2019 in Wuhan, China, the virus has spread quickly through the world, affecting billions of people through quarantine, and at the same time claiming more than 800,000 lives worldwide. While early reflections from the academic community have tended to target the microbiology, medicine, and animal science communities, this article articulates a viewpoint from a perspective of human interactions with Earth systems. We highlight the link between rising pandemics and accelerating global human impacts on Earth, thereby suggesting that pandemics may be an emerging element of the “Anthropocene.” Examples from Denver, Colorado, USA, show how policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic changed human-environment interactions and created anomalous landscapes at the local scale in relation to the quality of air and patterns of acquiring and consuming food. In recognizing the significance of novel infectious diseases as part of understanding human-landscape interactions in the Anthropocene, as well as the multi-scale interconnectedness between environment and health, this viewpoint converges toward an urgent need for new paradigms for research and teaching. The program required extends well beyond the already broad interdisciplinary scholarship essential for addressing human-landscape interactions, by integrating the work of health scientists, disease specialists, immunologists, virologists, veterinarians, behavioral scientists, and health policy experts.
... ‫مواد‬ ‫نقل‬ ‫و‬ ‫حمل‬ ‫از‬ ‫ناشی‬ ‫ای‬ ‫گلخانه‬ ‫های‬ ‫گاز‬ ‫انتشار‬ ‫نتیجه‬ ‫در‬ ‫غذای‬ ‫مقوله‬ ‫در‬ .) Pirog et al., 2001 Lyson and Green, 1999;Halweil, 2002;Magdoff, ‫عموم‬ ‫و‬ ‫کشاورزان‬ ‫بین‬ ‫نزدیک‬ ‫روابط‬ ‫چنین‬ ‫هم‬ .)2007 ‫به‬ ‫مربوط‬ ‫های‬ ‫مسئله‬ ‫مورد‬ ‫در‬ ‫آگاهی‬ ‫افزایش‬ ‫سبب‬ ‫مردم‬ .) ...
... Even considering estimated embodied carbon from construction, rooftop farms are an overall sink over the first few years (Getter et al., 2009;Whittinghill et al., 2014). CO 2 emissions from the building could be avoided through decreased energy use (Oberndorfer et al., 2007;Batchelor et al., 2009;Garrison et al., 2012;Saadatian et al., 2013) primarily from 10 to 43% decreases in air conditioning use due to higher albedo and extra cooling from the presence of the garden (Meier, 1990;Garrison et al., 2012), or avoided transport of food from rooftop farms (Pirog et al., 2001;Halweil, 2002;Lower and Restaurant, 2014). Pirog et al. (2001) found produce brought to Chicago travels an average of 1,518 miles and that using local food from the surrounding area reduced the associated carbon emissions from travel by 5-17 times. ...
Article
Full-text available
Integrating cities with the surrounding environment by incorporating green spaces in creative ways would help counter climate change. We propose a rooftop farm system called BIG GRO where air enriched with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) produced through respiration from indoor spaces is applied through existing ventilation systems to produce a fertilization effect and increased plant growth. CO 2 measurements were taken inside 20 classrooms and at two exhaust vents on a rooftop at Boston University in Boston, MA. Exhausted air was directed toward spinach and corn and plant biomass and leaf number were analyzed. High concentrations of CO 2 persisted inside classrooms and at rooftop exhaust vents in correlation with expected human occupancy. CO 2 levels averaged 1,070 and 830 parts per million (ppm), reaching a maximum of 4,470 and 1,300 ppm CO 2 indoors and at exhaust vents, respectively. The biomass of spinach grown next to exhaust air increased fourfold compared to plants grown next to a control fan applying atmospheric air. High wind speed from fans decreased growth by approximately twofold. The biomass of corn, a C4 plant, experienced a two to threefold increase, indicating that alternative environmental factors, such as temperature, likely contribute to growth enhancement. Enhancing growth in rooftop farms using indoor air would help increase yield and help crops survive harsh conditions, which would make their installation in cities more feasible.
... Locavorism is an emergent consumer ideology (i.e., a set of beliefs) that determines consumer preferences for local foods (Reich et al. 2018). Locavorism is shown to be driven by three sets of beliefs: intrinsic superiority of local foods (superior taste and quality; Anderson 2008;Onozaka and McFadden 2011), preference for smallscale production (concerns about safety and transparency; Costanigro et al. 2014;Halweil 2002), and building and supporting one's own/local community (farmers markets and local co-ops are abundant, community-enhancing space; Brown and Miller 2008). Therefore, locavorism can alter attitudes toward food production technologies in the local vicinity. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The motive behind the paper is two-fold. First, map out the multiple parallel mediation effects and examine the relationship between knowledge sharing and sustainable performance. Second, the paper describes how the observed heterogeneity influences the relationship between knowledge sharing, sensing capability, agility, and sustainable performance. The paper proposed two methods. The paper leveraging the dimension reduction method, PLS-PM, generates the bootstrap sub-samples to consolidate the multiple parallel mediation effects. And second, we framed the segmentation tree and highlighted the influence of social-demographic variables— firm size, education levels, and occupancy level on knowledge sharing and sustainable performance using the unique PATHMOX-PLS technique. The findings show that sensing capability and agility significantly mediate the relationship between knowledge sharing and sustainable performance. At the same time, the manager’s and employee’s firm size, education, and occupancy levels have signaled different interpretations of the relationship between dynamic capability drivers and sustainable performance. The paper posits the practical applications as results of underpinned findings that could be scalable to other firms in Tanzania as well as globally. Keywords: Knowledge Sharing, Sustainable Performance, Heterogeneity, Managers and Employees, PLS-PM, Pathmox tree.
... Sin embargo, si la alternativa es un tomate producido en invernadero, ese invernadero puede ser calentado también a base de energía fósil. Es necesario entender estos balances a nivel de toda la 'cuenca alimenticia' (Halweil, 2002), y para los diversos productos que utiliza la sociedad (para métodos ver (Dijkema and Basson, 2009)). ¿Qué herramientas tenemos para entender? ...
Chapter
Full-text available
RESUMEN El clima está cambiando, eso ya no es novedad. Pero lo que es más difícil de comprender y manejar como sociedad, son las complejas interrelaciones que tiene ese fenómeno con otros fenómenos de cambio, resiliencia en la biodiversidad y sistemas humanos. El 'cambio' es mucho más que climático. Se da en un contexto de cambio de población (tanto cantidad como distribución espacial y de edades), de consumo, social, cultural, globalización, cambio económico y de huella ecológica. Se da además en un contexto netamente 'humano', donde no solo importa el dato o el modelo científico al servicio del bien común, sino que a menudo priman la percepción, los intereses privados, el engaño y la duda. Esta discusión revisa la trama de interrelaciones que constituyen este contexto, esencial para entender las consecuencias del cambio, y para informar una reflexión madura sobre cómo actuar en consecuencia. Palabras claves: cambio climático, percepciones, sistemas socio-económicos, monitoreo, políticas, adaptación. INTRODUCCIÓN: EL CONTEXTO El clima está cambiando, como siempre lo hizo. Las temperaturas suben y bajan, las lluvias aumentan y disminuyen. El cambio actual es distinto, en varios aspectos, a los cambios anteriores. 1) el cambio actual no es una variabilidad multianual cíclica: las temperaturas están subiendo más allá de los rangos de la variabilidad de los últimos decenios, siglos e incluso milenios. 2) el cambio se está produciendo rápidamente, cosa que sí se ha producido en pocas ocasiones en el pasado, con resultados catastróficos en la biodiversidad. 3) el cambio, según el consenso de los investigadores del Panel Intergubernamental para el Cambio Climático (IPCC, 2007b), es en gran parte responsabilidad humana, a través de la deforestación, quema de combustibles fósiles y ganadería, entre otras actividades. 4) tal vez uno de los puntos más importantes, el cambio se está dando en un contexto mundial muy diferente al de cualquier fluctuación climática del pasado (amenazas a la biodiversidad que fueron estimadas, antes de hablar de cambio climático, en porcentajes tan catastróficos como los de las mega-extinciones, como las de los dinosaurios en el límite Cretácico-Terciario; para una revisión de estimaciones y el debate sobre su validez ver Gibbs (2001)). Ese contexto incluye factores interdependientes como el crecimiento poblacional y de consumo, factores de cambio social y cultural, y globalización económica, resultantes en una huella ecológica expandida al punto que las estimaciones indican que desde 1985 esta huella es mayor a la de todo el planeta (Hails et al., 2006), en otras palabras, estamos viviendo del capital que se achica rápidamente, no del interés. Todos los recursos están disminuyendo, menos uno, la población humana. Y es el ser humano el que presentará los mayores desafíos al desarrollo en las próximas décadas, no el medio ambiente. En los próximos párrafos se exploran las implicancias del cambio climático dentro de este contexto global, y se identifican los aspectos claves que requieren atención si se quiere llegar a acciones y adaptación. El ensayo se concentra en los aspectos de la incertidumbre de la información (tanto científica como generada por procesos sociales) y cómo esta afecta la motivación política y la capacidad de reaccionar frente a los cambios graduales.
... Although no singular definition of "local" exists, initiatives that promote local food often aim to connect food producers and consumers in the same geographic region (Feenstra 2002). In addition, local food economies may support eating food that is fresh, organic and supplied by small farms (Halweil 2002). One of the main benefits of eating locally, as touted by Michael Pollan, a renowned advocate of food-system re-localization, is keeping small-scale farmers in business (Pollan 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent decades have led to increased interest in geographically localized food production and consumption systems as a means of supplying healthy food and strengthening local economies. A major pillar of this economic-strengthening is the idea that more direct markets support the development of viable, small-scale farm businesses. However, literature has increasingly shown that even direct sales may prove challenging as an avenue to economic viability for small-scale farmers. This paper contributes to this literature through an examination of market perceptions and pricing strategies used by small-scale farmers engaged in direct sales opportunities. Interviews with nine farm owners and managers, as well as three leaders of local food initiatives, revealed the creative strategies that small-scale food producers use to mitigate costs, set prices and convey the value of their products. Though farmers employ these creative strategies to make ends meet, their ability to become viable businesses is limited by the scope of current opportunities available within Atlanta's local food system, primarily farmers’ markets and Community-Supported Agriculture. In order for local food production to provide viable livelihoods for small-scale farmers, Atlanta's local food infrastructure may need to support small-scale farmers’ access to more diverse direct-market opportunities.
... Food travelled 50 per cent farther in the early 21 st century to reach the UK and 25 per cent further to reach the USA compared to distances travelled in the 1980s (Halweil 2002). The increase in food transport distances and the reduction in maritime transport costs and logistical and port costs has not only negatively impacted the environment but also increased the risks related to food quality, biosafety, invasive species, and traceability. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The TEEBAgriFood ‘Scientific and Economic Foundations’ report addresses the core theoretical issues and controversies underpinning the evaluation of the nexus between the agri-food sector, biodiversity and ecosystem services and externalities including human health impacts from agriculture on a global scale. It argues the need for a ‘systems thinking‘ approach, draws out issues related to health, nutrition, equity and livelihoods, presents a Framework for evaluation and describes how it can be applied, and identifies theories and pathways for transformational change.
... Marketing channels are applied within marketing theory to describe the nature of market arrangements where manufacturers distribute and sell their products to consumers (Halweil, 2002). This description applies the channel metaphor to describe a long-linked form of supply involving sequential interdependencies, typical of physical distribution (Thompson, 1967). ...
... Lionization is associated with a belief in the superiority of local food in terms of taste and health, is a consistent predictor of the preference for local food (Onozaka and McFadden, 2011). Opposition refers to opposing distant foods for safety and transparency (Halweil, 2002), which translates into a distrust of nonlocal foods. Communalization pertains to the belief in which consumers see themselves as actively participating in the local community by consuming local food. ...
Extant research on local food consumption is emerging yet limited. This study aims tofill a void to test locavorism as a second-order construct and its effects on authenticity,pride, and willingness to visit. Further, the boundary condition of the effect oflocavorism is also explored. Results suggest that restaurant managers that endeavorto offer locally-sourced menus need to emphasize the characteristics of locavorism(i.e., lionization, opposition, and communalization) when marketing to locavores as atarget consumer group. This study provides valuable insights into local foodconsumption behavior within the restaurant context by examining the factors andeffects of locavorism.
... Rönesans zamanında yenilebilir bahçeler, beslenme ihtiyaçlarının karşılanmasının yanı sıra zevk ile de yakın ilişkilidir. Meyve ve sebzelerin kullanımı Rönesans bahçelerinde çok yaygın olmakla beraber, elde edilen ürünler şatoların bakımı için para toplamak amacıyla yerel halka satılmaktaydı (Çelik, 2017;Wilhelmi, 2013 (Fetouh, 2018;Beck ve Quinley, 2003;Halweil, 2002). ...
Chapter
The Importance of Soil Fertility for Sustainable Agriculture: The relationship between soil and man is approximately equivalent to human history. Mankind has achieved a large part of soil’s development, production, industry and economy with the soil, by cultivating and using it, and still continues to do so. However, it can be said that this important resource of ours has been threatened more than ever due to factors such as increasing population, landfilling of pollutants to soil and water, erosion and flooding. In order for our soil under these conditions to feed us and our generations after us, we need to use it more carefully more than it is. The meaning of careful soil using is to knowing soil properties such as physical, chemical and biological. These knowledges include performing some cultural practices such as planting, planting, fertilizing, tillage and contain processing carefully, consciously and without harming to the soil. In this review, the characteristics of soils, their importance and protection were discussed.
Chapter
Full-text available
Rainfed farming is mostly found in the Middle East, Asia, Africa and Latin America. The harsh environmental conditions of West Asia, North Africa and Sub-Saharan Africa are the main factors limiting crop production. Demand and problems of rainfed arable land are increasing in demand for increasing grain production due to the problems and challenges of fast-growing world population, global climate change, lack of suitable water for irrigation and erosion of agricultural land. Rainwater harvesting methods are commonly practiced and it is possible to improve water access for domestic and agricultural use in arid and semi-arid regions. New funds are becoming available to encourage the implementation of water harvesting methods. This chapter deals with crops and management, research that can improve water efficiency, water harvesting methods, and opportunities in rainfed farming for better working as well as commercial development. The people of semi-arid region are constantly fighting problems related to water in farming methods. This can only be achieved by proper agricultural methods and can provide good technology by governance.
Book
Full-text available
The man-made peninsula Palm Jumeirah on the coast of Dubai is a project of superlatives and an exemplary model for the gated communities and resorts that have developed worldwide in property bubbles. The development may be spectacular, but cannot conceal the fact that the former marketing success story is faced with serious problems. How can an isolated anti-urban exclave be opened up and integrated? Can issues concerning networking, the public sphere and affordable housing, as well as climate change adaptation, biodiversity and the supply of energy be resolved through targeted tactical interventions? The Charter of Dubai is a manifesto of critical urban transformation. It subversively encourages the conversion of isolated quarters into a socially and ecologically open urban space. The detailed catalogue of the individual measures, richly illustrated with clear sketches and references, make the Charter a handbook for urban transformation that takes account of the social and the ecological. With a foreword by Philipp Misselwitz, an essay by Kees Christiaanse and an interview with the planners of the Palm Jumeirah.
Article
Urban agriculture provides a promising, comprehensive solution to water, energy, and food scarcity challenges resulting from the population growth, urbanization, and the accelerating effects of anthropogenic climate change. Their close access to consumers, profitable business models, and important roles in educational, social, and physical entertainment benefit both developing and developed nations. In this sense, Urban Water Resource Reclamation Facilities (WRRFs) can play a pivotal role in the sustainable implementation of urban agriculture. Reclaimed water as a recovered resource has less supply variability, and in certain cases can be of higher quality than other water sources used in agriculture. Another recovered resource, namely biosolids, as byproduct from wastewater treatment can be put to beneficial use as fertilizers, soil amendments, and construction material additives. The renewable electricity, heat, CO2, and bioplastics produced from WRRFs can also serve as essential resources in support of urban agriculture operation with enhanced sustainability. In short, this review exhibits a holistic picture of the state‐of‐the‐art of urban agriculture in which WRRFs can potentially play a pivotal role.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the paper was to present main factors influencing development of worldwide transporting food. We underlined problems of creating more and more complex food supply chains. Moreover, we pointed out food production regionalization as the reasons for the current trend of increasing the volume and length of food transport. As a summary, we presented possible solution to the problem of environmental effects of food transport which can be implemented by customers, producers and also transport companies.
Conference Paper
Food is vital for human survival. Food has had a significant impact on our built environment since the beginning of human life. The process of feeding oneself was most people’s primary job for the greater part of human history. Urban Migration moved people away from rural and natural landscapes on which they had been dependent for food and other amenities for centuries.1 Emergence of the cities leads to a new paradigm where the consumers get their food from rural hinterland where the main production of food products happens2 . In a globalized world with an unprecedented on-going process of urbanization, There is an ever reducing clarity between urban and rural, the paper argues that the category of the urban & rural as a spatial and morphological descriptor has to be reformulated, calling for refreshing, innovating and formulating the way in which urban and rural resource flows happen. India is projected to be more than 50% urban by 2050 (currently 29%). The next phase of economic and social development will be focused on urbanization of its rural areas. This 50 %, which will impact millions of people, will not come from cities, but from the growth of rural towns and small cities. Urbanization is accelerated through Government schemes such as JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission ) , PMAY (Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana), 100 smart cities challenge, Rurban Mission are formulated with developmental mindset. The current notions of ‘development’ are increasing travel distances, fuels consumption, food imports, deterioration of biodiversity, pollution, temperatures, cost of living. The enormity of the issue is realized when the cumulative effect of all cities is addressed. Urban biased development becomes an ignorant choice, causing the death of rural and deterioration of ecological assets. Most people live in places that are distant from production fields have been observed as an increasing trend. Physical separation of people from food production has resulted in a degree of indifference about where and how food is produced, making food a de-contextualized market product as said by Halweil, 20023 . The resulting Psychological separation of people from the food supply and the impacts this may have on long term sustainability of food systems. Methodology : . Sharing the learning about planning for food security through Field surveys, secondary and tertiary sources. Based on the study following parameters : 1. Regional system of water 2. Landforms 3. Soil type 4. Transportation networks 5. Historical evolution 6. Urban influences A case study of Delhi, India, as a site to study a scenario that can be an alternative development model for the peri-urban regions of the city. To use the understanding of spatial development and planning to formulate guidelines for sustainable development of a region that would foster food security.
Chapter
In the course of the general discussion about sustainable urban development, there is currently a growing interest in urban greenery and the concept of green infrastructure, both at the national and international level. At the international level, the EU Green Infrastructure Strategy explicitly includes urban spaces. Urban green infrastructure offers a promising potential for bioeconomic activities. Bioeconomy stands for the structural change from a petroleum-based to a bio-based economy, which combines economic prosperity with ecological and social compatibility. The concept refers to the provision and use of renewable resources such as plants, animals and microorganisms, as well as the prevention of waste. The present contribution analyses the potential of bioeconomy in urban green infrastructure with a focus on a multifunctional biomass production, particularly focused on the production of food and feed through urban agriculture. The contribution discusses the potentials and challenges of urban gardening as well as urban farming approaches.
Article
Full-text available
I. INTRODUCCIÓN Hoy día, se reconoce que el modelo neo-liberal tiene efectos negativos sobre el campo mexicano, afectando la sustentabili-dad rural en su dimensión ecológica, econó-mica y social. Este modelo de desarrollo ha sido promovido por el estado mexicano, y está directamente relacionado con el proce-so de la globalización, sobre todo referente a su dimensión económica (Morales, 2004). Tras la trans-nacionalización de la industria alimenticia, la oferta de una gran diversidad de alimentos se ha expandido enormemen-te, y actualmente se pueden obtener produc-tos de casi cualquier lugar del mundo. Si bien ésta última tendencia parece ser atrac-tiva para los consumidores, ha quedado claro que los costos ambientales y socioe-conómicos son grandes (Halweil, 2000). Muchos productores no se han beneficia-do de esta tendencia globalizadora, aún con las buenas intenciones gubernamentales (Toledo, 2000). Como consecuencia, en el campo mexicano se sigue observando Estudios Turísticos, n. o 178 (2008) 95 Resumen: El turismo rural sustentable en la Costa Sur de Jalisco, es una alternativa para revalorizar el campo mexicano y ofrecer a las sociedades rurales oportunidades de desarrollo y aprovechamiento de sus recursos naturales y culturales, compitiendo con las for-mas de turismo (tradicional) de sol y playa en la zona costera Costalegre de Jalisco, con aquellas en las que se interactúa con la socie-dad (rural) y su medio, como lo plantea el turismo rural sustentable. Considerando al turismo como estrategia viable para el desarrollo de las sociedades rurales y entendiendo la importancia de la pla-nificación adecuada de los espacios de uso para el turismo, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de un diagnóstico del potencial turístico existente en la comunidad indígena de Cuzalapa, municipio de Cuautitlán, estado de Jalisco, en el Occidente de México. Se registraron un total de 160 atractivos, destacando los sitios naturales, manifestaciones culturales, folclor, actividades agrope-cuarias y tradiciones paganas. Los resultados se presentan en cuatro agrupaciones de localidades dentro la comunidad indígena: 1) Cuzalapa que tiene 67 atractivos, 2) El Durazno y La Pareja con 46, 3) Las Gardenias, El Vigía y Las Canoitas localizando 26 y 4) La Rosa, Paso Real y Paso Patitas con 21. La integración de las localidades por grupos tiene como objetivo la diversificación de atracti-vos para fortalecer la posibilidad de realizar propuestas de turismo rural con base en la sustentabilidad. Complementando la descripción del patrimonio turístico, se describe la infraestructura y planta turística, encontrando necesidad por mejorar los servicios básicos. Al analizar la superestructura turística, se conoce la opinión de la sociedad, aplicando una encuesta para los habitantes de siete localidades donde dichos resultados manifiestan el interés de la comunidad por participar en la planeación y desarrollo de actividades de turismo rural como estrategia de desarrollo sustentable. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos, el potencial turístico se puede considerar suficiente para iniciar el camino hacia el desarro-llo sustentable por medio del turismo rural, pudiendo mejorar los servicios básicos locales, preservar su identidad cultural, social y eco-lógica, ofreciendo un nuevo espacio para la recreación en la Costa Sur de Jalisco. Palabras clave: Turismo rural sustentable, multi-funcionalidad, desarrollo endógeno, Costa Sur de Jalisco.
Article
This paper estimates the foodmiles (embedded distances) and transport-related carbon emissions of 27 Food Quality Scheme (FQS) products – Protected Designation of Origin (PDO), Protected Geographical Indications (PGI) and organic – and their reference products. It goes further than the existing literature by adopting a value chain perspective, instead of the traditional consumer perspective, and focusing on FQS products. The same methodology is applied across all the case studies. The article specifically investigates the determinants of differences between FQS and their references. FQS products travel significantly shorter distances (−30%) and generate significantly lower transport-related emissions (−23%) than conventional food products. The differences are even greater for vegetal and organic products. The relationship between distance and transport-related emissions is not exactly proportional and highlights the importance of transport modes and logistics, in particular for exports and imports. Finally, we stress the importance of the spatial distribution of the different stages in the value chains (e.g. production, processing). PDO technical specifications delimit a geographical area for production and processing, thereby limiting distances and transport-related emissions compared to conventional food products, but also compared to other types of FQS.
Preprint
Full-text available
Cities face many environmental challenges while providing opportunities for integrating human infrastructure with the surrounding environment. One effort to improve environmental conditions in cities is to increase the amount of green space in creative ways within city limits. Here we propose a unique system taking carbon dioxide (CO2) from indoor spaces and applying it to rooftop gardens or farms through existing ventilation systems with the elevated CO2 levels leading to a fertilization effect that increases plant growth. CO2 measurements were taken inside multiple classrooms as well as at the exhaust vents on a rooftop and air from exhaust was applied to crops and biomass and leaf number were measured. High concentrations of CO2 ([CO2]) persisted inside university classrooms as well as at rooftop exhaust vents in correlation with expected human occupancy and stayed around 1070 ± 70 and 830 parts per million (ppm) CO2 reaching a max of 4470 and 1300 ppm CO2 respectively. Growth in Spinacia oleraceae L. (spinach) grown next to exhaust air increased 4-fold in comparison to plants grown next to a control fan applying atmospheric air. High wind speed decreased growth by approximately 2-fold. Zea mays (corn), a C4 plant, grown next to exhaust experienced a 2 to 3-fold increase, indicating alternative environmental factors additionally playing a part in growth enhancement. Enhancing growth in rooftop gardens using indoor air, could help rooftop plants grow larger and survive harsh conditions. This would make rooftop gardens more viable and better able to provide environmental services and connect urban areas to the surrounding environment.
Article
Full-text available
The article defines urban manufacturing - including urban industry, small urban manufacturers and urban agricultures.
Technical Report
Full-text available
This workshop report has been produced as part of the Transformation Lab (T-Lab) events hosted by the Centre for Complex Systems in Transition (CST) and the Southern Africa Food Lab at Stellenbosch University. T-labs are part of a broader research theme on food system transformations, and have been co-funded under the Guidance for Resilience in the Anthropocene: Investments for Development (GRAID) project. This work is supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South Africa (Grant Numbers 115300).
Article
Full-text available
Isabel Maria Madaleno has a Ph.D. in Human Geography and works at the Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical (Tropical Institute), Lisbon, Portugal. Urban agriculture, defined as food and non-food production dispersed throughout urban and peri-urban areas, can play an important role in the cities of the future. A main benefit of these activities could be an improvement in the nutritional status and food security of urban people. Urban agriculture may contribute to food self-reliance, jobs and effective survival strategies. It provides an opportunity for purposeful recreation and educates young people about health and environmental issues. Producing food in a city environment helps to develop community bonds because it encourages cooperation and a sense of sharing. Children, young people and adults have opportunities to increase their understanding of, and respect for, the tasks and challenges faced by farmers and to be directly involved with the production of healthy food. Urban agriculture constitutes a positive way to improve the urban environment, adding a further dimension to the wide-ranging benefits urban people derive from public open spaces. In this article, the evolution of cities and use of green space in Europe and North America are explained. Recent experiences in urban agriculture in a number of countries in Africa, Europe and Latin America are described. It is argued that urban agriculture can foster local solutions to social, environmental, political and economic problems in a diversity of settings. After the Industrial Revolution, urbanites became separated from nature, confined as they were to narrow indoor spaces, and prevented from feeling the soil under their feet by modern transportation and urban infrastructures. The residence and the workplace became separated. Although the urban sprawl spread to consume many formerly rural spaces, some green areas persisted inside metropolitan areas.