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Judge-Made Standards of National Procedure in the Post-Lisbon Constitutional Framework

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Abstract

Unlike remedies enabling the enforcement of EU rights, national procedural rules have so far largely remained within the province of Member State autonomy. Recent judgments nevertheless indicate that the Court of Justice is now more than ever willing directly to shape national procedural mechanisms as part of an emerging EU procedural standards framework. Judicially established "standards of national procedure" impose positive obligations on Member States' legal orders and provide an EU-wide alternative to inadequate national procedural provisions. This contribution outlines the Court's standard-setting approach and identifies the constitutional mandate enabling its development. © 2012 Thomson Reuters (Professional) UK Limited and Contributors.

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H πρόσβαση στην δικαιοσύνη για παραβιάσεις της περιβαλλοντικής νομοθεσίας από τους θιγομένους συνιστά έναν πολύ αποτελεσματικό μηχανισμό ελέγχου για την εφαρμογή της περιβαλλοντικής νομοθεσίας και την προστασία των συλλογικών περιβαλλοντικών αγαθών. Έχει δε ιδιαίτερη σημασία ότι τόσο σε υπερεθνικό επίπεδο (Σύμβαση Aarhus) όσο και σε ενωσιακό επίπεδο έχουν θεσπιστεί κανόνες για την πρόσβαση στην δικαιοσύνη για περιβαλλοντικά θέματα. Επιπροσθέτως, η κατοχύρωση των δικαιωμάτων για δίκαιη δίκη και την πρόσβαση σε αποτελεσματικό ένδικο βοήθημα σε Περιφερειακές Συμβάσεις Προστασίας Ανθρωπίνων Δικαιωμάτων (ΕΣΔΑ), καθώς και του δικαιώματος αποτελεσματικής δικαστικής προστασίας στον Χάρτη Θεμελιωδών Δικαιωμάτων της ΕΕ ασκούν επιρροή στους συναφείς εθνικούς δικονομικούς κανόνες. Υπό το πρίσμα των ανωτέρω, το κεντρικό ερώτημα, το οποίο επιχειρείται να απαντηθεί συνίσταται στο εάν η επιρροή που ασκείται στα εθνικά δικονομικά συστήματα κυρίως στο πεδίο της διοικητικής δικαιοσύνης είναι καθοριστική, προκειμένου να οδηγήσει σε ένα βαθμό «σύγκλισης» των εφαρμοζόμενων εθνικών δικονομικών κανόνων, με σκοπό την διασφάλιση αποτελεσματικής δικαστικής προστασίας, λόγω και της φύσης των διαφορών αυτών. Το κεντρικό συμπέρασμα, στο οποίο καταλήγει η μονογραφία, συνίσταται στο ότι παρά την σημαντική επιρροή που έχουν ασκήσει οι «εξωγενείς» επιρροές στα εθνικά δικονομικά συστήματα και οι οποίες έχουν οδηγήσει σε κάποιες σημαντικές αλλαγές στην διαμόρφωση των εθνικών δικονομικών κανόνων, οι αλλαγές αυτές δεν είναι τέτοιας εμβέλειας, ώστε να γίνεται λόγος για «σύγκλιση» των εφαρμοζόμενων εθνικών δικονομικών κανόνων των κρατών-μελών της ΕΕ στο πεδίο των περιβαλλοντικών διαφορών.
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Chapter
Direct taxation in cross-border situations is the core of this article. The lack of Union competence in the sphere of direct taxation may cause problems of interpretation, if the national taxes distort competition and cause discriminatory effects in the internal market. At least the following questions are relevant: how do the national tax systems restrict EU citizens from moving to other Member States and how has the development in the field of EU citizenship affected taxation? For example, exit taxes and tax advantages will be studied on the basis of the case-law of the European Court of Justice.
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http://www.addletonacademicpublishers.com/contents-crlsj/478-volume-8-1-2015/2598-eu-law-in-member-state-courts-adequate-judicial-protection-and-effective-application-ambiguities-and-nonsequiturs-in-guidance-by-the-court-of-justice EU law on judicial protection before Member State courts plays an essential role as to the practical significance of EU law. This article studies the so-called procedural autonomy case law of the Court of Justice of the EU by examining formulations of rulings, focusing on requirements for national remedial and procedural law and for national judgments. Judicial protection and related Member State obligations are manifold issues. In addition to the conundrum relating to the principle of, and right to, efficient judicial protection and their relationship to “Member State procedural autonomy” principles of effectiveness and equivalence, nuances are visible in the conclusions of procedural autonomy reasoning itself. Aiming for effective application of EU law appears to lead to full effect-focused demands for national treatment so that interventions by the Court of Justice cannot be fully explained by the basic wording of the principles of effectiveness and equivalence. The requirement of “adequate judicial protection,” which at times seems to be a facet of the principle of effectiveness in particular but which may also “extend” the twin principles, complexifies EU law on national enforcement. This study illustrates how the reasoning of the Court of Justice may contain varying meanings regardless of taking superficially similar basic requirements as starting points. Instances where more stringent demands on national systems are relevant, as well as the detailed effects, are difficult to discern. This results in lack of clarity as to how national courts should treat future cases and, for parties bringing claims, as to what kind of results to expect. The contribution ends with suggestions for clarifying EU law requirements.
Article
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Article
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