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Armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus

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... Esta especie se alimenta preferentemente de escarabajos y hormigas, aunque complementa su dieta con pequeños anfibios, reptiles, tubérculos, e incluso huevos de aves (McBee & Baker, 1982;Redford, 1986;Tyler et al., 1996;Layne, 2003;Butler et al., 2004;Staller et al., 2005). Se aparea una vez al año, y se reportan temporadas reproductivas de junio a agosto en el hemisferio norte (Job et al., 1984;Layne, 2003;Mengak, 2005), y entre agosto y noviembre en el hemisferio sur (Neris et al., 2002;CONANP, 2014). ...
... Esta especie se alimenta preferentemente de escarabajos y hormigas, aunque complementa su dieta con pequeños anfibios, reptiles, tubérculos, e incluso huevos de aves (McBee & Baker, 1982;Redford, 1986;Tyler et al., 1996;Layne, 2003;Butler et al., 2004;Staller et al., 2005). Se aparea una vez al año, y se reportan temporadas reproductivas de junio a agosto en el hemisferio norte (Job et al., 1984;Layne, 2003;Mengak, 2005), y entre agosto y noviembre en el hemisferio sur (Neris et al., 2002;CONANP, 2014). El nacimiento de las crías ocurre en primavera, y éstas siempre son cuatrillizos homocigotos del mismo sexo (Job et al., 1984;Layne, 2003;Mengak, 2005). ...
... Se aparea una vez al año, y se reportan temporadas reproductivas de junio a agosto en el hemisferio norte (Job et al., 1984;Layne, 2003;Mengak, 2005), y entre agosto y noviembre en el hemisferio sur (Neris et al., 2002;CONANP, 2014). El nacimiento de las crías ocurre en primavera, y éstas siempre son cuatrillizos homocigotos del mismo sexo (Job et al., 1984;Layne, 2003;Mengak, 2005). Sus funciones ecológicas incluyen el ser fuente de alimento para depredadores y carroñeros, controlador de insectos plaga, proveedor de nutrientes para las plantas, bioindicador del cambio climático al expandir su distribución geográfica hacia lugares que han registrado aumento de temperatura, además de que sus madrigueras sirven de refugio para otros animales silvestres (Moeller, 1990;Layne, 2003;Bowles, 2008). ...
... En América del Norte, el primer registro de D. novemcinctus es en tiempos recientes (ca. 3 ka, pero Schubert & Graham 2000 argumentaron que tal edad es cuestionable) y su distribución actual es prácticamente coincidente con aquella de D. bellus (Klippel & Parmalle 1984;Taulman & Robbins 1996). Registros históricos indican que el animal llegaba hasta el sur de Texas en el siglo XIX y desde ahí se ha documentado una rápida expansión hacia el norte de Estados Unidos, actualmente ocupando el sur y sureste de ese país (Talmage & Buchanan 1954;Robertson 1976;McBee & Baker 1982;Klippel & Parmalle 1984;Wetzel 1985;Taulman & Robbins 1996;Layne 2003; Aguiar & da Fonseca 2008; Jasinski & Wallace 2014). Aparentemente, su distribución está limitada tanto por la temperatura mínima y duración del periodo frío como por la cantidad de precipitación; en el caso del límite norte de su rango geográfico, la ocupación fue probablemente posibilitada por la habilidad de construir madrigueras que lo aíslan térmicamente del exterior (Talmage & Buchanan 1954;McNab 1980;Klippel & Parmaleee 1984;Schubert & Graham 2000;Layne 2003). ...
... Registros históricos indican que el animal llegaba hasta el sur de Texas en el siglo XIX y desde ahí se ha documentado una rápida expansión hacia el norte de Estados Unidos, actualmente ocupando el sur y sureste de ese país (Talmage & Buchanan 1954;Robertson 1976;McBee & Baker 1982;Klippel & Parmalle 1984;Wetzel 1985;Taulman & Robbins 1996;Layne 2003; Aguiar & da Fonseca 2008; Jasinski & Wallace 2014). Aparentemente, su distribución está limitada tanto por la temperatura mínima y duración del periodo frío como por la cantidad de precipitación; en el caso del límite norte de su rango geográfico, la ocupación fue probablemente posibilitada por la habilidad de construir madrigueras que lo aíslan térmicamente del exterior (Talmage & Buchanan 1954;McNab 1980;Klippel & Parmaleee 1984;Schubert & Graham 2000;Layne 2003). Cabrera (1958) restringió la localidad tipo a Pernambuco, Brasil, por ser el principal origen de animales brasileños enviados para estudios en Europa durante los siglos XVI a XVIII y por ser donde la especie fue observada por Marcgrave (1648: 231), autor citado por Linnaeus (1758: 51). ...
... A lo largo de su amplia distribución latitudinal, D. novemcinctus ocupa hábitats muy variados, como praderas, selvas tropicales, bosques subtropicales, sabanas, palmares y matorrales; posee una dieta generalista, con preferencia por insectos (Talmage & Buchanan 1954;Scillato-Yané 1982;Wetzel et al. 2007). McBee & Baker (1982) y Layne (2003) recopilaron datos acerca de la especie, incluyendo datos anatómicos, fisiológicos, ecológicos, reproductivos, ontogenéticos, comportamentales y genéticos. Linnaeus, 1758 Figura 9. Dasypus septemcinctus. ...
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The Dasypodini are one of the most basal clades of cingulates according to morphologic and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Its living representatives are the group of armadillos with most species and the widest latitudinal geographic distribution, occupying distinct biomes aproximatelly between 40° N and 40° S. In this context, this paper aims to review the diversity of Dasypodini, providing diagnoses and updating the geographic and chronologic distributions of taxa. For that, numerous specimens of cingulates were analyzed and compared. The following species are considered to be valid: Anadasypus hondanus Carlini et al., 1997 (middle Miocene of Colombia); A. aequatorianus Carlini et al., 2014 (late Miocene of Ecuador); Pliodasypus vergelianus Castro et al., 2014 (middle Pliocene of Venezuela); Propraopus sulcatus (Lund, 1842) (Pleistocene–early Holocene of Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Ecuador); Dasypus bellus (Simpson, 1929) (late Pliocene–late Pleistocene of the United States and Mexico); D. punctatus Lund, 1840 (late Pleistocene–early Holocene of Brazil); and the extant species D. novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758; D. septemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758; D. hybridus (Desmarest 1804); D. kappleri Krauss, 1862; D. sabanicola Mondolfi, 1967; D. mazzai Yepes, 1933; and Cryptophractus pilosus Fitzinger, 1856, some of them with records since the late Pleistocene. Based on that, we briefly discuss evolutive, biogeographic, and environmental aspects. We corroborate that the extant Dasypodini are more diverse and larger in low latitudes. Lastly, the fossil records show that the group has been historically rectricted to temperate warm tropical and subtropical environments of the American continent.
... The burrows of D. novemcinctus can even reflect age differences because their dimensions are dependent on animal size (juveniles are smaller) (McDonough et al. 2000). Burrows function most obviously as refuges (McDonough et al. 2000;Layne 2003), but can also act as food storage during drought or cold (Taber 1945). Although a solitary species, D. novemcinctus burrow density is very high in Brazil. ...
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Although digging is an essential behavior for foraging and burrow construction in the fossorial armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, this behavior has never been clearly described. Here, we provided the first detailed description of D. novemcinctus digging activity. We observed the behaviors of eight D. novemcinctus at the Lauro de Souza Lima Institute in Bauru. Subjects were individually recorded while digging in an outdoor, former vivarium belonging to the institute. Videos were scored frame-by-frame to yield nine distinct behavioral acts. These were organized into an ethogram and a kinematic flow diagram indicating the most common behavioral transitions. From 248 sequences, we observed that digging generally began with forelimb movement, while hind-limbs were used to remove accumulated soil on the ventral side; the tail provided support against the soil. Before digging, all subjects also half-plunged their heads into the ground, thus breaking up soil. The observed behaviors corroborate the classification of D. novemcinctus as “scratch-diggers” and also clarifies species-specific aspects of digging behavior.
... is very adaptable and is present in a wide variety of habitats (McBee and Baker, 1982). It can be found in some Platt and Snyder (1995); Taulman and Robbins (1996); Freeman and Genoways (1998); Van Deelen et al. (2002); Layne (2003); Gardner (2005); Stuart et al. (2007) Common Names: Hairy long-nosed armadillo (English ), tatú peludo (Spanish), quirquincho peludo (Spanish). ...
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The conservation status of the 21 extant armadillo species was re-assessed by specialists of the IUCN/SSC Anteater, Sloth and Armadillo Specialist Group between December 2009 and May 2010. Information on their geographic range, population size and status, habitat and ecology, threats, and existing conservation measures was collected from the literature and personal communications. Four armadillo species were classified as Vulnerable, four as Near Threatened, and four were categorized as Data Deficient. Less than half of all armadillo species were listed as Least Concern. Virtually all assessed species are affected by hunting as well as habitat fragmentation and degradation. The populations of only two species are thought to be increasing, while those of at least seven species are in decline. Much work is still needed to ensure the long-term survival of all species. Most armadillo species occur in at least one protected area, but other conservation actions are scarce.
... New Mexico represents the western range limit of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the United States, although the nearest known established populations are in adjacent western Texas (Layne, 2003). Early records of armadillos in New Mexico were based on incidental observations (Findley et al., 1975). ...
... New Mexico represents the western range limit of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the United States, although the nearest known established populations are in adjacent western Texas (Layne, 2003). Early records of armadillos in New Mexico were based on incidental observations (Findley et al., 1975). ...
Article
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The giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus) is the largest armadillo and is considered at risk of extinction by IUCN. Due to its fossorial and highly cryptic nature, it is also one of the least-studied mammals. The Cerrado grassland-savannahs of central South America comprises approximately 25 percent of the species' range, and the 1320 km2 Emas National Park (ENP) is considered to be a stronghold area for the species in this biome. In this study, we employed a combination of radio-tagging, burrow surveys, camera-trapping, and scat detection dogs, to gain insights into the ecology of the giant armadillo in the Central Brazilian grasslands. Biometrics of five males and four females captured showed sexual dimorphism. Mean home range of five radio-tracked individuals was 10 km2, and minimum density was estimated at 3.36 animals/100 km2. The species showed a nocturnal activity pattern. Overall, it preferred open habitat. For burrows, soil or termite mounds were the preferred over ant mounds. No prior information exists regarding how many giant armadillos inhabit the park, or how they are using the surrounding area.
... Instead, young Chaetophractus villosus, euphractine congeneric of C. vellerosus, open their eyes between 16 and 30 days after birth, and they scarcely drag themselves looking for suckle at birth (Olocco-Diz and Duggan 2004). The maturity degree of the neonates observed at osteoderms and postcranial ossifications level seems to be closely related to its locomotion capabilities and hardness of carapaces (Newman 1913;McBee and Baker 1982;Layne 2003;Olocco-Diz and Duggan 2004). In this way, considering these characters and their relationships with the definition of the altricial-precocial spectrum of previous works (Derrickson 1992), D. hybridus may be considered as a precocial species and C. vellerosus as essentially altricial. ...
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The integument of extant armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata) is a unique organ in which complex glandular systems are associated with pilose follicles, dermal ossifications, and cornified scales. Up to date, papers have focused on neither comparative morphology of the skin (dorsal and ventral) nor chronology of the development of interspecific homolog structures. In order to clarify the way in which events occur during development of the integument structures, maturity of other tissues (e.g. skeletal tissues) should be considered. Therefore, we will be able to identify events that have been pre- or post-displaced during ontogenetic development. The aim of this paper is to describe in a developmental and comparative framework the integumentary system of neonates of Dasypus hybridus and Chaetophractus vellerosus. In order to understand the morphology of the different integumentary structures serial histological sections were prepared. Staining techniques included H–E, Masson Trichrome, PAS, orcein and reticulin. To study ossification of postcranial elements, the specimens were cleared and double-stained with alcian blue and alizarin red. Determinations of ossification centers and their progress were recorded through the early uptake of alizarin. The dorsal dermis of neonates from D. hybridus is clearly differentiated into a superficial and deep layer, as in fetuses of Dasypus novemcinctus. In C. vellerosus, however, these layers could not be identified. This suggests a less connective tissue differentiation in the latter species at this stage. Osteoderms in D. hybridus are well differentiated unlike C. vellerosus where no condensations of osteoprogenitory cells are observed. Conversely, pilose follicles and glandular tissues are less developed in D. hybridus. Regarding postcranial elements, ossification centers are less advanced in C. vellerosus than D. hybridus, this is particularly notorious for the vertebral column, sternal, and pelvic girdle elements. Asynchronies between neonates of both species observed on integumentary and postcranial skeletal tissues could match with specific adaptive strategies related to distribution in different environments, and/or different postnatal care.
... The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) occurs widely in the southern United States, where established populations are found from Texas eastward to Florida and South Carolina, and northward to Kansas and Missouri (Layne 2003). Since the earliest report in southern Texas in 1849, the geographic range of this species in the United States has been steadily expanding northward and eastward via natural dispersal and both accidental and intentional releases of animals by humans , Cleveland 1970, Humphrey 1974, Taulman and Robbins 1996. ...
... New Mexico represents the western range limit of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the United States, although the nearest known established populations are in adjacent western Texas (Layne, 2003). Early records of armadillos in New Mexico were based on incidental observations (Findley et al., 1975). ...
Article
Full-text available
New Mexico represents the western range limit of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) in the United States, although the nearest known established populations are in adjacent western Texas (Layne, 2003). Early records of armadillos in New Mexico were based on incidental observations (Findley et al., 1975). Stuart and Knight (1998) provided a comprehensive synopsis of scattered literature records and additional new observations of the armadillo in New Mexico, although that publication is difficult to access. Most recently, Stuart et al. (2007) provided records of the first armadillo specimens collected and preserved in the state and a map of all known locality records of armadillos in New Mexico, but did not give details about previous records. They concluded that while many records were likely the result of human intervention, at least some from southeastern New Mexico were possibly of natural origin and that suitable habitat exists in this part of the state (Stuart et al., 2007). Herein we provide a complete synopsis of all records of Dasypus novemcinctus in New Mexico known to us, including localities, dates, and sources of information. A map of these locations (Figure 1) shows that records are from the eastern third of New Mexico, which delineates the northwestern range limits of the species as currently understood. Each record is provided as a direct quote of the locality data taken from the cited source. Additional data on a record are in brackets and the reference is in parentheses. Bold numbers in parentheses correspond to localities mapped in Figure 1 and in several cases refer to two or more records from the same locality or geographically similar locations. Abbreviations include: DOR = dead on road; MSB = Museum of Southwestern Biology, University of New Mexico.
... An increase in roadkill frequency during breeding season was evident for Nine-banded Armadillos as well. Nine-banded Armadillos, which breed June through August in Georgia (Layne 2003), were most frequently observed in summer. However, a switch to more nocturnal activity may have resulted in increased roadkill rates in summer months (Inbar and Mayer 1999, Loughry and McDonough 1996) and the relative absence of Nine-banded Armadillo roadkills during the fall and winter was likely associated with their reduced activity during periods of colder weather in central Georgia. ...
Article
Physical attributes, traffic volume, and landscape patterns on a particular road are expected to influence the frequency of vertebrate road fatalities. In this study, we surveyed 22.17 km of roadways in Baldwin County, GA, 171 times (3791.1 km total) for vertebrate roadkills over a calendar year. We coded the survey route consisting of portions of US Highway 441, GA Highway 212, and Meriwether/Lowe Road-for differing habitat types and obstacles along its length, and mapped the spatial data in ArcGIS. We recorded 178 vertebrate roadkills representing 19 species, primarily mammals, with Odocoileus virginianus (White-tailed Deer; n = 46) and Didelphis virginiana (Virginia Opossum; n = 39) most frequently observed. We calculated a roadkill rate of 8.03/km/yr. US 441, which has the most lanes, highest traffic volume, and greatest verge width, had the highest roadkill rate (10.95/km/yr) of the three sections. Seasonal differences in roadkill frequencies for the most commonly observed species appear to be related to periods of mating or dispersal.
... is very adaptable and is present in a wide variety of habitats (McBee and Baker, 1982). It can be found in some (1982); Platt and Snyder (1995); Taulman and Robbins (1996); Freeman and Genoways (1998); Van Deelen et al. (2002); Layne (2003); Gardner (2005); Vizcaíno et al. (2006); Gardner (2007); Stuart et al. (2007) ...
Article
The conservation status of the 21 extant armadillo species was re-assessed by specialists of the IUCN/ SSC Anteater, Sloth and Armadillo Specialist Group between December 2009 and May 2010. Information on their geographic range, population size and status, habitat and ecology, threats, and existing conservation measures was collected from the literature and personal communications. Four armadillo species were classified as Vulnerable, four as Near Threatened, and four were categorized as Data Deficient. Less than half of all armadillo species were listed as Least Concern. Virtually all assessed species are affected by hunting as well as habitat fragmentation and degradation. The populations of only two species are thought to be increasing, while those of at least seven species are in decline. Much work is still needed to ensure the long-term survival of all species. Most armadillo species occur in at least one protected area, but other conservation actions are scarce.
... For example, in a study of 15 animals introduced in the 1980s to Anchieta Island, off Brazil's Atlantic coast, Bovendorp and Galetti (2007) found that five of these were extirpated in less than two decades. In the Caribbean, the armadillo was introduced to Carriacou from Grenada around the turn of the 20th century (Allen, 1911), but also failed to become established, possibly because of arid conditions or the absence of suitable burrowing habitat (Layne, 2003). Interestingly, this historic record for Carriacou may echo a similarly unsuccessful prehistoric attempt to introduce the armadillo to the island. ...
... Ahlgren et al. 2016) (Figure 2). Failed historic introductions of white-tailed deer on Grenada (Long 2003), dromedary camel on Barbados (Ligon 2011) and Jamaica (Goodwin 1925), armadillo on Carriacou (Giovas, LeFebvre, andFitzpatrick 2012, 2016;Layne 2003) and opossum on Grand Bahama (Long 2003) highlight that not all translocations lead to successful colonisation. Unsuitable habitat, the absence of mates, small founding populations (vulnerable to stochastic effects like natural disasters), or predation and competition from other animals or humans may spell doom for new arrivals (Clout and Russell 2007;Giovas 2006). ...
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While researchers have long appreciated that mammal introductions were an important aspect of Amerindian-environment interaction in the prehistoric Caribbean, persistent questions about dispersal routes, animal management practices, possible domestication, and ritual use remain unresolved. In this three-article series, offered as a model approach for prehistoric translocation studies, I review the present state of knowledge on pre-Columbian Caribbean mammal translocations, focusing on three fundamental areas: (1) ethnozoogeographic distributions; (2) the sociocultural significance of translocated fauna; and (3) the ecological impact of introduced species. Here, in Part I, I consider species introduction patterns in relation to dispersal modes, the need to distinguish live introductions from the import of animal products, and the importance of direct-dating specimens to establish translocation chronology. In subsequent papers I explore topics II and III, advocating for a holistic approach to translocation research that integrates all three investigative areas to address larger questions about the role of introduced mammals in island society and ecology and their impact on human adaptation to the landscape. This first paper provides foundations for an ensuing final discussion in which I argue that intentional faunal translocation is sufficiently robust as a behavioural phenomenon across time and space to warrant theoretical treatment from an evolutionary perspective.
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En este trabajo se presentan nuevos aportes sobre la historia natural de la mulita pampeana Dasypus hybridus (Desmarest, 1804) (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Dasypodidae). Los estudios de campo fueron llevados a cabo en 100 ha de cuatro establecimientos agropecuarios de la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Durante tres años se realizó un muestreo estacional de armadillos por captura y liberación. Se obtuvieron datos de hábitos alimentarios, uso del espacio y del tiempo, comportamiento, termorregulación, datos poblacionales y morfológicos. Se realizaron 71 capturas. En la dieta el ítem principal registrado fue material vegetal, seguido por hormigas e insectos coleópteros; no se observó una diferencia estacional en los hábitos alimentarios. La actividad de las mulitas se concentra durante el día, existió una baja en la frecuencia de observación durante las estaciones frías (otoño e invierno). La mulita pampeana prefiere suelos húmicos, terrenos altos y pastizales densos y altos; asimismo seleccionan los montes para refugiarse. Son individuos asociales. La temperatura rectal mostró correlaciones positivas con la temperatura ambiente. La proporción de sexos fue cercana a uno y no se observó dimorfismo sexual. Los resultados obtenidos concuerdan parcialmente con lo observado para otras especies del género, destacando las tendencias observadas en los hábitos alimentarios y en la estrategia termorregulatoria. Este trabajo representa un aporte en varios aspectos de una especie poco estudiada en una zona bajo importantes presiones de uso y modificación de hábitat.
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The extinct taxon Dasypus bellus has long been considered identical to the extant Dasypus novemcinctus osteologically when disregarding allometric differences. In this study, we undertake a preliminary investigation into this extinct taxon and an extant relative D. novemcinctus, by comparing the calcanea of these two dasypodids. Clear osteological differences are observed including a mediolaterally-reduced facet region, an anteriorly-shortened calcaneal head, a reduced peroneal process, and a curved and dorsoventrally-shortened calcaneal foot in D. bellus. Such characters are not allometric and likely correlate to distinct behavioral differences. Specifically, we suggest that D. novemcinctus maintains a more fossorial lifestyle, while the larger D. bellus was likely more terrestrial, with potentially little digging behavior. Such lifestyle differences could not only explain the osteological differences present, but also why fossils of D. bellus have been recovered farther north than the present range of D. novemcinctus. Fossils of Dasypus may need to be re-evaluated to determine how these two taxa relate temporally and geographically, which may have further implications regarding some past interpretations and provide new details on the behavior and potential relationships between these (and other) xenarthrans.
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The systematic collection of ticks on wild mammals contributes valuable information for the management of populations both in free in situ and ex situ in zoos, commercial breeders, conservationists and scientists. Among these animals is referred tothenine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus, when in their natural habitat or in captivity may be affected by ticks that affect their health and well-being. In this line, the present study aimed to register the occurrence of infestation by Amblyomma auricularium in D. novemcinctus in Russas, Ceará state, Brazil. Ticks were recovered from two armadillos kept under natural conditions. After collection, the animals were released in their environment and ectoparasites transferred to vials containing70% alcohol for later taxonomic identification. The latter was carried out in the Laboratory of Animal Parasitology of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido with the aid of a dichotomous key. The animals recovered 25 ixodid, one larva of Amblyomma sp., Six nymphs and adult tick seighteen (twelve females and six males) identified as A. auricularium. The occurrence of A. auricularium is well known parasitizing armadillos, however thisis the second time that records the occurrence of this species parasitizing D. novemcinctus free livingin semiarid conditions of Ceará, Brazil. It is hoped, stimulate research on free-living wild mammals in order to collect, identify and record species of ticks, contributing to epidemiological studies that may clarify the interactions between environment, host and ticks.
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The purpose this work was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. and anti-Brucella abortus in cattle slaughtered in abattoir public in the Pernambuco State. For it, 412 animal's serum samples were collected in bloodletting. For serological diagnosis of Leptospira spp. was used Microscopic Agglutination Test (SAM), and, for Brucella abortus, serumagglutination with Buffered Acidified Antigen (AAT) and Complement Fixation Teste (TFC). With titles between 100 and 400, the prevalence of antibodies anti-Leptospira spp. was 13.3% (95% CI = 10.1% - 16.6%). The antibodies anti-Brucella abortus were not detected, giving a prevalence of 0%. The cattle studied had contact with different Leptospira spp, and some animals may have spreaded the agent for environment.
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Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) have undergone a dramatic range expansion within the last 150 years, yet few quantitative data are available describing their habitat selection patterns, and only a single population has received the vast majority of research attention in general. Because armadillos may negatively impact native fauna, improved knowledge of their habitat selection patterns is needed to better understand their ecology and improve estimates of their future distribution. We used radiotelemetry to monitor 31 armadillos at a site in southwestern Georgia during 2005-2006. Males and females selected habitats similarly. Armadillos were located farther than expected from mature pine habitats within their home ranges, but individual variation in this measure was high, which we suspect may be a fire-dependent response. Armadillos did not prefer hardwood hammocks, as has been reported for other populations, and we suspect this surprising result may have gone undetected had we not used radiotelemetry. Overall, armadillos did not exhibit much evidence of habitat selection at all. It therefore appears that factors other than habitat type, such as temperature and precipitation, may be more important in determining future armadillo distributions and negative impacts may be more widespread than previously thought.
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We conducted a new survey of biologists throughout the southern and central United States, in order to update our last analysis of the range expansion and distributional limits of the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) since 1994. While the armadillo's range has remained stationary to the west along a line corresponding to about 50 cm annual precipitation, it has advanced to the north through central Kansas, into central Illinois, south-western Indiana and western Kentucky, through central Tennessee, covering Alabama and all but the north-eastern region of Georgia, and into central South Carolina. The population has reached a latitude corresponding to an average minimum daily January temperature of −8 °C in Kansas. Armadillos may continue to move northwards in states farther east where they do not yet reach the −8 °C zone. In the eastern seaboard states, other factors besides winter temperature extremes may be limiting the armadillo's range expansion.
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