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Highways of Desire: Cross-Border Shopping in Former Yugoslavia, 1960s–1980s

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... Consequently, the tourist and gasterbeiter (guest-worker)-both carefully governed by the state-became the paradigmatic figures of regime survival throughout the 1970s" (Hozic 2012: 616). Mikula's (2010) account shows that as Yugoslav citizens' living standards improved they began to travel abroad in large numbers for both recreation and shopping. Not only did shopping increase in scale and geographic spread but also the desire for foreign goods associated with a "western lifestyle, was encouraged and sustained through the continuing cultural influence of the Yugoslav guest workers living in the affluent Western European countries (Mikula 2010: 215)". ...
... According to Mikula (2010) its decline began in the early 1980s when the debt-stricken Yugoslav government increased its regulation and restriction on outflow of private money by introducing heavy deposit requirements for cross-border travel. The situation was further exacerbated by the war that led to the break-up of the Yugoslavia and the transition period opened up the once closed markets when newly independent states joined the global flows of capital and commodities (Mikula 2010: 220). ...
... For some purchases shopkeepers assisted Yugoslav shoppers in smuggling by under-pricing goods for instance Italian and Austrian shopkeepers who would offer to write two bills "one regular and one with a smaller amount, which was shown at the request of customs officer (Svab 2002: 71)." Another key player in the quest for avoiding paying hefty duties on imports were bus drivers who were always ready to be engaged as accomplishes particularly when passengers carried goods that exceeded the limits set by the state (Mikula 2010). ...
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This research has not been previously accepted for any degree and is not being currently considered for any other degree at any other university. I Nedson Pophiwa declare that; (i) The research reported in this thesis, except where otherwise indicated, is my original work. (ii) This thesis has not been submitted for any degree or examination at any other university. (iii) This thesis does not contain other persons' data, pictures, graphs or other information, unless specifically acknowledged as being sourced from other persons. (iv) This thesis does not contain other persons' writing, unless specifically acknowledged as being sourced from other researchers. Where other written sources have been quoted, then: a) their words have been rewritten but the general information attributed to them has been referenced; b) where their exact words have been used, their writing has been placed inside quotation marks, and referenced.
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