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E-learning and distance education in Nigeria

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Abstract

This paper discusses the relevance of e-learning in the position of distance education in Nigeria. It commences by discussing the meaning of e-learning and distance education. It also discusses the historical background of distance education in Nigeria as well as the operations of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) as the first federal University in Nigeria dedicated to the provision of education through distance mode. Furthermore, the paper highlights the prospects and challenges of e-learning in the operation of National Open University of Nigeria.

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... Digital learning is an age-old pedagogical approach in Nigeria. Nigerian educational sector has been embracing changes in terms of ICT application in the learning process as far back as before the Nigerian independence in 1960 (Ajadi, Salawu. & Adeoye, 2008). Thereafter, many other digital learning programs were organized such as the English Radio programme of Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation in 1960 which was primarily targeted at primary and secondary school levels and covered core courses (learning of Science, Mathematics and English) and the University of the Air Program of the Ahmadu B ...
... Thereafter, many other digital learning programs were organized such as the English Radio programme of Nigeria Broadcasting Corporation in 1960 which was primarily targeted at primary and secondary school levels and covered core courses (learning of Science, Mathematics and English) and the University of the Air Program of the Ahmadu Bello University in 1972 (Mac-Ikemenjima, 2005). Also, there existed the Correspondence and Open Studies Unit (COSU) of University of Lagos that started in 1974 which is now known as Distance Learning Institute (Ajadi et al, 2008). According to Ajadi (2008), it initially offered programs in science education at first degree level and Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) for degree holders that did not possess teaching qualifications and thus, became the first attempt made to establish a distance education unit as part of University programs in Nigeria. ...
... Also, there existed the Correspondence and Open Studies Unit (COSU) of University of Lagos that started in 1974 which is now known as Distance Learning Institute (Ajadi et al, 2008). According to Ajadi (2008), it initially offered programs in science education at first degree level and Postgraduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) for degree holders that did not possess teaching qualifications and thus, became the first attempt made to establish a distance education unit as part of University programs in Nigeria. ...
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Quality education, which remains the key to sustainable development globally, is under threat sequel to Covid-19 pandemic that has bedeviled the academic activities owing to its social distancing rule. Alternatively, Universities worldwide has embraced digital learning in order to sustain the academic activities. Regrettably, Nigerians’ Universities are still under lock and keys in view of poor or lack of digital learning equipment and experts. This study ascertains Nigeria’s readiness towards digital learning, prospects, challenges and policy options amidst Covid 19 pandemic. Evaluation theory in line with qualitative research design was used to analyze the research questions. The finding showed that though meaningful efforts has been made by few of the private universities but the public universities are not good enough for full implementation of digital learning. The study suggested a liberalization of the educational sector from the bureaucratic bottleneck that has bedeviled its transformational development over the years and concluded that education as a key to national development cannot be relegated to the background but must be fully funded and adequately equipped to face the challenges of sustainable development.
... The Development of e-Learning and the extent of adoption and utilisation by Private HEIs in Nigerian. The emergence of elearning in Nigeria dated back during the introduction of telecommunication in 1886 by the colonial masters between Lagos and the colonial office in London to convey information and receive feedback (Ajadi et al., 2008). All government offices in Lagos in 1893, had access to telephone service for easy access, communication and feedback. ...
... This led to improved access to the internet by Nigerians. For instance, as of 2006, many people connected to the internet through the information superhighway broadband (Ajadi et al., 2008). ...
... The most common type of e-learning adopted and used by private HEIs in Nigeria was in the form of lecture notes on CD-ROM which can be played at any time the students want. The major challenge associated with this method is that the number of students per computer in which these facilities are available is un-interactive as compared to when lectures are been received in the classroom (Ajadi et al., 2008). Some private HEIs introduced intranet facilities. ...
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While research into the adoption of e-learning in Nigeria has mainly focused on its use in public Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), there is still a lack of research on factors affecting students' use of e-learning in private HEIs in Nigeria. This study, therefore, explores factors influencing the use of e-learning by students in private HEIs in Nigeria using Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) framework. We use a data collection method encompassing semi-structured interviews with 15 students from L-University drawn purposefully from the Landmark directory and a hybrid thematic analysis to analyse the data. Our findings reveal that technology-related factors (ease of use, speed accessibility and service delivery), organisation-related factors (training support and diversity), environment-related factors (attitudes of the users) and impact-related factors (learning experience, skill development, academic performance, and degree of engagement) influence the students' adoption of e-learning facilities. We develop an extended TOE framework that integrates the impact context which considers the students likely expectations if these facilities are fully adopted and implemented. The study also unveils techniques that may accelerate the development of e-learning structure in private HEIs and which could provide the opportunity of assisting communities of learners to adopt and use e-learning facilities regularly.
... An assessment of the students' satisfaction of e-learning at NOUN would assist in achieving the university's vision to enhance life-long learning and education for all. The literature on elearning (Eigbe 2010, Selim 2007) focused on attitude of students towards e-learning and e-learning Technology (Olaniyi, 2006), access to e-learning, (Bassey, et al, 2007) and challenges and prospects of elearning, (Ajadi, 2008) have pointed out several factors militating against the success of e-learning. ...
... As cited in Ajadi et al. (2008) the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN), was established in July, 1983, by an Act of the National Assembly as the first distance learning tertiary institution in Nigeria when it became crystal clear to the then Federal Government that the ever growing demand for education by her people cannot be met by the traditional means of faceto-face classroom instructional delivery. NOUN, a federal government-owned university emerged as the first dedicated University in Nigeria to introduce education through distance learning mode. ...
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This study was designed to assess students’ satisfaction with e-learning at the National Open University Nigeria in order to determine the factors that influence their intention to use e-learning. The constructs system quality, information quality, service quality in Delone and Mclean Information System Success (ISS) model were used to determine user satisfaction and intention to use e- learning. The study adopted a survey design and a structured questionnaire was used to collect data from four hundred respondents comprising undergraduate and postgraduate students in the two campuses of National Open University (NOUN) in Lagos, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage distribution) was used to summarize the data while regression analysis was used to test the formulated hypotheses. The result of test of hypotheses revealed that users’ satisfaction (β= 0.319, p= 0.000) had a positive significant relationship and contributed more to students’ intention to use e-learning. System quality (β= -0.074, p= 0.214), service quality (β= 0.063, p= 0.310) and information quality (β= 0.025, p= 0.691) did not significantly contribute to students’ intention to use e-learning. However, system quality (β= 0.262, p= 0.000) and service quality (β= 0.205, p= 0.000) were significant predictors and contributed more to students’ satisfaction with e-learning but information quality (β= 0.027, p= 0.645) was not significant and did not contribute to students’ satisfaction. A strong relationship was found between students’ satisfaction and use of e-learning (β= 0.439, p= 0.000). Recommendations emphasised the development of training programmes on e-learning literacy for National Open University students. Government should endeavour to improve electricity supply and provide means of subsidizing computing and internet facilities for students. Further studies could explore lecturers’ satisfaction with the use of e-learning
... eLearningNC (2020) pointed out that e-learning has demonstrated to be one of the most successful and informed approach of learning and education as it has been embraced by many nations, particularly, developed nations. Also, (Ajadi et al., 2008) opined that e-learning is not a new phenomenon in stimulating education in some parts of the advanced nations. It is therefore clear that the place of e-learning and ICT in promoting education is not being taken for granted in developed nations (Anene, Imam, & Odumuh, 2014). ...
... According to Ajadi et al. (2008), e-learning is only used by few institutions in Nigeria in promoting distance education and lifelong learning. As reported by Nwabufo, Umoru and ...
Chapter
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Online Education during COVID19 Papadopoulou Argyri Smyrnaiou 2021 ISTES Modeling in mathematics and history as teaching and learning approaches to pandemics. In S. Jackowicz & I. Sahin (Eds.), Online Education during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Issues, Benefits, Challenges, and Strategies (pp. 405-433). ISTES Organization., 2021 Chapter Highlights  Applying an interdisciplinary lens, with a focus on pandemics, can help shape attitudes by means of inculcating the values of responsible global citizenship, and a high sense of personal and social responsibility. In the midst of the current lock-down due to COVID-19, a teaching approach to pandemics is presented, as an interdisciplinary connection between history and mathematics, based on the methodology of modeling in mathematics and the humanities.  The main research questions posed: a) can modeling, as analyzed in the scientific literature, be used to interpret pandemics, e.g. in the case of the ‗plague of Athens‘ (430 B.C.), as analyzed in the primary sources? b) Can the mathematical tools of statistical analysis be used to understand prevention measures through the centuries?  This chapter presents the assessment of the effectiveness of this approach, conducted by means of closed and open questionnaires, administered in two phases (pre- and postteaching) to a sample of 40 students aged 16-17 years.  The results highlight statistics as a key tool for understanding real-world situations, and record the strengthening of students‘ knowledge in history, the raising of their critical thinking skills, as well as their enhanced ability to tackle real-world problems and understand responsible decision-making processes.  The chapter suggests that such good practices can prepare students for the complexity of globalized knowledge. https://www.istes.org/books/c439edb6b376b840ce0300ad44b6a9c1.pdf
... According to Ajadi, Salawu and Adeoye, (2008) inequality of access to the support services by NOUN students is one of the challenges facing the use of learner support services. The authors further noted that most of the students are reluctant to take responsibility for their learning but preferred to be spoon-fed at all times which could affect their performance. ...
... This could also be as a result of the attitude of the students towards the utilization of online information for inquiries about nature and functions of the NOUN support services. These findings are in line with Ajadi, Salawu and Adeoye (2008) which remarked that the attitude of NOUN Students do not give room for independent learning and that most of NOUN students are reluctant to take responsibility for their own learning but rather preferred to be spoon-fed at all times. ...
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This study investigated the extent counselling as a learner support service have enhanced the quality of learning for students of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) Study centres in South-East of Nigeria. Two research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The descriptive design was adopted for the study. Survey research study that was carried out at the four Study Centres of NOUN in the South-East states of Nigeria The population of study was 4,765 students while a sample of 480 respondents were selected using a multi-stage sampling technique. The instrument for data collection was researchers` structured questionnaire titled “Counselling as a Learner Support Service for Enhancing Quality Learning” which was face validated by three experts. The Reliability coefficient of 0.77 using Cronbach Alpha was obtained. The research questions were answered mean while hypothesis was tested using Mann-Whitney U-test. The result from the study showed that counselling as a learner support to a high extent has enhanced the quality of learning at the NOUN South-East Study centres. Based on these findings, recommendations were made among which were that: National Open University of Nigeria should make provision for adequate media facilities for counselling so as to ensure that students are guided as expected. Availability of a standard well-equipped computer counselling room that provides for a more supportive counselling delivery will ensure that distance learners’ problems are attended to at all times.
... The Nigerian pre-COVID-19 e-learning history could be traced back to the development of telecommunication which began in 1886. E-cable connections were established by the colonial masters between Lagos and the colonial office in London to transmit information and receive feedback (Ajadi, Salawu, & Adeoye, 2008). Thus a means of communication and information sharing was established. ...
... Few institutions in the country had been able to weather the storms of challenges facing e-learning to a reasonable degree. These institutions include Additionally, e-learning has been adopted for distance education by few educational institutions in the country albeit with various challenges (Adu, Eze, Salako, & Nyangechi, 2013;Ajadi et al., 2008;Nathaniel & Olusola-Adedoja, 2017) that hampered its full adoption. ...
Article
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At its peak, the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria forced the country into a social lockdown that prevented all normal activities including education. The Nigerian Ministry of education and other educational institutions in Nigeria introduced e-learning during the pandemic lockdown. The e-learning activities were carried out with many challenges faced by institutions' management, ICT staff, lecturers, and students alike. The focus of this paper is to investigate the e-learning utilisation during the period of COVID-19 lockdown. In carrying out this research, the survey approach was employed to generate data for the study in the SouthWest of Nigeria. This was achieved through the circulation of copies of a questionnaire electronically after personal interviews with certain personnel. The population sample for the study comprised students from the SouthWest part of the country while the respondents were from various tertiary institutions and locations in the area. The results showed that e-learning was employed for various aspects of learning including lectures (87.7%), quizzes (37.8%), assignments (69.6%), practical classes (15.2%) and examination (17.4). A total of 88% of respondents indicated understanding of the concept of e-learning while only 12% outrightly indicated they did not understand the concept. Only 9.2% of the respondents have 100% concentration during the online classes. Over 70% of the whole sample was apathetic to online learning while only 9.3% prefer it to traditional teaching. The study revealed that educational stakeholders should improve upon and extend the gains of e-learning during to take fuller effect post-COVID-19.
... eLearningNC (2020) pointed out that e-learning has demonstrated to be one of the most successful and informed approach of learning and education as it has been embraced by many nations, particularly, developed nations. Also, (Ajadi et al., 2008) opined that e-learning is not a new phenomenon in stimulating education in some parts of the advanced nations. It is therefore clear that the place of e-learning and ICT in promoting education is not being taken for granted in developed nations (Anene, Imam, & Odumuh, 2014). ...
... According to Ajadi et al. (2008), e-learning is only used by few institutions in Nigeria in promoting distance education and lifelong learning. As reported by Nwabufo, Umoru and ...
Chapter
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The relevance and significance of digitalization of the professional educational process are caused by the need to adapt the classical education and training system to completing the education in a pandemic COVID-19 crisis. The unexpected and unorganized closing of our nation‘s university buildings due to the COVID-19 pandemic forced teachers to face the most vibrating and fast modification of perhaps any profession in history. During digital learning, many students feel that they miss the operative collaboration and group working with partners to construct knowledge, wherein digital learning, both students and teachers have to forget about the human aspects, not because they are behind the screen. This chapter explores the issue of student engagement under the COVID-19 Pandemic and analyzes the lessons that can be applied to ongoing online education
... In Nigeria, the advantages of Information and communication technologies have opened opportunities for government to adopt e-learning as means of delivering distance education to vast uneducated citizens (Ajadi, Salawu and Adeoye, 2008). The National University Network (NUNet) policy by the National Universities Commission which supplied ICT equipments to federal universities is a notable effort towards addressing ICT challenges in tertiary institutions. ...
... The findings on e-learning facilities types available to lecturers of University of Ibadan revealed that: personal computer, electronic board, provision of internet by university, internet facility provided by self, overhead projector for teaching in the classroom provided by department, projector for classroom teaching, application software for carrying out academic activities, Microsoft office software and programming software were e-learning facilities types available to lecturers in the sampled academic units of University of Ibadan for carrying out various academic functions. These findings corroborate that of Ajadi, Salawu and Adeoye (2008), which sees ICT as an opportunity to adopting e-learning resources for distance education delivery. However, the finding of this study, attest to the fact that e-learning has not only provide opportunity for distance education but also in effective and efficient delivery of academic activities. ...
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In spite of use of technological tools benefits, academic staff are still faced with challenges such as inadequacy of e-learning facilities and ease of use in higher institutions. The study, therefore, examined the extent of e-learning facilities availability and usability among lecturers of University of Ibadan. Two research questions were raised. The study adopted non-experimental design. Population comprised lecturers in Faculties, Institutes and Centres in University of Ibadan campus. From existing strata, purposive sampling technique was used to select 14 Faculties which consist 48 Departments, 3 Institutes and 2 Centres which are academic units domiciled in University of Ibadan campus. Five lecturers were randomly selected in each academic unit, given a total sample of 265 lecturers. Data was collected with Electronic Learning Facility Checklist and Electronic Learning Facility Usability Rating Scale. Content validity was done for ELFC while ELFURS yielded ordinal alpha reliability of 0.86. Data analysis was done using frequency and percentages. Results showed that personal computers, Microsoft office, self-internet facility, application software, movable projector, University's internet facility, overhead projector, electronic board, analytical and programming software were e-learning facilities types available and used effectively by lecturers in sampled academic units of University of Ibadan. A low usage of internet facility, electronic board and Google classroom/Edmodo was observed. The study, concluded, that if e-learning facilities are available and adequately utilised for academic activities, it would enhance quality outputs. The study, therefore, recommend that all stakeholders should endeavour to integrate e-learning facilities at every level of education for better productivity.
... Nigeria is rich with a large deposit of human resources that ought to be trained with requisite literacy and skills to contribute to the nation's economic development. To mitigate the challenges mentioned above, distance learning was considered a way forward (Ajadi et al., 2008). However, several electronic resources are being put into use for distance learning programme including e-journals, e-newspapers, online public access catalogue, CD-ROM database, e-magazines, e-books, online database, e-research reports, virtual library online, Science Direct online and Ebscohost reference databases (Ternenge and Kashimana, 2019). ...
... Volume 2 (2020) who seek knowledge. Broader objectives of the National Open University of Nigeria include: enhance more access to education; provide flexible, but qualitative education; ensure equity and equality of opportunities in education; provide the entrenchment of a global learning culture; reduce the cost, inconveniences, hassles of access to education and its delivery; enhance education for all and life-long learning; provide wider access to education generally but specifically in university education in Nigeria; provide instructional resources via an intensive use of information communication technologies and provide instructional resources through intensive use of information communication technologies (Ajadi et al., 2008). ...
... Meanwhile, there are few technical staff to maintain and repair the system when this occurs (Ajadi, Salawu & Adeoye, 2008). Thus, the cost of maintenance of personal computers has become unbearable for the few business teachers and students who have them. ...
... They prefer to continue with their traditional chalk and board method. Besides, many business students are unable to take advantage of the independent learning that ICT offers because the students are too lousy to take responsibility for their own learning, having been spoon-fed for so long (Ajadi, Salawu & Adeoye, 2008). 3) School curriculum:-Most business students have no knowledge of ICT because it was not entrenched in the curriculum at their elementary and secondary education levels. ...
Article
This study assessed constraints and prospects of using e-learning in universities in south-south Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design adopted for the study. Two research questions and six hypotheses guided the study. The population which serves as sample comprised of 132 Business education lecturers. A questionnaire containing 35 items was used for the study. It was divided into two parts. Part A contains three (3) items of demographic variables such as type of institution, sex, job experience while Part B contains 32 items which are based on the research questions. The face and content validity of the questionnaire was done by 3 experts in Measurement and Evaluation and 4 experts in Business education at the University of Benin, Benin City. The internal consistency of the instrument was established by administering 14 copies of the questionnaire to 14 lecturers in Business Education at Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki/south east Nigeria. The data collected were analyzed using Cronbach Alpha which yielded reliability coefficient of 0.87 and 0.82items on constraints and prospects respectively. Mean and standard deviations were used for data analysis. The findings on constraints are: computer illiteracy among business educators using e-learning, high cost of equipment, poor ICT policy implementation, negative attitude of lecturers among others. The findings on prospects are: it makes teaching more interesting, it makes learning more interesting, it allows learners move at their own pace, it provides multiple sources of knowledge among others. The following recommendations are made for the study; e-learning centres should be established in Business education Departments in universities in Nigeria, University management should create a special fund for e-learning in Business education in Nigerian universities.
... On the African continent -where resources are scarce and higher education provision is poor, ODL is accepted as a viable, cost effective means of expanding provision without costly outlay in infrastructure. According to Ajadi et al., (2008) using Nigeria as a focus, ODL is needed for three main reasons: firstly, majority of the population lives below the poverty level; thus, they are unable to access urban based institutions and consequently the eligible candidates remain deprived of higher education; secondly, people who joined the workforce early without completing their education due to family commitments and other issues are unable to combine work and study despite interests due to the limited capacity of the contemporary institutions; lastly, in some parts of Nigeria, majority of the female population are deprived of higher education due to early marriage or religious and traditional beliefs. Adam (2003: 196) is of the view that "it is becoming apparent that higher education reform cannot take place without paying attention to ICTs… in support of teaching, research, and lifelong learning." ...
... Nafukho (2007) also observed that current developments in technology have an extraordinary potential for transforming education to meet the growing need for customized, on-demand learning. However, there are a lot of barriers to developments of ICTs, Notable among them are:  the challenge of digital divide exists among the student of ODL, some of them are unable to afford computers due to the relative cost to the average income of workers in the country (Ajadi, et al., 2008;Arikpo et al., 2009)  the High cost of accessing the internet in developing countries  irregular and frequent interruption of commercial power supply  inadequate technical expertise (Aduke, 2008). ...
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Measures cost-benefit of e-learning under ODL of developing economies
... The internet and the web have further elevated the revolutionary tempo particularly through the advancement of e-resources. The digital resources also called (electronic resources) play a major role in facilitating access to the needed information to the user in a convenient manner (Ajadi, Salawu & Adeoye, 2008). ...
... f present generation can be considered to be ''digital natives'' which implies users who have grown up using technologies such as computers, cell phones, and the internet. These are the backbone of e-resources that could be utilize. The internet is seen as an important component that can offer assistance to the students of National Open University (Ajadi, et. Al., 2008). ...
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This study investigated the influence of some factors that are affecting the utilization of e-resources, specifically this study tried to find out the influence of self-efficacy, facilitating conditions on acceptance to use e-resources for learning among students of National Open University of Nigeria North East. Descriptive research survey was used for this study.The research sample used for the study was 300 students. Purposive sampling method was used to select the sample. Questionnaire (SSEEFCAE) was the instrument used to collect data from the respondents and, the response rate of the survey was 80%. The instrument was validated for face and contents validity by experts. The instrument was also subjected to pilot test in order to ascertain its reliability using Cronbach Alpha, and found to be reliable with (0.78).The study came-up with three research questions and three corresponding hypothesis, and the results were analysed using statistical tools. Correlation analysis was used to answer Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made; The use of e-resources by students in our universities should be encourage to improve learning process. Government should provide more internet facilities in our universities to encourage students make full use of e-resources. Parents should provide communication gadgets like laptops, smartphones and iPods to enable students harness e-resources opportunities. Universities administrators should also help by organizing seminars and workshops on the use of e-resources for learning.
... The ODE model involves the use of a Distance Learning Center (DLC) to facilitate eLearning. eLearning in ODEs is achieved via the use of online or CD ROM lecture notes (Ajadi, Salawu, & Adeoye, 2008) which are used at the learners' convenience and augmented with interactions with a course facilitator in the DLCs. ODEs provide access to higher education for a large number of the under-privileged Nigerian population. ...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the challenges of emergency online teaching and learning adopted in a Nigerian private university due to the suspension of face-toface learning, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Activity theory was used to examine the elements that make up the activity, that is, the virtual learning environment, as well as their associated relationships in order to reveal existing and potential tensions within the activity. Data used for the analysis of this case study was obtained by observation of the online class sessions, student responses to an online survey, emails (requesting support) received by the instructional technology support team, and interviews with participants of the activity system. The findings show that majority of the challenges and contradictions observed were a result of a hurried decision to migrate to online learning in order to complete the academic semester. This brought about several issues with regards to the tools, rules, and roles within the activity system. The most significant contradiction observed was as a result of the influence of an external activity on the studied activity system. The study provides insights to policymakers in the education sector on the current barriers to online learning, especially in the Nigerian context.
... However, the university is meant to provide practical, cost-effective, flexible learning, which adds lifelong value to quality education for all who seek knowledge. Broader objectives of the National Open University of Nigeria include: enhance more access to education; provide flexible but qualitative education; ensure equity and equality of opportunities in education; provide the entrenchment of a global learning culture; reduce the cost, inconveniences, hassles of access to education and its delivery; enhance education for all and life-long learning; provide broader access to education generally but specifically in university education in Nigeria; provide instructional resources via an intensive use of information communication technologies and provide instructional resources through intensive use of information communication technologies (Ajadi et al., 2008). ...
Article
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This paper investigates the relevance of electronic resources and improved access for effective distance learning and continuing education. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The total population of the study comprises 7,125 registered students of the National Open University of Nigeria. A convenience sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 379 respondents. Structured questionnaires were distributed to the respondents through a research assistant, and only 320 valid responses were returned and used for the study. The study used frequency counts and percentages as statistical measures for data analysis. Findings revealed that students access e-resources regularly. Electronic resources were also relevant as they provide students with up-to-date information, complete information from different sources, speedy and easy access to information, and more. Access to electronic resources can be improved through the following means: provision of useful Internet/server to enhance the accessibility of e-resources, online user guideline for accessing e-resources, creation of user-friendly interfaces for easy access to online contents. It was recommended that audio and video conference chats be made available to students to connect librarians for assistance when the need arises; compulsory user-education and orientation program should also be conducted for students on the use of electronic resources.
... Most studies on online education, especially e-learning use in Nigerian universities, focus on faculty and students' perception, intention, use, attitude, and challenges (Ajadi et al., 2008;Anene et al., 2014;Aboderin. 2015;Hamidt et al., 2017;Eze et al., 2018;Eze et al., 2020). ...
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This study investigated the academic staff’s motivation for online teaching in Nigerian universities using a mixed-methods case study research design. The main instrument used for this study was a questionnaire named ‘Academic Staff’s Motivation for Online Teaching Survey (SMOTS)', which was complemented by in-depth interviews. A total of 195 academic staff across various academic faculties and units in the University of Ibadan participated in the study. Data analysis was done using frequency count, simple percentages, mean and standard deviation, while the in-depth interviews were thematically analysed. The result of the study revealed that the majority of the academic staff have not taught using online platforms before and their frequency of online teaching consideration is occasional. Additionally, they have a high perception of online teaching in terms of helping to learn new technology and encouraging intellectual challenges. The academic staff indicated that individual training opportunities, personal decisions and group training opportunities are among the major resources that can motivate them for online teaching. Likewise, the introduction to new technology for teaching, institutional expectation, and students’ enrolment are the major external motivating factors for online teaching. It was further revealed that most of the academic staff feel motivated to teach online. However, erratic power supply, work overload, and limited knowledge of e-learning stand as major hindrances to online teaching adoption among academic staff. This study has discovered the need for Nigerian university managements to vigorously embark on capacity building of academic staff for online teaching. This will help them to cultivate or enhance basic information and communication technology skills and other essential competencies needed to manage online learning environments.
... Challenges faced by respondents in using the delivery methods included inadequate power supply, poor telecommunication network, high cost of self-provided power supply, high cost of maintaining e-learning devices and services, high cost of owning digital devices, high cost of internet connectivity and lack of adequate and appropriate infrastructure . In the study carried out by Olutola and Olatoye (2015), Ajadi et al., (2008), these authors found out that irregular power supply, high cost of internet service, poor telecommunication network, high cost of e-learning software and hardware are challenges affecting e-learning delivery in Nigeria. Oye (2011) also supported the fact that cost of accessing the internet, irregular and frequent interrupted power supply and limited expertise/ inadequate personnel, are challenges faced by students in using e-learning platforms in Nigeria. ...
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Learners’ satisfaction is an important factor to the success of any e-learning programme. This study presents findings from students’ assessment of the e-learning platforms used at Distance Learning Centre University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Survey design was used. Data was collected from 351 students in 100 and 200 levels of the Centre using the questionnaire. Frequency and percentage distribution were used for descriptive statistics, while, multiple regression was performed to test the hypotheses. The results showed that Information quality, system quality and service quality were not significant predictors of student’s satisfaction except with the Email where information and service quality influenced overall satisfaction. Challenges to students’ use of the platforms include inadequate power supply, poor telecommunication network, high cost of self-provided power supply and high cost of owning and maintaining e-learning devices.
... The development of telecommunication in Nigeria in 1996 gave rise to the development of elearning when e-cable connections was established by the colonial masters between Lagos and the colonial office in London to transmit information and receive feedback. By 1993, all government offices in Lagos were provided with telephone services for easy communication and later, other parts of the country were provided with telephone services (Ajadi, Salawu, & Adeoye, 2008). By then, the commonest type of e-learning adopted was in form of lecture note on CD-ROM which can be played when the learner desire. ...
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This study examined the level of implementation and the use of e-learning facilities in the Nigerian Universities for quality education, a case study of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. The problems, challenges and benefits of implementing E-learning were discussed by reviewing the consciousness and willingness of the selected University. Survey research design was adopted for this study, since a large number of students were involved. Population of the study comprise all the students in the five faculties selected. Questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The copies of 120 questionnaires responded to were returned and analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency count, mean score and percentage). Findings show that e-learning is averagely implemented in the NOUN as the facilities available were being used to access the students. It was recommendeded that the University should provide the materials not yet available, in order to enhance higher level of quality education which will invariably improve national development.
... However, the challenge of poor internet connectivity may hamper its success in many African countries like Nigeria. According to [6], bandwidth is a significant problem associated with e-learning. ...
... While Unwin et al. (2010) report in a survey study of 358 participants from 25 different HEIs in African countries, that only 49% of African universities use LMS in teaching and learning. In another study in Nigeria, diverse e-learning systems are employed by the National Open University of Nigerian (NOUN) to deliver learning contents (Ajadi et al, 2008;Suleiman 2011). The studies affirm that several factors influence the adoption and use of LMS in various parts of Africa (Sancheza & Hueros, 2010;Sumak, Hericko, Pusnik, & Polancic, 2011;Kumar & Samalia, 2015;Suradi & Yusoff, 2018). ...
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This study adopted a discursive approach to review the use of the Learning Management System (LMS) popularly known as 'Moodle" in most South African universities. Moodle as fondly called is one of the online tools that can be effectively used to deliver learning activities as well as online learning assessments to implement curriculum delivery without borders or disruptions during the COVID-19 lockdown across the globe. The author highlights various extant studies on the usage and adoption of LMS into teaching and learning for effective implementation in higher institutions of learning. LMS is a global online tool that has been in use for decades in various higher institutions of learning across the developed countries. It has proved to be an efficient learning platform that has impacted significantly the education sector in these developed countries, as learning experiences are provided to diverse students at their comfort zones. With the break of the COVID-19 pandemic that affects the global world, teaching and learning in most parts of the developed countries continue to be facilitated through various online approaches that include LMS in the developed countries. Unfortunately, the pandemic lockdown in many developing countries like South Africa grossly impacted the delivery of curriculum and educational activities in various learning institutions for several months. The continuous presence of COVID-19 led the South African Department of Higher Education and Training to review approaches to curriculum delivery to salvage academic activities. Thus, declared online learning as an alternative to face-to-face curriculum delivery in higher institutions. The adoption of LMS results as the best approach to engage students in full teaching and learning activities.
... This is probably the first time in Nigeria where most of her schools, primary, secondary and tertiary institutions of learning will shift teaching and learning almost completely online in real-time using video conferencing applications (9). Before the COVID-19 pandemic, online learning is not popular in Nigeria, although some institutions, especially her open university do run online lectures but not in real-time (9,11). ...
... Distance Education (DE) refers to a system of education that is characterized by physical separation between the teacher and the learner in which instruction is deliver through a variety of media including print and other ICTs to learner who may either have missed the opportunity earlier in life or have been denied the face to face formal education due to socio-economic, career, family and other circumstances (Ajadi, Salawu & Adeoye, 2008). This term as expressed by Buselic (2012) also reflects both the fact that all or most of the teaching is conducted by someone remoTe in time and space from the learner. ...
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This paper focused on the challenges to full implementation of open distance and flexible learning in Nigerian tertiary institutions. The conceptual clarification of distance education, open distance learning was presented; the justifications for ODFL programmes in developing countries were highlighted. The expected role of libraries towards the sustainability of ODFL programmes include provision of technology-based information services, organization and provision of online information resources, provision of digital information literacy; the challenges to implementation of ODFL programmes in tertiary institutions in developing countries such as dearth of well-defined national distance education policies, dearth of trained cadre of professionals to support the implementation of distance education; technological constraints, dearth of collaborative partners, low level of funding in Nigerian institution and erratic power supply were well articulated. Strategies like adequate funding, recruitment of quality staff, engaging in sustainable collaborative effort, re-training of librarians and compliance with quality assurance principles.
... Yet there was hesitation regarding distance education by Sahmicit: 'I was sceptical because the distant learning programmes offered in Nigeria were called 'mushroom' and considered less than standard (Ajadi, Salawu, and Adeoye 2008)'. In the end, the rationalisation was as follows: ...
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This article is based on the journeys of four women who completed their doctorates in the discipline of Sociology. The four former doctoral students studied at the same distance education institution in South Africa, but they hail from Nigeria, Lesotho and Cameroon, respectively. Together with their former supervisor, autoethnography is used to reflect on their academic journeys. In addition to their academic journeys, they also had to navigate personal journeys that included being employed fulltime and regulating expectations towards completing the doctorate within their home country. Moreover, not only difficulties are highlighted but also strategies in overcoming obstacles, such as actively building various supportive networks. The journeys continue after completing a doctorate, for example, when visas to international conferences are denied to scholars with certain African passports. By focusing on the doctoral journeys and beyond, other inequalities in the global academic world is touched upon.
... Some of the problems and obstacles facing NOUN and the proper execution of e-learning in Nigeria in general and prisons, in particular, are linked to ICT related issues on one hand and socio-economic factors on the other. On the general ground, the majority of these problems are highlighted in Ajadi et al. (2008). ...
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The Pape investigates the correlation between firm Size and Profitability Nexus of 25 selected beverages manufacturing firms quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study however, examined firm size, in terms of Total Assets (TA) while profitability in terms of Returns on Assets (ROA). Secondary data was obtained from the audited annual reports of the selected manufacturing firms listed in the Stock Exchange over the period of 2005-2015. Furthermore, liquidity, leverage and the ratio of inventories to total assets were used as the control variables. The results emanating from the study showed that firm size, in terms of Total assets has a positive effect on the profitability of Nigerian manufacturing Companies which implies that firm size positively and significantly affect profitability of manufacturing sector in Nigeria. Furthermore, on the control variables, positive relationships were obtained for all of the variables ( liquidity, leverage and the ratio of inventories to total assets). Also, the Return on Assets (ROA) significantly affect the firm size. The paper concludes that there exists a bidirectional causal relationship between firm size and Profitability in the Nigerian manufacturing sector.
... These essential components that spur e-learning are lacking in Nigeria's educational system except the National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) that runs an online program for all her courses. Other universities such as the University of Ibadan, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Lagos, University of Benin, University of Abuja and few other universities in Nigeria have limited infrastructure to support e-learning (Ajadi et al., 2008). This is supported by Usoro and Akuchie (2012), who found that most e-learning facilities in Nigeria universities are malfunctioning and inadequate. ...
Article
Purpose The shutdown of normal face-to-face educational method of learning caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has made the education stakeholders reconsider and rethink education anew in light of the emerging challenges and opportunities imposed on e-learning in higher education in Nigeria post COVID-19. This study investigates the challenges confronting e-learning in higher education in Nigeria amid COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach Drawing upon data collected through a structured questionnaire administered to 395 lecturers in various disciplines in private, state and federal universities in Nigeria, the study adopts a quantitative research method. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings The findings indicate that Nigeria Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are still in the early stage of adopting the e-learning mode of study. In addition, there was no existing e-learning curriculum before the pandemic. Also, adopting e-learning mode of teaching was an uphill task for both the lecturers and the learners, given the lack of experience in information and communications technology usage and inadequate infrastructure to support e-learning. Research limitations/implications A major limitation of the study is the inability to investigate the challenges facing students in using e-learning tools due to the unavailability of access to students during the lockdown. However, the limitations create opportunities for further studies into the subject matter. Originality/value The study is timely given that HEIs in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa are yet to adopt blended teaching methods. Literature reveals that most HEIs in Nigeria are using only brick and mortar mode of teaching despite the benefit of blended learning in a pandemic situation.
... Virtual learning which has been used in the developed world even before the pandemic transitioned seamlessly compared to less developed countries like Nigeria (Kyari et al., 2018). This form of learning is considered to be better than the usual in-person interaction because it has the advantage of reaching many learners at the same time and does not require them to come together in a place (Ajadi et al., 2008). This shift consequently has affected the lecturers as some of these new technologies has a steep learning curve affecting some of them in adjusting (Zalat et al., 2021). ...
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Lecturing in private universities in Nigeria is one of the most challenging jobs for early career scholars. Regrettably, there is a high rate of turnover once an opportunity for exit presents itself. Researchers have proposed a relationship between psychological contract breach and turnover intentions. This study attempted to evaluate the effect of organizational climate in the link between psychological contract breach and turnover intentions using a sample of 584 private university lecturers in a two-wave investigation (time-lagged design) during a 1-month period (with 2 weeks interval). The ages ranged between 24–53 years old (38.24 ± 7.33). The questionnaires used to collect data were the Psychological Contract Breach Scale, Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire and Turnover Intention Scale. The result suggested that lecturers who received support from management were less likely to leave their jobs, while experiencing peace in the school played a significant factor in reducing turnover intention. The study’s implications were raised, and further suggestions were made to improve our organizations, particularly, universities.
... Virtual learning which has been used in the developed world even before the pandemic transitioned seamlessly compared to less developed countries like Nigeria (Kyari et al., 2018). This form of learning is considered to be better than the usual in-person interaction because it has the advantage of reaching many learners at the same time and does not require them to come together in a place (Ajadi et al., 2008). This shift consequently has affected the lecturers as some of these new technologies has a steep learning curve affecting some of them in adjusting (Zalat et al., 2021). ...
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Lecturing in private universities in Nigeria is one of the most challenging jobs for early career scholars. Regrettably, there is a high rate of turnover once an opportunity for exit presents itself. Researchers have proposed a relationship between psychological contract breach and turnover intentions. This study attempted to evaluate the effect of organizational climate in the link between psychological contract breach and turnover intentions using a sample of 584 private university lecturers in a two-wave investigation (time-lagged design) during a 1-month period (with 2 weeks interval). The ages ranged between 24–53 years old (38.24 ± 7.33). The questionnaires used to collect data were the Psychological Contract Breach Scale, Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire and Turnover Intention Scale. The result suggested that lecturers who received support from management were less likely to leave their jobs, while experiencing peace in the school played a significant factor in reducing turnover intention. The study’s implications were raised, and further suggestions were made to improve our organizations, particularly, universities.
... It was observed by Ezenwafor, Okeke & Okoye (2014) that instructors in technical and vocational education tertiary institutions in Nigeria utilize e-learning at a low extent. Others reported that there is low rate of adoption of ICTs and E-learning technologies which results to low rate of usage in teaching and learning (Ajadi, Salawu & Adeoye, 2008;Eke, 2011;Azih & Nwasu, 2012;Nwabufo, Umoru & Olukotun, 2012;Thomas & Amaechi, 2015;Omoni & Ifeanyichukwu, 2015;and Freda, 2016). Consequently, the situation in e-learning adoption in Nigerian tertiary institutions is posing serious concern, and it is largely blamed on some institutional and motivational factors that are related to instructors, which influences academic teachers' adoption of e-learning technology (Brinkeroff, 2006;Ali, Kate & Xiaohui, 2013;and Khan, Hasan & Clement, 2012). ...
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The study investigated the determinants of adoption and use of e-learning for teaching techno-vocational skills in tertiary institutions during covid-19 pandemic in Nigeria. It sought to find out the relationships that exist between the factors related to instructors and the adoption and implementation of e-learning. Five research questions were posed and five null hypotheses formulated which guided the study. The correlation survey design was adopted for the study. The study population was 205, which comprised all academic staff in Faculties/Schools of technical and vocational education in three tertiary institutions in Rivers State. The entire population was used without sampling because it is of manageable size. Two sets of instruments were used for data collection, namely: Determinants Factors of Instructors' Scale and Adoption of E-learning Inventory Scale. The instruments were structured on 5-point rating scale. The instruments were face validated by three experts in the Faculty of Education in Rivers State University. The instrument was pilot-tested on a representative sample of 30 respondents from faculty of engineering in Rivers State University, which are not part of the study population. The response of thirty (30) representatives were used to estimate the reliability coefficient of the instrument, which was established using the Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient formula and it yielded a reliability index of 0.87 and 0.93 for instruments 1 & 2 respectively. The data collected were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation and t-test to test the stated null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that there is a high positive relationship between behavioral intentions, performance expectancy, effort expectancy and social influences of instructors and adoption of e-learning for teaching in technical and vocational education in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. Also, there was low but positive relationship between facilitating conditions of the institutions and adoption of e-learning. The study concluded among other things that the determinant factors that are related to instructors have positive relationship with adoption of e-learning. Also, that lack of administrative and institutional support often results in instructors falling short of incorporating technology in learning institutions. It therefore, recommended regular training and workshops on e-learning to encourage instructors and increase their interest towards adoption of e-learning. Management of technical and vocational institutions should invest heavily in technology to improve its availability and subsequent use by staff in institutions for teaching and learning. Also, special recognitions for instructors who use e-learning in teaching to promote their social status in the school community; and support for academic staff by provision of necessary Information and Communication Technologies and e-learning facilities. Vol-7 Issue-1 2021 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 13452 www.ijariie.com 139
... Virtual learning which has been used in the developed world even before the pandemic transitioned seamlessly compared to less developed countries like Nigeria (Kyari et al., 2018). This form of learning is considered to be better than the usual in-person interaction because it has the advantage of reaching many learners at the same time and does not require them to come together in a place (Ajadi et al., 2008). This shift consequently has affected the lecturers as some of these new technologies has a steep learning curve affecting some of them in adjusting (Zalat et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
Lecturing in private universities in Nigeria is one of the most challenging jobs for early career scholars. Regrettably, there is a high rate of turnover once an opportunity for exit presents itself. Researchers have proposed a relationship between psychological contract breach and turnover intentions. This study attempted to evaluate the effect of organizational climate in the link between psychological contract breach and turnover intentions using a sample of 584 private university lecturers in a two-wave investigation (time-lagged design) during a 1-month period (with 2 weeks interval). The ages ranged between 24-53 years old (38.24 ± 7.33). The questionnaires used to collect data were the Psychological Contract Breach Scale, Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire and Turnover Intention Scale. The result suggested that lecturers who received support from management were less likely to leave their jobs, while experiencing peace in the school played a significant factor in reducing turnover intention. The study's implications were raised, and further suggestions were made to improve our organizations, particularly, universities.
... For this, teachers have to have training that leads to them assimilating the pedagogical uses of ICT (Narash, 2020; Teachings of physics have developed into an electronic paradigm (e-learning) that has pervaded the entire schools of the world. However, in Nigeria's higher education context elearning/online schooling is not common (Ajadi, 2008;Kyari, 2018), a platform that has become the only rays of hope to starting again the clogged wheel of education across the world. Educational technology is not an alternative or an addition to teaching methods but the use of education technology will contribute to the success of the education development strategy for the benefit of students. ...
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Nations yearn is to attain a high standard of the educational system. This paper, therefore, considers assessment tools as one of the keys to reform the dwindling educational system such as in the case of Nigeria. The education system based on the national policy on education (NPE) emphasized formative assessment while the percentage given by public examinations such as WAEC, NECO, and NABTEB to summative assessment is high compared to formative (continuous assessment). As a result of the discrepancy and gap between national policy on education (NPE) and what is obtainable in our public examinations; students, teachers, education architecture, and examination products are all affected. Thus, using descriptive and explorative approaches this paper explained and reviewed assessment, formative, and summative assessment and then explained the need for a paradigm shift from summative assessment to formative assessment in Nigeria. Conversely, it is observed that for the assessment to achieve its objectives, purposes and what is supposed to achieve there is the need to harmonize the formative and summative assessment. Consequently, for a balanced qualitative and quantitative assessment, the formative assessment and summative assessment must be well integrated; data derive from summative assessment should not only be relied upon and over-emphasized by teachers, examination bodies and school administrators. Finally, we suggest that effective and efficient use of formative assessment should be encouraged among the external examination bodies such as WAEC, NECO, NABTEB.
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This study reported students' assessment of open and distance learning programmes and services vis-à-vis teaching and learning experience, educational resources, technical support service and infrastructural facilities in ODL institutions in Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and the participants for the study comprised of 719 students randomly drawn from three purposively selected ODL institutions in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was used as an instrument for the study. Quantitative data generated from the survey were analysed using frequency counts, percentages, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) while the qualitative data was content analysed. Result of the study showed that students enrol in open and distance learning programmes majorly as a result of the flexibility in learning. While students relatively rate their teaching & learning experience, educational resources and available infrastructural facilities in their universities good, they, however, rate technical support services provided in the ODL institutions as being poor. A comparative analysis of the students’ assessment in the three institutions revealed that there exists a statistically significant difference in teaching & learning experiences, available educational resources, technical support services and infrastructural facilities in the institutions. Based on the findiings of the study, some recommendation were made.
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The study aimed at determining the National Teachers Institute (NTI) students" general use of mobile phone based on gender. Two hundred and sixty-eight of the subjects were randomly sampled comprising 137 males and 131 females from Oyo State, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were used to determine the interests and frequency of use of mobile phones for diverse of operations as medium of experiencing hidden curriculum. The findings revealed that distance learners had flair and interest for general use of mobile phones, watches movies/videos, listens to music and frequently surfs the internet for fun, entertainment, making friends, chats, and the like; than surfing through educative, job or profession related sites to broaden their knowledge horizons regardless of their gender. It was recommended among others that the use mobile devices could be adopted by distance learners in re-channeling students" flairs and interests towards academic/educative forum for learning collaborations, assignments and the related pedagogical experiences. This could be achieved by organizing seminars, workshops and trainings for distance learners on how to harmonize the use of mobile devices for effective teaching and learning, usefulness and ease of use of mobile technologies for accessing cutting edge discoveries, useful and current information that will help to broaden their knowledge-base.
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The paper focuses on integrating technologies for instruction in pre-service teacher education during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigerian Colleges of Education. The emergence of COVID-19 occasioned the shifting paradigm of teaching in schools worldwide to online methods. The script discussed that pre-service teachers in Nigerian Colleges of Education is facing the challenge of integrating technologies into classroom instruction. The article stressed the importance of ICT to achieve quality pre-service teacher education in Colleges of Education. Integrating technologies into pre-service teacher education and the challenges COVID-19 poses to pre-service teacher education was discussed. The author averred that mobile learning through WhatsApp, Facebook, YouTube, and Google Classroom during the COVID-19 would provide sustained education. The conclusion was that teachers and students should explore mobile learning's full benefits through WhatsApp Instant Messaging, Facebook, YouTube, and Google Classroom during the pandemic.
Conference Paper
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This study was conducted to find out the barriers of full implementation of e-learning in Nigerian Management Development Institutes (MDIs), the purpose was also to determine the following: willingness to conduct management training using e-learning platforms, knowledge base of MDI facilitators on how to create e-learning content. Five MDIs were used as the sample for the study out of numerous MDIs in Nigeria. Descriptive statistic was employed in analysing data of the study from the interviews conducted. The findings of the study revealed that most of the MDI facilitators need adequate exposure to the use of e-learning related ICT infrastructure, Learning Management System (LMS) and Microsoft application software. Majority of the respondents also misunderstood virtual learning as the only form of e-learning hereby relaying only on videoconferencing equipment as the solution to the full implementation of the platform. The study recommended various solutions to the challenges militating against of full implementation of e-learning in all Nigerian MDIs as well as definitions of e-learning. (Keywords: Management Development Institutes, Learning Management System, Synchronous and Asynchronous, Domain Subscription.) 1.0 INTRODUCTION Management Development Institutes in Nigeria is saddled with the responsibility of capacity building of every senior public officers in the country. Most of the times training is the method used in achieving MDI's aims and objectives. The alternative to traditional classroom/workshop training is e-learning. Unfortunately, the e-learning in Nigeria has not developed due to a number of factors. Despite the emerging technologies challenges, the traditional process of teaching and learning, and the way education is managed in Nigeria there is increasing awareness on the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in teaching and learning. 'E-learning' as a term is a hybrid. Like many compounds, the two elements have worked together to create a new hybrid. E-learning can be defined as the use of computer and Internet technologies to deliver broad solutions that will enable learning and improve performance. Thus, in considering e-learning, all electronically networked ICT via which learning can take place must be installed. While trainers/lecturers often find e-learning as the future, researching into how it could be further developed and implemented as an alternative to physical classroom should be the main goal. At its currently, e-learning technology depends on hardware to process digital or analogue signals; software that can encode and decode, collect, store and forward, and present communications in visual, textual and/or audio modes; applications and systems that bring together tools to support data storage and retrieval, course design and management, computer-mediated communication via telecommunications and collaborative virtual classroom and its environment. Another equally important in this technological mix are the people who use the systems i.e. teachers, facilitators, instructors, administrators and students. They all bring to the e-learning enterprise their ideas of how teaching, learning, and communication should be enacted. Educators have long been appropriating technologies into the classroom, from radio and television, record players, CDs, DVDs, laptops and projectors. Today, with the advent of digital technologies, there is an advanced mode of teaching/learning using web technology as well as other platforms worldwide. This has brought about the new Web-Educator (using the internet and all associated technologies for teaching) who can learn and teach from anywhere and at any time. Organisations around the world are adopting 'Learning Management System' (LMS), which automates the learning courses and easily delivers training, manages learners and keeps track of their progress and performance across training activities, which reduces administrative overhead.
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The disruption of teaching and learning, and the subsequent closure of educational institutions in most countries of the world amidst the Covid-19 pandemic is worrisome. This has especially brought to the fore the inadequacies in the Nigerian educational systems and structures, especially in primary schools. This paper focused on the need for urgent adoption and application of e-learning in the Nigeria primary schools. First, the paper critically scrutinized the emergence and impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the educational systems. Second, the paper discussed the essence of e-learning along with the ten recommendations for teachers' and learners' engagement in e-learning as prescribed by UNESCO (2020). The paper further discussed the Challenges confronting effective teaching and learning in primary schools amidst the pandemic. Finally, to better the teaching and learning status in Nigeria primary schools, the paper implied amongst others; that government and education stakeholders should as a matter of urgency; fund the development and training of teachers and learners in computer and ICT knowledge, equip primary schools with ICT facilities and sponsor television and radio e-learning classes for pupils' home learning.
Preprint
The rapid development of information and communication technologies has led to the use of new and digital technologies in education which involves combinations of text, graphics, audio, video, animations and other eLearning resources such as authoring tools, Learning Management System (LMS), Mobile learning and others. Arguably, using LMS leaves much to be desired. The inherent problem here is that the future of extensive adoption of ICT via LMS to enhance and promote classroom interaction in Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is bleak. This is worrisome given that the country is lagging far behind in the innovative use of this web 2.0 technology to impart knowledge. Further, the low-level application of LMS in instruction connotes the loss of inherent advantages in its adoption. Also, the online setting which makes students less nervous and interactive, sharing of ideas and viewpoints; and a host of other benefit will be lost. While evidence has shown that LMS is not a new phenomenon, the use of LMS in ODL is still at its infancy, particularly in Nigeria. Research in this area is rare. A quick search on prominent research databases could testify that. It is on this thrust that this study investigates University of Ibadan undergraduate students’ perceived roles and readiness towards integration of learning management system into teaching and learning.
Chapter
GİRİŞ Kişilere her zaman ve her yerde eğitim alabilme ve kendini geliştirebilme fırsatı sunan uzaktan eğitim, iletişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmelere paralel olarak günümüzde büyük bir talep görmektedir. Bu açıdan uzaktan eğitim hizmetini sunan kurumların ve bu kurumlardan eğitim almış kişilerin sayılarının artmasına bağlı olarak da uzaktan eğitim hizmeti veren kurumların kaliteleri sorgulanır olmuştur. Bu çalışmada da uzaktan eğitim alanında sunulan hizmetlerin kalitesi hakkında taraflara bilgi verme ve belirli nitelikleri taşıyor olma sorumluluğu açısından büyük önem arz eden uzaktan eğitimde akreditasyon çalışmaları mevcut literatür çerçevesinde incelenmiş olup farklı ülkelerdeki uzaktan eğitimde akreditasyon çalışmaları ile bu alanda Türkiye' deki mevcut durum ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca çalışmada Türkiye' deki uzaktan eğitimde akreditasyon alanındaki eksikliklere yönelik olarak da birtakım öneriler geliştirilmiştir. Uzaktan Eğitim Uzaktan eğitim, eğitimin önemli bir bölümünün öğrencilerden zaman ve mekan olarak uzakta olan bir kişi tarafından yürütüldüğü eğitimsel bir süreç (Perraton, 1993); öğretmenin öğrencileri ile bir sınıf ortamında sürekli ve doğrudan denetim altında olmadığı her düzeydeki değişik öğretme ve öğrenme türleri (Holmberg, 1990) ya da okul ve öğrencilerin aynı zamanda farklı yerlerde olduğu ve doküman, ses ve video paylaşımı için çift yönlü interaktif sistemlerin kullanıldığı kurumsal olarak örgütlenmiş eğitim programları şeklinde tanımlanabilmektedir (Simonson ve Schlosser, 1995) Yukarıdaki tanımların ortak noktalarını kapsayacak şekilde, bir öğrenme sis-teminde teknolojiler sayesinde, zaman ve mekân içinde katılımcıların iletişim olanaklarının tanımlanması olarak da ifade edilebilecek olan uzaktan eğitimin 1 Dr, Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı,
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GİRİŞ Kişilere her zaman ve her yerde eğitim alabilme ve kendini geliştirebilme fırsatı sunan uzaktan eğitim, iletişim teknolojilerindeki gelişmelere paralel olarak günü-müzde büyük bir talep görmektedir. Bu açıdan uzaktan eğitim hizmetini sunan kurumların ve bu kurumlardan eğitim almış kişilerin sayılarının artmasına bağlı olarak da uzaktan eğitim hizmeti veren kurumların kaliteleri sorgulanır olmuştur. Bu çalışmada da uzaktan eğitim alanında sunulan hizmetlerin kalitesi hakkında taraflara bilgi verme ve belirli nitelikleri taşıyor olma sorumluluğu açısından bü-yük önem arz eden uzaktan eğitimde akreditasyon çalışmaları mevcut literatür çerçevesinde incelenmiş olup farklı ülkelerdeki uzaktan eğitimde akreditasyon ça-lışmaları ile bu alanda Türkiye' deki mevcut durum ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca çalışmada Türkiye' deki uzaktan eğitimde akreditasyon alanındaki eksiklik-lere yönelik olarak da birtakım öneriler geliştirilmiştir. Uzaktan Eğitim Uzaktan eğitim, eğitimin önemli bir bölümünün öğrencilerden zaman ve me-kan olarak uzakta olan bir kişi tarafından yürütüldüğü eğitimsel bir süreç (Per-raton, 1993); öğretmenin öğrencileri ile bir sınıf ortamında sürekli ve doğrudan denetim altında olmadığı her düzeydeki değişik öğretme ve öğrenme türleri (Hol-mberg, 1990) ya da okul ve öğrencilerin aynı zamanda farklı yerlerde olduğu ve doküman, ses ve video paylaşımı için çift yönlü interaktif sistemlerin kullanıldığı kurumsal olarak örgütlenmiş eğitim programları şeklinde tanımlanabilmektedir (Simonson ve Schlosser, 1995) Yukarıdaki tanımların ortak noktalarını kapsayacak şekilde, bir öğrenme sis-teminde teknolojiler sayesinde, zaman ve mekân içinde katılımcıların iletişim olanaklarının tanımlanması olarak da ifade edilebilecek olan uzaktan eğitimin 1 Dr, Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı,
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The effect of the COVID-19 pandemic globally and the disruptions occasioned by it has far-reaching implications on societies in general and most especially the educational sector with governments across the globe ordering lockdowns including the closure of education institutions thereby necessitating alternative teaching and learning methods other than the usual face-to-face interaction to avoid a total collapse of the education sector. This study investigates Nigerian University lecturers’ perspective and response to virtual learning as an alternative to face-to-face teaching method during the pandemic. Relying on primary data source collected using questionnaires, a total number of 435 lecturers responded across both public and private universities and their responses analysed using SPSS. The study found that lecturers from private universities responded to virtual teaching than those from public universities; that the presence of infrastructural orientation influences virtual orientation; and that a negative relationship exists between the sociodemographic/occupational variables (gender, current position, years of experience) and virtual orientation of lecturers of Nigerian universities.
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This purpose of this study was to examine the satisfaction of Afghan students from online learning during COVID-19 at Kandahar University, Kandahar, Afghanistan. This research used a quantitative approach, and the learners were from several departments of Education Faculty as well as they were selected through random sample. Similarly, the questionnaire was the main instrument of this study. As well as, three hundred and forty students took participation. After collecting the data, it was analyzed by implementing IBM 24 version of (SPSS). Moreover, the findings of this research indicated that majority students were not satisfied from distance education because learners could not learn from online education compare to traditional classroom setting, learners did not have access to internet-based learning through computer or smartphone, students did not prefer web-based learning, and learners did not seek the same descriptions of lessons on online learning process compare to traditional method of classroom. Also, online learning did not able students to learn independently. However, they were somehow satisfied from the role of teachers who played their role as a facilitator during e-learning process.
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