Article

Legitimate Peripheral Participation in Communities of Practice

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Abstract

We now can begin to turn the observations of the previous chapter into objects to be analyzed. In the following sections, we recast the central characteristics of these several historical realizations of apprenticeship in terms of legitimate peripheral participation. First, we discuss the structuring resources that shape the process and content of learning possibilities and apprentices' changing perspectives on what is known and done. Then we argue that “transparency” of the sociopolitical organization of practice, of its content and of the artifacts engaged in practice, is a crucial resource for increasing participation. We next examine the relation of newcomers to the discourse of practice. This leads to a discussion of how identity and motivation are generated as newcomers move toward full participation. Finally, we explore contradictions inherent in learning, and the relations of the resulting conflicts to the development of identity and the transformation of practice.

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... Thus, rather than assuming predefined lingual identities, we explore language as one among multiple sociocultural influences that contributes in the formation of identity. In particular, we use the community of practice (CoP) framework (see Lave and Wenger, 1991) to analyse the social interaction among peers in a youth club based in Bolzano where both Italian and German is spoken. After illustrating the CoP approach in relation to youth work, we outline the qualitative methods used during fieldwork. ...
... Regarding the margins, this shift allows us to understand social learning. Lave and Wenger (1991) describe an apprenticeship model of learning that involves a movement from legitimate peripheral to full participation in a CoP. Here, the CoP, rather than the single teacher, provides 'information, resources and opportunities for participation' that enable learners to access membership in the community (Lave and Wenger, 1991, p. 101). ...
... A case study of a transformational experience? The impact of a European study visit on youth workers' professional development and professional practice learning in their focus on situational learning (Lave and Wenger, 1991) which is recognised by Fenwick who suggests that ''learning is rooted in the situation in which a person participates' (Fenwick, 2003, p. 24). ...
Article
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The Transformative Youth Work (TYW) project uses an appreciative inquiry evaluation method developed by Cooper (2016) that collects and analyses young people’s perceptions of the impact of youth work in their lives. In this article, the authors focus discussion upon the benefits of this process in a local government context, for youth work evaluation, for staff development and for improving understanding of youth work by other stakeholders who can influence youth work funding and policy. The Transformative Youth Work process was trialled in two local government youth services in Perth Western Australia, in conjunction with the international project discussed elsewhere in this issue. The research found that 1) there were important benefits for youth work team and staff development and 2) that the project greatly improved stakeholders understanding of the youth work process and 3) that both services intend to embed the process into future practice.
... The term CoP is a relatively new term, but the concept has long been established (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The model was first described by Wenger between 1991 and2002 and was originally proposed as a template that explored the learning of practitioners in a social environment between a novice and an expert (Li et al., 2009a(Li et al., , 2009b. ...
... They are also described as a collection of relationships and ongoing exchanges with a group of people who have a common interest (Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center, 2012). CoPs are formed by people who have a shared goal and a desire do things better as they interact on a regular basis (Lave & Wenger, 1991). ...
... 283-310) The benefits of such a group is that practitioners can discuss the meaning of the evidence and how it can be implemented into their own context (Li et al., 2009a(Li et al., , 2009b. With such benefits, it has been seen as a means of organisations improving their performance in health and other sectors (Lave & Wenger, 1991). ...
Article
Background Embedding research into practice is challenging. Barriers include: a shortage of time, lack of understanding of the evidence and a poor support in the clinical setting. A community of practice (CoP) model has been used to address these issues. Three ‘Evidence into Practice’ groups use a CoP model to assist the rapid translation of evidence into practice in primary and secondary care settings. We describe how a CoP model supports the functions, operations and outputs of three ‘Evidence into Practice Groups’. Method A CoP model is used to engage a broad range of clinicians, researchers, managers, patients and librarians in the complex process of acquiring research knowledge and then translating knowledge into practice. The CoP principles of Domain, Community and Practice are used to describe three ‘Evidence into Practice Groups’ who cater for different elements of the care and academic sector and engage a range of professional groups. This includes primary and secondary care engaging professionals such as general practitioners (GP), practice nurses, allied health professionals, researchers and librarians. All groups are clinically led, academically supported and follow similar processes to identify the best evidence and translate it into practice. As the groups reflect the context in which they work they have different operational arrangements for example frequency and time of meetings. Results The CoP model enabled three ‘Evidence into Practice Groups’ over time to: engage over 180 clinical and academic staff; answer 130 clinical questions; improve clinical care, gain funding for two randomised controlled trials (enrolled over n = 7000 participants) and identify areas for further research, quality improvement audit and training. Conclusion The CoP model encourages the rapid translation of evidence into practice by engaging staff to identify areas of clinical concern in their own context, thereby stimulating their interest and involvement. This creates a meaningful link between research and practice. Clinical leadership and the CoP model ensure that practice change is quick and efficient. This model can be replicated at scale. Consideration needs to be given to the key ingredients to achieve impact.
... The task, as interpreted from the community of practice framework, is the context where both old-timers and newcomers engage in a joint enterprise to share and communicate the skills and knowledge needed to move towards learning and meaningful knowing (Lave & Wenger, 1999, 2000Wenger, 2000;Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002). Old-timers are considered knowledgeable peers whose knowledge base of relevant concepts, ideas, theories, beliefs, values, and appropriate actions influences and structures the social learning process for newcomers to construct and develop knowledge. ...
... Correspondingly, mutual engagement between oldtimers and newcomers focused on the joint enterprise of knowledge construction is achieved through the processes of membership, boundaries, and legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1999, 2000Wenger, 2000;Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002). Newcomers gain membership or productive access to a community of practice through a range of actions (adopting unique ways of speaking, acting, and thinking) and through co-participation with old-timers and other newcomers within the supportive context provided by competent old-timers and their knowledge of the social site and its resources, and the inherent boundaries. ...
... Although membership and boundaries shape newcomers' access to social learning processes, this does not occur without legitimate peripheral participation (Lave & Wenger, 1999, 2000Wenger, 2000). That is, newcomers can still be located on the periphery of the social learning processes where they can situate themselves by adhering to the dictates for proper practice and, thus, just acquiring the knowledge within the social learning process or be embedded in it without co-participation. ...
... El concepto de comunidades de práctica refleja también de uno u otro modo las ideas apuntadas. Las comunidades de práctica (Lave y Wenger, 1991y 2001; Aguilera, Mendoza, Racionero y Soler, 2010) refieren a aquellas relaciones de aprendizaje que se establecen no solo entre un aprendiz y su maestro, sino que también involucran a otros -por ejemplo, a otros aprendices más avanzados-; la actividad de aprender se concibe, entonces, como un esfuerzo comunitario para la resolución de problemas o para la consecución de un fin práctico que considera la interacción grupal. ...
... El concepto de comunidades de práctica refleja también de uno u otro modo las ideas apuntadas. Las comunidades de práctica (Lave y Wenger, 1991y 2001; Aguilera, Mendoza, Racionero y Soler, 2010) refieren a aquellas relaciones de aprendizaje que se establecen no solo entre un aprendiz y su maestro, sino que también involucran a otros -por ejemplo, a otros aprendices más avanzados-; la actividad de aprender se concibe, entonces, como un esfuerzo comunitario para la resolución de problemas o para la consecución de un fin práctico que considera la interacción grupal. ...
... Las comunidades de práctica (Lave y Wenger, 1991y 2001 se caracterizan por lo siguiente: ...
Article
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El curso basal de competencias comunicativas en Derecho: Enseñanza de la escritura académica desde un enfoque mixto e interdisciplinar O curso basal de competências comunicativas em Dereito: Ensino da escrita acadêmica desde um enfoque misto e interdisciplinar The core course of communication skills in Law: Academic writing teaching from a mixed and interdisciplinary approach RESUMEN Este artículo da cuenta de una propuesta intensiva de formación en compe-tencias comunicativas destinada a estudiantes de primer año de la carrera de Derecho de una universidad chilena en el marco de un programa de alfabetización académica y profesional. Presenta la plataforma teórica, metodológica y didáctica de la propuesta centrada en la relevancia de la escritura como herramienta epistémica y la integración de dos dispositivos institucionales de carácter concomitante. Asimismo, analiza el dise-ño del curso basal al interior de la comunidad de práctica concernida. El curso se pro-yecta como un espacio formativo donde los estudiantes puedan optimizar sus procesos de producción escrita, transformándose en comunicadores más eficientes. Con esto se concluye que, en el contexto de la educación superior chilena, el curso basal se instala como un dispositivo clave para integrar formación general y orientación disciplinar al promover en su quehacer pedagógico la lectura y escritura de textos disciplinares y el aprendizaje colaborativo a través de la incorporación de mentorías de estudiantes avan-zados de las mismas comunidades. También el curso sitúa al estudiante en los textos que
... Communities of Practice (CoPs) offer a promising mode of delivery for continuous group learning and problem solving [6]. Communities of Practice (CoPs) are groups of people with a common work objective who meet regularly to support each other, share and create knowledge, and explore innovations [6,7]. ...
... Communities of Practice (CoPs) offer a promising mode of delivery for continuous group learning and problem solving [6]. Communities of Practice (CoPs) are groups of people with a common work objective who meet regularly to support each other, share and create knowledge, and explore innovations [6,7]. In their original studies among West African tailors, Lave and Wenger (1991) developed CoP theory to describe the organic learning that occurs among tradespersons and other professionals-in-training [6][7][8]. ...
... Communities of Practice (CoPs) are groups of people with a common work objective who meet regularly to support each other, share and create knowledge, and explore innovations [6,7]. In their original studies among West African tailors, Lave and Wenger (1991) developed CoP theory to describe the organic learning that occurs among tradespersons and other professionals-in-training [6][7][8]. They theorized that the learning that happens within CoPs occurs through social interactions within the specific context where the task is meant to be performed [6,7]. ...
Article
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Background Communities of Practice (CoPs) offer an accessible strategy for healthcare workers to improve the quality of care through knowledge sharing. However, not enough is known about which components of CoPs are core to facilitating behavior change. Therefore, we carried out a qualitative study to address these important gaps in the literature on CoPs and inform planning for an interventional study of CoPs. Methods We organized community health workers (CHWs) from two tuberculosis (TB) clinics in Kampala, Uganda, into a CoP from February to June 2018. We conducted interviews with CoP members to understand their perceptions of how the CoP influenced delivery of TB contact investigation. Using an abductive approach, we first applied inductive codes characterizing CHWs’ perceptions of how the CoP activities affected their delivery of contact investigation. We then systematically mapped these codes into their functional categories using the Behavior Change Technique (BCT) Taxonomy and the Behavior Change Wheel framework. We triangulated all interview findings with detailed field notes. Results All eight members of the CoP agreed to participate in the interviews. CHWs identified five CoP activities as core to improving the quality of their work: (1) individual review of feedback reports, (2) collaborative improvement meetings, (3) real-time communications among members, (4) didactic education sessions, and (5) clinic-wide staff meetings. These activities incorporated nine different BCTs and five distinct intervention functions. CHWs reported that these activities provided a venue for them to share challenges, exchange knowledge, engage in group problem solving, and benefit from social support. CHWs also explained that they felt a shared sense of ownership of the CoP, which motivated them to propose and carry out innovations. CHWs described that the CoP strengthened their social and professional identities within and outside the group, and improved their self-efficacy. Conclusions We identified the core components and several mechanisms through which CoPs may improve CHW performance. Future studies should evaluate the importance of these mechanisms in mediating the effects of CoPs on program effectiveness.
... As science fields have evolved from a practice that spans beyond describing the natural world and toward one that is able to leverage those understandings for practical use, so has science education, as illustrated by active learning paradigms that emphasize inquiry (Deboer, 2006;Flick & Lederman, 2004) and problem solving (Savery, 2015;Torp & Sage, 2002) as frames for learning. Active learning is a process of practicing science Harel & Papert, 2001;Lave & Wenger, 2001), as opposed to learning through didactic instruction that is often guided by instructors who are, in this view, situated as knowledge dispensers. In active learning, instructors are facilitators who lead learners through the development of questions to guide inquiry or the iteration of solutions that address real world problems (Freeman et al., 2014;Prince, 2004). ...
... Design based learning, on the other hand, can be understood as processes in which reflection and practice are interwoven and situated within acts. This perspective-that learning is embedded in practice-is not unique to design and has been well theorized in K-12 education research Harel & Papert, 2001;Lave & Wenger, 2001). This distinction is illustrated in a comparison of learning that exclusively engages science topics in isolation from specific contexts and learning that takes place in a place such as a design studio where the activity is embedded in specific contexts (Waks, 2001) and where designers actively consider "the needs and values of those for whom they are This perspective has been examined in a number of K-12 STEM academic subject areas (Bell et al., 2018;Bequette & Bequette, 2012) and especially in engineering (Dym, 1999;Puente et al., 2011;Strobel et al., 2013), wherein production is prioritized. ...
Article
Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics fields have incredible impacts on society and the planet. One example of such a field is synthetic biology—a modern biotechnology that involves the, often genetic, manipulation of cells or cellular outputs for practical purposes. This field influences agriculture, medicine, and manufacturing—to name a few. Concomitant with these advancements is the rise of professional communities and university level academic areas of study around synthetic biology. These activities—until recently—have been limited to commercial groups and experts due to the material and intellectual resources needed for field engagement. The emergence of lower cost portable lab tools, local community lab spaces, and interactive public exhibits has made synthetic biology accessible to field novices of all ages. Despite, there is little research that examines the affordances synthetic biology may provide K-12 learners. In fact, much of existing research related to K-12 learners often includes applications that have advanced considerably or that do not include synthetic biology. Moreover, much of existing research reports on high school students, while far less examines middle school students who have previously been shown to have well-formed perspectives about biotechnologies. The research presented in this thesis attends to this gap in the literature by addressing three overarching research questions, including: (1) what do middle school students know and think about synthetic biology and its various applications, (2) how do middle school students carry out synthetic biology as an active learning activity, and (3) how do synthetic biology-related contexts clues support student justifications about their perspectives? Mixed-methods are used to examine surveys, semi-structured interviews, video observation data, and student productions. Results suggest that while middle school students know very little about synthetic biology and its various applications, their well-formed opinions about the field include considerations of application utility, risks, benefits and safety. Findings also suggest that synthetic biology provides opportunities for learners to engage in personally relevant production and—when situated in detailed contexts—supports advanced justification practices. Priorities for future research and innovations in synthetic biology and science education are discussed.
... The approach taken was informed by Lave and Wenger's communities of practice. 19 Communities of practice are described as 'groups of people who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic, and who deepen their knowledge and expertise in this area by interacting on an ongoing basis'. 20 Within communities of practice, learning occurs through interacting with others who share a common interest. ...
... When joining a community of practice, new members have access to legitimate peripheral participation. 19 As legitimate peripheral participants, new learners are able to establish connections to experts and other learners. Experts in open-source AID on the study team supported HCPs' learning about open-source AID. ...
Article
Background Open-source automated insulin delivery (AID) is a user-driven treatment modality used by thousands globally. Health care professionals’ (HCPs) ability to support users of this technology is limited by a lack of knowledge of these systems. Aims To describe the challenges experienced by HCPs supporting participants’ use of open-source automated insulin delivery in the Community deRivEd AuTomatEd insulin delivery (CREATE) study. Methods Data were collected prospectively from the study team’s fortnightly meetings and Slack Workspace (Slack Technologies, Ltd. 2018) during the first four months of the trial. Key topics were identified from minutes of meetings. Slack conversations were categorised by topic, with the number of posts per conversation, number of sites per conversation and involvement of experts in open-source AID being recorded. Results In the first four months of the trial, there were 254 conversations in Slack with a mean of 5.2 (+/- 4.25) posts per conversation. The most frequent learning challenge was insulin pump and cannula problems relating to the DANA-iTM insulin pump, which totalled 24.0% of all conversations. Experts on open-source AID use were involved in 83.3% of conversations. Conclusions A significant proportion of challenges related to specific devices, rather than AID. Challenges relating to the functioning of open-source AID were more likely to involve input from experts in open-source AID. This is the first report of challenges experienced by a multi-disciplinary team in a supported open-source environment that may inform expectations in routine clinical care.
... In Australian schools, teachers regularly collaborate to set goals, and plan lessons and lesson sequences (Clarke, Clarke, & Sullivan, 2012), although the nature and extent of the collaboration varies. Lave and Wenger (1991) referred to groups of people engaged in mutual support and collaboration as "communities of practice". Three dimensions of communities of practice include mutual engagement, joint enterprise and a shared repertoire. ...
... Our project involved practising teachers, each specialised in one of the disciplines, and education researchers collaborating to design integrated lesson sequences. In our reflections on the process, it was notable that we were drawing upon the expertise and knowledge of each member in the group, which is recognised as being particularly important for planning across two subjects (Putnam & Borko, 2000) and emphasises our truly "joint enterprise" (Lave & Wenger, 1991). ...
Article
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Integrating mathematics and science can enrich student learning by providing relevant, meaningful, and engaging learning experiences that promote positive attitudes towards both subjects. However, despite reported benefits in relation to student learning, various barriers to integration have also been identified, including limited teacher content and pedagogical content knowledge, and the need for professional learning support with planning and implementing integrated lessons. In this article, we report on the initial phase of a larger project in which mathematics and science education researchers and primary teachers collaborated to design two sequences of integrated mathematics and science lessons. We focus on the processes considered critical for success, including how knowledge was co-constructed by the design team to develop the integrated lesson sequences. Findings are communicated as a set of guidelines to support teachers and educators interested in replicating the process to integrate mathematics and science content.
... Being introduced to and trained by people who they trust (e.g., family and friends, or staff at community centers that older adults are familiar with), might help reduce the anxiety of technology adoption and increase the self-efficacy of using the new technology [74]. Correspondingly, our study suggests the value of designing sociotechnical systems that enable those who have interacted with crisis apps to share their experiences with and educate others (e.g., through legitimate peripheral participation [40,41]). Such innovations and broader work attempting to meet older adults' needs will require not only digital tools but also community partnerships to create services and develop relationships between institutions and community members that can support both esteem and basic needs. ...
Conference Paper
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Mass emergencies increasingly pose significant threats to human life, with a disproportionate burden being incurred by older adults. Research has explored how mobile technology can mitigate the effects of mass emergencies. However, less work has examined how mobile technologies support older adults during emergencies, considering their unique needs. To address this research gap, we interviewed 16 older adults who had recent experience with an emergency evacuation to understand the perceived value of using mobile technology during emergencies. We found that there was a lack of awareness and engagement with existing crisis apps. Our findings characterize the ways in which our participants did and did not feel crisis informatics tools address human values, including basic needs and esteem needs. We contribute an understanding of how older adults used mobile technology during emergencies and their perspectives on how well such tools address human values.
... As a second implication, it is important to note that many studies in the field of teacher noticing focus on the change in practice of individual teachers, but fewer describe the impact on the practice of groups of teachers. The notion of collective noticing broadens potential effects of video club participation to include not only the individual, but also communities of practice (e.g., Lave & Wenger, 1991), implying that a group setting may foster a powerful learning environment. We encourage teacher educators to consider the ramifications of repeated group interactions and to be mindful of the power of collective social experiences when planning video clubs. ...
Article
Video clubs have been used for more than a decade to support teachers’ professional noticing. Accordingly, numerous studies have evaluated video use as a tool for professional learning, concentrating on aspects such as video selection, club meetings, and teacher interviews. Yet, few researchers have considered noticing as a result of repeated experiences in video clubs, over time, or teachers’ perceptions of video clubs. In this study, we explored individual and collective teacher noticing and teachers’ perceived value of video club participation, incorporating multiple data sources. The study was conducted over one academic year with elementary teachers. Our results reveal that teachers noticed broad aspects of teaching as well as specifics of students’ mathematical thinking. Additionally, teachers perceived video club participation as prompting deeper thinking and reflection and encouraging application of learned pedagogical practices. Of interest, participant noticing appeared to converge over time, suggesting social construction of meaning based on collective experiences. Thus, we introduce the notion of collective noticing–a term we coin to describe the convergence of noticing that may result from repeated engagement and discourse between a group of teachers focused on the same videos over time. We encourage teacher educators to consider the specific foci of video clubs and the ramifications of collective, repeated experiences through the video club process.
... one teacher-trainee relationship, whereas urban residents appear to participate in larger teams, consisting of other peers and medical students. It is helpful to view these differences through the lens of Lave and Wegner's concept of a community of practice (CoP) in which it is suggested that learning occurs through participation within a community, consisting of relationships amongst people, activities, resources and culture in the context of a shared purpose.42 Urban residents participate in a broad community consisting of multiple learners, working as a team, in the context of clinical practice. ...
Article
Context: Medical schools of geographically large nations have expanded into rural areas to facilitate the development of a sustainable rural pipeline of physicians. Preceptor, or clinical teacher, recruitment at these sites has been an ongoing challenge. However, residents-as-teachers (RaT) curricula have not been modified to support the development of rural teachers. This study aimed to compare teaching opportunities between rural and urban family medicine residents and to identify mechanisms underlying potential differences. Methods: Year-1 and Year-2 family medicine residents at seven Canadian institutions participated in a mixed-methods study utilising a quantitative survey and a qualitative interview. Rural and urban residents rated the quantity and types of teaching opportunities available during their training, from which a chi-squared analysis was completed. Volunteer respondents participated in a structured interview, from which a thematic analysis was performed. Results: Rural family medicine residents had fewer opportunities to teach compared to their urban colleagues. This discrepancy was seen across multiple domains, including informal opportunities when on family medicine rotations, χ2 (4, n = 242) = 45.26, P < .000, Bonferroni's adjusted P < .000. Thematic analysis centred around determining factors influencing teaching opportunities and identified that the academic context, personal factors and programme factors were key dimensions. Within these dimensions, the number of medical students, a desire to be an educator and administrative support were cited as influences on teaching opportunities. Conclusions: The lack of teaching opportunities for rural trainees is attributable to a combination of practical and organisational factors revealed through thematic analysis. If rural graduates are not comfortable balancing the demands of service and teaching, this could compound the already prevalent issue of rural preceptor recruitment. It is essential to develop a rural-focused RaT curriculum to close this gap and produce competent educators who are ready to inspire generations of rural physicians.
... They recognize that it is central to how they are perceived, especially in the L2 environment (Gluszek & Dovidio, 2010). They often do not know what is wrong, nor what matters, nor how to participate in the L2 community of practice (Lave & Wenger, 2001). Our teaching, even when it is not perfect or extensive, can help them with their intelligibility, especially if we pay more attention to pronunciation features that make a difference such as suprasegmentals (e.g., stress, melody, rhythm), high functional load segmentals (such as /l/-/r/, /p/-/b/), and varied types of practice activities, from formbased practice to communicative practice and connections to other language skills. ...
Chapter
The overarching aim of this book is to offer researchers and students insight into some currently discussed issues at the Swedish as well as the international research frontline of Language Education in a selection of up-to-date work. Another aim is to provide teachers, teacher educators and policy-makers with input from research within the interconnected disciplines of Applied Linguistics, Language Education and Second Language Acquisition. The volume includes five examples of topical research on language education and the authors are internationally renowned scholars. The chapters are based on a selection of talks presented at the 1st ELE Conference (‘Exploring Language Education’), which was held at Stockholm University in 2018. Employing a broad thematic scope, the volume reflects the variety of perspectives on language education brought together at the conference by authors working in diverse areas of the field and in different parts of the world. With the first ELE conference the organizers wished to call attention to the intersection of the global and the local, in terms of linguistic and cultural diversity, which may inform both research questions and language education practices. Issues related to multilingualism, Global Englishes, and experienced tensions between research and practice are examples of generally shared issues that were brought up by many speakers. The chapters of the book represent this variety of themes and illustrate how different regions and communities are contingent on local prerequisites and circumstances, leading to a number of particular challenges and assets when it comes to language education. The chapters represent different parts of the broad array of research directions that can be discerned under the large umbrella of Language Education, zooming in on the Western context, specifically Sweden, Canada and the United States. Two of the plenary speakers from the conference, Nina Spada and John Levis contribute in the volume. In Spada’s text different ways to bridge the gap between research and practice in language education are discussed, an issue highly relevant to all of those interested in collaborative research between researchers and teachers. The second chapter, written by Levis, presents current research on phonology and the importance of pronunciation in second or foreign language communication. These two are followed by three chapters reporting on empirical studies. Amanda Brown and colleagues present their work on translanguaging in the English L2 classroom, giving an extensive overview of ideological stances from the last decades on the use of mother tongues vs. target language only in the language classroom. Liss Kerstin Sylvén reports on a recent study on very young Swedish learners of English, their exposure of English before school age and outside school and the role that this exposure plays for the development of English language proficiency. Finally, Gudrun Erickson and colleagues, present a questionnaire answered by a large number of modern language teachers in Sweden. The study explores the teachers’ answers on questions about their professional satisfaction, their use of the target language in the classroom, and the curricular status of foreign languages studied after English. Despite many critical points raised by these teachers, the survey reveals that they would not change profession, were they given the chance. The book ends with an Afterword by Stellan Sundh, University of Uppsala.
... Being introduced to and trained by people who they trust (e.g., family and friends, or staff at community centers that older adults are familiar with), might help reduce the anxiety of technology adoption and increase the self-efficacy of using the new technology [74]. Correspondingly, our study suggests the value of designing sociotechnical systems that enable those who have interacted with crisis apps to share their experiences with and educate others (e.g., through legitimate peripheral participation [40,41]). Such innovations and broader work attempting to meet older adults' needs will require not only digital tools but also community partnerships to create services and develop relationships between institutions and community members that can support both esteem and basic needs. ...
Preprint
Mass emergencies increasingly pose significant threats to human life, with a disproportionate burden being incurred by older adults. Research has explored how mobile technology can mitigate the effects of mass emergencies. However, less work has examined how mobile technologies support older adults during emergencies, considering their unique needs. To address this research gap, we interviewed 16 older adults who had recent experience with an emergency evacuation to understand the perceived value of using mobile technology during emergencies. We found that there was a lack of awareness and engagement with existing crisis apps. Our findings characterize the ways in which our participants did and did not feel crisis informatics tools address human values, including basic needs and esteem needs. We contribute an understanding of how older adults used mobile technology during emergencies and their perspectives on how well such tools address human values.
... Disciplines can be conceived as domains, epistemic cultures, or communities of practice (Knorr Cetina, 2009;Lave & Wenger, 2002;Moje, 2015) in which members share conventions on the literacy practices required to No. 1 July/August 2020 literacyworldwide.org ...
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It is generally considered that students who want to become scientists engage in scientific practices as university students, particularly when pursuing postgraduate studies. However, schools and teachers can help students participate in authentic scientific and disciplinary practices, such as data sampling and analysis, in high school. The authors explore the case of a Mexican high school student whose experience in becoming a published scientific author was afforded through the synergy of different factors, such as a specific school’s curriculum, a teacher’s pedagogy based on his real experience as a scientist, and an institutional context that favors scientific endeavors. The findings are discussed based on Moje’s framework of common disciplinary practices and Knorr‐Cetina’s definition of habitual and epistemic practices.
... op basis van Billet, 2006;. Toekomstbestendig vakmanschap in het TTV-project betreft een vraagstuk in veelal kennisrijke werkomgevingen, waar de toekomstig vakman of -vrouw in zal moeten groeien (Lave & Wenger, 2001). ...
Book
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In het lectoraat Lectoraat Wendbaar Vakmanschap is het concept wendbaar vakmanschap gedefinieerd als een behendigheid om te leren tijdens het werk. Deze bijdrage laat zien hoe die definitie door de verschillende kenniskringleden verder vorm is gegeven in hun projecten. De bijdragen in het boek zijn op uiteenlopende wijze tot stand gekomen en vertolken de zienswijze van de verschillende auteurs. De bundel als geheel weerspiegelt de wisselwerking tussen deze perspectieven als werkwijze van de kenniskring Wendbaar Vakmanschap. We waren onderweg en tijdens onze reis in dialoog met elkaar. Het lectoraat Wendbaar Vakmanschap is beëindigd, maar de zoektocht naar wendbaar vakmanschap allerminst.
... This brings to the fore one of the themes this research study will be investigating, regarding the way Catholic schools pass on to their members the values that underpin the Catholic faith through the celebration of the Sacraments, prayer life and aspects of social justice, themes that will be explored later in the four case study schools. The gradual movement towards full participation within an organisation helps the members not only to familiarise themselves with the culture and practices embraced by the institution, but it increases in them a commitment towards those values and assumptions that hone the culture within the setting (Lave and Wenger, 2002). Data for this in the research will be sought from the interviews with the four Head Teachers and members of their senior management team, in investigating the way collegiality is exercised within each school and the empowerment delegated to members of staff in the decision-taking process. ...
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This case study research addresses the nature of Catholic schools in promoting values through their daily commitments and lifestyles. Within a liberal and secularised society, where education is meant to be free of any denominational values, the passing on to students of values that concern ethics and morals can be interpreted as indoctrination leading towards intolerance. With the advent of the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), the sense of enquiry even into matters regarding the faith took over rote learning and the imposition of doctrine of the Catholic Church. It is indicative of this study that this approach brought within these schools a novel way in passing on values through continuous discovery, enquiry, fraternal dialogue, analysis and interpretation. Consequently, this study points out that cultural attachment, especially at a tender age, needs to be maintained within these schools. To provide rich pictures of the four schools, qualitative methodology was used; observations, schools’ literature and interviews with teachers, parents and students in all the schools and also with governors in the English schools. Malta provided a highly Catholic context and England, a secular one. Irrespective of these differences, the data showed that cultural differences within the two countries, like patterns of worship, sense of social justice, inclusion and sense of community, their vision of the common good and leadership emerge. Four aspects of Catholic schooling transpired: these are Worship, Inclusion, Community and Service. It is mainly through these four channels that values, inspired by the teachings of Jesus and of the Catholic Church, are transmitted to the school community.
... This could entail significant differences in attitude and motivation (Wannemacher, 2009). Participating in a community such as Wikipedia, in fact, makes it possible to develop two aspects of the collaborative process: interaction between peers, which encourages negotiation and the co-construction of artefacts, as well as an apprentice-master relationship, typical of 'legitimate peripheral participation' (Lave & Wenger, 2002;Baytiyeh & Pfaffman, 2010). However, it must be borne in mind that this collaborative process takes place outside of the 'protected' university environment and involves unmediated social interactions, in which students may often have to deal with people who do not always abide by netiquette rules. ...
Article
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The academic world initially regarded Wikipedia with misgivings for a number of reasons, including the uncertainty concerning the reliability of its content, its anonymous authorship and the fact that students often use it as an easy way to cut and paste material for their coursework. In recent years, however, university instructors’ perception of Wikipedia has changed significantly: it is seen as a useful teaching resource, as well as a promising environment for learning and collaborative knowledge building. It can be used for teaching purposes by assigning students to create and edit encyclopaedia articles. Such assignments can have many benefits: in addition to improving students’ understanding of content, the assignments have been shown to increase their intrinsic motivation to learn, develop digital competences and build cross-cutting skills in online communication and interaction. Lastly, in connection with universities’ institutional role, editing Wikipedia can be an interesting channel for the public communication of science.
... The domain represents a common ground where participants share ideas and knowledge, thus building a shared understanding, a meaning and a strategic relevance (Wenger et al., 2002). In communities of practice, members share and develop practices, learn from interactions with other members and obtain opportunities to grow at a personal, professional, and/or intellectual level (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The community is a group of individuals who learn and interact together, thus building relationships that lead to a sense of belonging and mutual engagement (Wenger, 1998). ...
Article
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Social networking sites have enabled a high connectedness leading to unprecedented interactive dynamics. Social workers are using these digital means and are generating communities of practice through which they cooperate and shareinformation. Through netnography and analysis of social networking sites we have observed the presence, identity, and connectedness, and interaction patterns on LinkedIn of 170 social workers who worked at 41 organizations from specificcontexts. Implicit communities were identified through various algorithms, thus analyzing leadership and cohesion of their members. Results show connectedness and interaction patterns that lead to the creation of communities of practice on LinkedIn based on social work domains and practices. The possibility of establishing and maintaining relationships on LinkedIn and applying social networking sites to social intervention as an innovative strategy to improve information exchange and cooperation between professionals and organizations is addressed in the discussion.
... In others it was through learning new coding skills themselves via the help and support of more experienced peers. As such, while there was in some cases no exchange of code the interactions observed were akin to forms of legitimate peripheral participation [31] observed in open source communities [13,68] and in situated studies of learning programing skills [13,49]. Therefore, while there were clearly challenges associated with the creation of bot ideas requested by novices, there is great potential to see acts of making bots as sites where the mysterious Òblack boxÓ of technology can be unpicked and understood. ...
Conference Paper
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Bots are estimated to account for well over half of all web traffic, yet they remain an understudied topic in HCI. In this paper we present the findings of an analysis of 2284 submissions across three discussion groups dedicated to the request, creation and discussion of bots on Reddit. We set out to examine the qualities and functionalities of bots and the practical and social challenges surrounding their creation and use. Our findings highlight the prevalence of misunderstandings around the capabilities of bots, misalignments in discourse between novices who request and more expert members who create them, and the prevalence of requests that are deemed to be inappropriate for the Reddit community. In discussing our findings, we suggest future directions for the design and development of tools that support more carefully guided and reflective approaches to bot development for novices, and tools to support exploring the consequences of contextuallyinappropriate bot ideas.
... Any scholarly reflection on teaching and learning must begin by giving an account of its assumptions about what knowledge is: how can we conceptualise the learning we want our students to engage in? The notion of "communities of practice", generally attributed to Lave and Wenger (Lave & Wenger, 2000), is my starting point. Rather than thinking of knowledge as an individualised cognitive property of the teacher's brain, which can then be passed on to an eager and receptive learner, knowledge is instead understood to be a situated and relational property of a group of people: the community. ...
Article
This article is about fostering students’ ability to become creative interpreters of images using activities in a specially curated art exhibition. Drawing on theories of knowledge and learning that emphasize the role of communities of practice and situated learning, I make four related arguments. First, it is valuable for students to go beyond texts and engage critically with the images and other creative practices that form the texture of their everyday lives. Second, students come to us already as members of a community of practice that knows certain things: therefore, their learning must engage directly with the things they already know and believe, in order to enable them to challenge received wisdom or defend their existing positions more critically and thoughtfully. Third, the images that surround them in everyday life create the conditions of possibility for their existing knowledge practices, and those images have a history and context that is frequently not known or critically examined by students. Fourth, and consequently, it is important not only to enable students to engage with historical images that form the context to contemporary imaginations but also to support them in making the links between seemingly very different types of images from past and present. I conclude that, with appropriate scaffolding and support, we can use art galleries to help students learn to link their classroom and book learning with their everyday life experiences in order to become critical and engaged spectators in a world of images.
... The development of effective collaborative acts is crucial prior to establishing a connectivism-based writing interaction. While Lave and Wenger (2002) argue that learning is situated within participation between individuals, this study confirms that high achievers operate effectively in communities of practitioners without the teacher's probes, suggesting Figure 3. Connectivism writing teaching approach model. that students assume social roles. ...
Article
Despite the widely established importance of connectivism pedagogies in 21st century learning, there remains a relative dearth of evidence with some expectations on enhancing writing experiences during COVID-19 using online and remote writing mediums. This study aimed to explore how students engage in making sense of their own writing using connectivism learning theory, which allowed them to explore the meaning-making process at personal and collective levels. The study employed a case study design, using data from 43 students enrolled in a first-year enhanced language training (ELT) program; their English levels ranged from 4.0–4.5 International English Language Testing System (IELTS) band scores. The findings of this study suggest that combining both cognitive process theory and connectivism learning theory to teach writing promotes students’ reflective practices and deepens their understanding of their writing styles. Furthermore, students’ collaborative writing actions led to improvements in their understanding of their approach to text formulation. The findings of this study reveal that connectivism learning theory helped students author longer texts than they usually did, suggesting that writer’s blocks for English as a Second Language (ESL) novice writers had reduced. Therefore, this study recommends that teachers should blend a reflective approach to writing with connectivist pedagogies.
... The concept of the CoL was preferred instead of the Community of Practice (CoP, Lave & Wenger, 1991), considering that the aspect of practice is one of the binding elements in a professional learning community which is favourable to change (de Lima, 2001, p. 102). The concept of the CoL reflects that in this study, cognitive resources from people with different professional credentials are combined in order to promote learning of all members. ...
Article
This case study focuses on teachers’ professional development in NanoScience and nanoTechnology (NST). In the context of a Community of Learners (CoL), in-service teachers in collaboration with science education researchers, nanoscience researchers and experts from science museums, developed a teaching module. This module integrates NST topics along with aspects of science communication, i.e. development of science exhibits and socio-scientific issues, e.g. ethics regarding the research in this field. The data were gathered over 1-year period by using video recordings and interviews. The Interconnected Model of Professional Growth was used to study the processes that support teachers’ professional change in this context, as they are elicited from their interactions in the CoL. Our findings indicate that the dynamic of teachers’ interactions with colleagues and the mediating processes that impact on their professional learning, are crafted on the basis of the emerged challenges in each phase of module’s design and development. These findings give an insight on teachers’ professional learning as they transfer their professional knowledge regarding scientific topics which are innovative to them, i.e. NST, into their teaching practice. In this respect, this study contributes to research literature relevant to teachers’ professionalisation in order to implement innovations in the classroom.
... Les DR sont le « en acte » ou « émergentes », c'est à dire émergeant du couplage direct à la situation, dans les moments à forte pression temporelle. En outre, pour Mouchet (2008Mouchet ( , 2014 certains joueurs manifestent aussi des préférences individuelles pour une modalité décisionnelle, par exemple en fonction du rôle occupé dans l'équipe, de leur formation et connaissances, l'action, le contexte de production de cette action et l'expérience (Durand, 1996 ;Lave & Wenger, 1991 ;Sève, Saury, Theureau, & Durand, 2002 l'existence ne présuppose pas un mécanisme de censure comme c'est le cas de l'inconscient freudien (Husserl, 1991) ; b) un mode de conscience vécue, que l'on peut aussi qualifier de conscience directe, de conscience en acte qui se caractérise comme eJRIEPS 43 janvier 2018 une saisie intentionnelle mais qui n'est pas en même temps elle-même saisie dans une conscience (Husserl, 1950) ; c) un mode de conscience réfléchie, mobilisé lorsque le sujet réfléchit au sens classique du terme ; seul mode de la conscience pouvant viser la conscience en acte (Vermersch, 2012). ...
... Sociomaterial theoretical perspectives, based on the related concepts of situated learning (Lave & Wenger, 1991), distributed cognition (Hutchins, 1995), and activity theory (Engeström, 1999), offer a robust theoretical starting point for making sense of online activities in the realm of HPE. Now recognized as an important perspective for understanding the active role of digital technologies (MacLeod et al., 2015(MacLeod et al., , 2019, sociomaterial perspectives allow for the theorizing of the entanglement of both social (human) and material (digital) elements-in other words, a sociomaterial assemblage. ...
Article
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There is increasing interest in the use of ethnography as a qualitative research approach to explore, in depth, issues of culture in health professions education (HPE). Our specific focus in this article is incorporating the digital into ethnography. Digital technologies are pervasively and increasingly shaping the way we interact, behave, think, and communicate as health professions educators and learners. Understanding the contemporary culture(s) of HPE thus means paying attention to what goes on in digital spaces. In this paper, we critically consider some of the potential issues when the field of ethnography exists outside the space time continuum, including the need to engage with theory in research about technology and digital spaces in HPE. After a very brief review of the few HPE studies that have used digital ethnography, we scrutinize what can be gained when ethnography encompasses the digital world, particularly in relation to untangling sociomaterial aspects of HPE. We chart the shifts inherent in conducting ethnographic research within the digital landscape, specifically those related to research field, the role of the researcher and ethical issues. We then use two examples to illustrate possible HPE research questions and potential strategies for using digital ethnography to answer those questions: using digital tools in the conduct of an ethnographic study and how to conduct an ethnography of a digital space. We conclude that acknowledging the pervasiveness of technologies in the design, delivery and experiences of HPE opens up new research questions which can be addressed by embracing the digital in ethnography.
... Professional identity is a highly dynamic and multi-faceted process achieved through socialisation with peers and mentors, and influenced by interactions with patients in the clinical setting [26][27][28][29]. Given that being part of the community of practice is fundamental for professional identity formation [30,31], concerns were raised when medical students were temporarily removed from the clinical training environment during the COVID-19 pandemic [32]. By extension, the social isolation due to online learning can affect preclinical students' sense of belonging to the greater community of practice. ...
Article
COVID-19 pandemic has transformed much of the medical curriculum delivery from in person to online. Given that interpersonal interaction facilitates team cohesion and professional identity formation, prolonged online learning with minimal social interaction might impact these competencies in medical education. To mitigate the impact of prolonged social isolation, we conducted synchronous team-based learning (TBL) classes, where half the class is physically present and the other is connected via an online platform, termed hybrid TBL. We present practical tips in implementing hybrid TBL for educators teaching in large-sized classes, should conditions exist where not all students can attend in person.
... Regarding the social environment, another relevant sociocultural concept is learning as "an aspect of changing participation in changing communities of practice" (Lave 1996, 151). In this approach, the community of practice provides information, resources and opportunities for participation that enable learners to access membership in the community, i.e. to change identity and to learn (Lave and Wenger 1991). ...
Article
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Early progressive and sociocultural theories in education share unexpected similarities with recent research concerned with the socio-materiality of learning settings. Therefore, this scenario retraces the shift from learning as transmission and guided rediscovery towards a performa-tive account of learning as translation. In particular, this paper elaborates the differences between conventional, sociocultural and sociomaterial approaches regarding the unit of analysis, the mediation done by nonhumans and the contemplation of more fluid forms of knowledge. While retracing conceptual links and developing a sociomaterial conception of teaching(-) learning, I argue that the recent line of sociomaterial research carries on what early authors have been aiming at with the idea of practice-based, non-reductive educational science. But, due to its alternative stance on common onto-epistemological assumptions, it opens up new possibilities of collaboration between Science and Technology Studies and educational sciences where the agency of things and the mediation of knowledge emerge as matters of concern.
... Identity is firstly understood as multiple, fluid and often conflicted in nature, and importantly includes the notion of agency to explain teacher choices and decisions. The second understanding is that identity is always related to social cultural and political contexts (Lave & Wenger 2002). ...
Chapter
The study of academic engagement has gained international visibility due to various factors operating in the social environment, such as fragmentation, 'liquidity' in interpersonal relations, etc., which end up affecting the persistence rates in studies, or its manifestation in an increasing rate of desertion in higher studies on the part of Argentine students. This research has been carried out within this framework, where 350 students of University and College education, who are enrolled in technical, humanistic-pedagogical and economic studies, completed the Academic Engagement Scale (Daura & Durand, 2018) with the purpose of analyzing, on the one hand, their level of involvement with their studies; and on the other hand, inquiring on the existing connection with demographic variables.
... As a light of possible solutions, Lave and Wenger (1991) developed a brand-new term, communities of practice (CoPs), which describes a community where teachers collaborate to figure out appropriate and efficient approaches to their common phenomena. However, despite its benefits and contributions to teaching effectiveness and teachers' professional development, CoPs are still not reaching their popularity as expected in English-teaching environments. ...
Article
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Communities of practice (CoPs) appeared to be one of the possible solutions for professionals, especially EFL teachers, who have to deal with an increasing number of complicated tasks and problems which cannot be individually solved effectively. However, CoPs were reported in several studies not to reach the popularity they deserve. Hence, this study is aimed at identifying the barriers that prevent EFL teachers from participating and constructing CoPs. The study was conducted in different cities and provinces in the Mekong Delta. A questionnaire was employed to examine participants’ agreement on the suggested barriers described in the theoretical framework, and interviews were used to confirm and improve the results of the quantitative data collected. Regarding the research participants, 116 EFL teachers in public schools and English centers in the Mekong Delta responded to the questionnaire, while seven of them were chosen to conduct the interviews. The findings were classified into teacher-related and organization-related barriers. While the former includes cultural and psychological factors, the latter consists of barriers from school leaders’ power and policies. Article visualizations: </p
... 'Sharing' occurs when teachers regularly exchange, materials, methods, ideas, and opinions, and make their daily teaching routines accessible to other 'teachers'. Finally, collegial interaction with the highest level of interdependence involves 'joint or team work' such as 'instructional problem-solving and planning' or participation in 'communities of practice' (Lave and Wenger 1991). This last level of collaboration is assumed to hold a rich learning potential in that it allows teachers to feel collective responsibility for their work and their school community as a whole. ...
... Existen enfoques alternativos más cercanos a las teorías constructivistas y situacionales que tienen en cuenta los recientes avances en la forma de aprender de la mayoría de los profesionales en aquellas áreas en las que los conocimientos tienen un gran peso. Estos enfoques suelen incluir la formación de 'comunidades de práctica' (Lave & Wenger, 2001 tiempo, muchos investigadores (Chiaro, 2014;Goodyear et al., 2014;Gunawardena et al., 2009;Jimenez-Silva & Olsen, 2012;Patton & Parker, 2017;Trust & Horrocks, 2017;Xue et al., 2021) han reivindicado que la participación de los docentes en estas comunidades de práctica pueden fomentar su desarrollo profesional continuo, puesto que les brindan oportunidades reales de aprendizaje, derivadas de la interacción con los compañeros, de compartir prácticas entre ellos, apoyándose en la ayuda mutua para afrontar las dificultades cotidianas y para encontrar maneras de gestionar problemas educativos complejos, específicos de cada contexto. Algunos ejemplos de estas dificultades son: la inclusión de estudiantes de origen migrante, el apoyo a estudiantes con problemas de aprendizaje, la integración eficaz de las tecnologías educativas en las actividades cotidianas en el aula, etc. Estas cuestiones requieren una perspectiva a largo plazo en la que los profesores van afinando gradualmente sus competencias y habilidades pedagógicas intercambiando y construyendo colaborativamente conocimientos con los compañeros. ...
Article
The most common form of teachers’ professional development (TPD) — one-shot courses using formal, transmissive methodologies — often fails to prepare teachers for complex challenges or build a long-term community of teachers. Indeed, the role of practice-sharing in informal learning contexts, and specifically in teachers’ communities of practice, is regarded as essential for effective TPD in the academic literature. In this paper we argue for the need to leverage gamification and self-regulated learning skills as ways for overcoming the barriers preventing teachers from engaging in practice-sharing. The paper includes a case study of a TPD pathway in which gamification and support to self-regulated learning are harnessed to bridge the gap between formal learning and informal practices in professional development. In our proposed approach, the formal component of TPD intends to ensure an evidence-based background to teachers’ competence, while the informal component intends to draw on their teaching practice to complement it.
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Social media, essential in everyday activity, have been frequently used in the performance of collaborative tasks as well as in collaborative learning in academia due to their interactive and open nature. Thus, understanding design students’ selective use and evaluation of social media in collaborative design is worthwhile. This paper reports a case study of design students’ use of social media in the collaborative design process in an advanced interior design studio class. A total of 27 junior interior design students at a university in Korea participated in the study, engaging in a semester-long team project in pairs or trios. At the end of the semester, each team participated in (a) an open-ended survey questionnaire about the types of social media they used and the pros and cons of each and (b) a design charrette to suggest an ideal platform supportive of collaboration. The results show that students (a) used social media in design collaboration primarily for the purposes of searching, sharing, and communicating; (b) frequently used social media that supported more than one purpose; and (c) engaged in three design processes, comprising identification of issues, concept development, and design development. In addition, the features students needed most were (a) ease of management and classification of resources and data, (b) ease of sharing design task files, and (c) seamless integration of the social media in searching, sharing, and communicating. The results of the study will help design educators understand students’ behaviors with social media in a collaborative design studio and needs for more effective design collaboration.
Article
Prior research suggests that facilitating easier communication in social computing systems will increase both interpersonal interactions as well as group productivity. This study tests these claims by examining the impact of a new communication feature called "message walls" that allows for faster and more intuitive interpersonal communication in wikis. Using panel data from a sample of 275 wiki communities that migrated to message walls and a method inspired by regression discontinuity designs, we analyze these transitions and estimate the impact of the system's introduction. Although the adoption of message walls was associated with increased communication among all editors and newcomers, it had little effect on productivity, and was further associated with a decrease in article contributions from new editors. Our results imply that design changes that make communication easier in a social computing system may not translate to increased participation along other dimensions.
Chapter
Within education, there is much discussion about the ineffectiveness of initial teacher education, yet very little discussion focuses on supporting new teachers once they make it into the workforce. Many new teachers report feeling underprepared from their degree and the fluid and complex nature of effective mentoring and induction receives comparatively less attention from researchers and policy-makers. What is available tends to focus upon the actions of leaders and leadership team and how they might lead these processes and practices. Here, Stephanie explores the processes that she set up to support herself and others in becoming a successful and strongly connected member of the teaching profession. The collegial group she developed, the New Teacher Tribe, evolved over a period of time, and was built upon democratic and inclusive practices. This chapter explores this idea, and how new teachers can develop through a continuum of attendee, organiser and leader and even into coaching and professional learning support. The idea of a New Teacher Tribe is outlined in detail, allowing those interested to create their own similar group to support themselves and their peers upon entrance to the profession.
Article
Critiques of traditional civic education as exclusionary toward individuals and groups that are linguistically, culturally, and age-diverse have led to critical civic education that foregrounds the experiences and assets of Communities of Color. Elementary-aged Children of Color face civic marginalization because of their multiple identities, including culture and age. We present a case study of one white fifth-grade teacher, Ms. Vine, and her two classes of culturally and linguistically diverse students who engaged in critical social studies content that created opportunities for students to use and learn about cultural citizenship. We highlight three cultural citizenship practices seen across students’ engagement with social studies content. First, students engaged in self-definition and identity work, laying the groundwork for further critical civic education. Second, the class interrogated issues of injustice and civic action through attention to counternarratives inclusive of Children and Communities of Color as civic actors. Finally, students grappled with historical agency in counternarratives and negotiated agency within the classroom. These cultural citizenship practices enabled Black and Brown children to draw on their civic assets, engage a conception of civicness reflective of people like themselves, and forwarded critical elementary social studies practices.
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Berufliche Weiterbildung findet jetzt auch onlinegestützt statt. Oft bleibt allerdings offen, wie der pädagogische Nutzen digitaler Medien für berufsbezogenes Lernen einzuschätzen sei. Als Vorteil von Lernumgebungen wird z.B. gesehen, dass Lernenden Ressourcen so bereitgestellt werden können, dass diese unabhängig von zeitlichen und räumlichen Einschränkungen verfügbar sind. Andererseits steht in Frage, ob durch solche Zurverfügungstellung von Lernmaterialien auch Prozesse der Sinnstiftung und Reflexion, der persönlichen Weiterentwicklung unterstützt werden. In diesem Artikel spüren wir dieser pädagogischen Frage nach und zeigen anhand von zwei Beispielen aus informellen Lernzusammenhängen – Twitter und YouTube – wie berufsbezogenes Lernen mit digitalen Medien schon erfolgt. Wir reflektieren diese empirisch vorgefundenen Lernformen anhand der Netzwerk-Metapher, mit Bezugnahme zur Theorie situierten Lernens (Resnick et al. 1997, Lave/Wenger 1999, Fox 2000) und des Knowledge Building-Ansatzes (Scardamalia/Bereiter 2014). Aus diesen Überlegungen resultieren Anregungen zum Nachdenken über die Medienkompetenz von Fachkräften und zu digital gestützten formellen Angeboten der beruflichen Weiterbildung. Wir plädieren für die Überschreitung von Grenzen formeller Lernzusammenhänge und die kritisch-reflexive Nutzung der schon digital bestehenden, amorphen Lernräume, um das berufsbezogene Lernen sinnvoller und fruchtbarer mitzugestalten. Das schliesst einen breit gefächerten Medienkompetenzbegriff ein.
Article
This longitudinal case study explored the language teacher identity construction of two novice native English-speaking teachers (NESTs) in an EFL context. Adopting a poststructuralist approach, Emily’s and David’s teacher identity construction were explored in relation to the emotional labor they expressed and experienced throughout their first year at a university in Turkey. Data were collected over a six-month period through weekly journal entries, semi-structured follow-up interviews and researchers’ field notes. While Emily and David had similar experiences as novice NESTs in their institution, three factors made a difference in their trajectories: educational background, competence in the local language, and supportive discourses at work. These three factors led to different emotional labor in their lives, and this contributed to their investment and participation in communities of practice. Overall, this study presents the ways in which emotional labor is interwoven with notions of investment, burnout, communities of practice, and teacher identity at large.
Article
To maintain relevancy with the ever-increasing competencies required of them, librarians on the job have frequently turned to professional development (PD) opportunities. One outlet that could potentially address barriers librarians face when accessing PD is social media, which can help librarians communicate across distances, are used at low to no cost, and can be accessed asynchronously as needed. Drawing from 25 studies conducted in 21 countries, this systematic literature review explored the empirical themes evident in the current research on librarians' adoption of social media for PD purposes. This review found (1) there is considerable potential in adopting social media for PD across contexts; (2) studies focused on the affordances provided by social media in areas where there is limited infrastructure, support, and resources for PD; (3) in congruence with prior research pertaining to the Technology Acceptance Model, librarians who felt more tech-savvy were more likely to adopt social media for PD; and (4) social media was viewed as democratic in creating a platform where diverse voices could participate. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications for practitioners and recommendations for future research directions.
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The contribution of this article is to highlight how exploring various writing genres in the beginning of higher education can contribute to academic literacy. While many studies have addressed the transition into academia by focusing on academic writing, the use of various writing genres has scarcely been researched. Based on the thematic analysis of focus-group interviews that explore first-year students’ experience of writing in academia, we present and discuss three emerging themes: 1) academic writing as a dull and constricted world, 2) playing with and playing out identities through writing in various genres, and 3) learning academic writing from contrasts. Our research indicates that starting with other writing genres than the academic genre might foster an experience of mastery that could enhance self-efficacy when it comes to academic writing. Moreover, discovering contrasts to academic writing can help students to understand the boundaries and characteristics of academic writing.
Chapter
The development of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers presents an opportune moment to investigate and evaluate such standards, the nature of standards-based accreditation, and the impact of standardisation on pedagogy, and on a profession where one size doesn’t fit all. This chapter investigates notions of “quality teaching” and forming a “quality teacher”. The chapter also holds up to the light the concept of a standard as a measure against which others can be judged, and the basis on which a standard assumes and accretes authority and credibility, and explores the extent to which teachers serve standards or vice versa. The study focuses on Australia’s Graduate Level standards in particular. The chapter builds on an existing Springer book chapter, (Buchanan et al. in Teacher education policy and practice: Evidence of impact, impact of evidence, Springer, Singapore, pp. 115–128, 2017), which critiqued standards and standardisation. In particular, the chapter will include a discussion of recent research on Teaching Performance Assessments, which are linked to the Standards, and the impact these are having and are likely to have on teaching and on the profession, including initial teacher education providers.
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This paper explores the nature and potential of improvisation as a method for learning and teaching in CSCW and HCI. It starts by reviewing concepts of improvisational learning in classic and more recent work in educational theory, art and music, and HCI that emphasize the reconstructive, materially-driven, error-engaged, transgressive, and collaborative nature of human learning processes. It then describes three pedagogical interventions of our own in which improvisational techniques were deployed as methods of teaching and learning. From this integrated study, we report specific pedagogical conditions (socio-material evaluations, multi-sensory practices, and making safe spaces for error) that can support improvisational learning, and three common challenges of HCI pedagogy relevance, assessment, and inclusion that improvisational methods can help to address.
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Este artículo presenta algunos de los resultados de una investigación centrada en conocer las formas de participación conjunta de una maestra practicante y una maestra tutora en una comunidad de aula durante el prácticum. La investigación se inscribe en una perspectiva sociocultural del aprendizaje entendido como participación. La metodología corresponde a un estudio de caso único conformado por una maestra de Educación Infantil, dieciocho alumnos y una estudiante de prácticum. Se analizan quince jornadas de aula distribuidas a lo largo de un semestre escolar. Los resultados permiten identificar nueve formas de participación conjunta diferentes, presentes durante el prácticum, que para la estudiante en prácticas representan grados variados de implicación y co-responsabilidad en dicha comunidad de aula. La distribución de las diferentes formas de participación a lo largo del prácticum no sigue, como cabría esperar, una tendencia creciente, de menos a más participación por parte de la practicante, sino que muestra oscilaciones importantes que comportan avances y retrocesos en el grado de implicación en las tareas del aula, incluso en aquellas en las que ya había logrado cotas de implicación elevadas. Dichas oscilaciones se explican de acuerdo a aspectos concretos de la práctica sociocultural del aula en la cual ocurren.
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Despite the ubiquity of learning in workplace and professional settings, the learning analytics (LA) community has paid significant attention to such settings only recently. This may be due to the focus on researching formal learning, as workplace learning is often informal, hard to grasp and not unequivocally defined. This paper summarizes the state of the art of Workplace Learning Analytics (WPLA), extracted from a two-iteration systematic literature review. Our in-depth analysis of 52 existing proposals not only provides a descriptive view of the field, but also reflects on researcher conceptions of learning and their influence on the design, analytics and technology choices made in this area. We also discuss the characteristics of workplace learning that make WPLA proposals different from LA in formal education contexts and the challenges resulting from this. We found that WPLA is gaining momentum, especially in some fields, like healthcare and education. The focus on theory is generally a positive feature in WPLA, but we encourage a stronger focus on assessing the impact of WPLA in realistic settings.
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Group work education develops student competences for praxis. The Authentic eLearning framework has the potential to strengthen course design, develop critical thinking, multiple perspectives, articulation and reflection. This qualitative study conducted using educational design research explored the pedagogical practices of South African social workers in group work education. Ethics clearance for this study was received and data were analysed using content analysis. Findings identified educator strategies including the use of real-world context, reflection and group collaboration, but the study noted the potential for incorporating technology-enhanced learning. Extrapolating from this study, opportunities for educators in this field during the Covid-19 pandemic are indicated.
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