Article

Changes in visual function following peroral astaxanthin

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Abstract

We evaluated the effect of astaxanthin on visual function in 49 eyes of 49 healthy volunteers. They were over 40 years of age. They were divided into 4 groups matched for age and gender. Each group was given peroral astaxanthin once a day. The dosage was 0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg, or 12 mg for each group. After ingestion of astaxanthin for consecutive 28 days, the uncorrected far visual acuity significantly improved in groups receiving 4 mg or 12 mg. The accommodation time significantly shortened in groups receiving 4 mg or 12 mg. There was no change in refraction, flicker fusion frequency, or pupillary reflex.

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... As effects of AX ingestion on the eyes, Sawaki et al. [10] reported improvement in visual acuity for depth and flicker fusion threshold, while Nagaki, Y. et al. [11] reported significant improvement in amplitude of accommodation before and after ingestion (no change in amplitude of accommodation in the control group) in a study employing VDT workers. Nakamura et al. [12] reported that as a result of administering 0 mg, 2 mg, 4 mg and 12 mg of AX to four groups, respectively, once per day for 28 days, there was improvement in far vision uncorrected visual acuity and shortened positive accommodation time for the 4 mg group and 12 mg group, respectively. In this paper, we report on a study of the effect of AX ingestion on human blood rheology as one clarification of the action mechanism for such effects. ...
... Such actions are though to work by preventing oxidation of biomembranes including cell membranes, and there is a possibility this will be linked to effects such as an arteriosclerosis prevention effect [21], an anti-inflammatory effect [22] and control of diabetes nephropathy (kidney disease) [23, 24]. Furthermore, AX has been reported to have an ocular accommodation improvement effect101112131415, and the dose setting study [14] and effect verification study [15] by Ohno et al. in particular provided results that strongly reconfirm the effect of AX on ocular accommodation. It is thought such promotion of recovery from asthenopia in this manner might contribute to the improvement of blood circulation in peripheral systems. ...
Article
Effects of astaxanthin (AX) derived from H. pluvialis on human blood rheology were investigated in 20 adult men with a single-blind method. The experimental group was 57.5 +/- 9.8 years of age and the placebo group was 50.8 +/- 13.1 years of age. A blood rheology test that measures whole blood transit time was conducted using heparinized blood of the volunteers by a MC-FAN apparatus (microchannel array flow analyzer). After administration of AX 6 mg/day for 10 days, the values of the experimental group were decreased from 52.8 +/- 4.9 s to 47.6 +/- 4.2 s (p<0.01) and a comparison of the values between the experimental (47.6 +/- 4.2 s) and the placebo (54.2 +/- 6.7 s) groups showed a significant difference (p<0.05). There were no adverse effects resulting from the administration of AX 6 mg/day for 10 days. Informed consent was obtained from each subject.
... This study tested two different dosage levels. Results showed positive effects at 4mg per day, but found a better result at 12mg per day ( Nakamura et al., 2004). This study showed that the optimum dose was somewhere above 4mg per day, but could not determine the minimum effective dosage. ...
... At the end of a 28 day period, the groups taking the 4mg and 12mg doses were found to have statistically significant improvements in both visual acuity and accommoda- tion time. No improvements were found in the placebo group or the 2mg per day group ( Nakamura et al., 2004). ...
Book
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Bob Capelli’s third book on Astaxanthin is by far his best. Well over 300 pages long, this book is the definitive guide on Astaxanthin for use as a health supplement by humans as well as animals. This book is a great tool for scientists and people working in the supplement industry, while written in an easy-to-read format to be enjoyed by anyone. It provides valuable information for any consumer seeking to live a long and healthy life. Features include: • Excerpts from many renowned doctors, researchers and opinion leaders describing Astaxanthin in their own words including Dr. Joseph Mercola, Mike Adams “The Health Ranger,” Dr. William Sears, Suzy Cohen “America’s Most Trusted Pharmacist” and more. • Extensive review of “The Healthy Ten” – the ten clinically-validated health benefits of Natural Astaxanthin. • What makes Natural Astaxanthin “The Supplement You Can Feel” – how 80% of consumers can feel it working in their bodies. • Emerging research on Astaxanthin for five new health benefits. • Why nutrition experts are beginning to call Natural Astaxanthin “The Ultimate Anti-Aging Nutrient” and “The Athlete’s Secret Weapon.” • Dosage, bioavailability, safety and other vital information. • Differences between: o Natural Astaxanthin and other supplements. o Different sources of Astaxanthin. o Production methods for Natural Astaxanthin from algae. o Different Astaxanthin consumer products. • Complete list of 330 references included. While Capelli’s first two books contained testimonials from consumers, perhaps the most interesting new feature of this book is a long chapter relating what renowned doctors and opinion leaders as well as university researchers and PhDs say about Astaxanthin. Here is what some of these famous contributors say about this book: Dr. Joseph Mercola, Renowned Internet Health Expert: “I was very impressed with the compelling research on the therapeutic benefits of Astaxanthin in Bob Capelli’s book on Astaxanthin back in 2011. I have been regularly using it since then and believe it has great value for many conditions. Bob’s book was a major factor when I decided to feature Astaxanthin as “The #1 Supplement You’ve Never Heard of that You Should Be Taking” on the Dr. Oz show a few years ago.” Mike Adams, “The Health Ranger:” “Astaxanthin is, without question, one of the most potent and promising natural medicines yet known in the realm of nutritional science. I strongly recommend reading Bob Capelli’s latest Astaxanthin book. Your approach to nutritional supplementation will be forever upgraded!” Suzy Cohen, “America’s Most Trusted Pharmacist:” “Natural Astaxanthin is one of my favorite nutrients to recommend to my readers because it does so many positive things for people. It’s a super-antioxidant and a broad-spectrum, safe & natural anti-inflammatory with over 500 medical research studies to back it up. Astaxanthin is the perfect nutrient in the battle against aging because of its clinically-validated effects on a host of concerns people have as they reach middle age and beyond. I read Bob Capelli’s first book on Astaxanthin back in 2007 and I’ve been a fan ever since. And with this new book, Bob has taken the understanding of Astaxanthin to a whole new level.” Susan Smith Jones, PhD, Prolific Author and Media Personality: “A gem of nature, Astaxanthin is an all-in-one natural nutrient that can replace countless other supplements in your kitchen because of its myriad benefits for the entire body. I refer to Astaxanthin as “The Great Protector” in my lectures and workshops. Thank you Bob Capelli for distilling down hundreds of complicated research studies into this revealing, cogent book that beautifully extols the virtues of an antioxidant extraordinaire.”
... It had been reported that, after ingestion of astaxanthin for consecutive 28 days, the uncorrected far visual acuity was significantly improved and the accommodation time was significantly shortened in healthy volunteers over 40 years of age receiving 4 or 12 mg once a day, and there was no change in refraction, flicker fusion frequency, or pupillary reflex [107]. In another experiment, it was found that astaxanthin extracted from the microalga H. pluvialis significantly improved the deep vision and the critical flicker fusion of healthy adult male volunteers, and no effects on static and kinetic visual acuity were observed [108]. ...
Article
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The ketocarotenoid astaxanthin can be found in the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, and Chlorococcum sp., and the red yeast Phaffia rhodozyma. The microalga H. pluvialis has the highest capacity to accumulate astaxanthin up to 4-5% of cell dry weight. Astaxanthin has been attributed with extraordinary potential for protecting the organism against a wide range of diseases, and has considerable potential and promising applications in human health. Numerous studies have shown that astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and HgCl₂-induced acute renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.
... Two different dosage levels were tested for eye fatigue by a group led by Dr. Nakamura in 2004. They found positive effects at 4 mg per day, but found a better result at 12 mg per day ( Nakamura, et al, 2004). Another group of Japanese researchers found similar results in another human clinical study. ...
... Lighting is one of the structural components of classroom and also can effective on learning in academic environments (7). In high demand visual task (such as classroom) that the eye is focused on a constant distance for a long time, eye muscles become fatigue and spasms (8)(9)(10). In general, in the learning process, 83% of learning takes place through the visual sense, therefore if seeing activity be faced with difficulties, a decrease in the learning occurs (11). ...
Article
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Background: One of the valuable experiences that can be useful educational centers is using the various aspects of educational technology and recognition of importance and application training aides in learning process. This study was conducted with the objective of determination of training aids and lighting effects (video projector and white board) on the eye fatigue among students. Material and methods: In this cross-sectional study, students in health and nutrition school (Shiraz University of Medical Sciences) (n=200), voluntarily participated (17-30 years old). A questionnaire consisted of three parts was used as data collecting tool. In the first part, demographic characteristics, in the second part, questions about specific symptoms of eye fatigue and in the third part questions related to the public eye fatigue were included. Results: Results showed that between eye fatigue and the use of video projector and white board there is a significant relationship. Also, results showed that there is relationship between eye fatigue and use of glasses. According to these results, there is no significant relationship between eye fatigue with age and sex. Conclusion:The results showed mean of lighting in classroom in use of video projector is lower than Iran Standard Lighting, but this parameter in use of white board taken in standard limit. Eye fatigue had association with application of video projector and using the glasses.
... Astaxanthin also can help visual improvement. Only 4 to 12 mg per day during 28 days can signi cantly improve uncorrected far visual acuity (Nakamura et al., 2004). AX might increase retinal capillary blood ow in normal patients without affecting intraocular pressure (Nagaki et al., 2005). ...
... Based on the studies it is suggested that astaxanthin supplementation might be a practical and beneficial approach for eye fatigue relief. Nagaki et al. (2002) 0(13), 5(13); 4 week DB-PC Nakamura et al. (2004) 0(10), 2(12), 4(14), 12(10); 4 week DB-PC Nitta et al. (2005) 0(10), 6(10), 12(10); 4 week DB-PC Shiratori et al. (2005) 0 (19), 6(20); 4 week DB-PC Takahashi and Kajita (2005) 6(9); 2 week Open label Iwasaki and Tawara (2006) 0(10), 6(10); 2 week DB-PC, crossover Nagaki et al. (2006) 0(23), 6(25); 4 week DB-PC Kajita et al. (2009) that men have a greater sebum oil production compared to women. Thus, astaxanthin oral supplementation may help to reduce the odor related to aging by protecting the sebum oil from peroxidation. ...
Chapter
Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.), a unique Japanese citrus species, is one of the foods which have most abundant β-cryptoxanthin all over the world. In this study, β-cryptoxanthin has a variety of health-promoting functions such as the body fat reducing, cosmetic (whitening), and osteoporosis prevention. β-Cryptoxanthin has also been shown in human studies to have anti-exercise fatigue and diabetes prevention actions. These multiple functions further support that β-cryptoxanthin may play a role in vitamin A function.
... According to Nakamura et al. (2004), the ingestion of 4 or 12 mg astaxanthin once a day for a period of 28 days, had significantly improved the visual acuity and shortened the accommodation time in healthy volunteers over the age of 40 years. However, the latter cannot be said for the pupillary reflex, refraction and the flicker fusion frequency. ...
Chapter
In this chapter, we are putting our focus on biologically active compounds that are taken from natural resources, specifically compounds that act on molecular targets and are involved in several diseases in the human body. One of the most well-known biologically active compounds is astaxanthin, which is a xanthophyll carotenoid found in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum and Phaffia rhodozyma. Astaxanthin has shown to provide a wide range of beneficial health benefits on the metabolism and in several organ systems of the human body including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, endocrine diseases, ophthalmic diseases, rheumatological diseases, dermatological diseases, immunological diseases, nephrological disorders and obstetrics and gynaecological conditions, including pre-eclampsia and fertility. Additionally, astaxanthin has shown to provide a comprehensive set of activities which are beneficial to the human body such as anti-cancer activity, anti-inflammatory activity, anti-apoptotic activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer activity. Moreover, astaxanthin is found to be effective in enhancing sports performance during physical activity and therapeutic for the smoking population due to the high anti-oxidant activity found in astaxanthin.
... Subjects receiving astaxanthin experienced a significant relief from eyestrain compared to the placebo group [66]. Furthermore, it has been reported that in healthy people over 40 years who received astaxanthin at a dosage of 4 or 12 mg once a day for 28 days, the uncorrected far visual acuity significantly improved, and the accommodation time significantly decreased [67]. In addition, a significant improvement of accommodative ability and pupillary constriction capacity were also achieved in subjects following astaxanthin administration either used alone or included in a multiple dietary supplement. ...
Article
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Astaxanthin is a naturally occurring red carotenoid pigment belonging to the family of xanthophylls, and is typically found in marine environments, especially in microalgae and seafood such as salmonids, shrimps and lobsters. Due to its unique molecular structure, astaxanthin features some important biologic properties, mostly represented by strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. A growing body of evidence suggests that astaxanthin is efficacious in the prevention and treatment of several ocular diseases, ranging from the anterior to the posterior pole of the eye. Therefore, the present review aimed at providing a comprehensive evaluation of current clinical applications of astaxanthin in the management of ocular diseases. The efficacy of this carotenoid in the setting of retinal diseases, ocular surface disorders, uveitis, cataract and asthenopia is reported in numerous animal and human studies, which highlight its ability of modulating several metabolic pathways, subsequently restoring the cellular homeostatic balance. To maximize its multitarget therapeutic effects, further long-term clinical trials are warranted in order to define appropriate dosage, route of administration and exact composition of the final product.
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Review of Astaxanthin's health benefits and important information for use as a human nutritional supplement.
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Astaxanthin (AX)‐containing preparations are increasingly popular as health food supplements. Evaluating the maximum safe daily intake of AX is important when setting dose levels for these products and currently, there are discrepancies in recommendations by different regulatory authorities. We have therefore conducted a review of approved dose levels, clinical trials of natural AX, and toxicological studies with natural and synthetic AX. Recommended or approved doses varied in different countries and ranged between 2 and 24 mg. We reviewed 87 human studies, none of which found safety concerns with natural AX supplementation, 35 with doses ≥12 mg/day. An acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 2 mg as recently proposed by European Food Safety Authority was based on a toxicological study in rats using synthetic AX. However, synthetically produced AX is chemically different from natural AX, so results with synthetic AX should not be used in assessing natural AX safety. In addition, few safety studies have been conducted in either humans or animals with synthetic AX. We therefore recommend the ADI for natural AX to be based only on studies conducted with natural AX and further studies to be conducted with synthetic AX (including human clinical trials) to establish a separate ADI for synthetic AX.
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Full-text available
This work aims to make a compilation of the most relevant articles published about the astaxanthin and the improvement or prevention of diseases, leaving evident the power of astaxanthin as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Extensive search of scientific publications was performed (studies in animal models, cellular, clinical trials and reviews) in the following specialized electronic databases: PubMed Cen- tral (PMC)-NBCI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct, to establish the current state of the potential effect of astaxanthin on the control of certain diseases. It has shown its effect (in cellular lines and animals) against cancer, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal and liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases and kidney failure. Astaxanthin was tested in humans showing better antioxidant and antiinflammatory parameters, decrease in reactive oxygen species and improve in ratio of blood lipids. Also, improved visual acuity and macular degeneration, increased exercise endurance, and improved male fertility. Clinical studies performed so far have not shown adverse effects, and it was found that its bioavailability is satisfactory, so astaxanthin could be used as preventive therapy for the prevention of diseases. We have a polymedicated society and the use of active principles derivated from food, such as the astaxanthin may be a good alternative or compleme
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Chapter
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rights: 本文データは和漢医薬学会の許諾に基づき複製したものである We evaluated the effects of astaxanthin, a red carotenoid, on accommodation, critical flicker fusion (CFF), and pattern visual evoked potential (PVEP) in visual display terminal (VDT) workers. As controls, 13 non-VDT workers received no supplementation (Group A). Twenty-six VDT workers were randomized into 2 groups: Group B consisted of 13 subjects who received oral astaxanthin, 5 mg/day, for 4 weeks, and Group C consisted of 13 subjects who received an oral placebo, 5 mg/day, for 4 weeks. No significant difference in age was noted among the 3 groups. A double-masked study was designed in Groups B and C. Accommodation amplitude in Group A was 3.7± 1.5 diopters. Accommodation amplitudes (2.3±1.4 and 2.2±1.0 diopters) in Groups B and C before supplementation were significantly (p<0.05) lower than in Group A. Accommodation amplitude (2.8±1.6 diopters) in Group B after astaxanthin treatment was significantly (p<0.01) larger than before supplementation, while accommodation amplitude (2.3±1.1 diopters) in Group C after placebo supplementation was unchanged. The CFFs and amplitude and latency of P100 in PVEP in Group A were 45.0±4.2 Hz, 6.5±1.8μV, and 101.3±6.5 msec, respectively. The CFFs in Groups B and C before supplementation were significantly (p<0.05) lower than in Group A. The CCFs in Groups B and C did not change after supplementation. Amplitudes and latencies of P100 in PVEP in Groups B and C before supplementation were similar to those in Group A and did not change after supplementation. Findings of the present study indicated that accommodation amplitude improved after astaxanthin supplementation in VDT workers. 赤色カロチノイドの一種であるアスタキサンチンのvisual display terminal(VDT)作業者の調節力,中心フリッカー値,パターン視覚誘発電位に及ぼす影響を調べた。VDT作業を行わない13人をコントロールとした(Group A)。26人のVDT作業者を2群に無作為に分けた。Group Bはアスタキサンチン一日5mg 4週間内服した13人で,Group Cはアスタキサンチンを含有しないカプセルを4週間内服した13人とした。外見上同じカプセルでの内服投与を行った。結果:Group AはGroup B及びGroup Cと比較して,調節力,中心フリッカー値は有意に高い値であったが,パターン視覚誘発電位検査結果は,Group B,Cと有意差はなかった。Group Bでは,アスタキサンチンの投与前後で有意な調節力の改善がみられた(p<0.01)。しかし,中心フリッカー値,パターン視覚誘発電位に変化はみられなかった。Group Cでは,投与前後で,調節力,中心フリッカー値,パターン視覚誘発電位に変化はみられなかった。考察:VDT作業者では,非作業者と比べ調節力,中心フリッカー値が低下していることは以前より報告されており,今回の我々の研究でも同様の結果であった。VDT作業者で,アスタキサンチン非内服群では,調節力は投与前後で変化がなかったが,アスタキサンチンの内服群で,有意に調節力が改善した。VDT作業者の調節力の改善には,アスタキサンチンの内服が有効と考えられた。
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Large unilamellar liposomes comprising of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (PC) was exposed to photoirradiation in the presence of methylene blue (water-soluble photosensitizer) or 12-(1-pyrene)dodecanoic acid (P-12, lipid-soluble photosensitizer) to estimate the inhibitory effect of beta-carotene and astaxanthin on photosensitized oxidation of phospholipid bilayers. Without sensitizers, astaxanthin decreased much slower than beta-carotene and other hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene, alpha-carotene). Astaxanthin lasted longer than beta-carotene even in the presence of methylene blue or P-12. Decrease of astaxanthin was also much slower than that of beta-carotene when egg yolk PC was replaced by dimyristoyl PC. However, inhibitory effect of astaxanthin was lower than beta-carotene in the case of P-12 sensitized photooxidation. These results suggest that effectiveness of carotenoids as antioxidants on photosensitized oxidation (Type II) in phospholipid bilayers depends on the site of singlet oxygen to be generated, as well as their stability on photoirradiation.