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STUDY REGARDING THE TRENDS IN THE WORLD AND EUROPEAN GOAT MILK PRODUCTION

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The paper aimed to identify the trends in the world and European goat milk production in the period 1999-2010 based on FAOStat data base, using the index method. The results have shown that in 2009, at world level there were 867.9 million goats by 18.91% more than in 1999, and the world goat milk production accounted for 15,128 thousand Metric tones, being by 19.52% higher than at the beginning of the analyzed period. India, China, Bangladesh and Pakistan keep 46.7% of the world goat livestock, and 55.60% of the world milk production is produced by India, Bangladesh, Sudan and Pakistan. In 2010, the EU had 13,026 million goats by 9.65% less than in 1999. Greece, Spain and France keep 70% of the EU goat livestock and 0.88% at world level, contributing by 10.57% to the world goat milk production. The EU contribution to the world goat milk production is 17%, being the area where the highest records are achieved per goat. Romania has a high production potential, coming on the 5 th position for the goat livestock and on the 4 th one for goat milk production in the EU. As a conclusion, goat milk production will continue to increase due to the high consumption demand.
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Lucrări Ştiinţifice-Seria Zootehnie, vol. 59
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STUDY REGARDING THE TRENDS IN THE WORLD
AND EUROPEAN GOAT MILK PRODUCTION
Agatha Popescu1*
1University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Bucharest, Romania
Abstract
The paper aimed to identify the trends in the world and European goat milk production in the
period 1999-2010 based on FAOStat data base, using the index method. The results have shown that
in 2009, at world level there were 867.9 million goats by 18.91% more than in 1999, and the world
goat milk production accounted for 15,128 thousand Metric tones, being by 19.52% higher than at
the beginning of the analyzed period. India, China, Bangladesh and Pakistan keep 46.7% of the
world goat livestock, and 55.60% of the world milk production is produced by India, Bangladesh,
Sudan and Pakistan. In 2010, the EU had 13,026 million goats by 9.65% less than in 1999. Greece,
Spain and France keep 70% of the EU goat livestock and 0.88% at world level, contributing by
10.57% to the world goat milk production. The EU contribution to the world goat milk production is
17%, being the area where the highest records are achieved per goat. Romania has a high
production potential, coming on the 5th position for the goat livestock and on the 4th one for goat
milk production in the EU. As a conclusion, goat milk production will continue to increase due to
the high consumption demand.
Key words: goat livestock, goat milk, world production, EU, trends
INTRODUCTION1
Besides cow and buffalo milk, goat milk
has an exceptional quality given by its
chemical composition rich in various
nutrients [1, 4, 5], it is well tolerated by
individuals sensitive and alergical to cow
milk and has a benefic effect on health and a
high digestibility [5, 9, 10].
Goat milk can be consumed fresh or
processed in cheese, butter, ice-cream,
yogurt, condensed milk, evaporated or
powdered milk, kefir, cajeta etc [14].
Goats are easy to grow due to their
adaptability and resistance to various
conditions and can be both manually and
mechanically milked [1, 13]. They play a key
role in the pastoral areas being grown in
family households but also in small farms in
the developing countries as well as in modern
and profitable larger farms like the ones
operating in Europe [7, 11].
The increasing demand for milk and dairy
products has stimulated production and trade.
Despite that goat milk comes on the 3rd
postion after cow and buffalo milk in the
*Corresponding author: agatha_popescu@yahoo.com
The manuscript was received: 15.02.2013
Accepted for publication: 14.05.2013
world production, it has a higher share in
production and consumption of many
countries, only 5% being subject of cheese
processing and marketing [6].
In this context, the paper aimed to
analyze the evolution of goat livestock and
milk production in order to identify the major
trends at world and EU level during the last
decade.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
In order to set up this paper, the statistical
data provided by FAOStat for the period
1999-2010 [15] have been processed using
index, share and comparison methods. The
main specific indicators were: evolution of
goat livestock and milk production at world
level and by continent as well as at the EU
level and by member state.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
World goat livestock and its distribution
by continent
The number of goats has increased by
18.91% in the analyzed period, reaching
867.9 million heads in 2009. Most of
livestock is in Asia (59.5%), followed by
Africa (34%), the Americas (4.3%), Europe
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi
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(1.8%) and Oceania (0.4%), which proves
that the highest share is in the developing countries where goat milk is a basic food
especially for rural popualtion (Table 1).
Table 1 Goat livestock distribution by continent, 1999-2009
Year MU Asia Africa Americas Europe Oceania
Total
world
Million
heads 447.3 227.8 33.7 19.0 2.1 729.9
1999
% 61.3 31.2 4.6 2.6 0.3 100.0
Million
heads 516.7 294.8 37.1 15.9 3.4 867.9
2009
% 59.5 34.0 4.3 1.8 0.4 100.0
2009/1999 % 115.49 129.41 110.08 83.68 161.90 118.91
Source:FAOStat, 2010.Own calculations
Since 1990 when at world level there
were 590.1 million goats and by 2010, goat
livestock increased by 56 %, acounting for
920.6 million heads. Goats are spread in
many countries in the world due to their high
adaptability to different environmental
conditions and nutritional regimes, high
productivity and low maintainance cost.
In 2008, the goat/sheep ratio was 1/1.25,
and in 2010 it reached 1/1.17 showing a
faster growth rate for goat livestock and a
decline of sheep herds [2, 3, 8].
The top 10 countries with the most
numerous goat lievstock are India, China,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, Sudan, Iran,
Etiopia, Indonesia and Mali, which together
raised 66.3 % of world goat livestock in 2010
(Table 2).
Table 2 Top 10 countries based on goat livestock
in 2010
Country
Number of
goats
(Million heads)
Share in world
livestock
(%)
India 154.0 16.7
China 150.7 16.4
Bangladesh 65.0 7.1
Pakistan 59.9 6.5
Nigeria 56.5 6.1
Sudan 43.4 4.7
Iran 25.7 2.8
Ethiopia 22.0 2.4
Indonesia 16.8 1.8
Mali 16.5 1.8
Total world 920.6 100.0
Source:Dar, A., 2012 [3].
If by 2010, China came on the 1st
position, at present India occupies the 1st
position for the number of goats. The 1st four
countries: India, China, Bangladesh and
Pakistan hold together 46.7% of world goat
livestock.
The most numerous goat livestock is in
Asia (India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh,
Iran), Africa (Nigeria, Ethiopia, Somalia,
Sudan, South Africa), Europe (Greece, Spain,
France), North America (Mexico, USA and
Canada), Central America (Haiti, Jamaica and
Cuba), South America (Brazil, Argentina,
Venzuela, Peru, Bolivia and Columbia) [7].
Taking into account that cow number has
increased by 5% per year at world level, goat
number has grown up by 4% and sheep
number was declining by 10% yearly, this
shows the growing importance of goats
among milk supplying species [2].
Goat livestock in the EU and by member
state
Europe comes on the 4th position after
Asia, Africa and South America concerning
goat livestock. In 2010, the EU had 13.026
million goats by 9.65% less than in 2000
(14.4 millions), reflecting the tendency to
reduce its livestock.
If in 2009, the EU weight in the world
herd of goats was 14.4%, in 2009 it fell to
11.9%.
Analysing the situation by member state in
2010, one can notice that 10 countries hold
most of the herd of goats in the community:
Greece 37.23%, Spain 22.52%, France 10.35%,
Italy 7.37%, Romania 7.04%, Portugal 3.4%,
Bulgaria 2.76%, the Netherlands 2.7%, Cyprus
Lucrări Ştiinţifice-Seria Zootehnie, vol. 59
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1.6% and Germany 1.15%, which together
totalized 96.12%. Three countries have to be
highlighted: Greece, Spain and France which
accounted for 70.1% of the EU goat livestock.
An important growth of goat number was
noticed in the period 2000-2010 in the
following countries: Luxembourg +408%,
Romania +64.39%, Latvia +62.96%, Estonia
+44.4%, Belgium +35.4%, Ireland +24.69%,
France +11.4%, Germany +10.06%, the
Netherlands +113.83%, Spain +11.67% and
Unithed Kingdom +9.50%, while in the other
countries it was registered a decline. The
highest increase was recorded in Luxembourg
(5 times more goats in 10 years), and the
deepest decline was noticed in Hungary
(-70%) and Bulgaria (-66%). (Table 3).
Table 3 Distribution of goat number by the EU member state, 2000-2010
2000 2010
Country Heads % Heads %
2010/2000 %
Austria 72,254 0.50 68,188 0.52 94.37
Belgium 16,248 0.11 22,000 0.16 135.40
Bulgaria 1,046,290 7.24 360,822 2.76 34.48
Cyprus 346,000 2.39 208,571 1.60 60.28
Czech Rep. 31,988 0.22 22,486 0.17 70.29
Denmark - - - - -
Estonia 2,700 0.01 3,900 0.02 144.44
Finland 8,564 0.05 4,890 0.03 57.09
France 1,210,520 8.38 1,349,030 10.35 111.44
Germany 135,000 0.93 149,936 1.15 110.06
Greece 5,614,450 38.90 4,850,000 37.23 86.38
Hungary 189,000 1.30 58,000 0.44 30.68
Ireland 8,100 0.05 10,100 0.07 124.69
Italy 1,397,000 9.67 961,000 7.37 68.79
Latvia 8,100 0.05 13,200 0.10 162.96
Lithuania 24,700 0.17 14,700 0.11 59.51
Luxembourg 1,000 0.006 5,084 0.03 508.40
Malta 8,000 0.5 5,110 0.03 63.87
Netherlands 165,000 1.14 352,830 2.70 213.83
Poland 190,000 1.31 122,123 0.93 64.27
Portugal 630,000 4.36 444,000 3.40 70.47
Romania 558,000 3.16 917,300 7.04 164.39
Slovakia 50,905 0.35 35,300 0.27 69.34
Slovenia 14,643 0.10 29,896 0.22 204.16
Spain 2,627,000 18.20 2,933,800 22.52 111.67
Sweden - - - - -
United Kingdom 77,164 0.66 84,500 0.78 109.50
Total EU-27 14,432,626 100.00 13,026,766 100.00 90.25
Source:FAOStat, 2012. Own calculations.
The differences from a country to another
are based on specific reasons such as:
attractiveness of bovine species more
efficient in milk production, and poor support
for goat farming given by the Romanian
Government etc.
France occupies a special place in the EU
and world, the increase by 11% of goat
number is not at random, being stimulated by
the grown demand for goat dairy products on
the domestic and external market, as well as
by the financial support for goat breeders and
milk processors offered by professional and
interprofessional federations: FNEC
(Federation Nationale des Eleveurs de
Chevres) and ANICAP (Association Nationale
Interprofessionnelle Caprine).
Romania is ranked 5 in the EU-27 with
917,300 goats, representing 7.04% of the
community livestock. The growth of goat
number has been intensified during the recent
years, mainly after Romania’s entry into the
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EU, being an attractive sector for breeders
due to the lack of milk quota, SAPARD
Programme which allowed the establishment
of new modern goat farms, and promoted
goat milk and especially dairy products [12].
World goat milk production and its
distribution by continent
In 2010, the average world milk
consumption reached 104.7 kg, of which 39%
in Asia, 29% in Europe, 13% in North
America, 9% in South America, 6% in Africa,
3% in Central America and 1% in Oceania.
Europe recorded 277 kg/year milk
consumption per inhabitant, while Asia
registered the lowest level [17]. This
stimulated milk production and trade with
dairy products which accounted for 51.9
million tons milk equivalent in 2010 and led to
an increase in milk price by 15% in Europe
and 27% in the USA, compared to 2009.
In 2009, world milk production reached
696.5 million tons of which 83.3% cow milk,
12.96% buffalo milk, 2.17% goat milk,
1.28% sheep milk and 0.23% camel milk
[12]. Therefore, goat milk comes on the 3rd
position as importance in world milk
production.
In 2009, world goat milk production
accounted for 15,128 thousand MT, being by
19.52% higher than in 1999. If one takes into
account that livestock increased by 18.91%
in the same interval, this means that
production growth was determined by a
higher productivity.
The largest amount of goat milk is
produced in Asia (58.89%), then in Africa
(21.19%), Europe (16.32%) and Americas
(3.59%) (Table 4).
Table 4 Distribution of goat milk production by continent, 1999-2009
Year MU Asia Africa Americas Europe Oceania
Total
world
1,000 MT 7,011 2,615 555 2,476 0.027 12,657 1999
% 55.39 20.66 4.38 19.56 0.01 100.00
1,000 MT 8,909 3,206 544 2,469 0.040 15,128 2009
% 58.89 21.19 3.59 16.32 0.01 100.00
2009/1999 % 127.07 122.60 98.01 99.71 148.14 119.52
Source:FAOStat, 2010, Own calculations.
The most important producing countries
are India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sudan.
Despite that Europe had 19 million goats
in 2010, accounting for only 2.5% of world
livestock, it produced 20% of world milk
production [7].
According to FAOStat, 2008, goat milk
production in the top producing countries was:
India 4 million MT, Bangladesh 2.2 million
MT, Sudan 1.5 million MT and Pakistan 0.7
million MT, which together accounted for 8.4
million MT, that is 55.6% of world goat milk.
On the 5th, 6th and 7th positions in the world
are 3 European countries: Spain, France and
Greece accounting for 7.71 million goats,
representing 0.88% of world livestock and
producing 1.6 million MT milk, that is 10.57%
of world goat milk.
Goat milk yield varies from a country to
another, being smaller in the developing
countries compared to the one from the
developed ones. The highest milk yield was
registered in France, 703.8 kg/goat/year, and
the lowest one in Iran, 29.9 kg/head.
According to FAOStat, 2010, goat milk
yield by continent was the following one:
Africa 41.6 kg, North America 178.7 kg,
South America 32.1 kg, Asia 78.2 kg and
Europe 250.7 kg [7].
In comparison with the year 2009, in 2010,
global goat milk production registered a
moderate growth rate 0,2%, but higher growth
rates were noticed in Turkey (+3.5%), France
(+6.4%), while in other countries it was
registered a decline: the Netherlands (-8.6%),
Spain (-2.9%) and Mexico (-1%) [17].
Despite China is considered one of the
largest goat breeding country in the world, it
comes only on the 10th position for goat milk
production and on the 3rd position for goat
milk yield after France and Spain.
Lucrări Ştiinţifice-Seria Zootehnie, vol. 59
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Most of goat milk is used for self-
consumption, which is typical in the Asian
and African countries. A smaller percentage
of world goat milk is sold as fresh milk and
this is specific to the American continent. A
very small amount of world milk (less than
5%) is processed in cheese and other dairy
products and mainly in the EU countries [7].
Table 5 Goat milk production in the main EU producting countries, 1999-2009
1999 2009 Country
Metric Tons % Metric Tons %
2009/1999
%
Bulgaria 200,000 10.57 64,090 3.28 32.04
Czech Rep. 15,154 0.80 8,652 0.44 57.09
Estonia 549 0.02 477 0.02 86.88
France 495,800 26.21 623,460 31.92 125.74
Greece 526,142 27.82 505,000 25.86 95.98
Hungary 4,165 0.22 3,200 0.16 76.83
Italy 114,400 6.04 46,000 2.35 40.20
Latvia 1,726 0.09 3,392 0.17 196.52
Lithuania 12,320 0.65 4,063 0.20 32.97
Malta 277 0.01 1,296 0.06 467.87
Portugal 34,393 1.81 26,877 1.37 78.14
Romania 126,360 6.68 183,346 9.38 145.09
Slovakia 13,200 0.69 8,200 0.41 62.12
Slovenia 2,160 0.11 1,539 0.08 71.25
Spain 404,100 21.37 473,000 24.30 117.05
Total EU 1,890,923 100.00 1,952,592 100.00 103.26
Source:FAOStat, 2010, [12].Own calculations
Goat milk production in the EU
In Europe, goat farming was mainly
oriented on milk which led to the highest
performance. Despite that Europe has only
2.17% of world goat livestock, its contribution
to world goat milk production is about 17% [8].
In 2009, the EU produced 1.95 million
MT, by 3.36% more than 1999 (1.89 million
MT). Therefore, a slight growth was recorded
by the EU, despite that in the same period of
time the EU goat livestock declined by
17.37%, showing that producers are mainly
focused on productivity.
The most important goat milk producing
countries in the EU are: France, Greece,
Spain, Romania, Bulgaria, Italy and Portugal,
accounting for 98.46 % of the EU goat milk.
The highest performance was recorded by
three countries: France, Greece and Spain
producing 82.08% of the EU goat milk.
France carried out the most spectacular
performance worldwide through a rigorous
selection within Saanen and Alpine breeds
breeding programmes, and goat milk
processing and marketing programmes as well.
In the period 1999-2009, goat milk
production increased in many EU countries as
follows: Malta (+367%), France (+25%),
Latvia (+96.52%), Romania (+45.09%), Spain
(+17.05%), and declined in other countries,
but the deepest decrease was recorded in
Bulgaria (-68%).
Romania comes on the 4th position in the
EU, producing 183,346 MT, representing
9.38 % market share and reflecting a good
potential. Taking into consideration that in
2009, Romania had 898,000 goats, by 53.5%
more than in 1999, this means an average
increase of 31,300 heads per year. Goat milk
production increased by 45.09% in the same
interval from 126,360 MT to 183,346 MT,
reflecting an average annually gain of
5,598,6 MT.
Therefore, Romania is ranked 5 in the
EU for goat livestock and 4 for goat milk.
Based on FAO-OECD and FAPRI short-
term forecast, it is estimated a low growth of
goat milk production in the EU countries
compared to India, China, Argentina and
Brazil. On long term it is expected an
increase of 1.8%-1.9% per year for milk
production at world level [16]. This proves
that goat milk production could continue to
increase.
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Iasi
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Milk consumption is expected to grow
taking into account the popularity of dairy
products, demographic and income growth,
development of trade distribution systems,
processing industry and state support in some
countries.
CONCLUSIONS
World goat livestock is continuing
growing especially in the developing countries
contibuting to world milk production.
In Europe, the decline of goat number is
compensated by an increased milk
performance with a positive impact on the
continent contribution to world goat milk.
While in the developing countries, goat
milk will continue to be a basic food for rural
population, in the developed ones its processing
will continue to be a priority because of the
increased demand for dairy products.
Consumption of goat milk and dairy
products will continue to grow because of
their nutritive and therapeutical value and
special flavor as well.
The growth of goat milk production
should be supported by breeding programmes
focused on goat milk, fat and protein yield,
adaptability to environmental conditions,
reproduction performance, growth intensity,
feeding and maintaining.
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www.milkproduction.com
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Due to a rising demand for goat milk and goat milk products worldwide, it is likely that dairy goat production will be intensified in the future, with larger herds per farm. In Switzerland, as in many other countries with intensive farming systems, dairy goats are typically housed on deep litter, with little access to hard abrasive surfaces. Such housing conditions will result in wall horn overgrowth. The aim of this study was to gain profound knowledge on the occurrence of overgrown wall horn, its impact on claw health and locomotor behavior, and possible adverse effects on animal welfare. Additionally, housing and management factors that may contribute to non-physiological claw conditions were evaluated. To compare claw conditions after the summer grazing period and the winter indoor housing period, data were collected on 28 Swiss dairy goat farms in autumn and spring (621 goats in total). Claw lesions were recorded with the help of a “claw card” documenting each claw. Furthermore, pictures were taken of each claw to determine the severity of wall horn overgrowth. Locomotion behavior (activity, lying time and lying bouts) was recorded with three-dimensional accelerometers fixed to the goats’ hind legs. In autumn, 66.7% of the examined claws showed moderate overgrowth, 32.4% severe overgrowth and 0.9% no overgrowth. In spring, 47.4% of the examined claws were affected with moderate overgrowth, 52.6% with severe overgrowth and 0.0% with no overgrowth. Horn separation (48.1% of examined claws) and sole hemorrhages (16.0% of examined claws) were the most frequent lesions. In goats with severely overgrown claws, the risk of developing sole hemorrhages was doubled compared with moderate overgrowth. The occurrence rate of horn separation was lower if the trimmer had attended a special skills training course (p < 0.001). Furthermore, locomotor activity (p < 0.01) and the number of lying bouts per day (p < 0.01) were higher in spring than autumn. Neither the goats’ activity nor the number of lying bouts per day differed before and after claw trimming. Finally, season and trimming were not associated with the goats’ total lying time. A certain extent of wall horn overgrowth in dairy goat claws cannot be avoided under the housing conditions typical for Swiss farms. Severe wall horn overgrowth is associated with an increase in the proportion of claws with sole hemorrhages. Therefore, regular and careful functional claw trimming, taking the housing situation (deep bedding, access to pasture, grazing on alpine pasture) into account, should be promoted.
... Besides cow and buffalo milk, goat milk has an exceptional quality given by its chemical composition due to its richness in various nutrients. Goat milk can also be consumed fresh or processed in different types of products such as cheese, butter, ice cream, yogurt, condensed milk and evaporated powdered milk (Agatha, 2013). ...
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ABSTRACT The study was conducted to investigate the relationship between body weight and morphological measurements and to estimate body weight from body measurements in Awassi x Wollo and Awassi x Tikur crossbreed sheep types in north eastern Ethiopia. For this purpose, data on body weight and body measurements such as heart girth, body length, wither height, hip width, ramp height, ear length, head length and body condition score were collected between 2015 and 2016 from 836 (287 male and 549 females) Awassi crossbred sheep at different ages of the two sheep types (447 Awassi x Wollo and 389 Awassi x Tikur). A correlation and regression analyses between body weight as a response variable and body measurements as predictor variable was conducted. A highly significant and consistent correlation coefficient was detected between body weight and heart girth (r=0.49 to r=0.85; p<0.001) in all age groups of both sexes of Awassi x Wollo and Awassi x Tikur sheep. Results on heart girth also supported previous results in literature. It was concluded in this study that body weight could estimated from heart girth with reasonable level of accuracy. It is recommended, therefore, to develop a simple chart that indicates heart girth and corresponding weights to be used by farmers and development agents to support genetic improvement, marketing, feeding and veterinary services.
... Despite that cow and buffalo milk have the highest share in total milk production, during the last decade, it was noticed a continuous growth of milk coming from sheep and goats which is considered a healthier milk with small fat globules which could be easily assimilated. This aspect encouraged the sheep and goat breeders to increase the livestock for these two species whose maintenance and milk production cost is lower compared to cows [6,21,37,41 ]. The egg production remained relatively stable, in fact it registered just 0.5 % growth rate in the period 2007-2015. ...
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The paper has the purpose to analyze the trends in the animal production in Romania. The empirical data were collected from the National Institute of Statistics for the period 2007-2016. Using the trend method, and indices method, it was presented the evolution of animal production value, and it share in the value of agricultural production,livestock by species, animal production: meat, milk, eggs, honey, the position of Romania in the EU-28 livestock and animal production, average consumption of animal products per inhabitant, price at farm gate and basic prices for products of animal origin, average acquisition prices for animal products and average price of animal products in the agro-food market. Animal production value declined by 30 % accounting for Lei 23.8 billion in 2016, with a share of 33.8 % in the value of agricultural production. The livestock declined in case of bovines, pigs and poultry, but increased in case of sheep, goats and bee families. The quantitative animal production decreased regarding total live weight at slaughter in case of bovines and pigs, it increased in case of poultry and remained stable in case of sheep and goats. Milk production declined, egg production remained stable and honey production increased. While meat production had a slight increase per inhabitant, meat consumption declined. Both milk production per inhabitant and milk consumption decreased. Both producer price at farm gate and the basic price for the products of animal origin registered a growth in the analyzed period, they are not enough high to cover production costs mainly in dairy and pig farms, despite of the allotted subsidies. This situation reflected a descending trend in animal production with a negative impact on the farmers' income, market offer, demand/offer ratio. Romania is not competitive in the sector of animal production with other EU countries and remains a net importing country of animal products.
... The said production field constitutes a significant means of living and nutritional source for the families in rural and forested areas. Outstanding feature of goat breeding is to allow the production of the animal products in the marginal fields (mountainous, scrubbing and stony fields) which can't be used in any other way than this (Kaymakci & Popescu, 2013). Some studies on its economic aspects are observed to have been done also ( . ...
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Goat breeding is a traditional animal breeding field performed generally in less developed and developing countries. The number of goats takes a considerable part in animal population in Turkey located at quite suitable conditions in terms of animal breeding considering its climate and field conditions. As a result of the increase in the demand for goat milk and related incentives in recent years the number of goats and production volume of goat milk has increased considerably in Turkey.
... Sheep and goat milk production had an increasing trend because of the special quality of this type of milk. Production was stimulated by an increased number of sheep and goats (Popescu Agatha, 2013b) [31]. However, wool has no price, being used in the countryside for producing carpets and other handicrafts. ...
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Agriculture is an important sector in Romania's economy. Crop production brings the highest contribution to agricultural production value, being followed by animal production. Cereal cropping is very important in Romania, and wheat and maize are the top cereal crops. Also sunflower seeds production is very good positioning Romania in the top in the EU. Vegetable and mainly fruit sectors registered an important decrease of production. Meat production declined in case of beef and pork, but it recorded a slight increase for mutton and goat meat. Poultry meat recorded a continuous development because of the high efficiency in broilers fattening and lower consumer price compared to beef and pork. Milk production declined due to the reduction of cattle livestock and the small yield/cow. In order to balance demand/offer ration, in the domestic market there many products coming from import, which deeply affect Romanian producers. The financial support offered by the EU for the Horizon 2014-2020 must be used in order to increase agricultural production. Farmers to join their capital and develop their business in associative forms which could help them to obtain farm inputs at cheaper costs, lower production costs, and to sell better their products in the market.
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Dairy goat farming is an important sector of the agricultural industry in Greece, with an annual total milk production exceeding 450 000 l and accounting for over 25% of all goat milk produced in the European Union; this milk is used mainly for cheese production. Despite the importance of goat milk for the agricultural sector in Greece, no systematic countrywide investigations in the bulk-tank milk of goats in Greece have been reported. Objectives were to investigate somatic cell counts (SCC) and total bacterial counts (TBC) in raw bulk-tank milk of goat herds in Greece, study factors influencing SCC and TBC therein and evaluate their possible associations with milk content. Throughout Greece, 119 dairy goat herds were visited for milk sampling for somatic cell counting, microbiological examination and composition measurement. Geometric mean SCC and TBC were 0.838 × 10 ⁶ cells ml ⁻¹ and 581 × 10 ³ cfu ml ⁻¹ , respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed annual frequency of check-ups of milking system and total milk quantity per goat (among 53 variables) to be significant for increased SCC; no factor emerged (among 58 variables) to be significant for increased TBC. Negative correlation of SCC with total protein was found; mean total protein content in the bulk-tank milk in herds with SCC >0.75 × 10 ⁶ cells ml ⁻¹ was 5.1% lower and in herds with SCC >1.5 × 10 ⁶ cells ml ⁻¹ , it was 7.8% lower.
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Goat milk has increasing importance in daily food consumption of individuals. This study aims to determine the factors that have influence on goat milk consumption. The research was conducted based on a face to face consumer survey which was applied in the two cities of the south-east part of Turkey, Adana and Mersin. The sample size of the survey was determined as 518 consumers depend on convenience sampling in case of unlimited population size. In this regard, a multivariate probit model was designed to test the intentions for goat milk consumption and purchase. The result of the study shows that place of purchase, bottle type, odour, brand, cheese consumption and homeland are the related factors with goat milk consumption and purchase activities. These results could be useful for understanding consumer attitude towards goat milk and to identify commercial targets and production strategies in future.
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The paper focuses on the potential for goats to reduce poverty in Africa. The current systems of production are described. The social and economic roles played by goats in food security and income generation are considered. The potential and constraints to pro-poor goat development in Africa are assessed. Good practice in farmer participation, development of farmer organizations, service provision, credit, insurance and marketing are suggested. The key roles of political and cultural biases in constraining goat development are identified. Finally, the impact of HIV/AIDS and women and children's rights are also highlighted.
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The goats have a specific place in the animal agricultural economy of the Mediterranean region. The annualper capita goat milk production of 6.3 kg. in the region will drop to the present world value of 1.6 kg. approximately afer a century. It will take more than hava century for the region's goat population of 40.6 million to be hnlved It seems that the goats will continue to contribute greatly to the livelihood of the ruralpeople keeping them for many years to come. mere are government programs to improve the genotype of the native goat breeds. The general practice is the distribution of purebred or crossbred male breeding animals to the goat farmers. In Greece, Italy and Turkey the percentages of goat milk made into cheese are about 70,63 and 95 percent Tespectively. The development of the present extensive goat production system within the framework of a silvo-agro-pastoral system appears to be the optimal approach.
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