Article

Predicting employee life satisfaction: A coherent model of personality, work and nonwork experiences, and domain satisfactions

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Abstract

This study examined a theoretical model that linked neuroticism, extraversion, daily hassles and uplifts in bath work and nonwork domains, job satisfaction, and nonwork satisfaction to overall life satisfaction. Structural equation analyses were conducted on 3 waves of data obtained from 479 police officers. It was found that job satisfaction and nonwork satisfaction made independent contributions to overall life satisfaction, but there was no significant relationship between work experiences and nonwork satisfaction, nor between nonwork experiences and job satisfaction. These findings support a segregation model rather than a spillover model of the links between the work and nonwork domains of employees' lives. Moreover, the total effects showed that life satisfaction was determined, in order of importance, by nonwork satisfaction, neuroticism, nonwork hassles, job satisfaction, nonwork uplifts, extraversion, work hassles, and work uplifts.

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... In addition, the concept of work family conflict has changed over time. In recent years, because of demographic changes, increased participation rates of women on the workplace and social 5(1)2014 3 trends, there has been increased interest in the relationship between work and family lives (Grzywacz, 2000;Grzywacz and Marks, 2000;Hart, 1999;Kinnunen and Mauno, 1998;Swanson et al., 1998). ...
... Empirical evidence suggests that spillover theory is most accurately describes the way in which work and family may be linked (Cooke and Rousseau, 1984;Judge and Watanabe, 1994). Hart (1999) stated that according to the spillover theory an employee's experience in one domain affects their experience in another domain. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between psychological capital and performance and to identify work family spillover and psychological well-being as a mediator of the effects of psychological capital on performance. Data was gathered from 361 white-collar employees from different occupations. The results based on Structural Equation Modeling reveal that psychological capital plays an important role in providing employees to have high performance. The results also indicate that psychological well-being and two dimensions of spillover (positive and negative work-family spillover) mediate the effect of psychological capital on performance. Implications of the results are discussed, and avenues for future research are offered.
... In short, there may be factors other than the increase in actual pay that elicits satisfaction, such as perceiving that the actual income is just. Other factors that were found to affect life satisfaction were job satisfaction (Hart 1999), sense of autonomy (Schokkaert 2007), and one's basic personality traits (Jaredić et al. 2017). ...
... Studies have already established that job satisfaction influences various work outcomes, such as organizational citizenship behavior and performance (Sawitri, Suswati, and Huda 2016), motivation (Mafini and Dlodlo 2014), and productivity (Zelenski, Murphy, and Jenkins 2008). There are also studies that confirm that job satisfaction positively contributes to life satisfaction (Hart 1999;Marfini and Dlodlo 2014). ...
Article
Wage justice literature asserts that it is the perceived fairness of pay (based on comparison others) instead of actual pay that matters most to an employee. This study therefore investigates the spillover effect of wage justice on life capabilities in the Philippines. It is hypothesized that wage justice will influence life capability through work capabilities such as job empowerment, job satisfaction, and occupational pride. Using data from the Institute of Philippine Culture study on living wages of 500 individuals, a structural equation model was estimated to test the spillover effect. Findings confirms the hypothesis that wage justice influences life capabilities (life satisfaction and physical well-being) through work capabilities. Implications for research on wage justice and capabilities as well as to people management practices in work organizations are discussed.
... Patient attendants are an adjunct to the hospital staff at Liaquat University Hospital and work just as much as the hospital staff to ensure proper care of the patient. Their strenuous role thus exposes them to the same or possibly more occupational stress than the nurses, paramedics and doctors themselves even though their abilities are less (Hart;1999). The attendants live in shabby conditions, cater to the patients' needs at all times and receive no appreciation from the health care system. ...
... Patient attendants are an adjunct to the hospital staff at Liaquat University Hospital and work just as much as the hospital staff to ensure proper care of the patient. Their strenuous role thus exposes them to the same or possibly more occupational stress than the nurses, paramedics and doctors themselves even though their abilities are less (Hart;1999). The attendants live in shabby conditions, cater to the patients' needs at all times and receive no appreciation from the health care system. ...
Article
Background: Existing literature on interpersonal affairs amid health professionals and patients has proliferated since the 1960s, highlighting the importance of health professionals of all sorts. Here, in the clinical setup of Liaquat University Hospital, we have another important relationship that is crucial to a patient’s health care plan, is an adjunct to the health care professionals and contributes significantly more to the patients care. This relationship, often taken for granted by the health authorities, is that of a patient and a family member voluntarily staying with the patient at the hospital (commonly termed as attendant). Objective: This study hopes to unearth the major problems (particularly hospital induced psychological distress) faced by attendants and inquire what major complaints they have against the health care setup, health professionals and the hospital. Methodology: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted from May to July 2013. A data sample of 150 patient attendants at Liaquat University Hospital, Jamshoro was chosen by purposive sampling. The data was collected by self-administered structured questionnaire and was analyzed using SPSS v.16.0 and MS Excel. Results: 66% of the patient attendants were males while 34% were females. The most common attendants were sons (22%), mothers (17.3%) and brothers (12%). The most common complaint of the patients was that the attendants had no proper place to stay even if their stay was necessary. The attendants complained of inadequate sleep, health worries, anxiety, depressed mood, agitation, reduced appetite and weight loss due to improper food. Conclusion: We conclude, on the basis of our findings, that an important asset is being mistreated by our healthcare system and this mistake demands to be corrected on a priority basis. Steps should be taken to solve their problems so that they may continue to play their positive role.
... One overlooked area is how workplace variables are associated with the life satisfaction. Life satisfaction is the degree that an individual is satisfied with his/her overall life (Erdogan, Bauer, Truxillo, & Mansfield, 2012;Hart, 1999). Life satisfaction is an important social goal, and, as such, identifying the forces that help shape it is important. ...
Article
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Working in prisons is a demanding career. While a growing number of studies have explored the predictors of job stress, job involvement, and job satisfaction, very few studies have examined how job stress, job involvement, and job satisfaction effect prison staff life satisfaction. Moreover, past studies on prison staff life satisfaction have all been conducted among those working in the United States. The current study examined how job stress, job involvement and job satisfaction were associated with satisfaction with life among surveyed staff at two Chinese prisons. Job involvement and job satisfaction had positive effects on life satisfaction, while job stress had a negative effect.
... Indeed, studies have shown that higher levels of career success can boost employee well-being (e.g., Abele et al., 2016;Wiese, Freund, & Baltes, 2002). Moreover, work satisfaction has been shown to be a key predictor of subsequent life satisfaction (Hart, 1999). Based on this evidence, we propose the following: ...
Article
Drawing on the “top-down” view of life satisfaction, this study investigates the influence of employee career resilience on life satisfaction and examines mediating effects of indicators of career success (i.e., salary, job level, job satisfaction) and work-related well-being (i.e., work stress) on this relationship. Data were collected from a sample of 527 working professionals from various organizations across the central United States. Results revealed that career resilience was positively associated with life satisfaction. Two indicators of career success (job satisfaction and salary) and work stress were found to mediate this relationship. Taken together, these findings signal that career resilience contributes to employee subjective well-being and that both career success and work stress are instrumental in explaining this relationship.
... Despite the lack of stability in terms of its dimensionality, MSQ exhibits numerous advantages: it is a broadly-accepted, validated and stable (in terms of its content/face validity suggesting strong theoretical background) through time measurement scale and prior research has proven its reliability by attaining high Cronbach's alpha values (i.e. Hart, 1999;Mathieu & Farr, 1991;as cited in Fields, 2002). Moreover, it is a short (20 item) scale that is easy to be administered in less than 10 min. ...
... Bien qu'une évaluation du BET semble importante pour les entreprises (Lachmann, Larose et Penicaud, 2010), peu d'attention lui a été accordée à ce jour (Kiziah, 2003), notamment car le BET est souvent considéré comme un construit générique. Pourtant, de nombreux auteurs stipulent que le bienêtre est un construit à part entière (Dagenais-Desmarais et Savoie, 2012 ;Gilbert, Dagenais-Desmarais et Savoie, 2011 ;Hart, 1999 ;Massé et al., 1998) dont les composantes sont dépendantes des différentes sphères de la vie (Diener, Oishi et Lucas, 2003). La spécificité de la sphère professionnelle, seule sphère source de revenus régie par une réalité relationnelle complexe, est soutenue par des résultats expérimentaux (Diener, 1984 ;Gilbert, Dagenais-Desmarais et Savoie, 2008 ;Massé et al., 1998). ...
Conference Paper
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L’objectif de cet article est d’étudier l’influence des technologies nomades sur le bien-être et le stress des individus au travail. Trois questions de recherche sont envisagées : (1) Dans quelle mesure les individus perçoivent-ils les technologies nomades comme des ressources ou des contraintes dans leur travail quotidien ? (2) Quelles en sont les conséquences sur l’entreprise en termes de contrôle, d’organisation spatio-temporelle et de relations interpersonnelles ? (3) Quelles en sont les conséquences en termes de bien-être et de stress au travail ? Pour répondre à ces questions, une étude qualitative a été menée au sein du groupe La Poste ayant introduit des technologies nomades pour ses directions commerciales depuis fin 2012. Les résultats montrent que ces technologies nomades sont avant tout perçues comme des ressources par les individus, et entrainent une amélioration de leur bien-être au travail. Dans le même temps et indépendamment, elles engendrent une surcharge de travail et une invasion de la technologie dans la sphère personnelle, influençant le niveau de stress auquel peut être confronté l’individu. Sur le plan théorique, l’article fait alors émerger la déconnexion entre bien-être au travail et stress technologique, les deux pouvant émerger indépendamment lors de l’introduction de technologies nomades, à travers des comportements d’addiction. Sur le plan pratique, cette étude met en évidence l’importance de l’accompagnement managérial lors de l’introduction de ces technologies afin de maintenir la qualité des relations interpersonnelles et d’assurer la cohésion d’équipe nécessaire au bienêtre des individus dans leur environnement professionnel.
... One promising avenue for future research is studying the dynamics of job satisfaction. Recent research suggests that daily or other 'micro' changes in job satisfaction may be important, for example to uncovering the dynamics of how affective work attitudes spill over to the family domain (Ilies, Wilson and Wagner 2009) or to overall life satisfaction (Hart 1999). Moreover, whilst we have excluded the dispositional characteristics from our investigation, further research should verify if core self-evaluations (for example Judge et al. 1997) are important in determining the differences in job satisfaction between employed and self-employed professionals. ...
... Les auteurs soutiennent également que la personnalité est un prédicteur pan culturel du bien être subjectif. En effet, ils rappellent que l'extraversion est un prédicteur consistent du bien être subjectif dans diverses cultures étudiées, plus précisément aux Etats Unis , au Canada (Pychyl et Little, 1998), en Australie (Hart, 1999;Headey, et Wearing, 1999;Wilson et Gullone, 1999), en Angleterre (Furhnam et Cheng, 1999), aux Pays Bas (Arrindell, Heesink, et Feij, 1999), en Allemagne (Eid, Notz, Steyer, et Scwenkmezger, 1994;Schimmack, 1997), en Estonie (Allik et Reallo, 1997), en Présentation théorique -47 -Espagne (Fierro et Cardenal, 1996), en Israel (Francis, et Katz, 2000;Gilboa, Bisk, Montag et Tsur, 1999), en Chine (Furhnam et Cheng, 1999), à Hong Kong (Kwan, Bond, Singelis, 1997), à Taiwan (Lu et Shih, 1997), et au Japon (Furhnam et Cheng, 1999;Yamaoka et al., 1998). affective du bien être subjectif (les affects) mais pas sur la composante cognitive (la satisfaction de la vie). ...
Book
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Diverses enquêtes réalisées à un niveau mondial et plusieurs études interculturelles montrent que le niveau de bonheur moyen varie selon les nations. Les auteurs indiquent que ces différences s'expliquent majoritairement par la variabilité des qualités sociétales. Cependant, le Brésil semble avoir un niveau de bonheur supérieur à celui constaté en France alors que les niveaux des qualités sociétales cités ci-dessus y sont très inférieurs. D'autres variables entreraient donc en jeu. Des facteurs psychosociaux variant culturellement et exerçant un impact positif sur le bonheur pourraient expliquer le niveau de bonheur plus élevé des Brésiliens. Afin de comprendre un peu mieux cette différence, nous avons étudié l'impact de variables psychosociales sur le bonheur dont les niveaux sont susceptibles d'être plus élevés au Brésil qu'en France. Nous nous sommes intéressés à la religion, aux relations sociales et à l'extraversion. Les résultats soulignent la complexité de la relation entre la culture et le bonheur. Nos variables n'exercent pas les mêmes effets sur le niveau de bonheur selon la nationalité des sujets ce qui suggère un effet modérateur de la culture.
... The major finding of the study is that there is a strongly positive relationship and strong impact of big five personality traits of male and female teachers on their job satisfaction. This finding can be confirmed by the findings given by , Hart (1999) and Judge et al. (1999). When analyzing the relationship and impact of the extraversion trait of male as well as female teachers on their job satisfaction, the statistical results reveal that there is a strong relationship and strong impact of this personality The practical implication of this study is that when recruiting the teachers for the school system, school administration has to consider the big five personality traits of the candidates. ...
Article
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This study is aimed to discuss the impact of big five personality traits of the male and female school teachers on their job satisfaction. 229 school teachers (male teachers 45% and female teachers 55%) were used as the sample of the study. Job satisfaction was measured using a questionnaire (short-form) developed by Weiss et al. in 1967 and Big Five Inventory developed by McCrae and John in 1992 was used to measure the big five personality traits. The major finding of the study is that there is a strongly positive relationship and strong impact of big five personality traits of male as well as female school teachers on their job satisfaction.
... Quality of life is also connected to work satisfaction (e.g., Adams et al., 1996cited in Hart, 1999) -work satisfaction may influence life satisfaction and vice versa. Hart (1999) showed that satisfaction with free time, personality factors (neuroticism and extraversion), work satisfaction, and ups and downs within and outside of work, importantly influence the extent to which people are satisfied with their lives. Cimete et al. (2003) found a positive correlation between work satisfaction and quality of life. ...
... Quality of life is also connected to work satisfaction (e.g., Adams et al., 1996cited in Hart, 1999) -work satisfaction may influence life satisfaction and vice versa. Hart (1999) showed that satisfaction with free time, personality factors (neuroticism and extraversion), work satisfaction, and ups and downs within and outside of work, importantly influence the extent to which people are satisfied with their lives. Cimete et al. (2003) found a positive correlation between work satisfaction and quality of life. ...
Article
The present study examined the factors that are related to burnout at the workplace. Previous studies researching the emergence of burnout mostly focused on external factors at the level of the nature of work, the workplace and institutions. Very few of them paid attention to the aspects of the individual in the sense of the individual’s personality traits and subjective feelings of satisfaction with work and with life. This is why this study researched the relationship between the burnout phenomenon, work satisfaction, personality traits and quality of life. To analyse personality traits, the emotions profile index (EPI) was used, which is based on Plutchik and Kellerman’s theory of emotion. Results of the study contribute to the understanding of the role of personality in the context of work.
... The Social Policy and Planning Division City of Calgary (2010), states that CWB incorporates economic, social, and physical well-being. Murphy (2010) and Hart (1999) propose a conceptual framework of CWB that incorporates social, economic, environmental, cultural, and political dimensions as identified by individuals and communities. Meanwhile, Lee and define CWB as a combination of several domain factors, namely, social, economic, cultural, environmental, and political. ...
... Several studies analyzed the relationship between JS and LS (e.g., Hart, 1999;Iverson and Maguire, 2000;Vansteenkiste et al., 2007;Zhao et al., 2011), but we are unaware of any study in a context that is as specific as prestigious kitchens. Moreover, only a few studies considered the values that comprise the characteristics of professionals who manage these kitchens. ...
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That there exists a reciprocal relationship of influence among the experiences, roles, and attitudes that a worker has in his/her personal life and work environment is widely known. However, few studies in the existing hospitality literature have examined this issue. This work examines the findings of a study that identifies the factors influencing the relationship between job satisfaction and subjective well-being. Based on the data collected from a sample of chefs in Europe, the findings offer a good understanding of the relationship as a central part of chefs’ life satisfaction. Chefs are selected to be part of the sample because of the nature of their work, which largely involves work overload, excessive stress, and limited public recognition.
... Workplace stress results from the complex interactions between a large system of interrelated variables, there are several psychological theories and models that address occupational stress [13,14]. Fit model is relatively comprehensive and clearly places much emphasis on the individual"s subjective interaction with the environment. ...
Article
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Occupational stress can lead to one's physical or mental state in response to workplace that pose a challenge to that employee. Causes of occupational stress include environments, organizational climate, and a conflict arises from the job demands of the employees. Physical symptoms of stress include fatigue, increased blood pressure, rapid heart rate,dizziness, headaches, jaw pain, back pain, inability to concentrate and confusion, immunosuppression and chronic pain. Psychologic disorders may lead to poor work performance, higher absenteeism, less work productivity even injury. Stressful working conditions can lead to behavioral, physical, and psychological strains. Adverse health effects include psychological disorders, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, diabetes, hypertension, week immune system, increased risk of occupational injury and health service utilization. Interventions to eliminate or reduce the occupational stress should be both at organizational and individual levels. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) guidelines on organizational change to prevent occupational stress is useful.
... Items were answered using a true-false format. Finally, we controlled for neuroticism, as those high in neuroticism tend to have fewer psychological resources to meet demands, appraise situations more negatively and are less tolerant of stress (Hart, 1999;Mount and Barrick, 1995), making them more sensitive and responsive to customer incivility. Neuroticism was measured by two items taken from Rammstedt and John's (2007) short version of the Big Five scale. ...
Article
Purpose This study aims to examine the relations between service employee blame attributions in response to customer incivility and revenge desires and revenge behavior toward customers, and whether employee empathy moderated these relations. Design/methodology/approach The authors used survey data based on the critical incident method provided by a sample of 431 customer service employees. Findings The results suggested that blaming a customer was positively associated with desire for revenge and revenge behaviors against the uncivil customer. In addition, the authors found that blame was less strongly associated with desire for revenge when employees empathized with customers. Finally, the results show that an employee who desired revenge against the uncivil customer and who empathized with the customer was more – not less – likely to engage in revenge. Practical implications The authors found that when employees experience mistreatment from customers, it increases the likelihood that they will blame the offending customer and behave in ways that are contrary to their organization’s interests. The results suggest several points of intervention for organizations to more effectively respond to customer mistreatment. Originality/value In this study, the authors make one of the first attempts to investigate the relationships between service employee attributions of blame when they experience customer incivility, desire for revenge and customer-directed revenge behaviors. The authors also examined whether empathy moderates the relations between blame attribution, desires for revenge and revenge behavior.
... Personality and the dominant elements of human personality respectively have been a major topic for many national and international studies (Campbell, 1981;Rosenberg, 1965;DeNeve, Cooper, 1998;Costa, McCrae, 1992;Furnham, Cheng, 2000;Lucas, Diener, Suh, 1996;Lucas, Diener, 2001;Eid, 2008;Eid, Diener, 2004;Bolger, Zuckerman, 1995;Barrick, Mount, 1991;Ferguson, 2001, Gomez R., Gomez A., Cooper, 2002Hart, 1999;Heller, Watson, Ilies, 2004;Judge, Heller, Mount, 2002;Schimmack, Radhakrishnan, Oishi, Dzokoto, Ahadi, 2002, Benjamin, Hollings, 1995Tross, Harper, Osher, Kneidinger, 2000), etc. The Big-Five model of personality elements used in defining academic performance has been used both in the Western and in the Eastern academic environment. ...
Article
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Personality traits plays a major role in the process of human performance at work place. A common assumption for many studies is that a student who is satisfied with his own life evolution in general, should be more determined in achieving academic performance and consequently should reach a higher level in his academic achievements. This article is to be regarded as a presentation of a personality profile resulted from a quantity-quality descriptive study conducted on 374 medical and law school students. The purpose of this thesis is to identify the personality profile directly connected with academic performance and indirectly connected with academic achievement in the educational environment of the Romanian higher education system. Cuvinte cheie: trăsături de personalitate, performanță academică, conștiinciozitate, agreabilitate
... People under stress may not take good care of them, may eat or drink (alcoholic) more and exercise less. 2. Stress hormones such as cortisol may also alter the blood glucose levels directly.[5]In Ayurvedic classical texts also there is reference of Tyakta Chintana, Vishada, Avyayama as the causative factors in Prameha.[6] ...
... Community links and life satisfaction. Strong social connections between a person and other people in the non-work domain, such as family and friends may impact the person's life satisfaction (Erdogan et al., 2012;Hart, 1999). Suldo and Huebner (2006) and Kong and You (2013) argued that people with higher community embeddedness may experience greater life satisfaction because of the social support they are likely to receive from community members, including family and friends. ...
Article
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Purpose To explore relationships between organisation embeddedness and life satisfaction, and community embeddedness and life satisfaction. The study also examined relationships between each sub-dimension of organisation embeddedness and community embeddedness and life satisfaction. These sub-dimensions are ‘links’, ‘fit’ and ‘sacrifice’. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 549 employees in organisations located in four major business centres in South Africa. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. Findings Both organisation embeddedness and community embeddedness were positively related to life satisfaction. Regarding the sub-dimensions of organisation embeddedness, only organisation fit and sacrifice were positively related to life satisfaction. As regards the sub-dimensions of community embeddedness, only community fit was positively related to life satisfaction. Practical implications Adopting practices which embed employees in the organisation and communities where they live is potentially beneficial for both organisations and employee well-being. Originality/value The bulk of research on job embeddedness and work-related outcomes has focused on benefits for the organisation. The effects of embeddedness on employee-wellbeing has been largely overlooked. The current study is an attempt to redress this imbalance in job embeddedness research.
... Life satisfaction was evaluated using a measure that required respondents to rate their satisfaction with various nonwork facets of life (a ¼ 0.88), 93 such as ''family life'' and ''leisure activities.'' We added five items to tap into satisfaction with additional life facets, including emotional health, spiritual life, and community involvement. ...
Article
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Objective: Opportunities for people to recover from stress are insufficient, because demanding and excessive life activities leave little time for recovery. Downtime is a self-care behavior that can occur in any life domain (ie, work, home/family, leisure). Methods: Using survey data from a cross-section of 422 U.S. workers, we tested hypotheses regarding downtime as a buffer of the effects of time pressure and whether downtime's benefits were related to the domain in which it was taken, or influenced by perceived time control. Results: In situations of high time pressure, work and home/family downtime were beneficial when time control was high, while relaxing leisure was beneficial when time control was low. Conclusions: Downtime is available whenever people recognize their need for recovery and respond by entering a state of physical relaxation and psychological detachment from stressors.
... Spillover theory suggests that employees' experiences in one domain affect their experiences in another domain (Hart, 1999). In relation to this view considering officers of the Nigeria police, employees (officers) who perform their job as stipulated by the Police act such as enforcing the laws are found to be deeply involved in their work activities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Work-family conflict likely occurs among employees who are caught between demands of work responsibilities and demands of family responsibilities. There has been much research on work-family conflict, but little effort has been made to study this in Nigerian police. Considering the theoretical assumptions of spillover theory linking job stress and job involvement to work-family conflict, this cross-sectional study investigated the contributions of job stress and job involvement in work-family conflict among police officers in Enugu urban area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Two hundred and nine (209) police officers, comprising 129 males and 80 females between the ages of 20 to 59 years (M = 39.24, SD = 6.26) were sampled using multi-stage sampling techniques. The 15-item Job Stress Scale, 20-item Job Involvement Scale and 32-item Work-family Conflict Scale were the measures for data collection. Results of hierarchical multiple-regression revealed that job stress and job involvement did not equally predict work-family conflict and its bi-directions. Specifically, job involvement jointly and independently predicted work-family conflict, work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict while job stress jointly and independently did not predict work-family conflict and its bi-directions. Job involvement accounted for 18.0% of the variance of work-family conflict, 21.90% of work-to-family conflict and 3.70% of family to work conflict among officers of Nigerian police. There is a need for policy makers in Nigeria such as Police Service Commission to consider job involvement in order to reduce work-family conflict of police officers.
... In the same way, researcher identified that it is confident sensation while working, personal worth, and achievements (Wetherell, 2002). The working relations during job resulted in satisfaction, controlling way of life and success of life (Lawler, 1973& Hart, 1999. ...
Article
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This study was an attempt to prepare an objective type semi standardized achievement test of education for intermediate level students. To prepare this test, an item bank of 300 items was evaluated by experts and best 172 items were tried out to 215 students for pilot testing. After analysis of pilot test data, 113 items meeting criteria of selected items were chosen for final try out and administered to a sample of 485 students. Results of item analysis of final try out indicated that 85 items met the criterion of selected items. Reliability of test estimated by Kuder Richardson 20 was 0.86 for form A, 0.88 for form B for pilot testing stage and 0.92 for the final try out of test stage. This explained that this test was a valid and reliable test to evaluate students‟ achievement in the course. It was suggested that further research on the topic may be continued and some items of this test may be included in tests for the use of boards of intermediate and secondary education in Punjab, Pakistan.
... The Social Policy and Planning Division City of Calgary (2010), states that CWB incorporates economic, social, and physical well-being. Murphy (2010) and Hart (1999) propose a conceptual framework of CWB that incorporates social, economic, environmental, cultural, and political dimensions as identified by individuals and communities. Meanwhile, Lee and define CWB as a combination of several domain factors, namely, social, economic, cultural, environmental, and political. ...
... En términos generales, la evidencia empírica ha encontrado que la satisfacción laboral se relaciona de manera positiva con la satisfacción con la vida (Erdogan et al., 2012), y que dicha relación es significativa (e.g., Hart, 1999;Heller et al., 2002;Moser y Schuler, 2004;Piccolo, Judge, Takahashi, Watanabe y Locke, 2005). El meta-análisis realizado por Tait (Erdogan et al., 2012). ...
Thesis
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El objetivo general de la presente tesis es determinar si la empleabilidad de los jóvenes facilita la obtención de empleos de calidad. En este sentido, se pretende identificar si la empleabilidad tanto a nivel percibido, como a nivel de las dimensiones que la constituyen, predice la calidad del empleo medida a través de un conjunto amplio de indicadores. Así, la presente tesis pretende contribuir a la literatura al identificar las consecuencias de la empleabilidad, hasta ahora poco estudiadas, en la calidad del empleo de los jóvenes. Más específicamente, la presente tesis pretende responder dos preguntas de investigación fundamentales a través de la realización de cuatro estudios empíricos. La primera pregunta de investigación indaga si la empleabilidad, entendida como la percepción de empleabilidad de los jóvenes, se relaciona positivamente con la obtención empleos de calidad. La pregunta primera pregunta de investigación se abordó a través de los estudios 1 y 2 de la tesis. El primer estudio de la tesis pretendió determinar en qué medida la empleabilidad percibida predice la satisfacción de los jóvenes con los aspectos intrínsecos, extrínsecos y sociales de su trabajo. Adicionalmente, este primer estudio analizó si la satisfacción con dichos aspectos aumenta cuando la empleabilidad percibida interacciona con la iniciativa personal, la cual es considerada como una característica personal importante en la potenciación de los efectos de la empleabilidad. En términos generales, los resultados de dicho estudio mostraron que tanto la empleabilidad percibida, como la iniciativa personal de los jóvenes predicen positivamente su satisfacción con los aspectos extrínsecos, intrínsecos y sociales del trabajo. Asimismo, tales resultados mostraron que los jóvenes con una alta empleabilidad percibida y que también poseen una iniciativa personal alta, presentan una satisfacción aún mayor con los aspectos extrínsecos e intrínsecos de su trabajo. El segundo estudio de la tesis pretendió analizar si los jóvenes que se perciben empleables obtienen empleos con bajos niveles de sobrecualificación tanto cuantitativa, como percibida y si este hecho afecta positivamente su satisfacción laboral. Adicionalmente, este segundo estudio pretendió probar si la satisfacción laboral derivada por los jóvenes que se perciben empleables les permite derivar una mayor satisfacción con su vida en general. Los resultados del estudio 2 mostraron que la empleabilidad percibida predice negativamente tanto la sobrecualificación percibida como la cuantitativa, las cuales a su vez predicen negativamente la satisfacción laboral global, que tiene un efecto positivo en la satisfacción con la vida. Asimismo, los resultados apoyaron un modelo en el cual la relación entre la empleabilidad y la satisfacción laboral está mediada parcialmente por la sobrecualificación percibida y en el que la satisfacción laboral predice la satisfacción de los jóvenes con su vida en general. Tomados en su conjunto, los resultados de estos dos estudios sugieren que las personas que se perciben empleables tienen la posibilidad de elegir los mejores empleos de un abanico de alternativas, lo cual les permite obtener empleos ajustados a sus cualificaciones y a sus expectativas. Lo anterior también les permite abandonar los empleos que no les resultan satisfactorios o que no ajustan a sus expectativas y, por tanto, a buscar empleos con mejores condiciones laborales (Berntson y Marklund, 2007). En este sentido, el cambio a un empleo de mejor calidad sería una solución que estaría al alcance de las personas empleables teniendo en cuenta que tienen la posibilidad de elegir un mejor empleo ya que cuentan con un conjunto de alternativas laborales a su disposición (De Cuyper et al., 2008; De Cuyper et al., 2009). La posibilidad de elección de la mejor alternativa laboral puede deberse al hecho de que las personas empleables son altamente valoradas en el mercado laboral al contar con el capital humano y las características personales necesarias para mostrar un alto rendimiento laboral y para contribuir de manera importante a la productividad de las organizaciones. La segunda pregunta de investigación indaga si las dimensiones de empleabilidad facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad por parte de los jóvenes. Dicha pregunta de investigación fue abordada por medio de los estudios 3 y 4. El estudio 3 pretendió identificar si las dimensiones personales de empleabilidad propuestas por Fugate et al. (2004), esto es, el capital humano, la adaptabilidad personal y la identidad de carrera, contribuyen significativamente a predecir la calidad del empleo de los titulados universitarios jóvenes. Los resultados de este tercer estudio mostraron en términos generales que las dimensiones personales de empleabilidad propuestas por Fugate et al. (2004), contribuyen significativamente a predecir la calidad del empleo de los titulados universitarios. En este sentido, los titulados que se dedican o piensan dedicarse a ejercer su titulación (identidad de carrera), que presentan una alta autoeficacia generalizada (adaptabilidad personal) y que han cursado una titulación universitaria determinada (capital humano) obtienen empleos que se ajustan a su nivel educativo, a la titulación obtenida, están asociados a categorías profesionales altas y resultan satisfactorios a nivel de contenidos, de salario y de contrato. En base a lo anterior, cabe destacar que el capital humano, medido a través de la titulación cursada, es la dimensión más importante en la predicción de los diferentes indicadores de calidad del empleo, según los resultados obtenidos. Finalmente, el estudio 4 pretendió analizar en profundidad la relación entre la dimensión de capital humano de la empleabilidad y la calidad del empleo a través del análisis de los componentes específicos del capital humano de los titulados universitarios jóvenes que les facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad. En términos generales, los resultados del estudio 4 mostraron que los componentes del capital humano de los universitarios predicen diferencialmente los indicadores de calidad del empleo. Tomados en su conjunto, los resultados de los estudios 3 y 4 sugieren que diferentes componentes del capital humano, así como de la identidad de carrera y de la adaptabilidad personal constituyen características personales que conforman la empleabilidad de los titulados universitarios y que les facilitan la obtención de empleos de calidad. Los resultados de la tesis apoyan la teoría del capital humano (Becker, 1964), en el sentido de que las inversiones realizadas por los jóvenes en el desarrollo de su capital humano, y por tanto en su empleabilidad, son recompensadas con aspectos no monetarios, como la calidad de los empleos obtenidos (Vila, 2005). Por otra parte, la relación positiva de la empleabilidad con los indicadores de calidad del empleo apoya la teoría del mercado laboral dual (Doeringer y Piore, 1971), en el sentido que las personas con una empleabilidad alta y un capital humano desarrollado formarían parte del mercado laboral primario, caracterizado tanto por empleos estables y bien pagados, como por empleos de alto nivel que se ajustan a las características educacionales del empleado y que presentan características intrínsecas y extrínsecas satisfactorias para el individuo. Así, los resultados obtenidos en la tesis resaltan la importancia del desarrollo de la empleabilidad y del capital humano para la transición de los jóvenes del mercado laboral secundario al primario o para su inserción directa en el sector primario del mercado laboral. En términos generales, los resultados obtenidos en la tesis presentan una gran relevancia práctica debido a que indican que los jóvenes pueden desarrollar las características personales implicadas en la empleabilidad con el fin de aumentar sus posibilidades de obtener empleos de calidad, esto es, satisfactorios y ajustados a sus características educacionales. Es importante destacar que el alcance de los modelos de empleabilidad centrados en la persona y de las variables personales en la predicción de la calidad del empleo está condicionado por el importante efecto de la situación del mercado laboral en la disponibilidad y acceso a los empleos de calidad por parte de los jóvenes, lo cual implica que la rentabilidad de la educación y el aprovechamiento del capital humano están condicionados por las características del tejido productivo (Pérez et al., 2012). En este sentido, es razonable esperar que dichos modelos centrados en la persona predigan porcentajes moderados de varianza de los indicadores de calidad del empleo, como los obtenidos en la presente tesis y en la literatura relacionada.
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Katılımcıların anketteki sorulara verdikleri cevaplar, doğrulayıcı faktör analizi, güvenilirlik analizi, korelasyon analizi ve SPSS üzerine entegre edilebilen “Process” makrosu ile değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular – Bulgulara göre çalışanların örgütlerinin prestiji hakkındaki algılarının (dışsal prestij) işaile çatışması üzerinde negatif ve anlamlı bir etkisi olduğu buna ek olarak; iş becerikliliği ile iş-aile çatışması arasında pozitif ve anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Diğer taraftan, kişi-örgüt uyumunun iş becerikliliği ve iş-aile çatışması arasındaki ilişkide aracılık rolü üstlendiğine ilişkin hipotez reddedilmiştir. Tartışma – Bu çalışmada; dışsal prestij algısı yüksek olan çalışanların daha az iş-aile çatışması yaşadıklarını rapor etmiş olmaları, çalışanların örgütlerinin başkaları tarafından prestijli olarak değerlendirildiğini algıladıklarında, mevcut statülerini önemsedikleri, bu nedenle işten kaynaklanan sorunlarını aile hayatlarına taşımadıkları anlaşılmaktadır. Diğer bir ifadeyle, üyesi bulunduğu örgütünün prestijini yüksek olarak algılayan bir çalışanın muhtemelen öz-benlik saygısının yüksek olacağı, bu nedenle iş-aile çatışması yaşasa bile iş kaynaklı sorunları daha az önemseyerek, bu sorunları tolere edebileceği düşünülmektedir. Diğer taraftan, beklenenden farklı olarak çalışmada, iş becerikliliğinin iş-aile çatışmasını artırdığı sonucu elde edilmiştir. İşini kendine uygun bir hale getirme gayretinin bireyin iş yerinde daha fazla çaba ve vakit harcamasına neden olarak onda strese sebep olduğu, bunun ise negatif yayılma etkisiyle iş-aile çatışmasını doğurduğu düşünülebilir. Çalışmada kişi-örgüt uyumunun, iş becerikliliği ve iş-aile çatışması ilişkisindeki aracı rolü tespit edilememiştir. Bu bulgu, iş becerikliliğinin iş-aile çatışması üzerindeki etkisinin çalışanların değerlerinin örgüt kültürü ile uyumu üzerinden olmadığını göstermektedir. Purpose – In this study, assuming that it must reduce the work-family conflict experienced by the employees, the effect of their organization being perceived prestigious by others and the employees’ self-shaping (job crafting) of their work on work-family conflict is to be determined. Also the possible mediating effect of person-organization fit on the relationship between job crafting and work-family conflict. Design/methodology/approach – The data were collected by using snowball method from 247 higher education institutions’ academic employees who agreed to participate in the study. The research model is chosen in order to identify the effect of external prestige on work-family conflict and the mediating role of perceived person-organization fit in the relationship between job crafting and work-family conflict. The answers of the participants to the questions in the questionnaire were evaluated with confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis and “Process” macro which can be integrated on SPSS. Findings – According to the findings, employees' perceptions about the prestige of their organizations (external prestige) have a negative and significant effect on the work-family conflict. It was found that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between job crafting and workfamily conflict. On the other hand, the hypothesis that person-organization fit plays a mediator role in the relationship between job crafting and work-family conflict was rejected. Discussion – In this study; it is understood that employees who have high perception of external prestige have reported less work-family conflict and that when they perceive that their organization is perceived to be prestigious by others, they care about their current status and therefore do not carry their work-related problems into family life. In other words, it is thought that an employee who perceives the prestige of his / her organization to be high is likely to have high self-esteem, so he / she can tolerate these problems by paying less attention to work-related problems even if there is a work-family conflict. On the other hand, unlike expected, it was found that job crafting increases work-family conflict. It may be thought that the effort to make the job suitable for itself causes the individual to spend more effort and time in the workplace causing stress to him, and this can lead to the negative effect of family-work conflict. In this study, the mediator role of person-organization fit in the relationship between job crafting and work-family conflict could not be determined.
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This study mainly investigates the factors influencing work-family balance (WFB) of professionals in the International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. The objectives of this study are, to identify the critical factors which influence work-family balance of professionals and to examine relative contribution of each independent variables towards work family balance of professionals in INGOs in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka. Data were possible to collect with 116 respondents. The final sample consisted of sixty seven (67%) males and thirty (33%) females. Univariate analysis, correlation, multiple regression and independent sample t-test were used to analyze the data. The result of the study reveals that time management, nature of the spouse, awareness, organizational support and emotional intelligence are positive and significantly related to work-family balance meantime work stress negative and significantly related to work-family balance. It is also noted that model is significant and 67.4% of variation in work family balance of professionals in the INGOs was explained by the selected variable whereas around 53% of variation in work-family balance is explained by work stress as a major predictor out of six independent variables. Moreover this research reveals that there is no significant difference between male and female professionals in INGOs with regard WFB. It is concluded that level of work-family balance is moderate level among the professionals in the INGOs in the region and the findings of the research helpful for INGOs and professional in INGOs and government to develop appropriate strategies and programmatic changes which will helpful them to make appropriate critical decision in terms WFB. Further, future researchers can be conducted to identify intervening and moderating variables which may give effects on the relationship between work stress and WFB.
Thesis
Ce travail de recherche doctoral a pour objet d’étudier les dimensions constitutives du construit de bien-être au travail (BET) du point de vue des salariés et de proposer une échelle de mesure dudit concept propre au contexte français. A ce dessein, une analyse de la littérature relative au concept de bien-être en général et à celui de bien-être au travail est réalisée. Elle a permis en outre d’identifier les variables considérées par la littérature RH comme des antécédents et des conséquences du BET, ceci, aussi bien du point de vue des entreprises que des employés. Ce travail théorique a consisté également au recensement et à l’analyse des outils de mesure en vigueur du bien-être en général et du BET proposés par les chercheurs et par les professionnels du conseil RH. Un travail qui permet de ressortir deux principales échelles de mesure du BET en vigueur, celles de Dagenais-Desmarais (2010) et Bietry et Creusier (2013). Ce travail théorique s’est suivi par un travail empirique qui a consisté en deux principales études de terrain respectivement qualitatives et quantitatives. L’étude qualitative, qui s’inscrit dans une démarche exploratoire, a consisté en 29 entretiens individuels et 5 focus group réalisés auprès d’une même entreprise de service. Cette étude a permis d’identifier les représentations du bien-être au travail chez les salariés et qui se résument en six principales dimensions : (1) la clarté du rôle, (2) l’environnement de travail, (3) l’ambiance de travail, (4) la reconnaissance au travail, (5) la bienveillance de l’entreprise et (6) l’épanouissement au travail. La validité de contenu de la structure qui le sous-tend a, par la suite, été étudiée au moyen de la méthode de tri de cartes – plus communément connue sous le nom de card-sorting. Cette démarche exploratoire, qui a permis de proposer un modèle conceptuel qui met en exergue les six dimensions du BET présentées ci-dessus, a été suivie par une étude quantitative. Celle-ci a consisté en la proposition et le test d’une échelle de mesure métrique du BET. Les analyses, exploratoire et confirmatoire, de la structure factorielle de ladite échelle permettent de confirmer la structure à six dimensions du BET. De même, les tests de fiabilité, de validité convergente, discriminante et nomologique menées au moyen de la méthode des équations structurelles attestent des propriétés psychométriques de l’échelle de BET. Les résultats de cette échelle de mesure sont par la suite discutés, ceci, au vu des dires de la littérature sur les dimensions mobilisées et des recommandations managériales qu’elle implique. De même, les limites de cette échelle de mesure ainsi que des pistes de perfectionnement (voies de recherche) sont présentées et discutées.
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Purpose – The aim of this study is to examine the effect of work-life balance on life satisfaction in the context of mediating role of job embeddedness. Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire-based study was carried out 598 employees who work in the accommodation establishments, located in the tourism destination of Manavgat, Antalya. The data were obtained using Hayman's (2005) Work-Life Balance Scale, Mitchell et al's (2001) Job Embeddedness Scale and Diener et al’s (1985) Life Satisfaction Scale. Findings – As a result of the correlation analyses, statistically significant relationships were found between work-life balance and job embeddedness, job embeddedness and life satisfaction, and work-life balance and life satisfaction. Regression analysis and Sobel test findings reveal that job embeddedness has a mediating role in the relationship between work-life balance and life satisfaction. Discussion – This study reveals that the effect of job embeddedness on the relationship between worklife balance and life satisfaction is statistically significant. In addition, the significant relationships between the variables discussed in the study indicate the importance of the relationship between job embeddedness and life satisfaction, as the work-life balance affects both the business and private life of employees. In this context, if the individual's work-life balance is deteriorated, both his work life and his private life are affected, and then his life satisfaction is also affected. The use of applications to be associated with job embeddedness in businesses will be an important force that increases employees' commitment to the organization. At this point, it would be appropriate to pay particular attention to personal values to be compatible with the values of the organization in order to increase employee embeddedness.
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Several unsettled issues related to the day-to-day experience of work and family roles were investigated through the daily reports of 41 employed parents. Multiple role juggling, task demands, personal control, and goal progress affected mood in work and family roles. Unpleasant moods spilled over from work to family and vice versa, but pleasant moods had little spillover. Mood states, role juggling, and daily levels of role involvement predicted end-of-day ratings of work-family conflict. In particular, daily involvement in family roles, distress experienced during family activities, and family intrusions into work were positively related to perceptions that family interfered with work.
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This paper critically reviews the theoreticalframeworks currently used to explain the processes through which work and family are linked, i.e., segmentation, compensation, and spillover. In the literature, these processes are treated as competing explanations, even though evidence and logic suggests that all three operate to link work and family. Moreover, it is likely that other processes also link the two. Most notably, workers may limit their involvement in work, or in family life, so that they can better accommodate the demands of the other. Clarified causal models and suggestions for advancing knowledge in this area are presented and discussed. It is argued that a fuller understanding of the processes linking work and family life is necessary to adequately evaluate the effectiveness of the family supportive policies currently being implemented by many U.S. firms, as well as to identify additional strategies for helping workers find satisfaction in both their work and personal roles.
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The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was developed to assess satisfaction with the respondent’s life as a whole. The scale does not assess satisfaction with life domains such as health or finances but allows subjects to integrate and weight these domains in whatever way they choose. Normative data are presented for the scale, which shows good convergent validity with other scales and with other types of assessments of subjective well-being. Life satisfaction as assessed by the SWLS shows a degree of temporal stability (e.g., 54 for 4 years), yet the SWLS has shown sufficient sensitivity to be potentially valuable to detect change in life satisfaction during the course of clinical intervention. Further, the scale shows discriminant validity from emotional well-being measures. The SWLS is recommended as a complement to scales that focus on psychopathology or emotional well-being because it assesses an individuals’ conscious evaluative judgment of his or her life by using the person’s own criteria.
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This paper examines approaches to the formation of organizational climate. Three perspectives appearing in the literature the structural, the perceptual, and the interactive are identified and examined. Additionally, a perspective termed the "cultural approach" is developed. This approach posits that organizational climate arises from the intersubjectivity of members as they interact within a context established by an organization's culture. A definition of organizational climate, informed by this approach, is presented. Finally, distinctions between organizational climate and organizational culture are examined.
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A model of the relationship between work and family that incorporates variables from both the work-family conflict and social support literatures was developed and empirically tested. This model related bidirectional work-family conflict, family instrumental and emotional social support, and job and family involvement to job and life satisfaction. Data came from 163 workers who were living with at least 1 family member. Results suggested that relationships between work and family can have an important effect on job and life satisfaction and that the level of involvement the worker assigns to work and family roles is associated with this relationship. The results also suggested that the relationship between work and family can be simultaneously characterized by conflict and support. Higher levels of work interfering with family predicted lower levels of family emotional and instrumental support. Higher levels of family emotional and instrumental support were associated with lower levels of family interfering with work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Researchers report on a 3-sample study that developed and validated short, self-report scales of work–family conflict (WFC) and family–work conflict (FWC). Using conceptualizations consistent with the current literature, the researchers offer content domains and definitions of the constructs. Advocated procedures were used to develop the scales and test dimensionality and internal consistency. Estimates of construct validity are presented by relating the scales to 16 other on- and off-job constructs. Mean-level difference tests between WFC and FWC also provide evidence of validity.
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Trait negative affectivity (NA) has been asserted to be a factor that spuriously inflates relationships between self-reported stressors and self-reported strain outcomes. We tested this hypothesis with conventional work stress instrument responses and physiological assessments obtained from 311 fire and police department employees. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that NA did not measure a factor in common with measures of subjective strain. Latent-variable structural equations analyses, however, found that estimating the effects of NA on strain significantly attenuated the effects of work stressors. NA had no correlation with physiological stress outcomes. Trait positive affectivity did not attenuate relationships between work stressors and either subjective or objective stress outcomes. Implications for work stress research methodology and recommendations are discussed.
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Twenty so-called clear markers of positive and negative mood (Watson & Tellegen, 1985) were applied in the current study to measure affect at work. Confirmatory factor analyses of a bipolar Two-Factor (i.e., positive and negative affect) Model and a competing multifactor model were conducted with three samples: managerial and professional workers in an insurance firm, retail sales personnel, and a heterogeneous group of students who were employed. The first-order Two-Factor Model (i.e., descriptively bipolar positive and negative affect factors) hypothesized to underlie the 20 affect items did not provide a strong fit to the data in the three samples. A first-order Four-Factor Model with descriptively unipolar factors labeled as Positive Arousal (Enthusiasm), Negative Activation (Nervousness), Low Arousal (Fatigue), and Low Activation (Relaxation) provided a better fit across the samples. These results support the measurement of positive and negative mood as descriptively unipolar factors. The measurement implications of these results as well as conceptual linkages between the four mood factors and the two major cortical regulatory systems, left-lateralized dopaminergic activation and right-lateralized noradrenergic arousal, are discussed.
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Three studies are reported that examine the relations between personality and happiness or subjective well-being. It is argued that (a) one set of traits influences positive affect or satisfaction, whereas a different set of traits influences negative affect or dissatisfaction; (b) the former set of traits can be reviewed as components of extraversion, and the latter as components of neuroticism; and (c) personality differences antedate and predict differences in happiness over a period of 10 years, thus ruling out the rival hypothesis that temporary moods or states account for the observed relations. A model of individual differences in happiness is presented, and the separate and complementary roles of trait and adaptation-level theories in explaining happiness are discussed.
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On the basis of a brief review of the health, organizational, and personality psychology literatures supportive of the expectation that observed relations between self-reports of stressors and strains are influenced by the mood-dispositional dimension negative affectivity (NA), reanalyses of four data sets were conducted. The results of these reanalyses, contrary to the assertions of several authors in the applied psychology literature, offered further support for the hypothesized "nuisance" properties of NA in studies involving relations between self-reports of stressors and strain. A discussion of how NA and other mood-dispositional dimensions may be of interest to investigators concerned with relations between self-reports of any condition of employment and any affective state of workers is presented.
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As a means of integrating bottom-up and top-down theories of subjective well-being (SWB), a framework was proposed that, in part, posits that both objective life circumstances and global personality dimensions indirectly affect SWB through their effects on the interpretation of life circumstances. This proposition was tested both cross-sectionally and longitudinally among a sample of approximately 375 men and women. Personality was operationalized in terms of the dispositional trait negative affectivity (NA), and the life circumstance investigated was health. Strong support was obtained for the hypothesized indirect effects of NA and objective health on SWB. Implications of the integrative framework for the study of SWB are discussed.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is Suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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Many major theories of organizational stress (OS) reflect basic principles of cybernetics, most notably the negative feedback loop. However, these principles are rarely examined in empirical OS research, which focuses predominantly on simple bivariate relationships embedded in OS theories. This problem may reflect an implicit rejection of cybernetic principles on conceptual grounds, the absence of specific propositions regarding these principles, methodological difficulties, or some combination of these factors. In any case, the result is a gap between theoretical and empirical OS research, which severely hinders the accumulation of knowledge in this area. This article is intended to narrow this gap by presenting an integrative cybernetic theory of stress, coping, and well-being in organizations, deriving propositions from this theory, and discussing methodological issues in testing this theory.
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After a brief discussioti of the nature and importance of work, this article reviews empirical research that relates satisfaction with work to satisfaction with life. The review covers more than 350 job-satisfaction/life-satisfaction relationships reported in 23 studies that vary widely in terms of the sample, instrumentation, and date of survey. For more than 90% of the cases, the direction of this relationship is positive; and none of the scattered negative relationships is statistically reliable. The magnitude of the reported zero-order relationship between job satisfaction and overall life satisfaction is typically modest, with correlations mostly in the mid-.30's for males and mid-.20's for females. The typical job-satisfaction/life-satisfaction correlation drops to the low teens when specific facets of life satisfaction, such as marital or leisure satisfaction, are used instead of overall life satisfaction. Discussion of these findings foctises on conceptual and methodological concerns at the more general level of the relationship between work and nonwork.
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This study investigated the relative contribution made by personality and work-related experiences to a police officer's perceived quality of life (PQOL). The construct validity of the Police Daily Hassles and Uplifts Scales also was examined. Data were provided by 404 police officers drawn from all ranks and work sections within an Australian police department. A series of factor analyses supported the construct validity of the scales, which can be grouped into organizational and operational domains. Hassles and uplifts were shown to be independent. Correlational and regression analyses indicated that organizational, rather than operational, experiences were most important in determining PQOL. The results showed that neuroticism, as well as organizational hassles and uplifts, were significant predictors of PQOL. These findings both challenge the stereotype of policing that suggests operational experiences are most distressing and demonstrate that PQOL is determined by police officers' personality and work-related experiences.
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Although arguments about how to measure psychological stress are typically based on implicit epistemological and theoretical assumptions, stress measurement has almost never been truly theory driven. The objective of this article is to address several measurement and research issues that derive from my particular metatheoretical concepts of systems thinking, transaction, and process and from my substantive theoretical concepts, which center on appraisal and coping. These issues are illustrated with research on the Hassles Scale. I address four controversial issues with reasoned arguments, and, as might be anticipated, I take the view (a) that stress is mainly a subjective rather than objective phenomenon, (b) that it is best measured as seemingly minor annoyances rather than major cataclysms, (c) that confounding - although a problem - does not account for the relationship between stress and adaptational outcomes, and (d) that any stress measure should assess the contents or sources of stress rather than merely its degree. In addition, I argue for increased emphasis on psychological content in stress scales and for greater attention to the individual's larger adaptational context, to a systems theory perspective, and to the time periods during which stress is sampled. Finally, I argue that we should abandon the measurement of stress, which tends to be too unidimensional, in favor of measuring the degree and quality of the emotions of daily living. Information derived from such measures could greatly expand our understanding of how individuals handle both positive and negative experiences.
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This article proposes a framework for representing personality constructs at four levels of abstraction. The total aggregation model is the composite formed by the sum of scores on all items in a scale. The partial aggregation model treats separate dimensions of a personality construct as indicators of a single latent variable, with each dimension being an aggregation of items. The partial disaggregation model represents each dimension as a separate latent variable, either freely correlated with the other dimensions or loading on one or more than one higher order factor; the measures of the dimensions are multiple indicators formed as aggregates of subsets of items. The total disaggregation model also represents each dimension as a separate latent variable but, unlike the partial disaggregation model, uses each item in the scale as an indicator of its respective factor. Illustrations of the models are provided on the State Self‐Esteem Scale—including tests of psychometric properties, invariance, and generalizability.
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Examined personal and work related factors which contribute to a police officer's psychological well-being within a Perceived Quality of Life (PQOL) framework that integrates personality, coping processes and a police officer's positive (beneficial to well-being) and negative (harmful to well-being) work experiences. Structural equation analyses were conducted on questionnaire data obtained from 527 police officers during 2 related studies. Two structural equation models showed that positive and negative work experiences independently contributed to an officer's PQOL, and that organizational rather than operational experiences were more important. A 3rd model supported these findings, but showed that the personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion were the strongest predictors of an officer's PQOL. Problem-focused coping resulted in positive work experiences, whereas emotion-focused coping contributed to negative work experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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present a framework for conceptualizing the link between organizational climate and stress / illustrate the use of the framework in a study of stress among public-school teachers / [the sample] consisted of [266] public-school teachers in elementary through junior high school in a community school district . . . in New York City [discuss several] theoretical and methodological issues . . . in the stress field / [address] the question of what is added to the study of organizational risk factors by conceptualizing them in terms of organizational climate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
makes general recommendations concerning future directions for research and practice [in occupational stress and well-being] / address issues surrounding assessment first, followed by those concerning intervention / addresses the need for improved surveillance of worker well-being and methodological improvements in work and well-being research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Study 1 examined correlations between negative teaching experiences, psychological distress (PDS), and morale among 652 teachers. Study 2 examined correlations between positive teaching experiences, PDS, and morale among 563 teachers. Study 3 examined quality of work life among 342 teachers. Positive experiences were stronger determinants of morale than of PDS, and negative experiences were stronger determinants of PDS than of morale. PDS and morale contributed equally to Ss' overall quality of work life. Results suggest that morale cannot be enhanced by reducing negative experiences and that PDS cannot be reduced by focusing on positive experiences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Using data from 4 waves of an Australian panel study, this study offers a dynamic account of relations between personality, life events, and subjective well-being (SWB). Members of the Victorian Quality of Life panel study were interviewed in 1981, 1983, 1985, and 1987. The initial sample size was 942; 649 respondents remain. The study shows that very stable personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience) predispose people to experience moderately stable levels of favorable and adverse life events and moderately stable levels of SWB. However, contrary to previous research (P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, 1984) life events influence SWB over and above the effects of personality. A dynamic equilibrium (DE) model is outlined, in which each person is regarded as having "normal" equilibrium levels of life events and SWB, predictable on the basis of age and personality. Only when events deviate from their equilibrium levels does SWB change. The DE model is compared with 3 alternatives: personality models, adaptation level models, and models that treat life events as being wholly exogenous. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Almost all previous research on PQOL has examined static relationships. This paper, based on two waves of an Australian panel study (N=677), investigates change. We estimate a model in which changes in PQOL are seen as depending directly on changes in satisfaction with particular domains of life (marriage, job, etc.), which in turn are affected by life events occurring within these domains. This model accords with a “bottom-up” rather than a “top-down” theory of PQOL or well-being (Diener, 1984). Chief interest lies in the strong relationships between domain specific events and changes in domain satisfactions. In previous research life events have been directly linked to PQOL, or to physical or mental illness. The different result here arises from estimating a more appropriate model with an additional link (changes in domain satisfactions) in the chain. From a methodological standpoint, the paper suggests that life events inventories can be valuable research instruments and that recent validity criticisms (e.g. Schroeder and Costa, 1984) have been overstated. The second part of the paper deals with relationships between personality traits, social support and life events. We test hypotheses about links between (1) personality and subsequent life events (2) the “buffering” effects of personality and social support on the impact of adverse events (3) the effects of events on personality. Personality traits apparently do affect the subsequent incidence of life events. Extraversion is associated with favourable subsequent events, and neuroticism with adverse events. Internal locus of control apparently wards off adversity. An alternative hypothesis that these relationships are due to biassed reporting (i.e. personality traits are associated with degrees of bias) appears to be false. Contrary to findings from cross-sectional data, our panel results indicate that neither personality traits nor social support “buffer” the impact of adverse events on PQOL. Finally, life events appears to have small but statistically significant effects in modifying adult personality.
Article
The development of two self-report scales that measure police daily hassles and uplifts is reported These scales reflect the positive and negative work experiences common to police officers. Self-report questionnaire data were provided by 330 police officers drawn from a systematic sample of all ranks and work sections within an Australian police department. Results showed that 19 dimensions of police hassles and 12 dimensions of police uplifts could be grouped into two broad domains of organizational and operational experiences. Correlations with job satisfaction and perceived quality of life (PQOL) indicators supported the construct validity of the scales and suggested that organizational hassles and uplifts were more important than operational experiences in determining a police officer's PQOL. When compared to population norms, police officers reported more favorable levels of PQOL. These results raise questions about the assertion that policing is highly stresful, and they demonstrate the need for a more systemic view of police work that takes into account experiences that are beneficial as well as experiences that are harmful to an officer's well-being.
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Research on stress among law enforcement personnel has not kept pace with the interest in this subject. This study had two primary objectives: to extend the psychometric evaluation of a modified version of Lawrence's Police Stress Inventory (PSI) and to evaluate empirically its concurrent convergent and discriminant validity. Data were collected from 259 certified North Carolina law enforcement officers. Factor analysis and various psychometric analyses raised some concerns about the structural integrity of the PSI. Further analyses revealed that the PSI correlated more highly with a job satisfaction measure than with another measure of stress and, thus, failed to exhibit discriminant validity. These findings suggest that the PSI is not a valid measure of stress. It is argued that research findings about stress have serious implications for policy and practice and that considerable care must be taken in developing and selecting instruments that purport to measure stress among law enforcement officers.
Thesis
Thesis (Ph. D.)--State University of New York at Buffalo, 1991. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 63-72). Photocopy of typescript.
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I examined correlates of Negative Affect (NA) and Positive Affect (PA) through both within- and between-subjects analyses. Eighty subjects completed a daily questionnaire for 6-8 weeks. Each day they rated (a) their mood, (b) the extent to which they suffered from various minor physical problems, (c) their level of stress, (d) the time they spent socializing, and (e) whether or not they had exercised. Subjects also completed several trait tests measuring their general affective level, frequency of health problems, and social tendencies. A between-subjects analysis showed the expected pattern: Level of physical complaints and perceived stress were correlated with individual differences in NA but not in PA, whereas social indicators and frequency of exercise were related only to PA. The within-subjects results generally exhibited a similar pattern: Social activity and exercise were more strongly related to PA, whereas perceived stress was highly related to NA. However, the most significant finding was that, contrary to prediction, health complaints were as strongly related to intraindividual fluctuations in PA as in NA. Possible interpretations of the observed correlates of NA and PA are discussed.
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Theory and research in psychological stress has shifted from an earlier perspective of environmental inputs or outputs to a relational one. Stress is now treated as harms, threats and challenges, the quality and intensity of which depend on personal agendas, resources and vulnerabilities of the person, as well as on environmental conditions. This implies a knowing person who construes or appraises the significance of what is happening for his or her well-being. Such a “paradigm shift” requires a different approach to stress measurement, one that takes into account the cognitive activity evaluating the personal significance of transactions, and examines the multiple specific variables of person and environment that influence the appraisal process. The need for a different approach to stress measurement has generated research by the Berkeley Stress and Coping Project on what we have called daily hassles and uplifts.
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The standard life events methodology for the prediction of psychological symptoms was compared with one focusing on relatively minor events, namely, the hassles and uplifts of everyday life. Hassles and Uplifts Scales were constructed and administered once a month for 10 consecutive months to a community sample of middle-aged adults. It was found that the Hassles Scale was a better predictor of concurrent and subsequent psychological symptoms than were the life events scores, and that the scale shared most of the variance in symptoms accounted for by life events. When the effects of life events scores were removed, hassles and symptoms remained significantly correlated. Uplifts were positively related to symptoms for women but not for men. Hassles and uplifts were also shown to be related, although only modestly so, to positive and negative affect, thus providing discriminate validation for hassles and uplifts in comparison to measures of emotion. It was concluded that the assessment of daily hassles and uplifts may be a better approach to the prediction of adaptational outcomes than the usual life events approach.
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Data from a 4-year longitudinal study of young adults were used to examine the causal pathways between personality and life events. To reduce measurement artifacts, analyses were conducted using reports of more objective life events. It was found that extraversion predisposed participants to experience more positive objective life events, whereas neuroticism predisposed people to experience more negative objective events. In contrast, personality was somewhat stable, and life events were found not to have a prospective influence on it. Objective positive and negative life events covaried, suggesting that people who experience more of 1 type of event are also likely to experience more events of the opposite valence as well. The findings indicate that life events cannot be viewed as a source of influence independent of personality. Although factors that are independent of the person undoubtedly influence life events to some degree, the personality of the individual also appears to do so.