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Stessful life events, personality, and hwalth: An inquiry into hardiness

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Studied personality as a conditioner of the effects of stressful life events on illness onset. Two groups of middle- and upper-level 40-49 yr old executives had comparably high degrees of stressful life events in the previous 3 yrs, as measured by the Schedule of Recent Events. One group of 86 Ss suffered high stress without falling ill, whereas the other group of 75 Ss reported becoming sick after their encounter with stressful life events. Illness was measured by the Seriousness of Illness Survey (A. R. Wyler et al 1970). Discriminant function analysis, run on half of the Ss in each group and cross-validated on the remaining cases, supported the prediction that high stress/low illness executives show, by comparison with high stress/high illness executives, more hardiness, that is, have a stronger commitment to self, an attitude of vigorousness toward the environment, a sense of meaningfulness, and an internal locus of control. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

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... One of the personalities studied is hardiness. Hardiness is conceptualized as a characteristic of being strong, optimistic, stable, and defensive in facing situations full of bad or heavy pressure (Kobasa, 1979). The hardiness consists of the individual's control over each of his life's events, a commitment to the ability not to give up, and challenges as an opportunity to develop his potential (Kobasa, 1979). ...
... Hardiness is conceptualized as a characteristic of being strong, optimistic, stable, and defensive in facing situations full of bad or heavy pressure (Kobasa, 1979). The hardiness consists of the individual's control over each of his life's events, a commitment to the ability not to give up, and challenges as an opportunity to develop his potential (Kobasa, 1979). Individuals who can form a hardy personality well can change bad conditions for the better. ...
... The research scale consists of a hardiness scale, a social support scale, and an academic well-being scale. The hardiness scale was organized based on the three components of the hardiness of Kobasa (1979), namely control, commitment, and challenge so that the number of items obtained is 15 items. One example of the item is "The best way to achieve a goal is to seriously involve myself in what I do." ...
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Online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic seems to produce a new challenge for students with disabilities. The physical limitations experienced demand an adjustment to a digitalization-based system. These changes are pros and cons for university students with disabilities to achieve well-being through success in the academic field. The achievement of academic well-being of university students with disabilities seems inseparable from internal and external factors. Based on the phenomena, this study aims to determine the role of hardiness and social support (family, friends, and significant others) on the academic well-being of students with disabilities. The method used quantitative with a multiple regression design. The participants were 184 university students with physical disabilities using the snowball sampling technique. The research scale consists of a hardiness scale, a social support scale, and an academic well-being scale. The results of the study indicated that the hardiness and social support affected the academic well-being of university students with disabilities. The achievement of academic well-being experienced by university students with disabilities provides a new understanding that self-limitation does not make it an obstacle to forming a good self-concept, forming a self-strategy in overcoming online learning problems, and increasing productivity in every educational process undertaken. Thus, hardiness and social support factors play an important role in realizing the academic well-being of university students with disabilities
... Hardiness is one personality trait that can help individuals in stressful situations. The concept of hardiness was first proposed by Kobasa in 1979 based on the existence theory, which is conceptualized as one of the main personality structures for understanding motivation, excitement, and behavior (Kobasa, 1979). This concept finds meaning in the face of stressful situations are considered as a buffered and intervening variable that moderates the relationship between stressful situations and the physical and psychological effects (Abdollahi et al., 2018). ...
... Hardiness is one personality trait that can help individuals in stressful situations. The concept of hardiness was first proposed by Kobasa in 1979 based on the existence theory, which is conceptualized as one of the main personality structures for understanding motivation, excitement, and behavior (Kobasa, 1979). This concept finds meaning in the face of stressful situations are considered as a buffered and intervening variable that moderates the relationship between stressful situations and the physical and psychological effects (Abdollahi et al., 2018). ...
... Hardiness is a combination of attitudes and beliefs that motivate an individual to do hard and strategic work in the face of stressful and difficult situations (Maddi, 2007). Kobasa defined hardiness as a multidimensional personality trait consisting of three components or the 3C's: commitment, control, and challenge (Kobasa, 1979). Commitment was defined as a tendency to engage in life's activities and to have a genuine interest and curiosity about the world around us (activities, things, and others) and it includes a feeling of personal competence and feeling of community and/or corporation, control was defined as believing and acting as if one can influence the events of one's life, and this belief in influence occurs as part of one's efforts. ...
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Background Hardiness is one of the personality traits that can help individuals in stressful situations. Since human beings are constantly under stressful situations and the stresses inflicted on people in each situation are different, various scales have been developed for assessing this feature among different people in different situations. Hence, it becomes necessary for researchers and health workers to assess this concept with valid and reliable scales. This systematic review aims to rigorously assess the methodological quality and psychometric properties of hardiness scales. Method In the first step, the databases including Scopus, PubMed, Web of science, and Persian databases were searched using suitable keywords without limitation time. We select eligible suitable studies after screening titles and abstracts. The quality of studies was evaluated using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist and the Terwee quality criteria. Result Of the 747 articles identified, 33 articles were entered in this study. Based on the COSMIN checklist, the most reported properties were as following structural validity (84%), hypothesis testing (56%), content validity (42%), and internal consistency (39%). Furthermore, 12 studies reported cross-cultural validity, three studies criterion validity, and one study reported measurement error. Conclusion The “family caregivers’ hardiness scale,” “Japanese Athletic Hardiness Scale,” “Occupational Hardiness Questionnaire,” and “Children’s Hardiness Scale” are the best tools for assessing hardiness in family caregivers, athletes, employees, and children respectively. In addition, the “Dispositional Resilience Scale” (DRS-15) and The Personal Views Survey (PVS III-R) are the most frequently used scales with suitable features for measuring hardiness in the general population.
... Hardiness and Resilience. Research on hardiness emerged following an investigation into how personality may buffer against illness after stressful life events (Kobasa, 1979). Hardiness, an individual's positive mindset toward commitment, control, and challenge, has been shown to improve performance and health outcomes (Maddi, 2002). ...
... Hardiness (Kobasa, 1979) Maintain control under pressure and persist with developing expertise through practice. ...
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This article proposes an integrative model for the psychological resources of grit. The growing body of work in nursing on the topic of grit indicates considerable interest in achieving long-term goals, especially amidst uncertainty from the COVID-19 pandemic. Motivational behaviors are thought to influence engagement in continuing education in nursing, thereby improving clinical practice and patient outcomes. The model was informed by a comprehensive review of the literature. Sixteen attributes for acquiring and strengthening four psychological resources of grit were identified. Each attribute is discussed along with interrelationships and implications for professional nursing development. Given the complex demands placed on health professionals, this model is both timely and relevant for all nurse and education providers interested in enhancing personal characteristics that may mitigate against stress and build capabilities for goal achievement.
... The concept of hardiness was first used in agronomy, referring to the ability of crops to resist adverse conditions (Low, 1996). Kobasa introduced hardiness into psychology and defined it as a set of personality traits that help people manage their attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors in stressful situations (Kobasa, 1979;Maddi and Kobasa, 1984). Previous researchers regarded cognitive hardiness (Beasley et al., 2003) or personal hardiness (Maddi, 2013) as the basis of resilience. ...
... Previous researchers regarded cognitive hardiness (Beasley et al., 2003) or personal hardiness (Maddi, 2013) as the basis of resilience. As was established by the hardiness model (Maddi, 2002;Kinder, 2005), hardiness can strengthen resilience by mitigating stress-triggered adverse health effects (Kobasa, 1979;Kobasa et al., 1981;Kobasa and Puccetti, 1983;Maddi and Kobasa, 1984;Bigbee, 1985;Wiebe, 1991;Maddi and Khoshaba, 1994;Bartone, 1999;Eschleman et al., 2010). Several studies have discussed the relationship between hardiness and anxiety. ...
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During the COVID-19 epidemic, quarantine and financial disadvantages might exacerbate social anxiety among impoverished college students. Based on the hardiness model and the social support buffering model, the present study proposed and verified a dual moderation model to investigate the effects of hardiness on social anxiety and the moderating roles of gender and perceived social support. The hardiness scale, the perceived social support scale, and the social anxiety subscale of the self-consciousness scale were administered to 673 Chinese college students aged 18 to 23 years who were recognized as impoverished by the Chinese authorities and provided with funding. The results revealed that (1) hardiness had a significant negative effect on social anxiety, (2) perceived social support moderated the effect of hardiness on social anxiety, and (3) gender moderated the effect of hardiness on social anxiety. The dual moderated model proposed in the study provides practical implications for helping impoverished college students cope with social anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... Psychological resilience is the ability to cope with difficulties, to show resistance against stressful life events, and to develop a positive perspective (Kobasa, 1979;Luthar et al., 2000;Vergili, 2018;Windle, 2011). Resilience is associated with coping with difficult situations, making the right decisions in the face of a crisis, and showing improvement. ...
... According to the results, a significant and positive relationship has been found between mindfulness and resilience. Studies in the literature also support our findings (Hülsheger et al., 2013;Keye & Pidgedon, 2013;Kobasa, 1979;Lee et al., 2014;Luthar et al., 2000;Wang et al., 2015). Another finding from the study is the presence of a significant and positive relationship between mindfulness and wisdom. ...
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There are many factors that are thought to affect life satisfaction. One of these factors is mindfulness. In addition, it has been observed that resilience and wisdom are associated with both mindfulness and life satisfaction. This study aims to examine the associations between mindfulness, resilience, wisdom, and life satisfaction. Participants consist of 1158 Turkish young adults (79.9% females) between the ages of 18 and 58 (Mage = 21.28, SD = 5.31). Mindfulness Scale, Brief Resilience Scale, San Diego Wisdom Scale, and Life Satisfaction Scale were used as the data collection tools. Structural Equation Modelling and Bootstrapping method were used to examine the role of resilience and wisdom in the relationship between mindfulness and life satisfaction. The results of the structural equation analysis showed that resilience and wisdom had a significant mediating role in the relationship between mindfulness and life satisfaction, and that the role of wisdom was stronger than resilience. The results of the bootstrapping analysis showed that the indirect effects of mindfulness on life satisfaction are significant. We conclude that mindfulness, accompanied by wisdom and resilience, can lead to an increase in life satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications and limitations were discussed.
... What happens between adversity and one's ability to rebound from adversity? Resilience has been described as both a process and an outcome (APA Task Force on Resilience, 2008;Kobasa, 1979;Van Breda, 2018). As an outcome, resilience represents a "stable trajectory of healthy functioning after a highly adverse event" (Fraser et al., 1999, p. 136). ...
... As an outcome, resilience represents a "stable trajectory of healthy functioning after a highly adverse event" (Fraser et al., 1999, p. 136). As a process, resilience involves the perception of having control over one's circumstances (Kobasa, 1979) and the utilization of available resources (Muhammad et al., 2019;Palmer, Davis, & Hilton, 2009;Reddick et al., 2017). A large body of research has examined processes relevant to understanding resilience among racial and ethnic minority students (Beale, Charleston, & Hilton, 2019;Bottrell, 2009;Hall, 2017;Kim & Hargrove, 2013;Muhammad et al., 2019;Strayhorn, 2013;Van Breda, 2018). ...
... Voici quelques exemples : les catastrophes, qu'il s'agisse de catastrophes naturelles (Cutter et al., 2008) ou de catastrophes d'origine humaine (telles que la catastrophe de la marée noire en Alabama et en Floride, (Grattan, Roberts, Mahan et al., 2011), les guerres et attentats terroristes (par exemple : les attentats du 11 septembre, (Butler et al., 2009) ; les crises économiques (Lahad et al., 2018) ; les crises liées aux aléas de la vie humaine, les événements traumatiques au travail, les maladies, la vieillesse, les pertes personnelles, etc. Nygren et al., 2005 ;(Cohen et al., 2017 ;Kobasa, 1979). Certains examinent également la résilience dans le contexte fonctionnel et la capacité à effectuer une tâche qui nécessite d'affronter une difficulté majeure, ce qui est particulièrement courant dans les armées. ...
... -La robustesse (hardiness) : la personne dotée du trait de « robustesse » croit qu'elle peut contrôler ou influencer la situation et les sentiments qui l'accompagnent, qu'elle a la capacité de se sentir impliquée et/ou engagée dans les activités de la vie et qu'elle vit le changement comme des défis passionnants (Kobasa, 1979) ; -Le contrôle interne (internal locus of control) -qui constitue la capacité ressentie de contrôler son comportement, la capacité de contrôle étant perçue comme interne et non comme externe à la situation (Ajzen, 2002). ...
Thesis
Cette thèse traite des tendances et des changements au sein de l'opinion publique juive-israélienne au cours de sept conflits de faible intensité (LIC) où Israël a été impliqué entre 2002-2014, ainsi que pendant les périodes de routine entre ces conflits.La recherche est ancrée dans quatre axes théoriques imbriqués « armée et défense »; médias de masse et opinion publique ; armée et société; résilience.L'étude des réponses de 37190 sondés, collectées lors de soixante-sept sondages d'opinion publique menés auprès de Juifs israéliens entre 2002-2019 vient éclairer la question : Comment la survenue d'événements de combat de faible intensité affecte-t-elle l'opinion publique au sein de la population juive d'Israël ?Un processus d'impact cumulatif des LIC a été identifié menant à une lente tendance au changement de l'opinion publique à long terme. Les LIC sont perçus comme moins menaçants, plus propices à l'adaptation, indicateur d'un processus de « routinisation », ce en parallèle du renforcement dans trois domaines: la confiance dans l’appareil militaire, la cohésion sociale et la foi dans le narratif israélien de base qui sous-tend le conflit.
... Resilience includes developing coping processes that create condence and reduce anxiety, constructing social patterns that include support and intervention, and using prevention tools (Rose & Fiiitout, 2003). According to Kobasa (1979), three personality components affect hardiness and create resilience: commitment, challenge and control. The concept encompasses not only the ability to regain health and functioning but also the notion of continuous personal growth. ...
... This serves as a process of personal growth through which their ability to observe is sharpened. The ability to look inward involved in this process has in it the construction of resilience (Kobasa, 1979), as well as the foundation of being able to look at the 'other' differently (Finkler, 2009 Giving up is the easiest thing, but we do not have that luxury; breaking up is an escape, but we are sober and know that it is impossible to escape. You can call this process exactly by its name, empowerment! ...
Article
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) includes various types of disorders encompasses varying verbal, mental and behavioural severities that affects the functioning of an individual throughout their life. Resilience is perceived as a structure consisting of several defence mechanisms. Resources of resilience stem from personal, biological and environmental mechanisms, or a combination of some or all of these. The objective of this study is to examine the perceptions of grandparents of children on the autism spectrum on the concept of these children's wellbeing experience. By opting for a qualitative method using the narrative approach, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 grandparents. The interviewees were asked to address the notion of leisure time and to provide examples from their own experiences. Researchers analysed data using inductive content analysis to generate results. The resilience of grandparents is an important resource that must be recognised and harnessed. They have to bounce back to a state of normality following disruptive and often unexpected events or crises. The responses of the grandparents indicate that they need guidance on the subject regarding both the knowledge on the specic subject of autism and the tools that can help foster relationships with the children, parents of the children and the vicinity. There is place to provide tools for grandparents to build their resilience so they can function in the complicated family framework imposed on them. We found that there is a lack of training programs for grandparents and they would have appreciated to get formal education about how to deal or to get along with their ASD grandchildren.
... There are several ways in which resilience can be defined and conceptualized [28][29][30]. Hardiness [31,32] is a conceptualization of trait resilience, pertaining to "a generalized style of functioning characterized by a strong sense of commitment, control, and challenge that serves to mitigate the negative effects of stress" [33 , p. 237]. Kobasa [31] described commitment as an inclination towards active involvement in one's activities, whereas control involves the belief in one's ability to influence important life events. ...
... Hardiness [31,32] is a conceptualization of trait resilience, pertaining to "a generalized style of functioning characterized by a strong sense of commitment, control, and challenge that serves to mitigate the negative effects of stress" [33 , p. 237]. Kobasa [31] described commitment as an inclination towards active involvement in one's activities, whereas control involves the belief in one's ability to influence important life events. Moreover, challenge concerns a disposition towards considering changing circumstances as natural and as a chance for development and growth. ...
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Background: Several risk factors for anxious-depressive symptomatology during the COVID-19 pandemic have been established. However, few studies have examined the relationship between personality traits, hardiness, and such symptomatology during the pandemic. These constructs might serve as risk- and/or protective factors for such mental distress through the pandemic. Methods: A sample of 5783 Norwegians responded to a survey at two time points within the first year of the pan- demic. The first data collection was in April 2020 (T1) and the second in December 2020 (T2). Measures included the Ten-Item Personality-Inventory, the Revised Norwegian Dispositional Resilience Scale, and the Patient Health Ques- tionnaire Anxiety and Depression Scale. Analyses were performed using Pearson’s correlations, multiple linear regres- sion, and a moderation analysis. Results: Anxious-depressive symptomatology in early phases (T1) of the pandemic was the strongest predictor for the presence of such symptomatology 9 months after the outbreak (T2). Personality and hardiness correlated signifi- cantly with mental distress at T1 and T2. Personality traits explained 5% variance in symptoms when controlling for age, gender, solitary living, negative economic impact, and mental distress at baseline. Higher neuroticism predicted higher mental distress, whereas higher conscientiousness and extraversion predicted less mental distress. Hardiness did not explain variance in outcome beyond personality traits. Hardiness did not significantly moderate the relationship between neuroticism and mental distress. Conclusion: Individuals with high levels of neuroticism had greater difficulties adapting to the circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic and were more prone to mental distress. Contrastingly, higher conscientiousness and extraver- sion may have served as protective factors for mental distress during the pandemic. The current findings might aid identification of vulnerable individuals and groups. Consequently, preventive interventions could be offered to those who need it the most.
... The related concepts of hardiness, grit, tenacity, and coping are often associated with resilience, however they are distinct constructs. Hardiness is defined as a personality trait that allows individuals to experience continued good health under stressful conditions, where hardy people are buffered against stress (Kobasa, 1979;Maddi & Kobasa, 1984). Hardiness can be found along the causal pathway to resilience during times of stress, as attributes related to hardiness (such as commitment and control) allow for thriving during stressful circumstances (Bonanno, 2004;Maddi, 2004Maddi, , 2005. ...
... The 14-item Ego Resiliency 89 Scale (ER89) was developed in 1996 to measure human adaptability, defined by Block and Kremen (1996) as "the dynamic capacity of an individual to modify ego-control as a function of the demand characteristics of the environmental context in order to preserve or enhance system equilibration in young adults". The authors developed items for the scale based on the relevant resilience literature (Kobasa, 1979;Lyons, 1991;Rutter, 1985). The authors note that they did not take a systematic approach to developing nor refining the scale, ultimately relying on the "validation of the final product" to assess its quality (Block & Kremen, 1996). ...
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As mental health problems continue to increase among post-secondary populations, the need to develop effective initiatives designed to bolster students’ resilience has increasingly been identified as a priority. Therefore, access to valid tools with which to measure the efficacy of these interventions is imperative. To date, a comprehensive assessment of existing instruments used to evaluate the construct of resilience among post-secondary student populations has not been conducted. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap by conducting a scoping review of literature detailing the use of resilience instruments and evaluating their quality based on suitability for use in the post-secondary setting and associated psychometric evidence. We identified a total of 78 records published between 2010 and 2022, extracting a total of 12 instruments. Using detailed criteria frameworks, each instrument was assessed in terms of suitability and quality of associated psychometric evidence for validity and reliability. The results of our study suggest that many of the instruments currently being used to assess resilience among post-secondary students may not be appropriate. The majority of the instruments included in our review were developed for use among general adult populations and not specifically designed for use in the post-secondary setting. Most instruments did not assess resilience in a comprehensive, holistic matter that addressed the ability to bounce back from adversity by drawing upon psychological, social, cultural, and environmental resources, as defined by recent research. Further, no instruments included in our review had published evidence in support of a complete psychometric analysis. The results of our evaluation suggest that the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) is the most suitable instrument for measuring resilience among post-secondary populations due to its suitability, comprehensive assessment of the construct of resilience, and demonstrably strong psychometric properties for both the 25- and 10-item versions of the tool.
... Hardiness, a positive mindset linked to resilience, has been defined as the ability to adapt and perform under stressful conditions while remaining emotionally healthy and stable (Bartone, 1999;Bartone, 2016;Maddi, et al., 2012;Maddi & Kobasa, 1984;Kobasa, 1979), and has been associated with successful military training completion (Bartone,et al., 2008;LoBue, et al., 2016;Johnsen, et al., 2013;Skiller, et al., 2005;Westman, 1990). Hardiness also has been shown to mediate the effects of negative life events on injury risk in athletes and to negatively correlate with unwanted emotional and behavioral responses to injury (Wadey, et al., 2012). ...
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Military recruits are at elevated risk of injury during training. However, many are hesitant to report their injuries, a factor which can degrade medical readiness and add to the financial burden of training. Research examining factors that influence injury reporting by military trainees is limited. The present study examines psychological and physical characteristics that may contribute to injury self-reporting during Marine Recruit Training (MRT). Male recruits (n=1,264) completed surveys assessing psychological characteristics, lifestyle factors and health history during the first and final week of MRT. A multivariate logistic regression model was built to predict the likelihood of injury symptom reporting during training. Nearly 60% (732) of recruits reported having at least one injury symptom during MRT. Use of proactive stress coping strategies during training and reported injury prior to training, predicted an elevated chance of reporting injury symptoms during MRT. In contrast, high levels of reported hardiness upon training entry lowered the chance of reporting an injury symptom during training. The association between positive psychological characteristics such as hardiness and self-reported injuries warrants further empirical scrutiny to better understand the mechanisms through which hardiness may impact injury dynamics and reporting.
... Emotional intelligence (Salovey & Mayer, 1990) • Notices how emotions influence behavior • Is aware of things that bring happiness • Can control emotions and persist with goals Practice Hardiness (Kobasa, 1979) • Remains composed under learning pressure • Feels in control of expertise development • Keeps trying when things are hard ...
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Grit has been linked to increased performance, retention and well‐being in various fields. Defined as having perseverance and passion for long‐term goals, grit is a personality trait related to one's perseverance of effort (perseverance) and consistency of interests (passion) toward their goals. In the fifteen years since the original grit scale was published, many studies have investigated factors that promote grit. However, a scale has not yet been developed measuring characteristics that can contribute to higher levels of grit. This study aimed to develop a novel scale to measure the psychological resources of grit. The Delphi technique was used to obtain consensus from an international panel of academics and practitioners who are experts in grit and related constructs. A total of 30 participants rated 100 scale items conducted over three rounds of online surveys. Experts agreed that items selected for the final scale (n = 20) were essential, with 85% rating these as important or very important. This scale would be a helpful diagnostic tool for practitioners involved in staff development and support building capabilities that contribute to goal achievement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Sie ist bedeutend für initiale Entscheidungen, ein Verhalten auszuführen und beeinflusst das verstärkte Bemühen und Durchhaltevermögen. 559 (Scheier & Carver 1992), die >internale Kontrollüberzeugungen< (Rotter 1966), die >allgemeine Selbstwirksamkeitsüberzeugungen< (Schwarzer 2004, S. 27), der >Kohärenzsinn< (Antonovsky 1997) und >Hardness< (Kobasa 1979). Das Konstrukt der Kontrollüberzeugung von Rotter unterscheidet zwischen internaler und externaler Ursachenzuschreibung. Überzeugungen, die Ereignisse dem eigenen Handeln zuschreiben sind internal lokalisiert. ...
Thesis
Forschungsfrage: Im Zentrum der Forschungsbemühungen steht die Lehrerpersönlichkeit, welche durch die Selbstwirksamkeit als Eigenschaft beschrieben werden soll. Methodik: Als Methode wird die qualitative Analyse der Hermeneutik verwendet. Dabei werden Begriffe und Modelle zur Lehrerpersönlichkeit und Selbstwirksamkeit erläutert und in ihrer Bedeutung für das pädagogische Handeln erschlossen. Ergebnis: Selbstwirksamkeit ist eine unbedingt notwendige persönliche Ressource, die regulierend auf kognitive, emotionale, motivationale und selektive Prozesse einwirkt und Entwicklungsprozesse unterstützt. Dennoch sind der Selbstwirksamkeit Grenzen gesetzt, so dass diese nicht als hinreichend für die Beschreibung der gesamten Lehrerpersönlichkeit angesehen werden kann. Wie die zunehmende Beanspruchung auf die Lehrerpersönlichkeit wirkt, wird durch die Belastungsforschung dargelegt. Abgesehen von begrifflichen Kontroversen ist die berufliche Selbstwirksamkeit entscheidend für die Bewältigung schwieriger Situationen. Auch in der Lehrerbildung wird die Bedeutung der Lehrerselbstwirksamkeit hervorgehoben. Neben Einflussmöglichkeiten im schulischen Rahmen stehen Ansatzpunkte im Mittelpunkt, die bei der Lehrerpersönlichkeit ansetzen und durch sie aktiv unterstützt werden können. Zudem wird versucht, aus dem Erkenntnisgewinn Konsequenzen für die Rekrutierung und Ausbildung der Lehramtsstudenten abzuleiten und bildungspolitische Ansprüche zu formulieren, da ein gewisses Maß an Selbstwirksamkeit zu den Mindestvoraussetzungen für den beruflichen Erfolgt gehört.
... Hardiness is composed of promoting a sense of life and peace; authority over a person's own experiences and consequences; discovering and expounding on the knowledge from life encounters [15]. Hardiness among patients with cancer is pivotal in promoting flexibility [16]. ...
... Kajian ini menggunakan dua teori untuk mengenal pasti tahap ketahanan mental dan kecerdasan emosi atlet berpasukan dan individu. Teori pertama yang digunakan untuk ketahanan mental adalah Teori Ketabahan (Hardiness) daripada Kobasa (1979) manakala teori kedua yang digunakan untuk kecerdasan emosi adalah Teori kecerdasan emosi (Emotional Intelligence) oleh Mayer dan Salovey (1990). Teori Hardiness merangkumi beberapa ciri-ciri keperibadian atlet termasuklah ciri-ciri ketahanan mental, iaitu keyakinan, komitmen, cabaran dan kawalan diri. ...
... тя стала однією з центральних, з'явилися і поступово розвиваються в руслі так званої «Позитивної психології». Неухильно зростає інтерес до мудрості (Л.І. Анциферова, 2006), оптимізму (М. Селигман, 2015; К.І., Фоменко, М.М. Кузнєцова, 2019). Розробляються такі конструкти, як життєстійкість особистості (М.А. Кузнєцов, Л.М. Зотова, 2017;У. Ланг, 2021;S.C. Kobasa, 1979), досвід Потоку (М. Чиксентмихайї, 2011), суб'єктивне благополуччя (C.D. Ryff, 1995), щастя (І.А. Джидарьян, 2012), ідея підтримки (і навіть посилення) пластичності старіючого мозку (Б. Страук, 2013). ...
Article
Актуальність дослідження. Психологічним базисом цінності власного життя є досвід виживання, який людина набуває, відгукуючись на життєві виклики. Актуальною для наукових пошуків є проблема джерел почуття цінності власного життя. Необхідно сфокусуватися на тому, які з цих джерел доступні та активно використовуються у юнацькому (зокрема студентському) віці. Вимагає прояснення проблема взаємозв'язку екзистенційних переживань особистості та доступності для неї тих чи інших джерел цінності власного життя. Метоюдослідження є теоретичний та емпіричний аналіз чинників переживання почуття цінності власного життя у юнацькому віці. Метод и вибірка дослідження. Для дослідження джерел цінності власного життя був використаний авторський опитувальник. Екзистенційні чинники переживання цінності власного життя студентів фіксувалися за допомогою Шкали екзистенції А. Ленглє і К. Орглер, Шкали почуття зв'язності А. Антоновського та опитувальника диспозиційної надії С. Снайдера. В дослідженні брало участь 286 студентів декількох харківських ЗВО у віці від 17 до 46 років (у середньому – 23,66 ± 7,36), 247 жінок і 39 чоловіків. Кореляційний аналіз (обчислення коефіцієнтів лінійної кореляції rxy Пірсона) був виконаний у всієї вибірці досліджуваних, а також окремо в молодшій (n = 177; вік – від 17 до 20 років; m = 19,06 ± 1,02 р.) і в старшій (n = 109; вік – від 21 до 46 років; m = 26,76 ± 6,40 р.) групах студентів. Перевірялося припущення про те, що показники різних джерел почуття цінності власного життя у студентів взаємопов'язані з їх салютогенною орієнтацією, надією та показниками екзистенційної наповненості життя. За допомогою логістичної регресії побудовані регресійні моделі системі екзистенійних предикторів прояву двох типів переживання почуття цінності власного життя у студентів – «такого, що зближує з іншими людьми» и «такого, що дистанціює від них». Результати. Когерентність свідомості посилює такі джерела переживання почуття цінності власного життя, як «Самоконтроль, інформація, саморозвиток», «Оптимізм», «Здоров'я» і в дещо меншому ступені – «Близькі стосунки, родина, затребуваність» і «Влада, статус, багатство». Сила волі і здатність знаходити шляхи як аспекти надії, важливі для прояву таких джерел почуття цінності власного життя, як «Самоконтроль, інформація, саморозвиток», «Влада, статус, багатство» і «Оптимізм». Показник екзистенційної свободи виявився найбільш високим у студентів, які переживають почуття цінності власного життя в модусах влади, статусу, багатства, здоров'я і особливо – оптимізму. Висновки.Екзистенційні чинники (когерентність свідомості, диспозиційна надія та екзистенційна сповненість життя) визначають доступ до важливіших джерел переживання почуття цінності власного життя у студенів. Вони грають значно більшу роль у студентів молодшої вікової групи в порівнянні зі старшою. Відповідно до регресійної моделі з усіх екзистенцій них предмкторів переживання почуття цінності власного життя у студентів найбільш впливовими виявилися два – сила волі (як компонент надії) і самодистанціювання (як компонент екзистенційної наповненості життя).
... Connor and Davidson [40] created the CD-RISC, a reliable and valid resilience scale intended to address the shortcomings of other scales, such as a lack of general acceptability and applicability. The CD-RISC scale was built and derived from different previous resources such as the studies of Rutter [41], Kobasa [42], and Lyons [43]. Originally, the scale was multidimensional with a five-factor structure: high standards, personal competence, and tenacity (eight variables); tolerance of negative impacts, trust in one's instinct, and strengthening the impacts of strain (seven variables); secure relationships and positive acceptance of change (five variables); control (three variables); and spiritual stimulus (two variables). ...
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Several previous empirical research studies have defined and operationalized entrepreneurial resilience (ENTR-RISC) as either a construct with multiple dimensions or a construct with a single dimension. While only a few previous research studies have assessed some components of the presumed dimensionality of ENTR-RISC, no research has attempted to assess the dimensional structure of ENTR-RISC amid the COVID-19 pandemic using different alternative competing models. In order to acquire a deeper understanding of the dimensional characteristics of the ENTR-RISC construct, this research assessed its dimensionality by comparing existing models’ goodness of fit (GoF), and the best model that fitted the data was further tested using various confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) models (a second-order factor model, an oblique first-factor model, and a single-factor model) on quantitative data gathered from 590 SME entrepreneurs in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The results of analyzing the tested models via structural equation modeling (SEM) and the AMOS program indicated that the ENTR-RISC construct has a multidimensional three-factor structure. Even though this research helps in the advancement of ENTR-RISC practice and theory, further research is required to test the dimensionality of ENTR-RISC in greater depth. The findings of this study may encourage further research on this topic and stimulate a much-needed discussion on the dimensional structure of the ENTR-RISC concept.
... Cronbach alpha and test-retest reliability of the scale are 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, showing high reliability. Significant positive and negative relationships were found between CD-RISC and Kobasa Hardiness Scale (Kobasa, 1979) and perceived stress scale (Cohen et al., 1983), respectively, indicating satisfactory validity (Connor & Davidson, 2003). ...
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Background: Yoga is effective for managing stress and increasing resilience of college students. However, there is a scarcity of research on differences between males and females in the effects of Yoga. Aim: The present study aims to investigate the effect Classical Yoga Intervention (CYI) on resilience of rural-to-urban migrant college students as migration is a challenging situation demanding resilient adaptation. It also explores sex differences in the effects of CYI. Methods: The study included 125 migrant college students (age 16-18 years). Sixty-two students (30 males, 32 females) from the CYI group underwent 40 sessions of CYI and 63 (33 males, 30 females) in the control group did not receive intervention at that time. Resilience was measured using Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Mixed Analysis of Variance was conducted to understand the independent and interactive effects of test time (pretest, posttest), sex (male, female), and group (CYI, control). Results: CYI group improved significantly on resilience as compared to control group from pretest to posttest indicating positive effects of Yoga. CYI group females were significantly higher than control group females on posttest scores of resilience, whereas no difference was found between CYI and control group males. Within the CYI group, no significant difference was found between males and females on posttest scores of resilience. Conclusion: The study indicates a positive effect of CYI on resilience. Although females of the CYI group showed higher improvements as compared to control group females, it can be said that Yoga is effective for both males and females.
... Personality characteristics may play a significant role as a defined mechanism (Ghorpade et al., 2007) or as an intensifier of the job burnout dimension (Maslach & Leiter, 2016a). For evidence, hardness -a series of personality characteristics used by individuals as a tool for dealing with stressful circumstances (Kobasa, 1979) -people high in hardiness are more immune to the consequences of stressful incidents and burnout (Kobasa et al., 1982;Moradi et al., 2013). ...
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Job burnout has gained broad recognition globally; nevertheless, there is a lack of consistent research about its relationship with the employees' job performance, especially in the banking sector. The primary purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between job burnout components (i.e., exhaustion, disengagement) and the employees' job performance components (i.e., task performance, contextual performance, and counterproductive work behavior) in the banking sector in Jordan, and to compare the results to other international studies in the banking sector. In addition, the study examined the presence of job burnout syndrome amongst employees of the banking sector. This study also examined job burnout levels regarding the employees’ gender, age, marital status, education, and length of service. A total of 406 professionals, 211 men, and 195 women, took part in the study. The questionnaire contained socio-demographic information, job burnout assessment, which was conducted utilizing the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI), and job performance assessment, performed using the Individual Work Performance Questionnaire (IWPQ). The data were examined using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM-spss) version 25.0 and the analysis of a moment structures (AMOS) version 23.1. Various statistical methods are used to analyze and interpret the data, as Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), descriptive statistics, student's t-test, ANOVA, the Tukey (Kramer's) HSD post hoc, and Games-Howell post hoc. In addition, Pearson correlation (r) and the hierarchical multiple regression analysis were transferred to distinguish which independent variables had a more substantial influence on the dependent variable. The job burnout levels were classified into four groups; high job burnout group (40.9% of the respondents), disengaged group (10.6% of the respondents), exhausted group (7.4% of the respondents), and low job burnout group (41.1% of the respondents). The study results found significant differences in the job burnout dimensions levels according to the employees' marital status, level of education, and tenure in the banking sector. Interestingly, gender and age were ascertained to have no significant influence on job burnout. The study results suggest that there is a significant negative relationship between the employees' level of job burnout and task performance, contextual performance, and a significant positive relationship between the employees' level of job burnout and counterproductive work behavior. Further, the study implies that exhaustion and disengagement were substantial and negative predictors influencing the employees' task performance, contextual performance, and positively influencing their counterproductive work behaviors. At the factorial level, the results convey that job burnout's exhaustion dimension was the most potent predictor of task performance, while disengagement was the most influential predictor of contextual performance. The risk of job burnout was similar to other studies conducted in the banking sector, and higher than in other occupations, which were considered at risk and appeared more closely related to work-related stress. Organizational and individual intervention strategies aimed at controlling stress can be a supportive way to help employees address problems of this nature. This research displayed relationships between job burnout and the employees’ performance, notably in the Jordanian context. In addition to the influence of job burnout, the findings can help advance the employees' task performance and contextual performance and reduce the employees' participation in CWB. The author presents the implications, recommendations, and limitations of the findings.
... After scientists researched the concept of psychological resilience, its content and scope, they started to work on the scale and assessing people. Especially Kobasa (1979) and Florian et al. (1995) preferred to explain psychological resilience in three sub-dimensions: attachment, control and challenge. Friborg et al. (2003), who later became the subject of the scale used in this study, expressed psychological resilience in 5 dimensions as personal strength, structural style, social competence, family harmony and social resources in their study. ...
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Son yıllarda davranışsal finansın kişilik özellikleri ve psikoloji bağlantıları araştırmacılar tarafından sıklıkla tercih edilmektedir. Başka bir deyişle psikolojik değişkenlerin insanların finansal davranışları üzerindeki etkileri önemli birer araştırma konusu haline gelmiştir. Bu fikirle ile bağlantılı olarak araştırmanın amacı genç bankacı ve sigortacı adaylarının psikolojik dayanıklılıklarının ve finansal tutumları üzerindeki etkisinin belirlenmesidir. Çalışma kolayda örnekleme yöntemi tercih edilmiş olup 200 kişi araştırmaya dahil edilmiştir. Araştırmada güvenirlik ve geçerlilik analizi, frekans analizi, doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve yol analizi yapılmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; Yetişkinler için dayanıklılık ölçeği alt boyutlarından “Kendilik Algısı” boyutunun, finansal tutum ölçeği boyutlarından “Tutumlu” , “Sıkılgan” ve ” Savurgan” boyutları üzerinde pozitif bir etkisi bulunurken, “Bilinçli” boyutu ile anlamlı bir ilişkisine rastlanılmamıştır. Diğer bir alt boyut olan “Gelecek Algısı” boyutunun finansal tutum ölçeğinin “Bilinçli” boyutu üzerinde “Sosyal Kaynaklar” boyutunun ise “Sıkılgan” boyutu üzerinde negatif bir etkisi bulunurken, diğer boyutlar ile anlamlı bir ilişkisine rastlanılmamıştır.
... For hardy individuals, stressful and painful experiences are normal aspects of life (Eid et al., 2008). Hardiness includes a sense of control over one's life, a commitment to ascribing meaning to one's existence and viewing change as a challenge (Kobasa, 1979b). According to Kobasa (1979aKobasa ( , 1982 and Maddi (1997), hardy individuals have developed three essential traits. ...
Article
Emotional resilience may be seen as the ability of an individual to cope with adversities and bounce back from failures. Emotional resilience requires a high degree of self-awareness, strong self-regulation and a host of other attributes. Factors like stress, burnout, lack of social support and negative thinking are enemies of emotional resilience. Most of the existing models of emotional resilience deal with children, adolescents, the armed forces or patients. They do not take into account factors affecting emotional resilience of an adult in general. This article aims to study the concept of emotional resilience in adults, analyse key factors affecting the same and propose a new theoretical model of emotional resilience for adults. In addition, based on the literature and experiential knowledge of the authors, this article seeks to develop 12 propositions based on the antecedents of emotional resilience in adults.
... Kobasa tezinde Illinois Bell telefon şirketinde yapmış olduğu araştırmalar sonucunda dayanıklılık kavramını kendine ve işine bağlılık, kişinin tecrübeleri ve sonuçları üzerinde kişisel kontrol duygusu ve değişikliğe meydan okuma olmak üzere üç bileşen ile açıklamıştır. Bu bileşenlere göre, Kobasa (1979) psikolojik dayanıklılık kavramını; mücadele, bağlılık ve kontrol öğelerini içeren bilişsel değerlendirme süreci olarak tanımlamaktadır (Budak, 2015: 27). ...
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“Herkes kolayca çöker. Önemli olan direnebilmektir.” Steinbeck’in (1939) yukarıda gördüğünüz sözü belki de dayanıklı bireylerin yaşama amaçlarını açıklayan en iyi sözlerden biri olabilir. İnsanın yönetimi zordur. Çünkü insan sadece fiziksel bir varlık değil, duygusal ve zihinsel anlamda da anlaşılması güç bir varlıktır (Barutçugil, 2004:11). 21.yüzyılın bir gerçeği olarak hızla gelişen ve değişen teknolojinin kapısını, uyum yeteneği yüksek olan insanlar açmaktadır. Örgütlerin de odak noktası insandır. Farklı duyguları, değer yargıları ve inançları olan insanlar örgütün bütününü oluş- turmaktadır. İnsan kaynakları yönetimi de bir örgütün en değerli varlığı olan çalışanlarından etkin ve verimli bir şekilde faydalanmak ister. Günümüz çalışanlarını etkin ve verimli yönetebilmek için onların doğasına uygun, motive edici, özendirici ve pozitif yönde beklentilerine uygun yöntemler geliştirilmiştir. İnsan yönetiminde kayda değer başarı sağlayabilmek için önce insanı tanımak, örgüt içindeki çalışanların özelliklerini bilmek, yeteneklerini ve eksik yönlerini keşfetmek gerekir. Bu yüzdendir ki insan kaynakları uz- manları, yöneticileri başta olmak üzere tüm yöneticilerin, psikoloji, sosyal psikoloji, örgütsel davranış ve davranış bilimleri gibi alanlarda da kendilerini geliştirmeleri son derece önemlidir. Dinamik, kimi zaman belirsiz ve zorlu iş dünyası çalışanlardan yüksek performans beklemektedir. Çalışanların da bu hızlı dünyaya ayak uydurması, adapte olması hiç de kolay değildir. İşte burada psikoloji alanının inceleme konusu olan, temelde olumsuz olaylar ya da zorlukların üstesinden gelme, değişime uyum sağlama (Hamel & Valikangas, 2003’den akt. Mitsakis, 2020: 322) olarak da ifade edilen psikolojik dayanıklılık (psychological resilience) kavramı örgütlerin de önemle üzerinde durduğu kavram olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Günümüzde başarılı yöneticiler; örgüte bağlı, örgütle özdeşleşmiş, zorluklar karşısında pes etmeden çalışabilen, örgüt içinde ve dışındaki sorunlarla mücadele ederek tükenmişlik gibi olumsuz eğilimleri olmayan iş görenlerle çalışmak isterler. Psikolojik dayanıklılık düzeyi üst seviyede olan bir iş görenin, stres eşiğinin yüksek olmasından dolayı, kriz, çatışma, değişim vb. kritik durumlarda yüksek motivasyon ile yüksek performans göstermesi beklenir (Bitmiş, 2013:29). Yönetim sürecinde yöneticilerin de, çalışanların genel psikolojik durumlarını dikkate alarak, psikolojik dayanıklılık düzeylerini yükseltecek uygulamalarda bulunması gerekmektedir (Nartgün & Mor, 2015:273). Çok yakın zamanda dünyayı saran Covid-19 salgını, psikolojik dayanıklılık kavramının önemini tekrar gözler önüne sermiş, özellikle insan kaynakları yönetimi için de zorlu bir ortam yaratmıştır. Yöneticiler iş gücünde meyda- na gelen radikal değişikliklere uyum sağlamak ve bunlarla başa çıkmak ve bilinmeyen bir sürece hızla girmek durumunda kaldılar. Zamanlarının ço- ğunu fiziksel olarak iş yerlerinde geçiren çalışanlar ise uzak çalışma ortamla- rına uyum sağlamak zorunda kaldılar. (Carnevale & Hatak, 2020:183). Covid-19 salgınından dolayı çalışma ortamı değişen iş görenlerin birtakım sorunlarla karşılaşmalarının yanı sıra, fiziksel ve psikolojik sağlıkları da etki- lenmiştir (Karaşar & Canlı, 2020:273). Bu yüzden örgütlerin insan kaynakları departmanları, alternatif olarak örgüt içinde dayanıklılığı destekleyen ve örgütün yaşamını sürdürmesini tehdit eden risklerden kaçınan bilgi, beceri ve kapasiteler geliştirmeli, dayanıklılık planlamasına odaklanmalıdır (Dessouky & Al-Ghareeb, 2020:1). Bu kapsamda, bu bölümde psikolojik dayanıklılık kavramı ayrıntılı olarak tüm yönleri ile ele alınacaktır. Sırasıyla; psikolojik dayanıklılığın tarihsel süreci, kavramsal olarak incelenmesi, psikolojik dayanıklılık boyutları, psikolo- jik dayanıklılığın ölçülmesi amacıyla literatürde yapılan bazı çalışmalar, dünyada ve ülkemizde psikolojik dayanıklılık düzeyinin örgüt ve insan kaynakları alanı için önemini inceleyen araştırmalar, psikolojik dayanıklılığın örgüt ve insan kaynakları alanı açısından sonuçları ele alınacaktır.
... The early research studies on resilience concentrated on how adolescents encounter the difficulties in their life. Researchers have described resilience in many forms such as Kobasa (1979) with hardiness, Garmezy (1993) as an evaluation of facing adversity and Rutter (1987) who affirmed it to be a successful adaptation. Furthermore, Rak and Patterson (1996) declared resilience to be the ability of people who have encountered the risk factors to overcome difficulties and avoid negative outcomes such as behavioral problems and academic difficulties. ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... Previous studies have identified positive coping strategies and hardiness as buffers against the negative effects of stress in general (Kobasa, 1982;Kobasa et al., 1982). Hardiness, defined by Kobasa (1979) as a personality trait consisting of three fundamental characteristics (commitment, control and challenge), is a protective factor against the negative effects of stress including burnout (White et al., 2020;Bartone et al., 2021). Several recent studies have also found that this psychological resource is a significant buffer against the adverse psychological effects of stress related to the COVID pandemic, for Health Care and Emergency workers (Maiorano et al., 2020;Vagni et al., 2020a) and also in the general population (Dymecka et al., 2021). ...
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Objective Stress is a growing problem in the general population, but most especially for workers responding to the COVID-19 crisis. The present study examines stress and Burnout in Health Care workers and Emergency Responders during the third COVID wave in Italy. In addition, we explore the value of psychological Hardiness and positive coping strategies as protective factors against the ill-effects of stress. Methods Over a 5-month period in 2021, surveys were administered across all Italian regions to several groups including Health Care workers ( N = 220), Emergency Responders (firefighters, civil protection, ambulance personnel; N = 121), volunteer Italian Red Cross workers ( N = 328), and a comparison group ( N = 400) drawn from the General Population of Italy. Results Results showed that among the groups, Health Care workers had the highest levels of Emergency Stress, while the Red Cross volunteers had relatively lower stress levels. Hardiness and positive coping levels were highest among Red Cross workers, and lowest in the General Population sample. The biggest impact on Burnout was seen among health care workers, especially on Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization. Multiple regression results showed that Hardiness operates as a moderator of the effects of Emergency Stress on Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization aspects of Burnout, while problem focused coping and Stopping Negative Thoughts-Emotions also showed moderating effects. Conclusion These results suggest that Health Care workers and Emergency Responders would benefit from additional training in hardiness and positive coping skills.
... Resilience has shown itself to be a relevant characteristic to promote and protect mental health and wellbeing. Definitions include the perceived control over one's life and considering change as positive challenge [13]. Also, the skill to make sense of challenges by focusing on the positive effects or personal development was highlighted [14]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected physical and mental health. Since its commencement in 2020, social distancing has become the “new normal”. Temporary lockdowns and distance learning have disproportionately affected young adults, including university students. To identify effects of the pandemic on university students’ physical and mental health and learning, this empirical study included eight universities in Heidelberg, Mannheim and Ludwigshafen. Data was collected in May and June 2020. The self-administered survey was filled by 1,246 university students. 917 students completed the survey in full. 80.6% were bachelor students (n = 738), the mean semester was 3.8 and mean age was 23.1 years. 51.8% (n = 472) were female students and 47.4% (n = 432) male students. 38.5% (n = 352) stated a deterioration in physical health and 53.1% (n = 485) in mental health. From 0 to 10, students rated mean levels of stress highest due to social distancing (5.6), spending most time at home (5.0) and e-learning (4.5). Compared to male students, female students’ mental health worsened significantly (58.7% vs. 46.8%). A logistic regression analysis identified gender having a significant effect on university students’ stress levels: males seemed to have a lower risk of moderate to high levels of stress compared to females (odds ratio = 0.698; 95% CI = 0.515 to 0.945). Age, city of university and semester did not show a significant effect. The results are important to both regional and international audiences as university students face similar physical and mental health challenges due to the pandemic and its public health measures. Low-threshold initiatives are needed to mitigate the effects of the pandemic. These may include measures to reinforce students’ locus of control, sense of belonging, relaxation and mindfulness as well as (online) counselling services. Gender-specific differences must be taken into account.
... People who succeed in achieving positive changes after a traumatic experience have an increased sense of familiarity and control; develop positive feelings about their personality and competence, and a greater ability to give meaning to their experiences . (Kobasa, 1979) explained that personal attitudes of commitment, challenge, and control helped individuals facing problems within their environment, and change stressful life situations. ...
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The current study aimed to discover the coping strategies used by rescuers in Palestinian emergency centers, as well as the extent to which the two variables of coping strategies and occupational hardiness could predict the quality of spiritual life among rescuers, and to discover differences in the spiritual quality of life, coping strategies, and occupational hardiness based on years of experience. The study's sample consisted of (159) male and female rescuers from various West Bank rescue and emergency centers. They were chosen using the simple random sample method. The study's findings revealed that positive re-evaluation and planning were among the paramedics' coping strategies. The study's findings also revealed that coping strategies and occupational hardiness were statistically significant predictors of the spiritual quality of life. The study also concluded that there were differences in coping strategies and spiritual quality of life that can be attributed to years of experience; however, there were no differences in occupational hardiness among rescuers that can be attributed to years of experience.
... Görüldüğü üzere, bahsedilen ölçekler psikolojik sağlamlık faktörlerinin bileşimini ele almakta ve bu ölçme araçlarının birçoğu psikolojik sağlamlığın çok boyutlu ve karmaşık yapısını ölçmede yetersiz kalmaktadır. Oysa stresli olaylar karşısında bir direnç kaynağı olarak değerlendirilen psikolojik sağlamlığın (Kobasa, 1979) farklı faktörlerinin belirlenmesi ve bu faktörlerin güvenilir ve geçerli bir şekilde ölçülmesi araştırmalar ve klinik uygulamalar açısından çok önemlidir. Bu çalışmada Van Der Meer ve diğerleri (2018) tarafından geliştirilmiş olan Psikolojik Sağlamlığı Değerlendirme Ölçeği'nin üniversite öğrencilerinden oluşan örneklemde Türkçe uyarlaması, geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmasının yapılarak literatürde bulunan psikolojik sağlamlık ölçeklerine alternatif bir ölçeğin Türk kültürüne kazandırılması amaçlanmaktadır. ...
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... The DRS [44,45] Italian validation by Picardi et al. [46], is a self-completed questionnaire consisting of 15 items, scored on a 4-point scale ranging from 0 (not at all true) to 3 (completely true). The instrument includes positively and negatively keyed items covering the three conceptually important Hardiness facets of commitment, control and challenge. ...
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... The role of positive cognitive restructuring in our sample remains unclear, yet, it is descriptively reported to be the most frequently used coping strategy of all, and is further positively related to life and study satisfaction and negatively associated with COVID-19 stress. Perhaps, more stress-specific personality characteristics like sense of coherence (Antonovsky, 1993) or hardiness (Kobasa, 1979;Maddi, 2013) would operate as stronger predictors of this influential coping strategy (e.g., Williams et al., 1992;Pallant and Lae, 2002;Fok et al., 2005;Bartone and Bowles, 2020). ...
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این پژوهش با هدف بررسی رابطه هوش معنوی و سخت رویی با معنای زندگی دانشجویان دانشگاه آزاد اسالمی واحد تهران مرکزی صورت گرفت. این طرح توصیفی و به روش همبستگی است. روش نمونه گیری تصادفی، از نوع خوشه ای چندمرحله ای است باحجم 194 نفر که از بین دانشجویانی که در دانشگاه آزاد واحد تهران مرکزی در سال تحصیلی 99-98مشغول به تحصیل بودند انتخاب شدند. ابزار پژوهش پرسشنامه استگر )2006،)پرسشنامه هوش معنوی کینگ)2008 )و پرسشنامه سخت رویی روانشناختی کوباسا)1982 )می باشد. اطالعات جمع آوری شده با استفاده ازضریب همبستگی و روش رگرسیون چند گانه تحلیل شد. نتایج حاصله نشان می دهد، بین میزان هوش معنوی با معنای زندگی و بین سخت رویی با معنای زندگی در بین دانشجویان رابطه معنی دار وجود دارد و از بین مولفه های سخت رویی، تعهد در پیش بینی معنای زندگی دانشجویان نقش بیشتری دارد. بر این اساس پیشنهاد می شود متولیان امور آموزشی برنامه ها و آموزش های مناسبی جهت بهبود و تقویت هوش معنوی و سخت رویی به منظور افزایش معنای زندگی دانشجویان ارائه نمایند
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The present study primarily aims to examine the mediating role of core self-evaluation and the moderating role of personal growth initiative (PGI) in the relationship between upward social comparison and senior high school students’ depression and to explore the gender difference in this association. A total of 721 Chinese senior high school students (61.16% boys; M = 16.21 years, SD = 1.07) completed measures of upward social comparison, core self-evaluation, personal growth initiative, and depression. Results showed a significant positive correlation between upward social comparison and depression. Core self-evaluation partially mediated this association, and a gender difference in the indirect effect was revealed; that is, the effect was shown to be stronger for girls than for boys. Moreover, for boys, the mediating effect of core self-evaluation was moderated by PGI, and the effect was more potent for individuals with high PGI than for those with low PGI. However, no moderating effect of PGI on the indirect effect was found for girls. These findings suggest that prevention and interventions focusing on reducing upward social comparison and enhancing core self-evaluation may alleviate adolescents’ depression symptoms and that more attention should be given to girls with low core self-evaluation and boys with high PGI.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to sharp increases in mental health problems around the world, most notably in anxiety and depression. The present study examines hardiness and age as potential protective factors against the mental health effects of COVID-related stress. A sample of Canadians balanced across age and gender, completed an online survey including measures of COVID related stressors, hardiness, depression, and anxiety, along with age, gender, and other demographics. Conditional PROCESS analysis showed that COVID stressors led to significant increases in anxiety and depression. Hardiness moderated these relations, with those high in hardiness showing less anxiety and depression. Age was negatively related to anxiety and depression, with highest levels observed among the younger respondents. At the same time, a moderating effect of age was found with respect to depression, with older people showing sharper increases in depression as COVID-related stress goes up. Gender was not a significant factor in any of these relations, meaning that the results apply equally well to both women and men. This study provides evidence that younger people who are also low in hardiness are most vulnerable to developing anxiety and depression while under COVID stress, and so would likely benefit from preventive intervention strategies. While anxiety and depression symptoms are highest among the young, older age groups appear more vulnerable to increasing rates of depression symptoms related to COVID stress. Clinicians and practitioners should thus be especially vigilant for COVID related increases in depression among older people, and those low in psychological hardiness.
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Research on gender differences in adaptability to changing work conditions has revealed equivocal evidence. We provide a new perspective to this stream by proposing a model, grounded in theory of social information processing, that takes into account individuals’ responses to important others in their environment – namely, supervisors (for non-managerial employees) or subordinates (for managers). The model suggests that the performance of each category of important others can have differential impact on women’s and men's work outcomes amid changes. We use two-wave data collected from employees and managers who transitioned to work from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. We find no differences in adaptability across genders when important others are perceived to be effective. Among employees, when supervisors are perceived to perform poorly, changes at work relate to lower performance among men than among women. Among managers, when followers are perceived to perform poorly, changes at work relate to lower performance among women than among men. We offer recommendations to help men and women sustain performance over the course of a change. MAD statement Investigating inconsistent evidence on gender differences in adaptability to changing work conditions, we suggest that the performance of important others (supervisors, followers) have differential impact on women’s and men's work outcomes amid changes. Data from employees and managers who transitioned to telework during the COVID-19 pandemic reveal no differences in adaptability between men and women, when they perceive important others to function effectively during the situation. Among employees, when supervisors are perceived to perform poorly, changes at work relate to lower performance among men than among women. Among managers, when followers are perceived to perform poorly, changes at work relate to lower performance among women than among men.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan melihat hubungan empiris antara kepribadian hardiness dengan work-family conflict pada pegawai wanita unit pelaksana tugas penunjang di Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia (BPK RI) Kantor Pusat Jakarta. Work-family conflict adalah sebuah kondisi ketidakseimbangan yang dialami individu dimana saat menjalankan peran dan tanggung jawab di dalam keluarga terganggu oleh peran yang dimiliki di dalam pekerjaan karena adanya konflik waktu, tenaga dan perilaku.Hardiness adalah karakterisik kepribadian yang ditandai dengan adanya kemampuan dalam memiliki kontrol diri yang baik, berkomitmen dan aktif pada hal yang ditekuni, serta melihat situasi atau tantangan sebagai hal positif untuk mengembangkan dirinya.Populasi pada penelitian ini adalah pegawai wanita yang telah berkeluarga dengan minimal masa kerja satu tahun di BPK RI Kantor Pusat Jakarta berjumlah 193 dengan sampel penelitian berjumlah 80 orang. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakanconvenience sampling. Alat ukur yang digunakan Skala Work-family conflict (α= 0,906) dan Skala Hardiness (α= 0,856). Analisis data menggunakan uji korelasi Spreaman’s Rank. Hasil uji hipotesis menunjukan rxy = -0,444 ,p=0,000 (p<0,05). Hasil penelitian menunjukan hubungan negatif antara variabel hardiness dengan work-family conflict.Semakin tinggi skor hardiness maka semakin rendah work-family conflict, sebaliknya semakin rendah skor hardiness maka semakin tinggi work-family conflict yang dialami subjek.
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Selye (1977), holds that "stress is a reaction to an event-the reaction being the generalized response of the body to the individual's perception of the event, whether it is pleasant or unpleasant"
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