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Abstract

Ten 5th-grade children were asked to memorize series of words. In some of the series, a word was isolated by presenting it in larger font. Event-related brain potentials, elicited by each word were recorded. The subjects showed an enhanced recall of the isolated words in comparison to non-isolated words matched for serial position (the von Restorff effect). The isolated words also elicited P300's of larger amplitude than the non-isolated words. Furthermore, isolated words which were subsequently recalled elicited larger P300's than did isolated words that were not recalled. Finally, the subjects showed an above-chance performance in a following 'size-recall' test. The results are discussed in terms of a model of the von Restorff effect that emphasizes the special encoding of isolated items. Children show a large von Restorff effect because because they do not make extensive use of elaborative rehearsal strategies that may override the effects of the special encoding processes.
... However, it is also important to relate these ERP novelty effects to memory encoding and here the current literature does not offer a coherent picture. While some studies show the P3 amplitude is linked to subsequent recall (Butterfield & Mangels, 2003;Fabiani et al., 1990;Fabiani & Donchin, 1995;Kamp et al., 2013;but see Rangel-Gomez & Meeter, 2013), others failed to observe P3 subsequent memory effects in recognition paradigms (Fabiani & Donchin, 1995). This discrepancy might be explained by the different types of memory tests, which are subserved by different processes. ...
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A rich body of studies in the human and non-human literature has examined the question how novelty influences memory. For a variety of different stimuli, ranging from simple objects and words to vastly complex scenarios, the literature reports that novelty improves memory in some cases, but impairs memory in other cases. In recent attempts to reconcile these conflicting findings, novelty has been divided into different subtypes, such as relative versus absolute novelty, or stimulus versus contextual novelty. Nevertheless, a single overarching theory of novelty and memory has been difficult to attain, probably due to the complexities in the interactions among stimuli, environmental factors (e.g., spatial and temporal context) and level of prior knowledge (but see Duszkiewicz et al., 2019; Kafkas & Montaldi, 2018b; Schomaker & Meeter, 2015). Here we describe how a predictive coding framework might be able to shed new light on different types of novelty and how they affect declarative memory in humans. More precisely, we consider how prior expectations modulate the influence of novelty on encoding episodes into memory, e.g., in terms of surprise, and how novelty/surprise affect memory for surrounding information. By reviewing a range of behavioural findings and their possible underlying neurobiological mechanisms, we highlight where a predictive coding framework succeeds and where it appears to struggle.
... Even very early in their careers, Monica and Gabriele made very impactful scholarly contributions. For example, as a first-year graduate student, Monica performed some of the first experiments demonstrating a neurophysiological signature-in the amplitude of the P3/P300 component of the eventrelated potential (ERP)-of memory encoding, showing that items that elicited a larger P300 at encoding were more likely to be remembered during a subsequent recall test (see Figure 2) (Fabiani & Donchin, 1995;Fabiani, Gratton, Chiarenza, & Donchin, 1990;Fabiani, Karis, & Donchin, 1990;Karis, Fabiani, & Donchin, 1984). This demonstration provided key evidence in support of the context updating hypothesis of the functional significance of the P3 component . ...
... In adults, unexpected events within the context of an experiment tend to be encoded in memory more effectively than non-distinct events (for review see (Ranganath and Rainer, 2003). For example, P3 amplitude elicited by highly distinctive items correlated with subsequent memory performance for those items (Fabiani and Donchin, 1995), and larger P3 amplitude for subsequently recalled words were reported for 11-year old children (Fabiani et al., 1990). The relationship between unexpected events and memory for these events can also be inferred from a lesion study suggesting that interactions between prefrontal and medial temporal regions are crucial for the generation of enhanced memory for contextually novel events (Parker et al., 1998). ...
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For children, new experiences occur very often, and learning to differentiate between old and new events is a fundamental process necessary for appropriate reactions to stimuli. Thus the present study is concerned with maturation of brain responses to repeated novel events. We examined the effect of repetition of familiar (meaningful) and unfamiliar (meaningless) symbols on the event-related-potentials (ERPs) recorded during novelty oddball and recognition memory tasks from children, adolescents and young adults. During the novelty oddball task, repetition of the familiar symbols elicited a reduction in the novelty P3 in the ERPs of all age groups, while repetition of the unfamiliar symbols elicited a reduction in novelty P3 amplitude only in children. As expected, recognition memory performance improved with age and was better for familiar than unfamiliar symbols. For all age groups, ERPs to correctly recognized familiar old symbols elicited a larger positivity than ERPs to correctly identified new symbols, indicating a reliable memory effect. However, ERPs to unfamiliar old and new symbols did not differ in adults and adolescents but did differ in children. The data suggest that children process familiar visual symbols in a similar fashion to that of adults, and that children process unfamiliar symbols differently from adults.
... The hypothesis that the relationship between P300 amplitude and subsequent recall depends on the mnemonic strategy used by the subject was supported by subsequent studies in which the effects of strategies were investigated by: (a) manipulating instruction on a within-subject basis (Fabiani, Karis, & Donchin, 1990) use elaborative strategies, the P300/memory relationship is evident in all subjects in the absence of strategy instructions (Fabiani, Gratton, Chiarenza, & Donchin, 1990); showing that the P300/memory relationship is clearer in adults in incidental memory paradigms (i.e., when the memory test is unexpected and mnemonic strategies are unlikely to be used; Fabiani, Karis, & Donchin, 1986). Finally, Fabiani and Donchin (1995) investigated the P300/memory relationship in the case in which words are semantically isolated, and also studied the effects of the type of orienting task given during the von Restorff paradigm. ...
... The P300 component is related to attention and context maintenance for subsequent memory processes (Polich, 2007). Its amplitude is larger for items subsequently remembered than for not remembered items (Fabiani, Gratton, Chiarenza, & Donchin, 1990;Paller, Kutas, & Mayes, 1987;Sanquist, Rohrbaugh, Syndulko, & Lindsley, 1980) and it is also increased for familiar faces compared to unfamiliar faces (Henson et al., 2003;Joyce & Kutas, 2005;Paller, et al., 2003). Studies investigating memory processes with the remember/know paradigm categorise items as remembered if they are remembered with semantic details and as known in the absence of such details. ...
Thesis
Gesichterkognition ist eine wichtige Fähigkeit für soziale Interaktionen. Obwohl große interindividuelle Unterschiede in der Gesichterkognition festgestellt wurden, gibt es bisher wenige Bestrebungen, diese Fertigkeit zu trainieren. In den vorliegenden Studien habe ich Trainingsverfahren für das Gesichtergedächtnis und die Geschwindigkeit der Gesichterkognition entwickelt und untersucht, welche auf dem Modell von Wilhelm et al. (2010) beruhen. In Studie 1 wurden Trainingseffekte bei gesunden Probanden mittleren Alters behavioral untersucht. Das Training des Gesichtergedächtnisses zeigte einen Trend zur Leistungsverbesserung in der trainierten Aufgabe. Das Training der Geschwindigkeit der Gesichterkognition verkürzte signifikant die Reaktionszeiten in allen Geschwindigkeitsaufgaben der Gesichterkognition, der Objektkognition sowie der mentalen Geschwindigkeit. Daher wird angenommen, dass das Geschwindigkeitstraining eine allgemeine Fähigkeit, komplexe visuelle Stimuli zu verarbeiten, beeinflusst hat. In Studie 2 wurden nach einem Re-Training die psychophysiologischen Grundlagen der trainingsbedingten Veränderungen untersucht. Das Geschwindigkeitstraining verkürzte zwar die Reaktionszeiten im Verlauf des Re-Trainings, jedoch unterschieden sich die beiden Trainingsgruppen nicht im folgenden Posttest. Die Auswertung der ereigniskorrelierten Potentiale wies auf eine Reduktion der strukturellen Repräsentationen aus dem Langzeitgedächtnis zur Erkennung von Individuen (N250r) durch das Geschwindigkeitstraining und auf eine Verstärkung der semantischen Verarbeitung von bekannten Gesichtern (N400) durch das Gedächtnistraining hin. Die vorliegende Arbeit zeigt die Plastizität der Verarbeitungsgeschwindigkeit für komplexe visuelle Stimuli auf.
... The hypothesis that the relationship between P300 amplitude and subsequent recall depends on the mnemonic strategy used by the subject was supported by subsequent studies in which the effects of strategies were investigated by: (a) manipulating instruction on a within-subject basis (Fabiani, Karis, & Donchin, 1990) use elaborative strategies, the P300/memory relationship is evident in all subjects in the absence of strategy instructions (Fabiani, Gratton, Chiarenza, & Donchin, 1990); showing that the P300/memory relationship is clearer in adults in incidental memory paradigms (i.e., when the memory test is unexpected and mnemonic strategies are unlikely to be used; Fabiani, Karis, & Donchin, 1986). Finally, Fabiani and Donchin (1995) investigated the P300/memory relationship in the case in which words are semantically isolated, and also studied the effects of the type of orienting task given during the von Restorff paradigm. ...
... As reported by Von Restorff's pioneering study (Von Restorff, 1933), we found that when participants use simple encoding strategies a physically deviant item is more likely to be recalled than the other list items. Furthermore, in line with prior findings (Fabiani & Donchin, 1995;Fabiani, Gratton, Chiarenza, & Donchin, 1990;Fabiani et al., 1986;Karis et al., 1984;Otten & Donchin, 2000), isolates that were later recalled elicited a larger P300 at study than did the words later forgotten. In these prior studies (see also Kim et al., 2009), when participants used elaborative encoding, a frontal slow wave subsequent memory effect was observed instead of the P300 effect. ...
Article
We examined the degree to which ERP components elicited by items that are isolated from their context, either by their font size ("size isolates") or by their frequency of usage, are correlated with subsequent immediate recall. Study lists contained (a) 15 words including a size isolate, (b) 14 high frequency (HF) words with one low frequency word ("LF isolate"), or (c) 14 LF words with one HF word. We used spatiotemporal PCA to quantify ERP components. We replicated previously reported P300 subsequent memory effects for size isolates and found additional correlations with recall in the novelty P3, a right lateralized positivity, and a left lateralized slow wave that was distinct from the slow wave correlated with recall for nonisolates. LF isolates also showed evidence of a P300 subsequent memory effect and also elicited the left lateralized subsequent memory effect, supporting a role of distinctiveness in word frequency effects in recall.
Article
A knowledge of time parameters of the high mental functions of the brain under normal and pathological conditions may serve as a key to understanding of their intimate mechanisms. During the first stage of the study a set of different tests including "word association", "paired words learning" was used to compare these indices in patients with atherosclerotic discirculatory encephalopathy and in normal individuals. The dynamics and volume of the short-term memory and processes of attention were evaluated. An increase of the response latencies in the paired words' tests and a decrease of both volume of short-term memory and the processes of attention were identifid. Application of the tests with semantically similar or unlike words was informative.
Chapter
This chapter reviews research on how the event-related potentials correlates with the development of recollection. By comparing the correlates of recollection to those of familiarity, and by probing the processes (semantic processing, monitoring) thought to influence recollection, their nature and interaction during development are clarified.
Chapter
Several types of distinctiveness are typically identified in the literature. Among them, primary distinctiveness refers to the fact that some events come to stand out by virtue of the context in which they are embedded, whereas secondary distinctiveness refers to events that violate our expectancies based on our general world knowledge, rather than on their immediate context. This chapter describes an additional concept: subjective distinctiveness. By and large, experimental manipulations of the context in which stimuli are embedded are effective in making them stand out in the eyes of the participants. This chapter reviews data from studies on event-related potentials. These data are based largely on paradigms manipulating primary distinctiveness, and are sometimes collected for the explicit purpose of assessing the memory consequences of this manipulation (and their relationship to the underlying brain activity). From these data, inferences are made about various aspects of cognition, including sensory and working memory. It is clear that some of the processes that may in the end contribute to enhanced memory performance may occur during the rehearsal or retrieval of the events.
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