Book

Multilingualism and Creativity

Abstract

In this monograph, Anatoliy V. Kharkhurin presents the results of his empirical investigation into the impact of multilingual practice on an individual’s creative potential. Until now, the relationship between these two activities has received little attention in the academic community. The book makes an attempt to resuscitate this theme and provides a solid theoretical framework supported by contemporary empirical research conducted in a variety of geographic, linguistic, and sociocultural locations. This study demonstrates that several factors - such as the multilinguals’ age of language acquisition, proficiency in these languages and experience with cultural settings in which these languages were acquired - have a positive impact on selective attention and language mediated concept activation mechanisms. Together, these facilitate generative and innovative capacities of creative thinking. This book will be of great interest not only to scholars in the fields of multilingualism and creativity, but also to educators and all those interested in enhancing foreign language learning and fostering creativity.
... Increasing number of studies look into the cognitive underpinnings of the relationship between bilingualism and creativity. The findings provide support for bilingual advantages in performance on a variety of creativity tasks (review in Kharkhurin, 2012a). ...
... There is empirical evidence that bilinguals outperform their monolingual counterparts on divergent thinking tests (review in Ricciardelli, 1992b;Kharkhurin, 2012a). This effect was found for all four traits mentioned above: flexibility (e.g., Carringer, 1974;Konaka, 1997;Kharkhurin, 2008;Adi-Japha et al., 2010;Cushen and Wiley, 2011), fluency (e.g., Jacobs and Pierce, 1966;Carringer, 1974;Ricciardelli, 1992a;Kharkhurin, 2008;Kostandyan and Ledovaya, 2013), originality (e.g., Cummins and Gulutsan, 1974;Okoh, 1980;Konaka, 1997;Kharkhurin, 2009), and elaboration (e.g., Torrance et al., 1970;Srivastava and Khatoon, 1980;Kharkhurin, 2008;Lee and Kim, 2011). ...
... The present work argues that the specific architecture of bilingual memory facilitates greater spreading activation between conceptual representations and thereby stimulates divergent thinking. This may be accomplished through LMCA (Kharkhurin, 2007(Kharkhurin, , 2008(Kharkhurin, , 2012a) that postulates that unrelated conceptual representations are activated through bilinguals' two languages. This section presents a model of bilingual memory that allows the LMCA and thereby facilitates spreading activation between unrelated concepts. ...
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This is the first attempt of empirical investigation of language mediated concept activation (LMCA) in bilingual memory as a cognitive mechanism facilitating divergent thinking. Russian-English bilingual and Russian monolingual college students were tested on a battery of tests including among others Abbreviated Torrance Tests for Adults assessing divergent thinking traits and translingual priming (TLP) test assessing the LMCA. The latter was designed as a lexical decision priming test, in which a prime and a target were not related in Russian (language of testing), but were related through their translation equivalents in English (spoken only by bilinguals). Bilinguals outperformed their monolingual counterparts on divergent thinking trait of cognitive flexibility, and bilinguals' performance on this trait could be explained by their TLP effect. Age of second language acquisition and proficiency in this language were found to relate to the TLP effect, and therefore were proposed to influence the directionality and strength of connections in bilingual memory.
... Lexical sophistication is an important component of creativity and linguistic style because it provides information describing the expansiveness and overall development of a speaker's vocabulary (Kyle & Crossley, 2015). In tests of divergent thinking, the ability to access more words and concepts should allow for more overall ideas to be generated (Kharkhurin, 2012), while also providing more options for linguistic elements of style such as metaphor and humor (Gerrig & Gibbs, 1988). ...
... If participants have access to a richer and more developed vocabulary, they can produce more and varied ideas. Indeed, Kharkhurin (2009Kharkhurin ( , 2010 found that bilinguals performed differently compared to monolinguals on tests of divergent and convergent thinking because bilinguals have more words and concepts to draw from based on their larger linguistic repertoire (Kharkhurin, 2012). Therefore, ideational fluency and flexibility are potentially related to participants' linguistic repertoire, which is reflected in their linguistic output. ...
... To the same extent, vocabulary knowledge may also be an important element of 350 S. SKALICKY ET AL. elaboration, as elaboration naturally requires being able to discuss the same idea using different words. Indeed, because other research has reported differences in vocabulary and semantic use among different creative occupations (Acar & Runco, 2014;Beketayev & Runco, 2016;Djikic et al., 2006;Dumas & Dunbar, 2014;Yu et al., 2016), future research using divergent thinking tasks may want to consider participants' linguistic inventory using tests of vocabulary or reading levels, and also consider the linguistic background of participants (Kharkhurin, 2012), as participants who speak more than one language may perform better due to a wider linguistic repertoire. ...
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Creativity is commonly assessed using divergent thinking tasks, which measure the fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of participant output on a variety of different tasks. This study assesses the degree to which creativity can be identified based on linguistic features of participants’ language while completing collaborative divergent thinking tasks. To this end, 78 participants’ conversational dialogs (i.e., 39 dyads) within a chat environment were collected while completing three open-ended problem-solving tasks. Expert raters scored the dialogs in terms of fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and originality, as well as three types of creative language (metaphor and simile, humor, and word play). Factor analyses indicated that these scores captured two main constructs (creativity and elaboration). The linguistic features of the participants’ language (captured computationally using natural language processing tools) accounted for significant amounts of variation in both the creativity (R² = .640) and elaboration (R² = .550) scores within linear mixed effect (LME) models. These results highlight specific linguistic features that can be used to explain large amounts of variance in constructs related to creativity.
... In recent decades, a positive effect of bilingualism on creativity has been confirmed by experimental research using various tasks that measure creative cognition (e.g., Lasagabaster, 2000;Simonton, 2008;Kharkhurin, 2010a,b;Kharkhurin, 2012;Leikin, 2013;Yang and Li, 2019;Yang et al., 2021). However, the domain of bilinguals' creativity in previous studies has mostly been limited to cognitive creativity (CC; Ma, 2009). ...
... The role of bilingualism in creativity, mainly CC, has been already investigated in the literature. Previous studies have pointed to a general bilingual advantage in CC (e.g., Kharkhurin, 2012;van Dijk et al., 2019) as well as a positive effect of bilingualism on the various measures of CC in bilinguals, such as figurative creativity (e.g., Vaid et al., 2015), mathematical creativity (e.g., Lasagabaster, 2000;Simonton, 2008;Kharkhurin, 2010a), and language creativity (e.g., Kessler and Quinn, 1987;Ricciardelli, 1992b;Simonton, 2008;Leikin et al., 2014). Positive influence of bilingualism on CC has also been found in the three components of divergent thinking, i.e., originality (e.g., Konaka, 1997a;Kharkhurin, 2009), flexibility (e.g., Konaka, 1997a;Kharkhurin, 2009), and fluency (e.g., Ricciardelli, 1992a;Kharkhurin, 2008). ...
... Previous studies have shown that bilinguals had better performance in creativity than monolinguals (e.g., Lasagabaster, 2000;Simonton, 2008;Kharkhurin, 2010a,b;Kharkhurin, 2012;Leikin, 2013) and language proficiency has played a positive role (e.g., Ricciardelli, 1992a,b;Simonton, 2008;Adesope et al., 2010;Leikin, 2013). In the current study, we further investigated the potential influence of cognitive flexibility and adaptive ER strategies on bilinguals' CC and EC during the COVID-19 pandemic based on simple mediation and moderated mediation analyses. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought severe impact on language learners' emotional states and their performance in creativity. Yet, their ability to regulate emotions is crucial for everyday functioning during times of crisis. The question of how adaptive emotion regulation (ER) strategies, which help an individual maintain appropriate and stable mood states, might affect bilinguals' creativity remains unexplored. The present study investigated this issue by measuring various indicators of the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, L2 proficiency, adaptive ER strategies, and bilinguals' cognitive creativity (CC) and emotional creativity (EC) during the pandemic. Results from a sample of 235 bilingual participants who completed a battery of survey instruments showed that: (1) bilinguals' negative mood significantly increased during the pandemic compared with their mood state before the pandemic; (2) their negative mood during the pandemic was positively associated with their adaptive ER strategies; (3) L2 proficiency had a direct effect on bilinguals' cognitive flexibility, CC, and EC; (4) L2 proficiency also indirectly influenced bilinguals' CC through cognitive flexibility. These results suggest that cognitive flexibility had a simple mediation effect on the association between L2 proficiency and CC. However, the current study further found that bilinguals had different cognitive patterns in EC. L2 proficiency influenced bilinguals' EC through cognitive flexibility indirectly only when adaptive ER strategies had a moderation effect on the association between cognitive flexibility and EC. However, this moderated mediation effect was not significant in CC. The current study implies that bilinguals' adaptive ER strategies played a distinct role in bilinguals' EC during the COVID-19 pandemic.
... A number of researchers have found that, unlike measures of ability and achievement, scores of students from diverse cultural groups and lowincome groups on various measures of creativity are not significantly different from those of high-income and mainstream cultural groups (Glover, 1976;Ivcevic & Kaufman, 2013;Kaufman, 2006;Kaufman et al., 2004;Torrance, 1971). In fact, researchers have found that cognitive flexibility, open-mindedness, and imagination, traits important in creativity, are higher in African American students than in White students (Jenkins, 2005); that bilingual students tend to demonstrate higher creativity than monolingual students (Ghonsooly & Showqui, 2012;Kharkhurin, 2012); and that American Indian students are more likely to solve problems creatively as a group and to generate creative stories (DeVries & Shires-Golon, 2011). ...
... Important to consider is that other researchers have found that including measurements of creativity and creative problem-solving in talent identification is beneficial: (a) both domain-general and domain-specific abilities and creativity are important variables associated with outstanding achievements in productivity and performance (Feist, 2006a(Feist, , 2006bSubotnik, et al., 2011), so inclusion of both increases the predictive ability of the talent identification (Hedlund et al., 2006;Sternberg, 2010); and (b) inclusion of measures of creativity increases the potential to identify students from groups traditionally underrepresented in programs for exceptionally talented students because they score at similar levels (Glover, 1976;Ivcevic & Kaufman, 2013;Kaufman, 2006;Kaufman et al., 2004, Torrance, 1971 or sometimes higher (DeVries & Shires-Golon, 2011;Ghonsooly & Showqui, 2012;Jenkins, 2005;Kharkhurin, 2012) than students from mainstream groups. ...
Article
In the Cultivating Diverse Talent in STEM project, funded by the National Science Foundation in the United States, new assessments were developed, field tested, used to identify students with exceptional talent in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and compared with existing methods (grade point average [GPA], letters of recommendation, self-statements). Students identified by both methods participated in an internship program in laboratories of scientists on the campus of an R1 university in the Southwest. Existing methods limited the diversity of students identified. Significant differences were found between students identified by the new methods (M2) and existing methods (M1) in GPA, ethnicity, and parent level of education. Ethnicity differences may be due to the ethnic makeup of the partner schools, but differences in GPA and parent level of education cannot be attributed to the location of schools. Although GPAs of M1 students were significantly higher (3.71) than those of M2 students (3.07) and M1 students came from higher income groups and schools in higher income areas, the M2 students scored higher on all the performance assessments of creative problem-solving and at similar levels on concept maps and mathematical problem-solving. Studies of the usefulness and psychometric properties of the new assessments are needed with different groups and in different contexts.
... 2. greater fluency, flexibility and creative thinking, if an additional language had been added at a younger age (Kharkhurin, 2012); ...
... The interpersonal communication skills are also developing and stimulate the capacity to learn even more languages. Kharkhurin (2012) found five attributes of the bilingual creative education, necessary to the teachers who want to develop creative thinking. ...
Article
Play is a very effective learning tool for children, and most of the educational systems admit this. Play activities are linked to: exploration, fun, freedom, investigation, enquiry, learning, social development, coping with anxieties, making sense of the world and using up energy. Through play, children develop abilities – for example they learn languages, and they do so, by four principles: enjoyment, method, system, and patience. Bilingual practice improves cognitive mechanisms, which may lead to increased creative potential. By combining bilingual and creative education, the cognitive mechanisms would help the individual creative performance and would create a synergetic bilingual creative model of education.
... The advantages of bilingualism have been reported across a variety of cognitive domains, such as inhibition (Bialystok, 2010;Carlson & Meltzoff, 2008), problem solving 1 (Adesope et al., 2010), attention and executive control (Bialystok, 2011;Engel de Abreu et al., 2012), cognitive flexibility 2 (Morales et al., 2013;Soveri et al., 2011) and working-memory updating (Birke Hansen et al., 2016). In addition, there is strong evidence that bilingualism, predominantly balanced bilingualism ("balanced usage of and balanced proficiency in two languages", see Yow & Li, 2015), contributes to verbal and nonverbal creativity (Cushen & Wiley, 2011;Kharkhurin, 2010Kharkhurin, , 2012Leikin, M., 2013;Leikin & Tovli, 2014). In this case, the interrelation between two complex cognitive phenomena, bilingualism and creative thinking ability, seems to be mediated by precisely the aforementioned improved executive functions 3 , which in turn are influenced by the "juggling" of the two languages (Cushen & Wiley, 2011;Hommel et al., 2011;Kharkhurin, 2011). ...
... On the other hand, Ellen Bialystok (2009) found evidence of a certain advantage for bilinguals in working memory when using the Corsi block-tapping test (CBTT) (non-verbal spatial working memory). Similarly, opposite findings were shown for certain other cognitive functions, including inhibition and creative thinking ability (Birke Hansen et al., 2016;Kharkhurin, 2012;Leikin, M., 2013;Bastian et al., 2016). 1 In psychology, problem solving is a mental process or act of finding a solution to a problem (Chevallier, 2016). ...
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The present study explores the interplay among bilingualism, executive functions and creativity in problem solving among adult male university students. In this context, the associations between two factors critical for understanding the topic, i.e. type of bilingualism (i.e. balanced versus non-balanced bilingualism) and type of creative thinking (i.e. convergent versus divergent thinking) are examined, as well. 28 Russian/Hebrew/English trilinguals (balanced Russian/Hebrew bilinguals), and 25 non-balanced Hebrew/English bilinguals participated in the study. All participants performed several standard tasks on executive functions (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Eriksen flanker task, digit span test, Corsi block-tapping test) and two tests on creativity: Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (Figural Form A) and Remote Associates Test (in appropriate languages). The findings showed that the Russian-speaking participants performed better on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, particularly in flexibility and fluency measures. On the Remote Associates Test, balanced bilinguals outperformed non-balanced bilinguals in the English version and exhibited the same results in the Hebrew version of the test. In this case, there were significant correlations between the Remote Associates Test results in all three languages in the Russian group. Thus, balanced bilingualism seems to be also characterized by a well-organized language system in which all of the individual’s languages are interconnected. This appears to be a significant factor in the performance of balanced bilinguals on the Remote Associates Test in the different languages. In addition, the findings seem to confirm the hypothesis that balanced bilingualism positively influences divergent thinking. The hypothesis that performance of bilinguals on creativity tasks is linked to distinctions in the development of their executive functions was not confirmed.
... To control for cognitive ability that benefits creative production (Kharkhurin, 2012), we measured creative imagination by using an alien drawing task which assesses participants' ability to overcome the structured imagination. We instructed participants to imagine an alien on a planet that is substantially different from earth and visualize it within 7 min (Ward, 1994). ...
Article
In search of a more holistic assessment, creativity researchers recently employed implicit measures which capture different aspects of creativity, including personality and attitude that operate on an implicit level. However, little is understood regarding their overlap with determinants of creative achievement. This study examined the incremental validity of two implicit measures, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Conditional Reasoning Test for Creative Personality (CRT-CP) in predicting creative achievements. Analyses based on a sample of 167 college students showed a convergent validity between the IAT and explicit creative personality, but not between the CRT-CP and explicit creative personality nor between the IAT and the CRT-CP. Regarding incremental validity, only CRT-CP revealed evidence for an incremental validity in predicting individuals' creative achievement over and above explicit creative personality. Results are discussed in terms of the application of implicit measurement techniques.
... 1-Creativity: Multilingualism can have a beneficial effect on the development of creative thinking (Kharkhurin, 2012). ...
... The academic community recently revealed interest in exploring the potential links between the use of multiple languages and creativity [1][2][3][4][5]. However, the benefits of merging programs fostering creative capacities and plurilingual abilities continue to escape the attention of educators [6]. It is evident that creativity-fostering programs operate separately from those offering (multiple) language development. ...
... "Shield of Achilles" program is to increase students' proficiency in the key competences necessary to shape the future towards 2030 by integrating STEM disciplines, social sciences, humanities, arts, and entrepreneurial disciplines (Classical disciplines) as broader educational goals are acknowledged and supported by modern educational systems [3]. The program aimed to expose pupils and their teachers to integrated approaches leading to the development of key competences necessary to shape the future towards 2030; integrate STEM thinking actions and methodologies in Classical disciplines to augment interest in STEM education and vice-versa, strengthen teachers [4] and pupils to understand and assume the role of each discipline in the development of 21st century skills and the added value of their integrated contribution and to improve teachers' competences by supporting them to become innovative and work collaboratively [5]. ...
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The “Shield of Achilles” is an effort to teach in an interdisciplinary way both the teaching subjects of Ancient Greek (Omer’s Iliad) and Informatics (3D modelling and printing), that took place in the 1st Junior High School of Vrilissia, Athens, during the school year 2017-2018 [13]. Students of B grade of Junior High School (ages 13-14), on a voluntarily basis, separated into groups of 4, created in a 3D design environment the “Shield of Achilles” as were taught during the subject of Ancient Greek and according to the description of the shield given by Homer in his poem “Iliad”. The most of the shields were eventually printed out using the 3D printer of the computer lab. The aim of the project was to support teaching between STEM and Classical subjects, co-create and implement integrated models inspired by STEM and classical disciplines and to investigate the behavior of students through a school program based in both formal and non-formal educational approaches. Part of the program was supported through the school’s curriculum, part of the program had to be implemented out of school hours. After the completion of the project students responded to a questionnaire prepared by the teachers in a google form format. The most important results of this questionnaire are discussed in this work.
... Most research on cultural differences of creativity compare levels of creativity for adult populations, such as for divergence and convergence (Cheung et al., 2016), or the influence of multicultural experience. Kharkhurin (2012) for example found that multiculturalism and multilingualism were related to enhanced creative potential. He theorized that the encounter with other cultures enhances flexible thought. ...
... Over the past decade, there has been a growing body of research investigating creativity and plurilingualism. (Furlong 2009;Kharkhurin 2012;Lüdi 2010;Makoni and Pennycook 2012;Piccardo and Puozzo 2013;Wei and Wu 2009). Collage and plurilingualism as forms of creative self-expression offer a space for risk-taking, experimentation and the growth of new ideas and perspectives. ...
Article
Linguistic diversity has become a defining feature of schools in the twenty-first century. How do children make sense of such diversity and their own linguistic identities? This article draws on data generated through a multi-site inquiry with five English and French schools in Canada and France to investigate children's plurilingualism. According to educational policy and curriculum in each context, all of the children involved in this study were receiving instruction at school in English and French. In addition, many children spoke other languages outside of school, at home and in their communities. At the conclusion of each 4–6 month research collaboration in each school, children engaged in making collages that responded to the question, ‘How does it look and feel to be plurilingual’? Drawing on social theories of language representation and plurilingualism, the focus herein is on analyzing how children's representations of plurilingualism made visible through the medium of collage. This article argues for the usefulness of creative multimodal arts-based methods in applied linguistics research and in particular for engaging plurilingual children as co- investigators.
... Florida (2008), building on earlier works on creativity and the creative class, focused on the importance of diversity in effective cities where innovation thrives. (Kharkhurin, 2012) examined the relationship and linkages between multilingualism and creativity, as did the European Commission report (2009) and (Ghonsooly and Showqi, 2012), who demonstrated, "enhanced divergent thinking skills" among foreign language learners. Gardner (1993Gardner ( , 1995Gardner ( , 2006 linked creativity and leadership with linguistic intelligence and describes the ability of highly creative individuals to be fully engaged in and focused on their goal. ...
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This article examines the significance of foreign language learning and multilingualism in the development of those habits of mind that foster creative thought, critical thinking, and analytical skills, all needed in the globalized interconnected world and workplace -- particularly, the role of solitude and quiet in the development of creativity and critical thinking, as well as the deep, although seldom mentioned, paradoxical, significance of quiet, and even silence, in the foreign language learning process. In addition to the traditional and contemporary reasons for studying a foreign language for cultural and communicative reasons, this article demonstrates that foreign language as a discipline develops the ability to focus through often solitary "deep work" and "deep practice" on the development of foreign languages skills that can be generalized to other subjects and tasks across the disciplines and across linguistic and cultural boundaries. Many Languages One World (MLOW) offers an illustrative example of the ability of students who have mastered other languages to turn their ability to quietly focus, in solitude, to the creation of their winning essays, to collaborative teamwork in developing a UN presentation on the Sustainable Development Goals, and to the creation and delivery of their part of the team presentation. Future steps include incorporation of the silent period into foreign language education to foster sustainable creativity, as well as inclusion of this additional benefit of foreign language learning in promotion and advocacy for foreign languages at all levels.
... Many researchers have found that bilinguals and multilinguals tend to be creative due to their openness to cultures. In this regard, Kharkhurin (2012) maintains that acquiring two languages at an early age paves the way to connection between lexical and conceptual representations of both languages. Moreover, multilingual people's experience with many socio-cultural settings enhances their creative potential. ...
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This study focuses on lexical ambiguity as polysemous words were proved to hinder meaning understanding. In an attempt to operationalize polysemous words from a cognitive perspective, the researcher deduces that metaphorical polysemy engenders words with basic and peripheral (or metaphorical) senses. Participants were asked to answer Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale II (MSTAT II). Then, they answered Wallach and Kogan Creativity Test, which revealed a slight positive relationship with MSTAT II. Furthermore, the results show two things. First, there is a positive relationship between creativity and semi-technical vocabulary tests scores. Second, there is a link between creativity level and understanding the prototypical meanings of words. Contrarily, MSTAT II and prototypical meanings tests scores correlation is very weak.
... In the literature, cognitive flexibility, and 'out of the box thinking' is conceptualized as being one of the core components of creative cognition (Beghetto and Kaufman, 2007), and several empirical studies have shown that flexibility is positively associated with creative achievement (Carson et al., 2005). Importantly, many studies have shown a creative advantage of bilinguals over monolinguals, and of early bilinguals over late bilinguals (for a review, see Kharkhurin, 2012). Bilingualism may thus over time result in enhanced creativity -presumably fueled by the constant cognitive monitoring of distracting language systems which, over time, enhances cognitive flexibility and creativity (Rodriguez-Fornells et al., 2006;Ye and Zhou, 2009;Bialystok, 2011). ...
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In the present study we experimentally manipulated language switching among bilinguals who indicated to be more or less habitual language switchers in daily life. Our aim was to investigate the impact of forced language switching on originality of produced ideas during divergent thinking, conditional on the level of habitual language switching. A sample of bilinguals was randomly assigned to perform alternate uses tasks (AUT's), which explicitly required them to either switch languages, or to use only one language while performing the tasks. We found that those who were instructed to switch languages during the AUT's were able to generate ideas that were on average more original, than those who were instructed to use only one language during the AUT's, but only at higher levels of habitual language switching. At low levels of habitual language switching, the effect reversed, and participants who were instructed to use only one language found ideas that were on average more original, than participants who were required to switch languages during the AUT's. Implications and limitations are discussed.
... Mehrsprachigkeit von Lernenden eine "Nullsummenkonstellation" sehen (Gogolin & Neumann, 2009), bleibt resümierend zu konstatieren, dass die Bedeutung von Zwei-respektive Mehrsprachigkeit im aktuellen Forschungsdiskurs weitgehend unumstritten ist. 3 Diese Debatte um die Bedeutung von Mehrsprachigkeit zeigt allerdings auch, dass die (wissenschaftliche) Beschäftigung mit dem Thema oft in dichotomischen Gegenüberstellungen endet(e) und für viele Annahmen aktuell noch eine empirische Grundlage aussteht. Auf einer solchen empirischen Grundlage wird die Bedeutung von Mehrsprachigkeit im Kontext der Förderung der Erstsprachen von Lernenden als deren "sprachliches Kapital" (Brizic, 2006) u. a. für die Identitätsbildung (Krumm, 2009;Seals, 2017), als wirtschaftliche Ressource (Lüdi, 2014), für die sprachliche Kreativität und die Empathiefähigkeit von Menschen (Marsh & Hill, 2009;Kharkhurin, 2012) und für das Lernen weiterer Sprachen (Marx, 2005) hervorgehoben. Empirische Evidenz wurde auch bereits für die Annahme geschaffen, dass mehrsprachige Lernende -bei einer adäquaten Förderung -erhöhte metalinguistische, kognitive und metakognitive Fähigkeiten ausbilden können (u. ...
Article
Die Bedeutung von Sprachenvielfalt und Mehrsprachigkeit ist im aktuellen Forschungsdiskurs weitgehend unumstritten. Auch im Kontext der Förderung der Erstsprachen von Lernenden als deren „sprachliches Kapital“ (Brizic 2006) wird die Bedeutung dieser u.a. für die Identitätsbildung (Krumm 2009), als wirtschaftliche Ressource, als Basis für den Transfer von Kompetenzen von der Erst- auf die Zweitsprache (u.a. Cummins 1979; Schmölzer-Eibinger 2008) und für das Lernen weiterer Sprachen (Marx 2005) hervorgehoben. Nur wenige Forscher (u.a. Esser 2009) stellen diese Vorteile infrage und sehen in der Zweisprachigkeit von Lernenden eine „Nullsummenkonstellation.“ Eine Lücke in der Forschung und noch weitgehend unerforscht ist jedoch, wie sich Sprachenvielfalt, Mehrsprachigkeit und Sprachenlernen aus der Sicht von Lernenden darstellt. Bisherige Forschungsarbeiten in diesem Bereich, wie etwa jene von Brossart (2011); Hu (2003) oder Heller (2006) untersuchten diese Fragestellungen vorwiegend in qualitativen Fallstudien mit oft nur geringer Proband_innenzahl. Die vorliegende Untersuchung wählt für ihre quantitative Untersuchung mit über 500 Proband_innen hier einen anderen Fokus: Um zu untersuchen, wie Schüler_innen (ihre eigene und fremde) Mehrsprachigkeit, Sprachenvielfalt und Sprachenlernen beurteilen, wurde an einem Grazer Gymnasium, die von der Schulbehörde wegen ihres erhöhten Anteils an Lernenden mit anderer Familiensprache als Deutsch als „Brennpunktschule“ bezeichnet wird, eine Erhebung mit Fragebogen unter den mehr als 500 Schüler_innen durchgeführt. In der Erhebung wurden vorwiegend quantitative Daten erhoben, die in dem Beitrag dargestellt und diskutiert werden. Vor allem Lernende in Klassen, in denen es viele mehrsprachige Lernende gibt, betrachten Mehrsprachigkeit als Bereicherung, während Klassen mit überwiegend einsprachigen Lernenden diese in einem geringeren Ausmaß als positiv einstufen. Interessant dabei ist, dass auch einsprachig deutschsprechende Lernende in Klassen mit einem höheren Anteil an mehrsprachigen Lernenden Mehrsprachigkeit und Sprachenvielfalt generell signifikant positiver einschätzen als Lernende in Klassen mit vorwiegend einsprachig deutschsprechenden Lernenden. Aufschlussreich ist auch, dass einige Klassen der Schule an dem „Projekt“ voXmi teilgenommen haben (vgl. www.voXmi.at). voXmi ist ein Schulnetzwerk, welches auf die Förderung von Mehrsprachigkeit, sprachlicher Bildung und digitalem Lernen abzielt. Klassen, die an diesem Projekt teilgenommen haben, weisen eine besonders hohe Wertschätzung von Mehrsprachigkeit und Sprachenvielfalt auf. Literatur Brizic, Katharina (2006): Das geheime Leben der Sprachen. Eine unentdeckte migrantische Bildungsressource. In: Kurswechsel (2), S. 32–43. Cummins, jim (1979): Cognitive / academic language proficiency, linguistic interdependence, the optimum age question and some other matters. In: Working Papers on Bilingualism (19), S. 197–205. Esser, Hartmut (2009): Der Streit um die Zweisprachigkeit: Was bringt die Bilingualität?. In: Gogolin I., Neumann U. (eds) Streitfall Zweisprachigkeit – The Bilingualism Controversy. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Heller, Monica (2006): Linguistic Minorities and Modernity: A Socoiolinguistic Ethnography. London: Continuum. Hu, Adelheid (2005): Migrationbedingte Mehrsprachigkeit und schulischer Fremdsprachenunterricht. Ein Beitrag zur Bildungsgangforschung aus der fremdsprachen-didaktischen Perspektive. In: Schenk, B. (ed.): Bausteine einer Bildungsgangtheorie. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften Band 6. S. 161-178. Krumm Hans Jürgen (2009): Die Bedeutung der Mehrsprachigkeit in den Identitätskonzepten von Migrantinnen und Migranten. In: Gogolin I., Neumann U. (eds) Streitfall Zweisprachigkeit – The Bilingualism Controversy. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. Schmölzer-Eibinger, Sabine (2008): Lernen in der Zweitsprache. Grundlagen und Verfahren der Förderung von Textkompetenz in mehrsprachigen Klassen. Tübingen: Narr (Europäische Studien zur Textlinguistik, Bd. 5).
... As Kharkhurian (2012) observes, working in more than one language promotes linguistic creativity and is less likely to lead to premature closure because participants can draw on broader experience and additional conceptual prisms through which the work can be viewed. As evidenced in the two case studies presented here, translaboration facilitates creative collaboration, enabling all participants to contribute equally; in turn, the methods and practices of devised theatre which were employed in both workshops encourage translanguaging and successful communication because they require the participants to collaborate effectively in order to co-create material for performance. ...
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This article explores the role of translaboration in an area where collaborative translation and co-creative processes intertwine: a bilingual devised theatre rehearsal room. Scholarship has tended to focus on translated plays as cultural products, and on the difficulty associated with making bilingual theatrical products accessible to unilingual audiences. Here however, our focus is translation within the creative process. We use two bilingual projects as examples. Each project brought together participants from two cultural backgrounds: in one case German and Czech young people; in the other, deaf and hearing people from the UK. Possessing varying bilingual competencies, these participants employed their shared communicative repertoire to ensure the collaborative creation of new, bilingual theatrical material. Their diverse communication strategies can be regarded as translanguaging, a fluid, non-hierarchical practice that challenges the notion of uni-directional translation from a source text. We argue that in this setting, translanguaging is the practice that enables translaboration. This practice is compromised by the imposition of top-down structures that inhibit the organic development of democratic and potentially transformative environments in which problematic power relationships can be reworked. Such transformativity relies on collaboration in both devising and translation, co-creation and translaboration, and the two are mutually interdependent.
... Although these views likely still exist to some extent, multilingualism is nowadays increasingly perceived as a normal phenomenon and as a positive resource to individuals and societies. Research from several fields suggests that there are many benefits associated with multilingualism, such as increased cognitive flexibility and working memory (Antoniou 2019;Bialystok 2011;Mepham and Martinovic 2018;Monnier et al. 2021), creativity Grin 2018, 2021;Kharkhurin 2012), later onset of dementia (Alladi et al. 2013), increased metalinguistic awareness and better language learning skills (Jessner 2008;Kemp 2007), increased empathy and open-mindedness (Dewaele and Wei 2012;Tiurikova, Haukås, and Storto 2021), economic advantages (Bel Habib 2011), and increased academic performance ) Also in education, multilingualism has been increasingly embraced as a resource. This resource orientation is evident in Norway's curricula for the various language subjects (for example, NDET 2019a(for example, NDET , 2019b. ...
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Multilingualism is increasingly seen as a resource among researchers, educators and in society. Whereas positive beliefs about the benefits of multilingualism may foster increased motivation for language learning, little is known about students’ beliefs about potential multilingual benefits. This study examined the beliefs of Norwegian secondary school students concerning the benefits of multilingualism and the role of some individual differences in these beliefs. The data consisted of questionnaires completed by 593 secondary school students. The initial descriptive statistical analysis showed that students held diverging beliefs regarding the benefits of multilingualism being more positive about benefits related to the language learning process and less positive about general cognitive advantages. Further statistical analyses with independent T-tests revealed interesting relationships between students’ overall beliefs about multilingualism and the following variables: Students’ who reported having friends with other home languages than Norwegian, students who had lived abroad and students with migration backgrounds held significantly more positive beliefs about multilingualism than students’ without such experiences. No significant relationships were found between students’ beliefs about multilingualism and the number of languages learned in school or students’ multilingual identity. Pedagogical implications for students’ language learning in school contexts are discussed.
... As assessments for measuring creativity continued to develop from the 1970s onward, more studies employed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between language learners' second language (L2) proficiency (as well as foreign language aptitude) and their creative competency, using different instruments for assessing these variables and reaching different conclusions on whether one variable corresponded with the other (e.g., Kharkhurin, 2012). Recent scholarly work on the relationship between creativity and L2 learning has employed more qualitative and exploratory methods. ...
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This study investigates the validity of three psychometric scales—the Disposition towards Loving Pedagogy (DTLP), Teaching for Creativity Scale (TCS), and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES)—to uncover the relationship between these constructs with a multinational cohort of language teachers. The results obtained from Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed the psychometric properties of the three scales. The hypothesized model for the relationship between participants’ DTLP,TCS, and their UWES revealed that although both predictor variables significantly predicted UWES, TCS was a stronger predictor for UWES. The model was also tested for measurement invariance across ethnicity and gender. By drawing on the findings obtained in this study, future language researchers are aided to employ the three revalidated scales in their research undertakings on a cross- or multi-cultural scale, and increase expansion of culture-centered research on various teacher personality variables with the aim of precipitating language teachers’ continuing professional development.
... 8 Over the past decades, extensive research has identified some association between bilingualism and creativity, in which enhanced executive functioning in bilinguals is frequently pointed out as one of the causes (e.g., Kharkhurin, 2011;Lee & Kim, 2010). While most of this research has been conducted with migrant population (see Kharkhurin, 2012, and Fürst & Grin, 2018 for a review on these aspects), research about creativity in contexts where the L2 is mainly learned in the classroom is still nascent. Some of these studies identified a positive relationship between creativity and L2 proficiency (e.g., Ottó, 1998;Smith, 2013), yet some others found no statistically significant correlation (Albert, 2006). ...
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Creativity is related to a higher flexible semantic memory structure, which could explain greater fluency of ideas. Extensive research has identified a positive connection between creativity and bi-/multilingualism mainly in contexts where two languages or more concur in daily communicative interactions. Yet, creativity has received scant attention as regards L2 (second or foreign language) acquisition that mainly takes place in classroom situations. The scarce research points to a positive relationship between creativity and L2 fluency – understood as the number of words produced. We apply computational network science analysis and Forward Flow techniques to examine lexical organization patterns of a low creativity (LC) and high creativity (HC) group of 12th grade Spanish EFL learners. The participants completed two fluency tasks, where they generated animal names in their L2, and also L1 – used here as a control measure. EFL proficiency was controlled. Our analyses revealed that the HC individuals were more fluent in L1 and L2, generated more remote responses, and exhibited a more flexible and efficiently structured semantic memory in both languages, with a greater effect of creativity in L2. Contrary to previous research, the L2 semantic memory network exhibited a less random organization. Differences in the L2 learning conditions are adduced as likely causes of this result.
... In order to make the case for foreign languages, it is necessary to highlight the role of foreign language skills and cultural knowledge in critical thinking, problem-solving, decisionmaking, and creativity (Kharkhurin, 2012). Advocacy efforts need to be smart and strategic, using practitioner insights as well as scholarly peer-reviewed writing and research, adapting the best theories and practices used in marketing and promotion in the corporate world to promote the benefits of foreign languages and the need for foreign language skills, as well as social and online media and professional engagement. ...
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The Modern Language Association’s (MLA) comprehensive analysis (Goldberg, Looney, & Lusin, 2015) indicated that many language programs have recently seen an enrollment decline. Therefore, motivating students to register for language courses beyond a university requirement or whether or not to become language majors and/or minors is crucial for language instructors. This study explores how mobile-assisted language learning can motivate second language (L2) learners. Over the course of 4 weeks, 188 participants were given optional weekly Duolingo assignments to complete. Likert-scale and open-ended questions from pre-, post- and weekly surveys were analyzed. Although participants noted that they completed assignments for extra credit, they also indicated that they enjoyed these activities and preferred them to other required assignments since they were able to learn “on the go” while having fun. In addition, participants mentioned that the Duolingo assignments provided extra practice and allowed them to develop their language skills. Not only does this study explore the ways in which technology can enhance L2 learning and teaching, but it also shows how instructors can utilize online pedagogical approaches with the Duolingo tool to create a learner-centered and autonomous experience.
... Υπογραμμίζει τα θετικά αποτελέσματα της διγλωσσίας στην δημιουργικότητα και υποστηρίζει τα σχολεία όπου η γλωσσική και πολιτισμική ποικιλομορφία εκτιμάται και η δημιουργικότητα ενθαρρύνεται. Ένας πολύγλωσσος και πολυπολιτισμικός μαθητικός πληθυσμός παρέχει μια πλούσια πηγή ευκαιριών μάθησης, που μπορεί να τονώσει την απόκτηση ενός φάσματος των δεξιοτήτων, όπως η ανάληψη πρωτοβουλιών, η επιχειρηματικότητα, η δημιουργική επίλυση προβλημάτων και η γέννηση νέων ιδεών, η πολιτισμική ευαισθητοποίηση και έκφραση (Kharkhurin, 2012). Είναι ενδιαφέρον ότι η δημιουργικότητα έχει βρεθεί να ενισχύεται όταν τα δίγλωσσα άτομα, που είχαν ζήσει στο εξωτερικό, ανέσυραν στην μνήμη τους μια πολυπολιτισμική εμπειρία μάθησης. ...
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Το βιβλίο «Μια εισαγωγή στην Πολυγλωσσία» εξετάζει πολλές από τις πτυχές που άπτονται του πολυδιάστατου φαινομένου της πολυγλωσσίας και επιχειρείται μια επισκόπηση των σύγχρονων εξελίξεων στην έρευνά του. Ο αναγνώστης εξοικειώνεται με την ορολογία και τις πτυχές του πολύπλοκου φαινομένου της πολυγλωσσίας, τους ορισμούς που έχουν προταθεί γι’ αυτήν, καθώς και την προβληματική που έχει αναπτυχθεί αναφορικά με τους διάφορους τύπους πολυγλωσσίας, τα στοιχεία που επιτρέπουν τον χαρακτηρισμό ενός ομιλητή ως πολύγλωσσου, ενώ εξετάζεται και η τυπολογία των πολύγλωσσων ομιλητών. Επιπλέον, διερευνώνται οι γραμματισμοί και γίνεται ιδιαίτερη αναφορά στον τρόπο και στις συνθήκες ανάπτυξής τους, παρουσιάζεται η έννοια του διγραμματισμού και πώς ο αναδυόμενος διγραμματισμός αναπτύσσεται στην προσχολική και σχολική ηλικία. Αναλύεται η έννοια της διαγλωσσικότητας και οι τρόποι που μπορεί να εφαρμοστεί και να βοηθήσει την διδασκαλία στην δίγλωσση εκπαίδευση, καθώς επίσης και η έννοια των πολυγραμματισμών παρουσιάζοντας τους τρόπους με τους οποίους αυτή μπορεί να περιγράψει αφενός την όλο και αυξανόμενη σημασία της πολυμορφίας σε επίπεδο γλωσσών και πολιτισμών και αφετέρου την έννοια του κριτικού γραμματισμού. Γίνεται παρουσίαση επίσης των ιδιαίτερων χαρακτηριστικών που συνθέτουν την προσωπικότητα των πολύγλωσσων, με ιδιαίτερη έμφαση στον δυναμικό, μη γραμμικό και πολυεπίπεδο χαρακτήρα του φαινομένου της πολυγλωσσίας για το άτομο, τις ομάδες και τις κοινωνίες. Τέλος, παρουσιάζεται ο τρόπος αλληλεπίδρασης των γλωσσών στους πολύγλωσσους και εξετάζονται τα βασικά χαρακτηριστικά του γλωσσικού προϊόντος ενός πολύγλωσσου ομιλητή, όπως τα φαινόμενα της παρεμβολής και η εναλλαγή και μείξη κωδίκων ενώ ειδική αναφορά γίνεται στους παράγοντες που επηρεάζουν την διαγλωσσική επίδραση.
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This article introduces and defines the concept of mediated receptive multilingualism as a mode of multilingual communication which eases understanding between typologically distant languages through the medium of a language closely related to the target. In an experimental setting, Estonians without previous exposure to Ukrainian were quite successful in understanding Ukrainian texts via their knowledge of Russian. As expected, they made use of various language-specific elements to improve intelligibility, such as linguistic similarities between Russian and Ukrainian. However, a number of extra-linguistic factors were detected as influential predictors of success, especially metalinguistic awareness, exposure to Russian, exposure to various registers, experience with multilingual situations, learnability, and attitudes towards Ukrainian. These findings contest a static take on multilingual potential and point out the emergent nature of competencies and practices that become relevant in multilingual settings. Unconventional communicative modes – like mediated receptive multilingualism – may activate linguistic and sociolinguistic resources needed for establishing understanding in novel and potentially challenging communicative settings.
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This article discusses the possibility of adopting a complexity theory approach to the study of language policy and planning (LPP). Besides, it argues that agent-based modelling provides a significant support in this sense. Indeed, while agent-based modelling has become a major ally of researchers in the social sciences, it remains largely unexploited in the study of language-related issues in society. As a central tool of complexity theory, agent-based models (ABMs) lend themselves particularly well to the study of all sorts of complex systems. To provide justification for the use of ABMs in LPP, I show how language issues display the typical traits of complex systems and how ABMs can easily translate ideas and notions from the literature into computer-simulated processes. To support my argument, I discuss communication within multinational corporations as an example of a highly complex language matter. In particular, I focus on how language skills impact the process of knowledge creation and knowledge sharing among employees. By means of a model based on a number of straightforward rules, I show how poor language skills (or an utter lack thereof) risks creating an unbalanced distribution of knowledge (and, consequently, of power) across language groups and how this unbalanced distribution is very sensitive to initial conditions. On the contrary, average language skills seem to support communication well enough to avoid skews that favour even slightly more numerous language groups.
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Studies in word-formation in English are common compared to the study of new words that are formed by combining the resources of two linguistic systems. Although new word formations within a language are considered to be highly creative, combining words from two different languages provides another level of creativity to bilinguals in different situations. The objective of this paper is to examine the main types of word creation processes employed in mass media texts, particularly in Hindi-English code-mixed words. The focus is on three main processes of word creation: affixation, blending and compounding (including reduplication) and they are discussed from the perspective of productivity/creativity, distribution and underlying motivations. These processes seem to be illustrative of the nativization of inner circle English in India, particularly in mass media where such lexical adaptations lend texts a distinct flavor through innovation in word-formation.
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Post-industrial societies are characterized by a high degree of mobility which manifests itself through waves of migration and affects all knowledge domains and all aspects of both individual and collective lives. This situation presents challenges under the pressure of a powerfully uniformizing globalization. However, the exponential increase of diversity linked to intensified mobility is also conducive to social transformations since, when the numerous languages and cultures of the migrants encounter the languages and cultures of the host countries, they act as catalyzers of change. This article considers such social transformation in the light of the concept of plurilingualism as distinct from multilingualism, explaining the advantages of the former over the latter in such contexts, and analyzes possible synergies between plurilingualism and creativity through the lens of complexity theories and the theory of affordances, with the related concepts of ‘affordance spaces’ and landscape of affordances. After a brief introduction of the main tenets of complexity theories and affordances, the article builds on three complementary models of creativity, using complexity theories as a framework and discusses the specific characteristics and potential of plurilingualism by explaining how it can transform diversity from an obstacle into an opportunity, a possibility for action. The triadic relationship between creativity, plurilingualism, and complexity is considered. As a result, the article suggests that plurilingualism can create conditions conducive to creativity thanks to its multiple and flexible nature that values all forms of cross-fertilization and the uniqueness of the resulting individual trajectories. Without claiming any causal relationship between plurilingualism and creativity, the paper explains the reasons why it is crucial to nurture and foster plurilingualism in order to provide favorable conditions for creativity and change. The article explains the characteristics and implications of plurilanguaging, and the potential for individuals to embrace a holistic, complex view of languages and cultures and to experience empowerment in the process of perceiving and exploring linguistic and cultural diversity, hybridity and interconnections, thus discovering and liberating their full creative repertoire.
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This paper proposes a contribution to the investigation of the relation between multilingualism and creativity. Past evidence of a correlation between multilingualism and creativity is reviewed in a generalist perspective, that is, without focusing on a specific population such as migrants or highly proficient bilinguals. This review is also anchored in contemporary cognitive psychology and specialised research on creativity, allowing for a consideration of different levels and domains of creativity, as well as a distinction between creative potential and manifest creativity. On this basis, we test various hypotheses with a sample of 596 participants, using multiple regressions that incorporate several control variables. Key results show that L2 skills are systematically and positively related to virtually all indicators of creativity. Additional results reveal effects of other linguistic variables, along with effects of control variables related to cultural diversity (travelling and experience of living abroad), as well as interactions between linguistic and control variables. These results are contrasted with earlier findings and then discussed in terms of language policy implications and perspectives for future research.
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This paper contributes to research on metaphor variation in the context of world Englishes from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Starting with a discussion of the strife between universality and cultural specificity in conceptual metaphor research, basic dimensions of variation are outlined that are relevant to conceptual metaphor theory (CMT). These dimensions inform a continuum of variation in CMT that ranges from basic conceptualizations (as primary metaphors) to the surface level of language use (as metaphorical expressions). The empirical part of the paper takes heed of this continuum of variation and outlines the methodological choices relevant to the description of conceptual metaphors in an associative task. The data is based on meaning interpretations given to novel English compounds by Māori and non-Māori speakers of New Zealand English. The results of the task highlight that Māori-English bilinguals apply a greater range of different conceptual metaphors compared to non-Māori bilingual and monolingual speakers of English. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for further research on metaphor variation in Aotearoa New Zealand and world Englishes.
Chapter
This chapter provides a broad overview of historical and contemporary key concepts in bilingual education while noting the ambiguous definitions and varying purposes and sometimes conflicting aims as driven by ideologies and politics. Major contributions and work in progress are considered through traditional program models and efforts to extend bilingual education to varying student populations and global contexts. Problems associated with determining effectiveness are discussed, along with challenges to the traditional concepts of program models based on new scholarship challenging monolingual perspectives and encouraging multilingual understandings of bilingualism as dynamic classroom practices that do not insist on the strict separation of languages. We conclude with a discussion of future directions in bilingual education related to school, classroom, and student-level concepts.
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This paper examines the contrast and distinction between divergent and convergent scientific creativity, and the paradoxical relationship of scientific creativity with cultural factors in elementary students. With a newly developed measure of potential for scientific creativity, EPoC Science (Lubart et al., in press), students produce ideas in response to scientific problems, and both divergent-exploratory as well as convergent-integrative processes involved in scientific creativity are analyzed. An empirical study (n = 118) was conducted in France with elementary school children (ages 7–10). The divergent-exploratory task was scored for fluency and statistical uniqueness. For the convergent-integrative task, the number of concepts that a student integrated and synthesized, and the originality of the synthesis were scored. Results showed that divergent and convergent task performances were weakly related to each other. This suggests that divergence and convergence are two relatively distinct processes for scientific creativity, and that the relation is more complex than commonly assumed. In terms of culture-related variables, immigrant cultural background (number of family members born outside of France) was significantly and negatively correlated with the originality of divergent and convergent scientific creativity. Findings are discussed and educational implications are proposed.
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The present article gives an overview of sociocultural approaches to creativity and advances a particular theory of the creative process grounded in the notions of difference, position, perspective, dialogue, and affordance. If sociocultural psychology challenges old dichotomies between mind and body, individual and society, then creativity is ideally placed to demonstrate their interdependence. While sociocultural thinking in creativity research has traditionally emphasized the social or collaborative nature of creative processes, recovering old scholarship and reviewing it in light of current empirical developments shows how socio-materiality can properly inform psychological theory in this area. The article starts with an outline of sociocultural principles before considering their application to creativity. It then formulates four propositions regarding the creative process: (a) differences of perspective increase creative potential; (b) exchanging positions and perspectives, within and between individuals, fosters creative processes; (c) these exchanges result in perspectives that reveal previously unperceived affordances; and (d) oftentimes, it is the affordances of material objects or of unique idea combinations that guide the development of novel perspectives in creative work. Evidence supporting these key hypotheses of the perspective-affordance theory of creativity (PAT) comes from research conducted in a variety of areas within psychology and in related fields. In the end, the methodological and practical implications of considering creativity as a process of recognizing differences, exchanging positions, developing perspectives and discovering affordances will be discussed, as well as the broader implications of building theories that bring together, rather than keep separate, the social, the material, and the psychological.
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The current political situation forces us to address the subject of a smooth integration of refugees into the welcoming societies. We are presently witnessing the highest immigration wave since the Second World War, accounting for almost 10% of the world population (United Nations-Population Division, 2017). In these modern-day societies that are defined as multicultural, it becomes increasingly important to investigate the determining personal and societal characteristics that ensure the maintenance of subjective wellbeing in the process of migration. The objective of the current research project was to reconfirm that migration and multiculturalism decrease creative expression and subsequent personal wellbeing and to show that this loss in creative expression and life satisfaction can be prevented or restored through an action-research intervention focused on artistic expression under musical induction. Regarding our hypotheses, we expect migrants to show a higher expression of their creative potential after participating in the creative workshops (H1). Together with this heightened creative expression, their perceived life satisfaction is assumed to increase (H2). It follows that we expect to find a positive correlation between creative expression and life satisfaction (H3). In immigrants, some Big Five personality traits are thought to be differently related to creative engagement: negative Openness, positive Agreeableness and high Emotional stability predict creative engagement in immigrants (H4). The present investigation was realized in Luxembourgish refugee centers and used an integrative approach, combining quantitative with qualitative research methods. The psychometric test results were enriched by qualitative case studies analyses, focusing on individual psychological profiles and their evolution. The sample of refugees included 19 participants (10 men, 9 women, MAge = 36.11; SD = 7.18, age range: 20–45 years). The present research shows that refugees possess a quite uncommon creative personality profile that cannot be clearly associated to either of Batey and Furnham’s (2006) typical creative profiles in art, science and everyday life. They were found to have high levels of agreeableness and low levels of life satisfaction. Furthermore, creative refugees did not display the usual high level of openness to new experiences, which is the personality trait most frequently associated to creativity in various domains This may be the first empirical finding associating creative potential to agreeableness, which makes it highly appealing. The implications of these findings are discussed. By showing the benefits of regular creative expression in terms of the refugees’ mental and physical wellbeing, this project foresees the spreading of creative and arts psychotherapeutic workshops throughout the European countries in the long-term.
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Despite the close connection between creativity, multilingualism and multiculturalism, limited research has focused on their specific features in contexts where English is a foreign language. In order to fill this gap, this paper examines this relationship in two different bilingual situations: Spanish–Galician (same cultural context) and Spanish–English (different cultural context). For this purpose, a survey was devised to elicit students’ multilingualism, multicultural experiences and creativity. The results show that advanced English skills improve creative development. They also verify that living in a new cultural context benefits bilingualism/multilingualism (English) and creativity. Additionally, it was confirmed that being bilingual in Spanish–English fosters creativity. However, no significant differences were found when students were bilingual in the same cultural context (Galician–Spanish). Thus, bilingualism/multilingualism is confirmed to impact creativity only when it occurs in different cultural contexts. The most significant implication emphasizes the need to foster opportunities for multiculturalism to increase creativity.
Chapter
The relationship between early multilingual learning and metalinguistic awareness is a particularly intriguing one. Not surprisingly, research into the effects of multilingualism on children’s linguistic development and awareness of language has attracted a lot of attention over the past years and decades as studies have found both positive effects of multilingualism on the development of metalinguistic awareness, and also facilitative effects of metalinguistic awareness on language learning. In the recent literature, metalinguistic awareness has been linked to important qualitative changes in the language and learning processes of multilinguals.
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Bilingualism has long been within the scope of creativity studies that investigate creativity and problem solving. This study aims to explore the possible effect of bilingualism on the verbal creativity of English language learners. Participants from a bilingual and an English as foreign language teaching program within the same school were selected as an experimental and a control group respectively to compare verbal creativity. A series of creative English writing tasks designed by the authors were assigned to a total of 86 third grade (aged 7–8) students. Both the English as foreign language group (N = 42) and the bilingual group (N = 44) were subject to assessment and evaluation in terms of verbal creativity. The two cohorts completed the same creative writing tasks that were then assessed by a board of five English teachers from the same school who were trained by the authors to assess verbal creativity using a Student Product Assessment Form. An independent samples Student’s t-test was conducted and descriptive statistics of both cohorts for 9 of the assessment form were analyzed. The results showed that the students on the bilingual program outperformed those on the English as foreign language program in terms of verbal creativity. The study offers implications for English language teaching in primary schools with reference to developing creative verbal language skills at early ages.
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In this study, we investigate the role of exposure to L2 Russian on comprehension of L3 Ukrainian by speakers of L1 Estonian, using the mediating knowledge of L2 Russian. The experiment involved 30 participants and the following materials: a questionnaire, C-test in Russian, word recognition and text comprehension tasks in Ukrainian. We demonstrate that in mediated receptive multilingualism medium to high levels of L2 exposure boost L3 comprehension regardless of measured L2 proficiency. However, exposure enhanced comprehension only on the word level and not on the text level, highlighting the importance of examining comprehension in a differentiated manner. The same restriction holds for targeted L2–L3 instructions, which were administered as a shortcut to increasing metalinguistic awareness between Russian and Ukrainian: these instructions improved L3 word-level but not text-level comprehension. Since in the absence of explicit instruction the role of exposure was more pronounced, we argue that exposure and instructions interact depending on the particular configurations of available resources, as language users attempt to understand another language. We conclude that exposure to medium language is a crucial factor that might significantly boost comprehension in the target language through increased metalinguistic awareness, either more directly or by creating opportunities for incidental learning. *** Artiklis analüüsime, kuidas eesti emakeele (L1) kõnelejad mõistavad ukraina keelt (L3) vene keele oskuse toel (L2) ehk millist rolli mängib kokkupuude vene keelega arusaamisel ukraina keelest. Katses osales 30 inimest ja materjalid koosnesid: küsimustikust, vene keele C-testist ning ukraina keele sõnade äratundmise ja teksti mõistmise ülesannetest. Uuringu tulemused näitasid, et vahendatud retseptiivse mitmekeelsuse kontekstis mõjutab L2-ga kokkupuude L2-st ja L3-st arusaamist kindlal viisil. Kokkupuude vene keelega avaldas positiivset mõju nii vene keele C-testi tulemustele kui ka ukrainakeelsete sõnade äratundmisele. Ukrainakeelsete tekstide mõistmist kokkupuude vene keelega aga märgatavalt ei mõjutanud, mis toob esile, kui oluline on arusaamise hindamine eristaval viisil. Teisalt hõlbustas L3 sõnade äratundmist nii keskmine kui ka kõrgem L2-ga kokkupuute tase, millest järeldub, et isegi vähene kokkupuude suurendab metalingvistilist teadlikkust. Katse sisaldas kahte sellisest hüpoteesist lähtuvat lisatingimust, mille põhjal formaalsed juhised võimaldavad teist, konkreetsemat õppimisallikat: mõned osalejad said eelnevalt formaalseid juhiseid ukraina keelest ja teised mitte. Need selged juhised aitasid kahtlemata kaasa L3-st arusaamisele ning nende puudumisel oli L2-ga kokkupuute roll veelgi märgatavam. Võib järeldada, et kui keelekasutaja üritab teisest keelest aru saada, siis eelmainitud tegurid, nii otsesemad kui ka kaudsemad, toimivad üksteisest sõltuvalt ja muutuvad vähem või rohkem märgatavaks olenevalt saadaval olevate ressursside konkreetsetest asetustest.
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En linguistique appliquée, la créativité a traditionnellement été conceptualisée comme une activité anthropocentrique où les ressources sémiotiques sont utilisées comme outil de médiation pour générer de nouvelles significations. Cet article conteste cette vue en explorant les forces non représentationnelles qui vitalisent la créativité pour faire bouger la langue dans un jeu théâtral joué avec des jeunes multilingues et des enseignants de langue en préservice. En particulier, il opérationnalise la notion de bégaiement de Deleuze pour schématiser les contours du mouvement linguistique dans l’activité de littératie. Le document se penche aussi vers la rethéorisation de la créativité comme différence en soi, se séparant donc des recherches précédentes où la créativité est déterminée sur la base de sa relation à autre chose. Les implications incluent le besoin d’explorer la créativité en général à ses propres fins, et la créativité linguistique en particulier dans le cadre d’un agencement mobile d’actions, de corps et de forces humains et non humains.
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Are bilinguals more creative than monolinguals? Some prior research suggests bilinguals are more creative because the knowledge representations for their second language are similarly structured to those of highly creative people. However, there is contrasting research showing that the knowledge representations of bilinguals’ second language are actually structured like those of less creative people. Finally, there is growing skepticism about there being differences between bilinguals and monolinguals on non-language tasks (e.g., the bilingual advantage for executive control). We tested whether bilinguals tested in their second language are more or less creative than both monolinguals and bilinguals tested in their first language. Participants also took a repeated semantic fluency test that we used to estimate individual semantic networks for each participant. We analyzed our results with Bayesian statistics and found support for the null hypothesis that bilingualism offers no advantage for creativity. Further, using best practices for estimating semantic networks, we found support for the hypothesis that there is no association between an individual’s semantic network and their creativity. This is in contrast with published research, and suggests that some of those findings may have been the result of idiosyncrasies, outdated methods for estimating semantic networks, or statistical noise. Our results call into question reported relations between bilingualism and creativity, as well as semantic network structure as an explanatory mechanism for individual differences in creativity.
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Aims and objectives Past research has shown that multicultural experience and multilingualism can be positively associated with creativity. However, very few studies have focused simultaneously on all these variables. Our aim is to consider both sets of predictors simultaneously, clarifying whether the impact of these variables on creativity is cumulative or redundant. Design/methodology/approach The design combines correlational and quasi-experimental approaches. It is also strongly multivariate and includes various measurement methods. Variables of interest were assessed with questionnaires ( N = 596) and creativity tasks ( N = 174) in laboratory settings. The scope of the study, therefore, is relatively large and encompasses several indicators. Data and analysis We use multiple regressions with latent and manifest variables. Latent variables were constructed for all sets of key predictors (multilingualism, traveling experience, living abroad experience); predictors were regressed on four types of creativity variables, also latent in most cases (creative potential; creative interests, activities, and achievements; creative performance in a writing task; creative performance on a remote association task). Findings/conclusions Results shows that both multicultural experience and multilingualism are positively related with various manifestations of creativity. Overall, the results indicate complementary effects of multicultural experience and multilingualism on creativity. The most robust predictors are multilingualism and variables representing deep immersion in foreign countries. Originality Three features make this study unique: (a) it examines both multilingualism and multiculturalism; (b) the sample population is broader than in most studies, which often focus on migrant populations; and (c) it implements a multimethod operationalization of creativity. Significance/implications The paper goes beyond received approaches to the link between human diversity and creativity; the analysis is put in relation with other research work that focuses on policy implications for diversity, particularly in the areas of bilingualism and bicultural identity. Implications regarding the connections between creativity, multilingualism, and general executive functioning are also discussed.
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Creativity Multiculturalism Intercultural experiences Interculturality Foreign language proficiency Higher education Based on recent findings that highlight the strong links between creativity and interculturality, we will attempt to establish a relationship between intercultural experiences and creativity within the context of international university exchanges in order to propose specific courses of action for improving these skills. The methodology used is based on a quasi-experimental design for a sample of 303 university students from a Spanish university. Data were obtained from a survey that measured creativity with two different instruments (RIBS-s and Divergent Thinking), English proficiency, and intercultural experiences abroad. Results show a strong relationship between creativity and intercultural experiences, suggesting that those students who lived abroad and in a higher number of foreign countries are more creative. Additionally, the most significant differences appear when we establish a comparison between those students who have not lived abroad and those who have done so in more countries, which contributes to highlighting the close relationship between interculturality and creativity. Of special significance is the strong link found between English proficiency and having experiences abroad, suggesting that when the level of a shared international language , English in this case, is higher, there will be more options to increase students' creativity. Likewise, students who have a higher level of English are more creative. Designing programs for higher education students that combine and integrate foreign language skills, creativity, and interculturality appear to be essential. Thanks to foreign language skills, students will be in a better position to acquire intercultural sensitivity and improve their creativity, making their international experience a valued source of fulfilment both for their personal life and their career.
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The research focuses on the influence of emotional, cognitive, and social climate on the language choices of multilingual families, and the impact they can have on their general well-being, intergenerational relationships, and the community context. The methodological framework of reference is Grounded Theory. Collected data concern language practices, attitudes, emotions, and generational, trigenerational, and social interactive dynamics of multilingual families. The results include key insights into the variables underlying the linguistic attitudes of multicultural families. Two Network Views suggest that linguistic attitudes, such as the conscious management of specific and complex dynamics activated in a multilingual family, can stimulate well-being.
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Although the United States does not have an official language, the most widely used language is English. The widespread use of English in the United States, along with the current use of global English due to sociopolitical trends, leads to difficulty in promoting the study of languages other than English (LOTEs) in Anglophones contexts, such as the United States. As such, this chapter provides an overview of language learning trends in the American university context, using new data that has been published by the Modern Language Association (MLA) in 2016 (https://apps.mla.org/flsurvey_search). Case studies of several states representing different regions, sizes, and demographics are included to paint a picture of LOTE study in a variety of contexts. Additionally, benefits of and motivations for studying LOTEs are also addressed. The chapter concludes with a summary of opportunities for language study at the post-secondary level in the U.S. context, as well as a call for language educators to help students see the relationship of studying LOTEs to their career goals and as a path to becoming articulate and savvy global citizens.
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Children have an intuitive predilection to play with language and respond to language play. Multilingual children may demonstrate additional talents and characteristics in using language playfully as a result of being able to access multiple cultural and linguistic resources. This chapter provides an overview of the effects of multilingualism on children’s language play by first addressing how language play is used by children who are learning a new language in the classroom environment. It then presents a case study of how two simultaneous trilingual siblings displayed their dexterity in the use of ludic language in the everyday context. The evidence suggests that multilingual children tend to use language play to transcend the linguistic norms of their ambient languages to negotiate meaning, leverage their communicative intents, and develop their unique multilingual identity. The chapter suggests that multilingual children tend to use language play to synthesize hybrid elements from their languages and cultures and create a wide variety of new meanings that no single linguistic system can offer. This syncretic nature of multilingual children’s language play enables them to develop a nuanced and creative manner of communication.
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This study examined pronunciation proficiency in both the first (Korean) and second (English) languages of bilinguals. The participants were adult immigrants whose age of arrival in the USA ranged from 1±23 years. English and Korean sentences were rated by native listeners to obtain measures of pronunciation proficiency. English pronunciation of participants with ages of arrival of 1±5 years was close to monolinguals, heavier accents were noted as ages of arrival increased from 6 to 23 years. Korean pronunciation of participants with ages of arrival of 1±7 years was distinctly accented, while those with ages of arrival of 12±23 years were rated the same as monolinguals. Participants with ages of arrival of 1±9 years pronounced English better than Korean, whereas the reverse was true for ages of arrival of 12±23 years. Overall, the results were more consistent with the view that deviations from native pronunciation result from interactions between the languages of bilinguals rather than with the view of a maturationally defined critical period for language learning.
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The history of bilingual education in the United States has shifted between tolerance and repression depending on politics, the economy, and the size of the immigrant population. Languages other than English have been (and continue to be) primarily seen as a problem to be remediated by the schools. However, the massive increase in students whose primary language is not English (today more than one in five) and who perform at exceptionally low levels in the nation’s schools has once again provoked discussion about the most effective way to educate them. Research has accumulated showing a clear advantage for “maintenance” dual language and bilingual programs over English-only or transitional programs with respect to achievement, attainment, and a number of other outcomes. Nonetheless, many challenges remain to implementing such programs on a large scale: the politics of bilingualism and the shortage of highly qualified teachers are among the primary obstacles. However, if federal and state education policies supported bilingualism as an important goal for all US students, and incentives were created to recruit and train bilingual teachers, the USA could rapidly join other developed nations that have long supported multilingualism and nurtured it in their students.
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Helping students to become better thinkers and problem solvers is an old quest in education. The current interest in finding ways to pursue this objective more effectively appears to be widespread and fairly intense. In the aggregate, the results of numerous efforts to enhance thinking and problem solving through classroom instruction, and findings from the last few decades of research on cognition and learning, provide a basis for optimism that suggests that progress is being made. However, designing an educational process that will develop competent thinkers and problem solvers is ambitious and something that requires a lot of thinking and research. More research focused on questions that have clear relevance to thinking and problem solving in everyday life is needed, as is greater two-way communication between the worlds of educational research and educational practice. There is also a continuing need for reflection on, and discussion of, what it means to think well and what the specific objectives of efforts to enhance thinking ability should be.
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An analysis of life span memory identifies those variables that affect losses in recall and recognition of the content of high school algebra and geometry courses. Even in the absence of further rehearsal activities, individuals who take college-level mathematics courses at or above the level of calculus have minimal losses of high school algebra for half a century. Individuals who performed equally well in the high school course but took no college mathematics courses reduce performance to near chance levels during the same period. In contrast, the best predictors of test performance (e.g., Scholastic Aptitude Test scores and grades) have trivial effects on the rate of performance decline. Pedagogical implications for life span maintenance of knowledge are derived and discussed.
Book
The goal of this handbook is to provide the most comprehensive, definitive, and authoritative single-volume review available in the field of creativity. The book contains twenty-two chapters covering a wide range of issues and topics in the field of creativity, all written by distinguished leaders in the field. The volume is divided into six parts. The introduction sets out the major themes and reviews the history of thinking about creativity. Subsequent parts deal with methods, origins, self and environment, special topics and conclusions. All educated readers with an interest in creative thinking will find this volume to be accessible and engrossing.
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Wenn die Museologie als allgemeine Wissenschaft verstanden wird, die eine spezifische (weil nur durch Werte und nicht auch durch Gebrauch bestimmte) Beziehung des Menschen mit seiner materiellen Umwelt untersucht, können Kunstwerke kaum einen Sonderstatus beanspruchen. Alle Objekte, das heisst Dinge, für die ein Mensch-Ding-Verhältnis besteht, sind deshalb museologisch als gleichwertig zu betrachten.
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Bilingualism Through Schooling: Cross-Cultural Education for Minority and Majority Students: Arnulfo G. Ramirez The TESOL Quarterly welcomes evaluative reviews of publications of relevance to TESOL professionals. In addition to textbooks and reference materials, these include computer and video software, testing instruments, and other forms of nonprint materials.
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We investigated the term “openness” for its applicability and usefulness in the development, recognition, challenge, promotion and education of giftedness, talents, and high abilities; we describe and discuss conditions and implications of “openness” on various levels concerning the nurturing of giftedness.
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The coming of language occurs at about the same age in every healthy child throughout the world, strongly supporting the concept that genetically determined processes of maturation, rather than environmental influences, underlie capacity for speech and verbal understanding. Dr. Lenneberg points out the implications of this concept for the therapeutic and educational approach to children with hearing or speech deficits.
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This book sets a high standard for rigor and scientific approach to the study of bilingualism and provides new insights regarding the critical issues of theory and practice, including the interdependence of linguistic knowledge in bilinguals, the role of socioeconomic status, the effect of different language usage patterns in the home, and the role of schooling by single-language immersion as opposed to systematic training in both home and target languages. The rich landscape of outcomes reported in the volume will provide a frame for interpretation and understanding of effects of bilingualism for years to come.
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The theme of this paper is lived time and in it we will examine how lived time is crucial to the various modes of human existence. The elucidation of lived time herein terms of its essential characteristics and our examination of the pivotal role it plays in relation to the various modes of existing assume, in one way or the other, what has been said about lived time by Kierkegaard, Heidegger and Sartre in their existentialist writings.
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A dichotic listening task of stepwise addition was given to 40 right-handed German-Swedish bilingual students. In the visual modality, the frequency and direction of conjugate lateral eye movements to verbal, spatial and emotional tasks was investigated in 36 students. The results provided evidence that the two techniques are sensitive indicators of different degrees of bilingualism as well as sensitive measures of hemispheric asymmetry. More left hemisphere involvement was observed in students with a clearly dominant language, whereas balanced bilinguals showed more bilateral involvement. No evidence was found for the age or stage hypothesis.
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The problem is described as matching student reading levels to appropriate literature selections in secondary English classes. Hypotheses tested include prediction of comprehension from cloze scores on short stories and novel, effects of practice on subsequent cloze tests, and correlations related to sex differences, socioeconomic factors, and standardized reading tests. Procedures had 10th-grade students read two short stories and one novel, each pretested with cloze tests and posttested with multiple-choice comprehension tests (a total of six scores), as part of regular English class activities. Results support the cloze as a predictor for short stories and indicate that practice does affect cloze scores in this experimental design. Differences in cloze scores by sex are not significant, though some socioeconomic factors and standardized reading test scores are significantly correlated.
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Never before published essays by the widely admired psychologist of art. Arnheim spiritedly asserts art's fundamental achievements. Rudolf Arnheim has spent a lifetime analyzing the basic psychological principles that make works of visual art meaningful, stirring, indispensable, and lasting. But recent fashionable attitudes and theories about art, he argues, are undermining the foundation of artistic achievement itself. The essays collected in this volume are written in his familiar, careful, and solidly supported manner, but under present circumstances they amount to a call to arms. Included is a series of miniature monographs on a variety of great works of art. In other essays, Arnheim uncovers enlightening perspectives in the art of the blind, in architectural space, in caricature, and in the work of psychotics and autistic children. He also presents new scientific aspects on the psychology of art and widens our range of vision by connecting art with language, literature, and religion.
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Guided by self-determination theory, the present study sought to (1) construct a scale of English learning motivation in a particular Chinese context, the Intrinsic /Extrinsic Motivation Scale of English Learning (I/EMSEL) and (2) explore the relationship between intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation and English achievement. The I/EMSEL scale was administered to two samples of first-year non-English-majors. Factor analysis of the results revealed a multidimensional construct composed of motivation for knowledge, motivation for challenge, internal fulfillment regulation and external utility regulation, together explaining 53.3% of the variance. Pearson correlations and multiple regressions were then performed between different kinds of motivation and English achievement. Results indicated that autonomous extrinsic motivation correlated positively with intrinsic motivation and achievement, while controlled extrinsic motivation correlated negatively with them. The results were discussed from the aspect of self-determination theory and the reference to their relevance in the EFL classroom.
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Spanish-English bilinguals were tested in a two-part lexical-decision experiment. Word stimuli were (a) noncognates (words with differently spelled translations, e.g., dog and perro) (b) cognates (words with identically spelled translations, e.g., actual), and (c) homographic noncognates (words spelled identically in both languages but with different meanings, e.g., red). The noncognate and cognate words had similar frequencies of usage in each language, but the homographic noncognates differed. In each part of the experiment, subjects looked for words in a single target language. In both parts, word latencies were primarily determined by frequency of usage of a word in the target language. In the unanticipated cross-language-transfer trials in Part 2, no cross-language facilitation of noncognate translations was found. However, there was equivalent cross-language facilitation of cognates and homographic noncognates (i.e., repetitions of the same spelling pattern). This cross-language transfer was independent of the target language and frequency of usage in the target languages. The results of this experiment are consistent with the hypothesis that lexical information is represented in language-specific lexicons and that word recognition requires searching the language-appropriate lexicon.
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This chapter begins by discussing the debate between Francis Galton (1869) and Alphonse de Candolle (1873), a debate that Galton (1874) framed in terms of the classic nature-nurture issue. Although most psychologists have followed Galton in treating nurture in terms of family and school environments, a considerable literature has emerged which points to the significance of the larger sociocultural milieu. Some researchers have followed Candolle's example by examining cross-sectional units (nations or cultures) to discern the Ortgeist most conducive to creative activity at the aggregate level. Others have pursued the approach pioneered by Kroeber (1944), Sorokin (1937- 1941) and others by scrutinizing how time-series fluctuations in group-level creativity are associated with short- and long-term changes in the Zeitgeist. Taken together, the research demonstrates that a specific set of political, economic, social, and cultural circumstances are associated with a high level of creative activity at a particular time or place.
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Over the course of his career, Guilford produced a remarkable body of research on creative thought. Today, this research is remembered primarily for its articulation of the notion that divergent thinking plays a key role in creative thought. However, a number of other capacities relevant to understanding creative thought were identified in the course of this research effort. In this article, I review this research program as a whole with special reference to those capacities that warrant more attention in current studies of creativity. Implications for current research are discussed.