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Origanum majorana L. (Family Lamiaceae) is a frost tender perennial undershrub, native to Cyperus and naturalised in Mediterranean regions, particularly found in temperate regions of the Himalayas. Its usage for flavour and aroma dates back to ancient times. Traditionally, the leaves of marjoram are used for its medicinal properties to cure insomnia, gastritis, asthma and nervousness. Now-a-days, it is in great demand to be used in aromatherapy. Although various bioactive constituents are reported in aerial parts of the herb, but isolation of volatile oil and identification of its constituents has been the area of focus of the researchers. This article is compilation of traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge of the herb. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
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Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources
Vol. 6(4), December 2015 pp. 261-267
Origanum majorana L. -Phyto-pharmacological review
Prerna* and Neeru Vasudeva
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Jambheswar University of Science and Technology, Hisar, Haryana, India
Received 7 September 2014; Accepted 5 August 2015
Origanum majorana L. (Family Lamiaceae) is a frost tender perennial undershrub, native to Cyperus and naturalised in
Mediterranean regions, particularly found in temperate regions of the Himalayas. Its usage for flavour and aroma dates back
to ancient times. Traditionally, the leaves of marjoram are used for its medicinal properties to cure insomnia, gastritis,
asthma and nervousness. Now-a-days, it is in great demand to be used in aromatherapy. Although various bioactive
constituents are reported in aerial parts of the herb, but isolation of volatile oil and identification of its constituents has been
the area of focus of the researchers. This article is compilation of traditional uses, phytochemical and pharmacological
knowledge of the herb.
Keywords: Lamiaceae, Origanum majorana L., Marjoram, Phytoconstituents, Pharmacological activity.
IPC code; Int. cl. (2015.01)− A61K 36/00
Origanum L. is one out of 200 genera in the family
Lamiaceae (mint family) of 3500 species spread all
over the world. Most of the species are aromatic and
they grow wild in the Mediterranean basin1-4. The genus
consists of over 44 species, 6 subspecies, 3 botanical
varieties and 18 naturally occurring hybrids and
includes several types of oregano as well as sweet
marjoram (O. majorana L.) and dittany of Crete
(O. dictamnus L.)5. The name ‘Oregano’ has originated
from Greek words óros’ means mountains and ‘ganos’
means light/joy and thus commonly known as ‘joy of
mountains’ due to their beauty and abundance on the
Mediterranean mountain sides.
The genus is characterized by large morphological
and chemical diversity. Forty nine taxa divided into
10 sections, belong to this genus are locally
distributed around the Mediterranean. In particular,
3 taxa are restricted to Morocco and Spain, 2 occurs
in Algeria and Tunisia, 3 are endemic to Cyrenaica, 9
are restricted to Greece and Asia minor, 21 are found
in Turkey, Cyprus, Syria and Lebanon and are locally
distributed in Israel, Jordan and Sinai Peninsula. The
morphological variations within the genus results in
the distinction of 10 sections, consisting of 49 taxa
(species, sub-species and varieties)6-8.
Origanum majorana L., formerly known as
Majorana hortensis Moench is a tender perennial herb
of Origanum genus9. It is commonly known as
sweet marjoram and native to Cyperus, Antolia
(Turkey) and naturalised in parts of Mediterranean
region especially Egypt10. It is cultivated all over the
world in different parts of India, France, Hungry and
United States for its flavour and fragrance. Marjoram
was initially used by Hippocrates as an antiseptic
agent. It is a well-liked home remedy for chest
infection, cough, sore throat, rheumatic pain, nervous
disorders, cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, insomnia,
skin care, flatulence and stomach disorders11-13. In
different parts of the India, it is known by various
names: Hindi Marwa; Bengali – Murru; Tamil –
Marru, Maruvu; Kannada Maruga; Malyalam –
Maruvanu ; Kumaun – Bantulsi; Deccan – Murwa.
Sweet marjoram being native to Asia, was found in
Europe as favourite of the Greeks and Romans14. It is
commonly grown in India and distributed widely in
temperate regions of the Himalayas from Kashmir to
Sikkim at altitudes from 500-1200 m.
Cultivation, collection and propagation
Marjoram is mainly cultivated for its aromatic
leaves (both green and dry) for culinary purpose.
Though, it’s a perennial herb, it is treated as an annual
under cultivation. It generally requires dry, warm,
well-drained fertile garden loamy soil. Sometimes it
can even thrive on chalk. It grows well under wide pH
*Correspondent author
Mob: 9582297350
ranges from acidic, neutral to basic soils. It requires
nearly full sun and can be grown in semi-shade
(light wood land) or no shade, being drought tolerant.
Sweet marjoram dries out rather quickly. It requires
well-drained soil and frequent watering. Sweet
marjoram, being a frost-tender herb should be grown
outdoors as an annual and replanted in the spring. It is
propagated by seeds and cutting. Seeds are sown in
the plains in October and in the hills from March to
the middle of June15. Seeds can be sown in pots
initially and then transplanted in the field 20-25 cm
part in rows, spaced 30 cm apart. At higher elevation,
sometimes propagation is done by cutting. The crop is
harvested in three to four months. The tops are cut at
the time of flowering and dried in shade. Volatile oil
content of the leaves is maximum when the plant is
harvested before seed formation. It flowers from June
to September and the seeds ripen from August to
September. The flowers are hermaphrodite and are
pollinated by bees15.
Origanum majorana L. is a bushy half hardy
perennial sub shrub that grows as annual. It is cold
sensitive, frost tender aromatic herb that grows up-to
30-60 cm height. It has descending multi-branched
reddish square stems that spill over to create a
mound. The stems are straight having weak, hairy,
round and green with red speckles16. Leaves are
smooth, simple, petiolate and ovate to oblong-ovate,
grey green in colour arranged opposite to each
other on a square stem. The texture is extremely
smooth due to presence of numerous hairs. They are
0.5-1.5 cm long and 0.2-0.8 cm wide, with obtuse
apex, entire margin, symmetrical but tapering base and
reticulate venation16. Marjoram have tiny, two lipped,
tubular, white or pale pink flowers with grey green
bracts that bloom in spike like clusters from mid to late
summers (June to September). They are less than
0.3 cm long and arranged in burr-like, 1.3 cm long
heads. Flowers are hermaphrodite in nature17. Seeds are
minute, oval, dark and brown in colour that ripens from
August to September. It has sub–cylindrical,
longitudinally wrinkled tap roots with transverse
fissures; 0.2-0.6 mm in diameter. The outer surface of
root is dark brown while light brown internally with
several long rootlets and root scars are also present.
Fractures being long, irregular and fibrous having
aromatic odour and non-bitter18 (Plate 1).
Diacytic type stomata are present in leaves,
uniformly distributed with presence of veins, vein
islet and vein terminations at the surface. Polygonal
cells are present on upper epidermis while numerous
covering trichomes on outer. The covering trichomes
are multicellular, uniserrate, pointed and thin walled.
Leaf shows cuticularized epidermis consisting layers
of compactly arranged chollenchyma followed by
vascular bundles whereas; the mesophyll exhibited
only palisade cells and spongy parenchyma.
Collenchyma tissue consists of thick walled round
parenchyma cells and xylem fibers16. Stem of the herb
is circular in transverse section consisting of a thick
Plate 1Aerial parts of Origanum majorana L.
cuticle. The epidermis is composed of single layer
rectangular cells and 5-6 layers of closely packed
polygonal parenchyma cells form the cortex.
Phloem fibres and phloem parenchyma are clearly
distinguished. Two cell thick medullary rays along
with xylem vessels, xylem parenchyma and prominent
parenchymatous pith is present at the centre. Root
section is circular in outline consisting of 2-3 layers of
rectangular cork cells with 6-7 layers of closely packed
parenchyma forming cortex. Xylem elements consist of
xylem vessels and xylem parenchyma. The medullary
rays are composed of 2 cell thick rectangular cells.
Phloem present outer to the xylem and pith absent18.
Sweet marjoram is characterized by a strong,
spicy and pleasant odour and flavour19. Analysis of
herb reported presence of especially volatile oil as
major constituents, due to its aromatic nature.
Various phytochemical tests revealed the presence of
terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins in ethanol extract
whereas saponins and carbohydrates were present in
stem and root water extract, respectively. Alkaloids,
glycosides and proteins were absent in both of the
extracts (root and stem)18. Essential oil from
O. majorana contains terpinen-4-ol (31.15 %),
cis-sabinene hydrate (15.76 %), p-cymene (6.83 %),
sabinene (6.91 %), trans-sabinene hydrate (3.86 %)
and α-terpineol (3.71 %) as the main constituent20.
The most prominent components of O. majorana20
were carvacrol (65 %) and thymol (4 %). Fig. 1
shows structures of terpinen-4-ol, trans-sabinene
hydrate, cis-sabinene hydrate, α-terpineol, p-cymene,
thymol, sabinene and carvacrol, respectively.
Fig. 1—Major phytoconstituents reported in Origanum majorana L. essential oil
The oil obtained from the aerial parts of the plant is
reported to contain monoterpenoids, sesquiterpe-
noids10,20, terpenic esters i.e. linalyl-acetate, terpenyl-
acetate, geranyl-acetate21, phenol-methyl ethers i.e.
trans-anethole20, tri-terpenoids, oleanolic acid and
ursolic acid9,21. Gallic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric
acid, ferulic acid, apigenin, trans-2 hydro cinnamic
acid are the phenolic compounds obtained through
ultrasonically assisted extraction technique from
water, 60 % methanol, 60 % acetone, and ethyl
acetate/water extract23. Cavaciol and thymol are the
phenols present in the oil. The plant is rich in
polyphenols such as arbutin, 6-O-4-hydroxybenzoyl
arbutin, and 2-hydroxy-3-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)
propionic acid, isolated as moderate antioxidants24 .
Catechin, rutin (quercetin 3-o-rhamnose glycoside),
quercetin and eriodictyol are the flavonoids reported
in different extracts of water, 60 % methanol, 60 %
acetone and ethyl acetate26. Amentoflavone is a
flavonoid which has been determined by reversed
phase HPLC in two different varieties of O. majorana
L. Luteolin-7- diglucoside, apigenin-7-glucoside,
and diosmetin-7-glucuronide, 6-hydroxyluteolin and
6-hydroxyapigenin glycosides, arbutin, methylarbutin
are present as flavonoid glycosides in marjoram22.
Aqueous and methanol extracts from sweet marjoram
contain multiple compounds e.g. phenolic derivatives
(phenolic acids, flavonoids as apigenin, luteolin,
quercitin and their glycosides as rutin or isovitexin25.
β-Sitosterol is reported in the aerial parts of the
plant22. Linolenic, linoleic and oleic acid are the fatty
acids present in its leaves26. Vitamin A and C are
reported in the leaves and floral parts of marjoram
herb26. Caffeic acid, carnosic acid, carnosol, labiatic
acid and rosmarinic acid are various types of tannins
found in aerial parts of the herb27.
Traditional uses
Marjoram was initially used by Hippocrates as an
antiseptic agent. It was introduced in the middle ages
in Europe and Greece. To the ancient Greeks, it was
‘amarakos’, a symbol of love, honour and happiness.
Aristotle reported it as an anti-poison. In the old
Egypt, marjoram was used to disinfect and preserve
food and its oil was massaged on the forehead and in
the hairs. Dioscorides named it as “sampsouchon”.
The people of Europe used to rub the leaves of the
herb on oak pieces of furniture and floors to get
fragrant glow over it. Traditionally, the leaves of
marjoram are employed to cure diabetes, insomnia,
catarrh, asthma and nervousness28. Dried marjoram,
its volatile oil and the extracts have been applied in
the flavouring of various foods, particularly soups,
sauces, meat, fish, canned foods, liqueurs, vermouths
and bitters29, 30. Herb of sweet marjoram has been
included in the formulations of patented shashlik
sauces31. As a medicinal plant, it has been
traditionally used as stimulant and in tonic
preparations. From the earliest time marjoram has
been used as an aromatic adjunct30 and reported to be
useful in asthma, hysteria and paralysis32. Marjoram
has been traditionally used for the treatment of
gastrointestinal disturbances, cough and bronchial
diseases. It is used in mouthwashes for oral hygiene
and also applied topically to relieve symptoms of
common cold, such as nasal congestion33. An infusion
made from the fresh plant was used to relieve nervous
headaches by virtue of camphouraceous constituent
present in the oil and externally applied in bags as a
hot fomentation to painful swellings and rheumatism,
as likewise for colic. The sweet marjoram has also
been successfully employed externally for healing
scirrhous carcinoma of the breast34. It is a home
remedy for chest infection, cough, sore throat,
rheumatic pain, nervous disorders, cardiovascular
diseases, epilepsy, insomnia, skin care, flatulence and
stomach disorders11-13. The leaves of the plant are
used fresh or dried and highly esteemed as a
condiment for seasoning food, garnishing salads and
in flavouring vinegars, they are also used in poultry
seasoning. Dried flowering tops are used for sachets
and potpourris. The aromatic seeds were used in
confectionery and French confitures. The oil of
marjoram has been used since ages in external
application for sprains, bruises, stiff and paralytic
limbs and toothache and as hot fomentation in acute
diarrhoea32. In aromatherapy, essential oil made from
marjoram bolsters the mind and spirit and relieves the
feeling of grief and loneliness. It is used for easing
sore muscles and swollen joints while stimulating
peristaltic movement of the digestive system for bad
appetite as well for menstrual cramps.
Pharmacological activities and uses
The ethanol extract of the leaves of marjoram
showed antioxidant and free radical-scavenging
activity using colorimetric assays. The extract
exhibited a marked inhibitory effect in 1,1-diphenyl-
2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay35. The
ethanol extracts of both stem and root has shown
in vitro antioxidant activity, respectively using
spectrophotometric method by DPPH, H2O2 free
radical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric
reducing power assay. Both the extracts showed
potent antioxidant activity in all models. The IC50
values were found comparable with ascorbic acid and
the reducing ability of root ethanol extract was found
to be high compared to stem ethanol extract36. The
ethyl-alcohol, n-hexane and aqueous extracts obtained
from leaves and flowering tops of two marjoram
herbs from Hungary and Egypt showed antioxidant
activity in vitro by spectrophotometric and
chemiluminometric methods using DPPH and Rancimat
method. The Egyptian herb and its aqueous extract was
better antioxidant compared to Hungarian ones17.
The extract of leaves has shown anti-anxiety
effects on rats in open maze model at intraperitoneal
dose of 200 mg/kg b.w. The effect was dose
dependent and comparable to diazepam37.
Different extracts of leaves have shown
anticonvulsant effect on rats using the
Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock
(MES) test at two different doses of 250 and
500 mg/kg, i.p. each. The chloroform extract
exhibited maximum reduction in the duration of
seizures, compared to the control group38.
Methanol extract of the leaves showed antidiabetic
activity in streptozotocin-induced mice through
various in vitro and in vivo assays. O. majorana has
shown significant effects on in vitro inhibition of
Advanced Glycation End product formation. The
effect was more than the standard antiglycation agent,
The ethanol extracts of both stem and root showed
anti-gout activity in potassium oxonate induced Swiss
albino rats at oral dose of stem (200 mg/kg b.w.) and
root (400 mg/kg b.w.) extracts, respectively.
The effect was dose dependent and found significant
in decreasing uric acid, creatinine, ESR, MDA and
increasing reduced glutathione level36.
Anti-mutagenic activity
The ethanol extract of the aerial parts of marjoram
has shown anti-mutagenic effect against
cyclophosphamide induced mutation in mice at the
minimum effective dose 125 mg/kg. The effect of
marjoram extract was found to protect any changes in
RNA, DNA and protein contents in the liver and
testes of treated mice as compared with the control40.
The hydrodistilled volatile oil and methanol extract
of the leaves showed ulcer healing properties in
streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats at
three different doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.).
The effect was dose dependent and more effective
than glibenclamide and comparable to ranitidine17.
The essential oils (EOs) derived from leaves
showed antibacterial effect on various bacteria
(Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus
coagulase, Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp.,
Acinetobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas
spp.) in agar diffusion assay and using S. aureus,
E. coli, K. pneumoniae and Pseudomonas spp. by
using dilution techniques of Kirby-Bauer method41-46.
The ethanol and water extract of O. majorana L. have
shown antimicrobial activity against Gram positive
and Gram negative bacteria and its possible food
applications by minimum inhibition concentration
estimation. Ethanol extract had high inhibition effect
against bacteria comparable to water extract47.
The EOs obtained from the marjoram leaves have
shown antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus
and A. parasiticus, by observing their growth and/or
mycelial inhibition through comparison with the
standard dish (without oil)46-48. Various extracts of the
leaves namely, n-hexane, aqueous ethanol, ethanol
ammonia extracts showed in vitro antifungal effect
against six Candida sp. yeast strains by the disk-
diffusion method. The n-hexane extract had shown
highest antifungal activity44.
The volatile oil and various extracts of the leaves
namely, n-hexane, aqueous ethanol, ethanolic ammonia
extracts have shown in vitro anti-protozoal effect
against single protozoan species Pentatrichomonas
hominis by the disk-diffusion method44.
The EO of leaves showed insecticidal activity
against fourth instars of Spodoptera littoralis and
adults of Aphis fabae L. and Aspergillus spp. by
topical application assay and residual film assay48,49.
Antiovicidal activity
The EO showed ovicidal and adulticidal activities
against insecticide-susceptible and pyrethroid/
malathion-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis
obtained from human head lice. The EO and its
constituents particularly linalool, (-)-terpinene-4-ol
and r-terpineol were found useful as fumigants
with contact action in the control of P. h. capitis
adults and eggs50.
Flavours and fragrances have been part of our daily
life since ages. Medicinal and aromatic plants are
increasing in demand in several fields such as agro-
alimentary, cosmetic, perfumery and pharmacy.
Origanum species are rich in aromatic constituents
and widely known for its taxonomic value and
essential oils. Despite its economic importance,
genetic variability and potential, Origanum is one of
the underutilized genus. The present review
enlightens the rich history of its use in traditional
medicine all over the world along with its botanical
description, phytochemistry, pharmacology explored
so far. Phenols and flavonoids present in the essential
oil of the herb may be responsible for its diverse
pharmacological activities. The summarized
information may prove to be useful tool for
researchers to carry out further study and explore
other scientific aspects of the herb.
We are sincerely thankful to all the members
of Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru
Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology,
Haryana, India for their support.
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... Origanum majorana L(OM) extract causes renoprotective effects that may result from improving renal function markers, stopping protein oxidation, and restoring the GPx activity and total thiol level, and reducing the antioxidant effects of ferric. Nephrotoxicity induced by I/R may be inhibited by consuming OM extract as a supplementary medication (Gheitasi et al. 2020;Vasudeva 2015). ...
... Neuroinflammatory processes can be developed by Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related neurodegeneration by activating the NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) pathway to stimulate mitochondrial damage in neurons, contributing to ROS overproduction. The excessive production of ROS has, in turn, been demonstrated to increase NF-kB signaling leading to increased neuroinflammation (Sun et al. 2016;Vasudeva 2015). ...
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Free radicals, principally reactive oxygen species (ROS), contribute to oxidative stress in human beings. Free radicals have different mechanisms of action and affect lipids, proteins, and DNA. Heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic are environmental pollutants that may induce oxidative stress and produce ROS, leading to harmful effects on different body systems such as the liver and brain. On the other side, antioxidants can have protective effects against oxidative stress and decrease their toxicity. Herbal antioxidants have potential antioxidative effects. These antioxidants positively affect neurodegenerative diseases, atherosclerotic diseases, lung fibrosis, kidney injuries, and liver toxicities induced by oxidative agents, including heavy metals. In this manuscript, we explained the mechanisms of oxidative stress, and also discussed heavy metals which contribute to human oxidative stress. We further discussed different herbal antioxidants, their mechanisms of action, and their clinical use for various diseases.
... Its synonym and accepted botanical name is Majorana hortensis, while the plant is commonly known as sweet marjoram. The plant is native to Greece, Cyprus and Turkey; however, it has also been cultivated in Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria and elsewhere [4,5]. ...
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Origanum majorana is a medicinal and aromatic plant that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It is cultivated in several parts of the world and, due to its splendid aroma and taste, is widely used for culinary purposes and in perfumes. The essential oil of the plant, to which is attributed its aroma, contains many secondary metabolites with valuable biological activity. One of them is the pesticide activity, which has attracted much interest. Given the necessity of replacing synthetic pesticides, essential oils are studied in an attempt to find naturally derived products. Thus, the aim of this review paper is to discuss the chemical profile of O. majorana essential oil and to present data regarding its insecticidal, repellent and fumigant activity. Data were collected from 1992 to 2022. Databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus, were used for the research, and keywords, including O. majorana, sweet marjoram, essential oil, volatiles, pesticide, insecticide and repellent activity, were used. The results of this review paper indicate that O. majorana essential oil can be an alternative agent to manage pests. However, still, much research should be conducted to evaluate its toxicity against beneficial insects and to ensure its safety for human health.
... There are numerous health benefits associated with this plant. In traditional medicine practice, it is used to treat migraines and headaches caused by depressive and anxious states (7). In this context, we aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity, the neuroprotective activity, and the antiparkinson's activity of the leaves extract of Origanum majorana in albino mice. ...
... Its anthelmintic activity seems to be little studied since few studies were found in this review. For marjoram, its biological activities documented by science include antioxidant, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, antidiabetic, antidrop, antimutagenic activity, anti-ulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiprotozoal activities (Prerna & Vasudeva, 2015). Documented properties of oregano include antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective (Oniga et al., 2018), anticancer (Elshafie et al., 2017), and antiparasitic properties, as reported in this study. ...
This study sought to make a literature review of the medicinal plants Origanum majorana, Origanum vulgare L., Thymus vulgaris L., Cuminum cynimum L., and Rosmarinus officinalis L. with antiparasitic potential. Articles and theses were selected from the LILACS, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases, which comprised the period from 2000 to 2021 (22 years). In all, 49 studies were selected, and the majority were with the plant Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), followed by Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme). Twenty-five genera of parasites were detected, which were described being tested with phytotherapic. The nematode Haemonchus spp. was the most evaluated in these studies, followed by the parasite genera Leishmania, Trichostrongylus, and Toxocara. All plants showed antiparasitic effects, with more or less action, therefore with the potential to continue research in the search for biomolecules to control these parasites.
... Treatment of insomnia, gastritis, asthma and nervousness (Singla and Vasudeva, 2015). Origanum vulgare L. ...
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Background Since their existence on earth, humans have used herbal medicine to meet their requirements for medication. The aim of the study: This work refers to a study conducted to carry out an ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of cancer in Fez-Meknes region of Morocco. Material and Methods: To achieve this goal, 300 informants including 237 local people and 63 herbalists. They were requested to fill a survey related questionnaire aiming at the collection of data about the addressed objective. Informants were asked about the vernacular names, parts of medicinal plants used, mode of preparation, route of administration, reference area as well as the ecological distribution. The Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC) and Fidelity Level (FL) were calculated to identify the most effective plants recommended by informants for disease treatment. Results: The findings obtained in the present survey revealed that 94 species belonging to 47 families have been used for cancer treatment in the region of Fez-Meknes. Fruits, leaves, and seeds are the most commonly used plant parts, by the time powder and infusion arethe most common methods used fordrug preparations. Conclusion: This work may contribute towards the society as it provides interesting data on traditional medicinal knowledge of medicinal plantsused to fight cancer.
... Usually, this kind of HMPs exists in semi-solid dosage forms for cutaneous use and are applied for relief of irritated skin around the nostrils [1]. The leaves of O. majorana L., herba has been traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, cough and bronchial diseases [2,3]. However, the most important indication is rhinitis (runny nose). ...
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Essential elements like Cu, Mn and Zn are extremely important for herbs growth and physiological functions, however from a toxicological point of view, the exposure of these elements (as essential elemental impurities) can exhibit potential harmful effects for patients. In Europe very popular are ointments with Marjoram herb extract (Majoranae herbae extractum) as herbal medicinal products for adjunctively in rhinitis (runny nose). Based on posology of ointments with Marjoram herb extract, the exposure to these elemental impurities may be high during long-term use. Hence, the aim of this article is the health risk assessment of essential elemental impurities (Cu, Mn and Zn) through the dermal exposure of ointments with Marjoram herb extract (Majoranae herbae extractum) as herbal medicinal products applied adjunctively in rhinitis available in Polish pharmacies. Investigated essential elements were determined by well validated methodology (R > 0.997, recoveries, LOD and LOQ values were acceptable) based on Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (F AAS). Our results indicated that all analyzed herbal medicinal products with Marjoram herb extract available in Polish pharmacies contain relatively low levels of essential element impurities, i.e.: Cu (0.14 – 0.49 mg/kg), Mn (0.31 – 2.57 mg/kg) and Zn (0.73 – 3.19 mg/kg). The estimated exposure of investigated elemental impurities confirm the safety of all products. To the best of our knowledge, the study about Cu, Mn and Zn contents in HMPs with Majoranae herbae extractum is described for the first time. The applied methodology and results are extremely important from regulatory toxicology point of view due to ICH Q3D elemental impurities guideline for pharmaceuticals.
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The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of marjoram Origanum majorana extract on non-specific immunity and survival rate in common carp fish infected with Staphylococcus lentus. A total of 120 fish, with an average weight of 16.31-16.48 g, were divided into four treatments, each with three replicates and ten fish per tank (30 fish for each treatment). and The first treatment was fed a diet free of marjoram extract. The second treatment was fed on a diet containing 0.5% of marjoram extract, the third treatment was 1%, and the fourth treatment was 1.5%. The fish were fed twice a day at a rate of 3% of their total weight until the end of the experiment for 56 days. 8 fish from all treatments were used as samples to measure the immunological parameters: Nitroblue tetrazolium activity (NBT%), Myeloperoxidases activity (MPO%), phagocytic activity (%) and lysozyme activity (unit/ml). For the S. lentus infection challenge, 32 fish from all treatments were used. the The fish in the experimental groups were injected intramuscularly with 0.2 ml of the suspension containing S.lentus bacteria at a concentration of 1×107 ml/CFU. After 14 days, the immunological parameters were measured again, and the results after the feeding period showed that the third treatment (1.5%) significantly increased (p < 0.05) NBT, MPO, phagocytic activity, lysosomal enzyme activity, and survival rate compared with the control treatment followed by the second treatment (1%), and the first (0.5%). The results showed that the third treatment (1.5%) had a higher resistance to S.lentus challenge compared to the other treatments. The results indicate that the addition of aqueous extract of marjoram at a concentration of 1.5% to the diet of cultured carp fish can enhance the protection against any possible infection with S.lentus bacteria.
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This study was conducted to examine the chemical constituents of Origanum majorana L. essential oils (EOs) that originate in Nepal, as well as their biological activities, antioxidant properties, and enantiomeric compositions. The EOs were extracted by the hydro-distillation method using a Clevenger-type apparatus and their chemical compositions were determined through gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chiral GC-MS was used to evaluate the enantiomeric compositions of EOs. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the essential oils were determined by the micro-broth dilution method, and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 50 and 41 compounds in the EO samples, (S1) and (S2), respectively, representing the Kathmandu and Bhaktapur districts. The oxygenated monoterpenoids, along with terpinen-4-ol, were predominant constituents in both EO samples. However, the EOs from two locations showed some variations in their major components. The chiral terpenoids for two EO samples of marjoram have also been reported in this study in an elaborative way for the first time in accordance with the literature review. A hierarchical cluster analysis based on the compositions of EOs with 50 compositions reported in the literature revealed at least 5 different chemotypes of marjoram oil. The antioxidant activity for the sample (S2) was found to be relatively moderate, with an IC50 value of 225.61 ± 0.05 μg/mL and an EC50 value of 372.72 ± 0.84 µg/mL, as compared to the standard used. Furthermore, with an MIC value of 78.1 µg/mL, the EO from sample (S2) demonstrated effective antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. Moreover, both samples displayed considerable antimicrobial activity. The results suggest that EOs of Origanum majorana possess some noteworthy antimicrobial properties as well as antioxidant activity, and hence can be used as a natural preservative ingredient in the food and pharmaceutical industries.
In India, the Hindu festival of Vinayaka Chaviti is celebrated in the month of September as a traditional way to fight the seasonal onset of diseases and infections. The Lord Ganesha is worshipped as a God of wisdom, knowledge, education, wealth and health and characterized by a sound knowledge of the language, concentration, physical stamina, humbleness and dedication. The God is worshipped using Ekavimsati patrani (21 leaves) by chanting specific mantras. The leaves are abundant in our backyards, gardens, fields and temples during the season, suggesting the available floral biodiversity. They are bestowed with distinctive medicinal, environmental and cultural values. The leaves used during the puja exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and larvicidal properties. The festival is celebrated in many Indian states by adults and children and subsequently, the idols along with leaves are immersed in water bodies; a ritual is known as Ganesh nimajjanam. The leaf extracts cause killing of microbes and breeding mosquito larvae in water, thereby preventing the waterborne and vectorborne human diseases prevalent during the monsoon season. The use of natural and renewable resources such as clay, natural dyes and leaves during the festival indicates the importance of Mother Nature and recycling. The details of each plant or tree in terms of its scientific, Sanskrit and common names; religious significance; description, composition and medicinal properties of leaves; and mantra associated with each leaf are emphasized in this review. The leaves are widely utilized in native systems of medicine (Ayurveda, Siddha, homeo and Unani) and extremely popular under folklore medicine among the different Indian ethnic groups to treat an array of diseases and disorders. However, Ganesh idols are prepared using plaster of Paris and harmful synthetic dyes, which is a significant concern for the environment and humans.
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The objective of the present study that has been carried out in the Institute of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, was to investigate antimicrobial activity of a number of sweet marjoram extracts. Raw (fresh or dried) plant material from culinary or medicinal herbs may contain varying amounts of bacteria or protozoa, including some known human pathogens. The isolates, which are prepared by procedures involving the use of elevated temperature and/or organic solvents or other chemicals are expected to have considerably less or no such potentially harmful burden. Four sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) fractions obtained by steam distillation, Soxhlet n-hexane extraction, extraction with aqueous ethanol, and with ethanolic ammonia solution were evaluated in vitro for activity against twenty Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacterial strains, six Candida sp. yeast strains and a single protozoan species Pentatrichomonas hominis. The n-hexane extract showed the highest antibacterial activity and inhibited growth of eight out of nine Staphylococcus aureus strains used. The other bacteria showed no substantial susceptibility to the extracts, except that Acinetobacter baumannii showed some inhibition by the aqueous ethanol extract. The isolates were also active against three out of six Candida sp. strains used, and the ethanolic ammonia extract reduced the number of viable P. hominis trophozoites by 50% at 160 μg·ml -1 concentration in 24 h cultures; the remaining extracts were considerably less or but marginally effective. These data warrant further study on identifying the components of the extracts with the highest activities.
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Essential oils of Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Illicium verum Hook. f. (star-anise) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (cinnamon) were obtained by steam distillation using a modified Clevenger device. The antimicrobial activity of each oil was evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus by observing their growth and/or mycelial inhibition through comparison with the standard dish (without oil). The essential oils were analyzed using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer for identification and coupled to a flame ionization detector for quantification. The major constituents of marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon essential oils were 4-terpineol, trans-anetole and cinnamic aldehyde, respectively. In in vitro tests, essential oils of marjoram and cinnamon promoted an inhibitory effect on the bacteria S. aureus and E. coli, while the essential oil of star-anise presented activity only against E. coli. Marjoram, star-anise and cinnamon oils were effective against the studied fungi, presenting an inhibitory effect. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the mycelial growth of A. parasiticus was 1 and 0.01 µL mL-1 for star-anise and cinnamon oils, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for A. parasiticus was 0.25, 2 and 2 µL mL-1 for cinnamon, star-anise and marjoram oils, respectively.
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Objective To study the microscopic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of Origanum majorana Linn leaves.Methods Fresh and dried powdered leaf samples was studies for its morphology, microscopy, organoleptic characters, fluorescence analysis and various other WHO recommended methods for standardisation.ResultsLeaves are simple, petiolated, ovate to oblong-ovate, (0.5-1.5 cm) long, (0.2-0.8 cm) wide, with obtuse apex, entire margin, reticulate veination and symmetrical but tapering base. The microscopy revealed the dorsiventral nature of the leaf. Both the surfaces show presence of numerous covering trichomes, diacytic stomata and thin walled, wavy epidermal cells. The covering trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate, thin walled and pointed. In the midrib region, the epidermis is followed by collenchyma and vascular bundle (xylem and phloem). Whereas; the mesophyll exhibited only palisade cells and spongy parenchyma.Conclusions It can be concluded that the pharmacognostic profile can serve as tool for developing standards for identification, quality and purity of Origanum majorana Linn leaves.
Marjoram (Origanum majorana L., Family: Lamiaceae) is a common spicy medicinal herb, used as a home remedy for the treatment of different ailments. It is well recognized with its popular name "Marjoram". It is also used worldwide in food for better flavor, both in dry form and as fresh vegetable. Marjoram is a rich source of polyphenols which are known natural antioxidants. Marjoram ethyl alcohol extract treatment was evaluated for its effect on bone marrow, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes and selected biochemical parameters in mice. In addition, its protective role against the side effects of cyclophosphamide (CP, an established anticancer drug) was also studied. Marjoram treatment 125 mg/kg was found to be the minimum effective dose which could induce changes in some of the parameters investigated. However, CP treatment in mice brought highly significant changes in cytological as well as biological parameters included in the present study. Marjoram was added to CP treatment in order to evaluate the effects of CP and Marjoram combined treatment in mice. Marjoram was found to protect any changes occurring in RNA, DNA, and protein contents in the liver and testes of treated mice as compared with the control. It was interesting to notice that marjoram treatment did not interfere with the desired cytotoxic activity of CP.
The present study was aimed at investigating the antioxidant and antigout activity of the various extracts of the stem and root of Origanum majorana Linn. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of both stem and root of marjoram was evaluated by various in vitro antioxidant assays. The ethanol extracts of stem and root showed potent antioxidant activity in all models when compared with ascorbic acid having IC50 values 21.05 jig mL_1 and 84.98 jig mL_1 for DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl); 492.8 jig mL_1 and 477.6 jig mL_1 for H202 radical scavenging assay; 156.9 and 141.79 jig mL_1 for metal chelating assay, respectively. The reducing ability of root ethanol extract (absorbance 0.747±0.23) was found to be high, compared to stem ethanol extract (0.527±0.14). The in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was performed on ethanol and aqueous extracts (stem and root) of the plant and activity was found to be significant with IC50 59.21 and 148 jig mL_1 in both ethanol extracts. Further in-vivo antigout was studied gout induced in rats. Oral administration of stem and root ethanol extracts (200 and 400 mg kg-1 body weight) showed a significant decrease in uric acid, Creatinine, ESR (Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate) and MDA (Malondialdehyde) levels in the gouty rats. A significant increase was observed in reduced glutathione. No change in protein content was noticed. In conclusion, the studied plant extracts showed significantly variable anti-gout activity associated with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects which may be due to the presence of flavonoids, phenolics, saponins and triterpenoidal compounds revealed by preliminary phytochemical screening.