Neural stem cells (NSCs) critical for the continued production of new neurons and glia are sequestered in distinct areas of the brain called stem cell niches. Until recently, only two forebrain sites, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the anterolateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus, have been recognized adult stem cell niches (Alvarez-Buylla and Lim, 2004; Doetsch et al., 1999a, 1999b; Doetsch, 2003a, 2003b; Lie et al., 2004; Ming and Song, 2005). Nonetheless, the last decade has been witness to a growing literature suggesting that in fact the adult brain contains stem cell niches along the entire extent of the ventricular system. These niches are capable of widespread neurogenesis and gliogenesis, particularly after injury (Barnabé-Heider et al., 2010; Carlén et al., 2009; Decimo et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2015; Lindvall and Kokaia, 2008; Robins et al., 2013) or other inductive stimuli (Bennett et al., 2009; Cunningham et al., 2012; Decimo et al., 2011; Kokoeva et al., 2007, 2005; Lee et al., 2012; Migaud et al., 2010; Pencea et al., 2001b; Sanin et al., 2013; Suh et al., 2007; Sundholm-Peters et al., 2004; Xu et al., 2005; Zhang et al., 2007). This review focuses on the role of these novel and classic brain niches in maintaining adult neurogenesis and gliogenesis in response to normal physiological and injury-related pathological cues.
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