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Traditional Balinese Architecture: What is Thought and What is Seen

Authors:
  • Parahyangan Catholic University Bandung, INDONESIA

Abstract and Figures

This conceptual article is initiated with the results of field research associated with two 'grand theories' known in the traditional Balinese architecture. These are: 1) knowledge of the concept of Traditional Balinese Architecture (TBA) and 2) hasta koçali scripts. This article states that in the realm of review on the reality of architecture knowledge, architecture consists of an abstraction of reality or called thought architecture and empirical reality, or the seen architecture. In regard with TBA, the findings show that knowledge about the concept of TBA included in the thought architecture (abstraction) is sangamandala, tri angga, and natah (open air 'court' concept), while the TBA concept included in the seen architecture (empirically) are scale and proportion, clarity of structure, truth of material and ornaments. From these findings, comparison between TBA and hasta koçali concept is conducted, in which the comparison of these two grand theories lead to the implications of how to view the TBA on which the categories attributed capable of being used either in conducting the study or designing TBA or other contemporary Balinese architecture design and other contemporary Balinese architecture grounding itself on the concepts of TBA.
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1st Biennale International Conference on Indonesian Architecture and Planning
Traditional Balinese Architecture: What is Thought and What is Seen
Christina Gantini1, Josef Prijotomo2, Yuswadi Saliya3, Dwinik winawangsari4
1 Doctor of Architecture, Graduate Program of Parahyangan Catholic University, Indonesia
2 Faculty of Civil Engineering and Planning, Institute of Technology Sepuluh November Surabaya, Indonesia
3 Doctor of Architecture, Graduate Program of Parahyangan Catholic University, Indonesia
4 School of Architecture, Planning and Policy Development, Institute of Technology Bandung, Indonesia
Email address of corresponding author: cgantini@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
This conceptual article is initiated with the results of field research associated with two ‘grand
theories’ known in the traditional Balinese architecture. These are: 1) knowledge of the concept
of Traditional Balinese Architecture (TBA) and 2) hasta koçali scripts. This article states that in the
realm of review on the reality of architecture knowledge, architecture consists of an abstraction
of reality or called thought architecture and empirical reality, or the seen architecture. In regard
with TBA, the findings show that knowledge about the concept of TBA included in the thought
architecture (abstraction) is sangamandala, tri angga, and natah (open air ‘court’ concept), while
the TBA concept included in the seen architecture (empirically) are scale and proportion, clarity of
structure, truth of material and ornaments. From these findings, comparison between TBA
and hasta koçali concept is conducted, in which the comparison of these two grand theories lead
to the implications of how to view the TBA on which the categories attributed capable of being
used either in conducting the study or designing TBA or other contemporary Balinese architecture
design and other contemporary Balinese architecture grounding itself on the concepts of TBA.
© 2011 1st Biennale ICIAP. All rights reserved.
Keywords: concept of traditional Balinese architecture, hasta koçali
1. Preliminary
This paper based on the assumption that map of knowing realm to see the reality in the creation
and realization of architecture is initiated with the reality built within the Plato and Aristotele’s
thinking frame in viewing the world.
In Plato’s thinking frame, reality of humans in viewing the world is the abstraction of what he
think, while according to Aristotele, reality is what is empirically seen by human or in other words,
reality is what is seen/ felt daily by humans. In this view, architecture reality in abstraction what is
thought and empirically what is seen will be discussed in this article. The reality of architecture
viewed in this conceptual article is about the creation and realization of the reality of traditional
Balinese architecture, both at the level of thought (abstraction) as well as seen (empirical).
Traditional Balinese Architecture (TBA) as it is known today, is built on two ‘grand theories’,
namely a) hasta koçali scripts and b) knowledge of the TBA concept. Hasta koçali scripts is a ‘book’ or
guidelines of procedure on how to measure and calculate in building a traditional Balinese housing
using the body size building owners, their ideals and caste as the basic measurement and calculation.
In principle, hasta koçali scripts can be divided into three major categories, namely: the bulding
procedure, the ritual and the physical of the building itself (Gantini, 2007). While the knowledge of
TBA was ‘built’ based on the repertoire of knowledge on empirical field (research results). This
knowledge is mainly divided into three broad categories of philosophical concept, practical concepts
and utility concept (Sulistyawati, 1996:5). There are significant differences in conception between the
two categories of ‘theory’ about the TBA. Whereas both are the fundamental conception of TBA
which are frequently used by both researchers in of conducting research and practioner in designing
buildings referring to the TBA.
The differences and similarities between the two have considerable implications, especially when
the two concepts are used/ implemented as a physical concept category. The relation between the
two is important to investigate considering that both have become grand theories’ in the TBA, and
the two conceptions so far have not been compared each other.
Based on the significance of writing, the purposes of this conceptual article are: 1) to reveal the
relation between hasta koçali and the theories about TBA concepts, 2) to reveal the comparison of
TBA theories proposed by various researcher over the years, 3) to put the categories of the various
physical concepts commonly used in viewing TBA. With these objectives, the conceptual article is not
a study to resolve the problem but rather a study on theories and their empirical implications on the
implementation of field conditions.
The methods used to conduct study are literature review by using empirical examples reffering to
1st Biennale International Conference on Indonesian Architecture and Planning
studies previously conducted. In addition, the method of discussion adopted covers introduction
containing background, problems, significance of study, research objectives and research methods as
wells as the writing methods, and other parts include a discussion and conclusions.
2. What is Hasta Koçali ?
In order to construct a building in harmonious with the macro and microcosm, Balinese tradition
provide a script called hasta koçali describing the basic rules of traditional Balinese buildings. This
script has many local versions with slightly different content from each other and has a wide range of
topics. Some versions begin with cosmology, while others give instruction in religious ceremony at
the building. In each version, the main part is usually filled with rules determining the ideal
dimensions of the buildings. Those manuscripts look like a guideline to see certain course of action
taken during process of construction from prepration phase, during construction process and after
the completion of the construction, in which all cover the process of constructing procedures, the
rituals to the physical building itself.
Hasta koçali is derived from Sanskrit in which the name is given when there was influence of the
Javanese Hindu culture tailored to local circumstances and further considered belongs to the people
of Bali. Before hasta koçali was named, people have built using bhuwana mabah rules and use
manusa pada measurement. With the arrival of other cultural influences in the arts building, Sanskrit,
Old Javanese language, religions and so forth, the fitted elements of culture were accepted,
processed in such a way to enrich the culture of Bali in the arts of buiding. With the blending of
elements with other cultures, the art of Balinese building with high, great and full of psychological
values is called hasta koçali.
In discussing the notion of hasta koçali, there is a little bit difficulty to meet a wide range of
different opinion which is based on:
1. According to the etymology, the word koçali comes from Sanskrit word with the root is koçala
meaning buildings, prosperity and happiness.
2. According to grammatical rules of Sanskrit, when the word koçala is added suffix in’, it
will turn into koçalin. In Sanskrit ending in/ i means to have or possess. Thus it means to
have knowledge of building or whose expertise on the building. Here ‘i’ means oneself.
3. In Kawi-Balineesch-Nederlandsch Woordenboek dictionary by HN van der Tuuk, the word
hasta means hand, arm, pani. Ordinary characters are transcribed as ‘ha’. Thus, the word
hasta is interpreted as hand, arm: while the written letter preceded with ‘a kare (...) will
have different meaning.
Thus it can be tentatively concluded that the hasta koçali can be interpreted as ‘wise hand use
(bring happiness and prosperity)’. Searching further the understanding of hasta koçali, the following is
what Rai Wiryani(1982) wrote referring to the descriptions from some pedanda (priest), also referring
to the Kawi-Balineesch-Nederlandsch Woordenboek oleh H.N. van der Tuuk dictionary and after a
long consultation in Pura Besakih, an interpretation is taken that hasta koçali is more likely to mean
the use of the wise person (expert)’s hands in the knowledge of traditional building’. The people
whose expertises on building are usually innately talented. Only talented people can create
something well in accordance with his talent, moreover if supported with a good education, their
talent can be delivered throught their hands to create what they want.
In general, hasta koçali can be divided into 3 (three) major groups, namely: a) ritual, b)
procedures, c) physical (see the table below).
Table 1: Three major classifications commonly existed in the hasta koçali script.i
RITUAL
PROCEDURES
PHYSICAL
philosophy
upakara (ceremony)
spell
wariga (time)
working procedure
sloka
details
wood class
defect
palih
jineng
wall
door
yard
ground
room
pole
lay out
Source: (Gantini, 1997)
From table 1 above, all categories of buildings that can be measured and counted belong to the
category of building physical and partly contained in the procedures category (ie teh sloka). The sub-
category of physical and procedures given more attention in TBA construction process are as follow:
Table 2: Classification of hasta koçali scripts based on physical buildings and procedures
NO
PHYSICAL CATEGORY
& PROCEDURE
SUB-CATEGORY
1
Door
Dimension of door leaf measurement(kori size), kori hole and its phala
2
Residential Yard
Dimension of residential yard, side yard measurement
3
Front Yard
Distance calculation of the building mass at residential yard (natah)
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NO
PHYSICAL CATEGORY
& PROCEDURE
SUB-CATEGORY
4
Room
Dimension of room length measurement (rongan dawa), dimension of
room width (rongan bawak)
5
Pole (building
column)
Dimension of the measurement of column cross-section thickness,
height of long column, height of short column
6
Lay out
Lay out of kitchen , lay out of barn/ kelumpu, lay out of well
7
Sloka
Calculation of the iga-iga number, calculation of the likah number,
calculation of the bataran height, calculation of the undag height,
dimension of sunduk, dimension of lambang and sineb
Source: (Gantini, 1997)
3. Knowledge on Traditional Balinese Architecture (ATB)
In addition to hasta koçali, the previous concepts proposed by many researchers in various
writings and other sources have been used as the basis for planning, designing and constructing
traditional Balinese architecture. Some of them are:
Sulistyawati (1996:5) categoriez the concepts of TBA into: philosophical concept, practical
concept and utility concepts. Philosophical concept consists of: tri hita karana, buana agung and
buana alit, manik ring cecupu, catur purusha artha, tat twan asi, tri loka, desa-kala-patra, dewata
nawa sanga, rwa bhineda. Practical concepts consists of luan-teben, tri mandala, swartika sana, tri
angga, natah, ornament, color, function, materials, clarity of structure, sikut, gegulak, the size of the
building. Utility concept includes ceremony, pedewasan or wewaran, undagi, pengurip, tri premana.
Budihardjo (1986:33) describes the main concepts of TBA are catur ashrama (brahmacarya
ashrama, grihasta ashrama, wana prastha ashrama, samnyasa ashrama, marga (karma marga,
jnjana marga, bhakti marga), tri vargha (dharma, artha, kama), tat twam asi, tatwasusilaupakara,
catur dresta, panca cradha, panca yadnya, desakalapatra, rwa bhineda/semara ratih, bhuwana alit
and bhuwana agung, tri hita karana (atma, sarira, trikaya), manik ring cecupu, tri angga (headbody
leg)/ triloka (burbwahswah), nawa sanga/ sanga mandala, human scale and proportion, open air
‘court’ concept (natah), clarity of structure, truth of materials.
Gomudha (1999:89-127) identifies the values of TBA from the concept of spatial
and buildings. The concept of spatial planning and urban design tri loka, nawa sanga, swastika sana,
tri angga, natah, ornaments, truth of materials, clarity of structure, size/ sikut.
Sastrowardoyo (undated) identifies the basic principles of TBA consists of divine models of space
bhuana agung and bhuana alit/ macrocosm and microcosm, tatwasusilaupakara, desakalapatra,
orientation: nawa sanga, hierarchy of space: headbodylegs, burbwahswah, sanga mandala,
kajakelod, jerojaba tengahjaba (at pura), space structure: pempatan agung, proportion and
personal statement (physical size of the building ownerthe caste and ideal),
building material and structure, chronologyprocessioncosmozation, maintaining the whole world:
panca yadnya ceremony.
Saliya, Yuswadi (1975) identifies the concept of ATB as follows: orientation (the need, spatial
expression, the nawa sangah, juxtaposition/ composition (the need, spatial expression), proportion
(the personalized measurement, pengurip as cosmization, pengurip as a symbol of transitory, state of
being), chronology & procession (the time notion, rites de passage), cosmization (the need).
Dwijendra (2008) identifies the TBA principles based on studies of traditional balinese house
architecture as follows: bhuana agung and bhuana alit, tri hita karana (cosmology balance), tri angga
and tri loka (the hierarchy of values), orientation (huluteben concept), sanga mandala (cosmology
orientation ), natah (open space concept), proportion and scale, procession and chronology of
construction, clarity of structure, the use truth of the material, desakalapatra, desamawacara,
ornament and color.
Table 3: Summary of TBA concepts from some sources
SOURCES
CONCEPTS
SULISTYA
WATI
GOMUDH
A
SASTROW
ARDYO
SALIYA
DWIJEND
RA
PHILOSOPHICAL CONCEPT
Tri Hita Karana
Bhuana agung
and Bhuana alit
Tatwa-Susila-
Upakara
Desa-Kala-Patra
Manik Ring
Cecupu
Catur Purusa
Artha
Tat Twam Asi
Tri Loka
Rwa Bhineda/
Semara Ratih
Catur Ashrama
1st Biennale International Conference on Indonesian Architecture and Planning
SOURCES
CONCEPTS
SULISTYA
WATI
GOMUDH
A
SASTROW
ARDYO
SALIYA
DWIJEND
RA
Marga
Tri Vargha
Catur Dresta
Panca Cradha
Panca Yadnya
Swastika Sana
Desa-Mawa-Cara
PRACTICAL CONCEPT (SPATIAL AND PROCEDURES
FOR BUILDING)
Dewata Nawa
Sanga
Luan-Teben
Kaja-Kelod
Tri Mandala
Tri Angga
Open Air ‘Court’
Concept
Ornaments
Color
Function
Truth Of Materials
Clarity Of
Structure
Sikut
Gegulak
Size of building
Human Scale &
Proportion
Jero-Jaba Tengah-
Jaba (pada Pura)
Pempatan Agung
UTILITY CONCEPTS
ceremony
Pedewasan /
Wewaran
Undagi
Pengurip
Tri Premana
Chronology &
procession of
construction
Source: (Gantini, 2011)
From the description about the ATB concepts, aspects related to utility concept covering
ceremony, pedewasan, (related to constructing process) is not assessed as it is not directly related to
the realization of physical architecture. Two important points directly related to the realization of
physical architecture is the concept of spatial and procedures for building (practical concepts), thus
the study will focus on practical concept.
Summary of TBA concepts based on several sources in general can be seen in table 3 based on
the concept proposed by six sources referred. Thus, the dominant TBA concepts proposed are tri hita
karana, bhuana agung & bhuana alit (macro dan microcosm), while desa-kala-patra, tri loka are not
discussed in this study because it is a philosophical concept animating some practical concepts,
neither does the utility concept such as chronology and procession of constructing. Thus, the
concepts of Traditional Balinese Architecture frequently used in the application of traditional
Balinese buildings are as follows:
1. dewata nawa sanga (sanga mandala)
2. tri angga
3. natah (open air “court” concept)
4. human scale & proportion
5. clarity of structure
6. truth of materials
7. ornaments
Those 7 (seven) categories, have the following sub categories:
Table 4: Classification of knowledge on TBA based practical concepts
NO
PRACTICAL CONCEPT CATEGORY
SUB-CATEGORY
BUILDING
TYPOLOGI
1st Biennale International Conference on Indonesian Architecture and Planning
NO
PRACTICAL CONCEPT CATEGORY
SUB-CATEGORY
BUILDING
TYPOLOGI
1
Dewata Nawa Sanga (Sanga
Mandala)
Entrance lay out, ‘ordering principle’ of
the building
‘order’
2
Tri Angga
representing head, body, and legs of
the building
‘order’
3
Natah (Open Air “Court” Concept)
natah function, ‘ordering principles’ of
the natah
‘order’
4
Human Scale & Proportion
saka size (pole/ building column)
‘order’
5
Clarity of Structure
application of structure clarity concept
of the building
‘order’
6
Truth of Materials
the use of material on the building
the use of material on the head, body
and legs on the building
form
7
Ornaments
application of traditional ornaments on
the building
form
Source: (Gantini, 2011)
From the summary of the TBA concepts from various sources above and based on the previous
study (Gantini, 2011) there are two points to note as a finding at conceptual view as follows :
1. From 6 sources, Sulistyawati, 1996, is the only person investigating the function of TBA. Table
4 shows that the functions discussed is the function of natah and not the function
of building (note: discussion of the function of the building in the Traditional Balinese
Architecture is not discussed in this conceptual article).
2. That the practical concept of the above categories is more operational definition, and when
the categories above are tested to see how its realization on the traditional architecture
of the building, those 7(seven) concepts will be clearer when they are divided into
two categories. The first category is the conception categories and the second one is
constructional/ empirical field categories. The following table can better explain the
findings on the conception level in this study (Table 5).
Table 5: Findings on the conception level (reformulated TBA concept)
NO
CONCEPT (ABSTRACT)
EMIPIRICAL
BUILDING TYPOLOGY
1
SANGAMANDALA
‘order’
2
NATAH
‘order’
3
TRI ANGGA
scale & proportion
‘order’
structure clarity
‘order’
natural material
form
ornaments
form
Table 5 above discusses the Traditional Balinese Architecture in two different levels, i.e the first
level of abstract discussing the TBA in the view of 'architectural thinking' and the second level is in
the view of empirical TBA, i.e seen architecture. Sangamandala, tri angga and natah conception is a
conception on human minds and not an empirical reality or the reality of the field. For example, the
abstract conception of tri angga -head-body-leg. Therefore, the empirical reality is the roof-pillar-
foundation.
4. Findings: Hasta Koçali Versus TBA Concepts Knowledge
The findings above (Table 5) shows that if the two TBA 'big theories' are compared, they would
look as follows:
Table 1: Three major classifications commonly existed in the hasta koçali script.i
THEORY ON TBA CONCEPTS
HASTA KOÇALI
CONCEPT CATEGORY
TBA
SUB-CATEGORY
PHYSICAL&PROCEDURE
CATEGORY
SUB-CATEGORY
SANGAMANDALA
Entrance access lay
out
RESIDENTIAL YARD
Dimension of
residential yard and
side residential yard
measurement
FRONT YARD
Calculation of the
building mass distance
in the house front yard
Building ‘ordering
principle’
LAY OUT
Lay out for kitchen,
barn/kelumpu, well
TRI
Representing head-
1st Biennale International Conference on Indonesian Architecture and Planning
THEORY ON TBA CONCEPTS
HASTA KOÇALI
CONCEPT CATEGORY
TBA
SUB-CATEGORY
PHYSICAL&PROCEDURE
CATEGORY
SUB-CATEGORY
ANGGA
body-legs of the
building
Scale &
Proportion
the size of saka (pole/
column of the
building)
ROOM
Dimension of the room
length (rongan dawa)
measurement,
dimension of the room
width (rongan bawak)
measurement
COLUMN
Dimension of the
pole’s cross-section
thickness
measurement,
dimension of the
height of long and
short pole
measurement
Structural
clarity
the application of
structural clarity
concept of roof,
column and
foundation of the
building.
dimension of sunduk,
dimension of lambang
and sineb
Truth of
material
The use of material
on the building, the
use of material on the
roof, column and
foundation on the
building.
Ornaments
The application of
traditional
ornaments on the
building (roof,
column, foundation)
DOOR
Dimension of door leaf
measurement ( kori
size), kori hole and the
phala
SLOKA
calculation of the iga-
iga number,
calculation of the
likah number,
calculation of the
height of bataran,
calculation of the
height of undag
NATAH
(opening
court
between
building)
Natah function and
‘ordering principles’
of the natah
The comparison is intended to see clearly the domains of discussion on TBA concepts and hasta
koçali. For sub - categories - especially those can be seen on the TBA concept - can be added with the
existing sub - categories in hasta koçali. For example in sangamandala conception, entrance access
and lay out are not the only sub - categories that can be seen. The other sub - categories that can be
seen are dimension of residential yard measurement, side residential yard, calculation of mass
distance of the house front yard, layout of the kitchen, layout of the barn/ kelumpu, layout of the
well as described in hasta koçali manuscript.
5. Findings and Implications
1. TBA concepts including in the thought architecture (abstract) are sangamandala, tri angga,
and natah, while the TBA concept including in the seen architecture (empirically) are scale
and proportion, clarity of structure, truth of material and ornament.
2. The four categories of the scale and proportion, structure clarity, truth of material and
ornament are grouped in tri angga conception, not without a reason. The practical reason is
that the four categories can be justified by using the concept of tri angga in the field
condition.
1st Biennale International Conference on Indonesian Architecture and Planning
3. The comparison betwen the knowledge of TBA concepts and hasta koçali is mainly very
important to do given both are ‘grand theories’ in the TBA. Besides, there is no previous
comparative study on this. In addition to this, comparing these grand theories will bring
implication mainly on how to view TBA especially in the categories they belong to, which can
be used either when conducting study or when designing TBA as well as any other
contemporary Balinese architecture based on the TBA concepts.
4. That the function in the TBA architecture 'is not’ a significant aspect in the TBA concept.
This leads to this led to the conjecture that there is a need in TBA further discussion and
differentiation between the traditional Balinese architecture as FUNCTION (function-role-
assignment) and Traditional Balinese Architecture as USE (utility).
References
Budihardjo, Eko. (1986). Architectural Conversation in Bali, Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press
Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin. (2008). Arsitektur Rumah Tradisional Bali, Berdasarkan Asta Kosala Kosali, Denpasar:
Udayana University Press
Gantini, Christina. (1997). Telaah Sistem Proporsi Bangunan Tradisional Bali Atas Naskah-naskah Hasta Koçali Asal
Kabupaten Tabanan Bali, Bandung: Tesis S2 Program Magister Arsitektur, Program Pascasarjana ITB
_______, (2011). Kajian Tipologi Arsitektur Bale Banjar Adat di Denpasar, Bali Selatan, Bandung: Lembaga Penelitian dan
Pengabdian pada Masyarakat ITB Kampus Jatinangor
Gomudha, I W. (1999). Reformasi Nilai-nilai Arsitektur Tradisional Bali pada Arsitektur Kontemporer di Bali, Studi kasus
Bangunan Fasilitas Umum (Tesis), Surabaya: ITS
H.N. van der Tuuk, Kawi-Balineesch-Nederlandsch Woordenboek.
Salija, Yuswadi. (1975). Spatial Concept in Balinese Tradisional Architecture It’s Possibilities for further Develeopment (A
descriptive Analysis). Thesis: University of Hawaii
Sastrowardoyo, R. Sularto. (tanpa tahun). A Brief Introduction: Traditional Architecture of Bali, some basic norms.
Sulistyawati. (1996). Pengaruh Prinsip ATB Terhadap Arsitektur Non Tradisional, Denpasar: PT. Trio Mitra
Wiryani, Rai. (1982). Hasta Kocali, Salah Satu Dasar Arsitektur Tradisional Bali, Naskah kerja pada Pertemuan Ilmiah
Arkeologi ke II, Jakarta 25-29 Pebruari 1980, Proyek Penelitian Purbakala Jakarta Departemen Pendidikan dan
Kebudayaan
... Hasta kosala kosali itself consists of several parts. In the article "Traditional Balinese Architecture: What Is Thought and What Is Seen" made byGantini et al (2011) it is stated that the concept of the kosala kosali consists of three parts, namely, the building, ritual and physical procedures of the building itself. These three things ar e the cause of the harmony of the buildings in traditional Balinese homes so that this concept must be preserved. ...
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Architectural Conversation in Bali
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Budihardjo, Eko. (1986). Architectural Conversation in Bali, Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press Dwijendra, Ngakan Ketut Acwin. (2008). Arsitektur Rumah Tradisional Bali, Berdasarkan Asta Kosala Kosali, Denpasar: Udayana University Press
Kajian Tipologi Arsitektur Bale Banjar Adat di Denpasar
  • Christina Gantini
Gantini, Christina. (1997). Telaah Sistem Proporsi Bangunan Tradisional Bali Atas Naskah-naskah Hasta Koçali Asal Kabupaten Tabanan -Bali, Bandung: Tesis S2 Program Magister Arsitektur, Program Pascasarjana ITB _______, (2011). Kajian Tipologi Arsitektur Bale Banjar Adat di Denpasar, Bali Selatan, Bandung: Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian pada Masyarakat ITB Kampus Jatinangor Gomudha, I W. (1999). Reformasi Nilai-nilai Arsitektur Tradisional Bali pada Arsitektur Kontemporer di Bali, Studi kasus Bangunan Fasilitas Umum (Tesis), Surabaya: ITS H.N. van der Tuuk, Kawi-Balineesch-Nederlandsch Woordenboek.
Spatial Concept in Balinese Tradisional Architecture It's Possibilities for further Develeopment (A descriptive Analysis) Thesis: University of Hawaii Sastrowardoyo, R. Sularto. (tanpa tahun) A Brief Introduction: Traditional Architecture of Bali, some basic norms
  • Yuswadi Salija
Salija, Yuswadi. (1975). Spatial Concept in Balinese Tradisional Architecture It's Possibilities for further Develeopment (A descriptive Analysis). Thesis: University of Hawaii Sastrowardoyo, R. Sularto. (tanpa tahun). A Brief Introduction: Traditional Architecture of Bali, some basic norms.
Pengaruh Prinsip ATB Terhadap Arsitektur Non Tradisional Hasta Kocali, Salah Satu Dasar Arsitektur Tradisional Bali, Naskah kerja pada Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi ke II
  • Sulistyawati
Sulistyawati. (1996). Pengaruh Prinsip ATB Terhadap Arsitektur Non Tradisional, Denpasar: PT. Trio Mitra Wiryani, Rai. (1982). Hasta Kocali, Salah Satu Dasar Arsitektur Tradisional Bali, Naskah kerja pada Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi ke II, Jakarta 25-29 Pebruari 1980, Proyek Penelitian Purbakala Jakarta Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan
Telaah Sistem Proporsi Bangunan Tradisional Bali Atas Naskah-naskah Hasta Koçali Asal Kabupaten Tabanan-Bali
  • Christina Gantini
Gantini, Christina. (1997). Telaah Sistem Proporsi Bangunan Tradisional Bali Atas Naskah-naskah Hasta Koçali Asal Kabupaten Tabanan-Bali, Bandung: Tesis S2 Program Magister Arsitektur, Program Pascasarjana ITB
Bandung: Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian pada Masyarakat ITB Kampus Jatinangor Gomudha, I W
_______, (2011). Kajian Tipologi Arsitektur Bale Banjar Adat di Denpasar, Bali Selatan, Bandung: Lembaga Penelitian dan Pengabdian pada Masyarakat ITB Kampus Jatinangor Gomudha, I W. (1999). Reformasi Nilai-nilai Arsitektur Tradisional Bali pada Arsitektur Kontemporer di Bali, Studi kasus Bangunan Fasilitas Umum (Tesis), Surabaya: ITS H.N. van der Tuuk, Kawi-Balineesch-Nederlandsch Woordenboek.
Hasta Kocali, Salah Satu Dasar Arsitektur Tradisional Bali, Naskah kerja pada Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi ke II
  • Yuswadi Salija
Salija, Yuswadi. (1975). Spatial Concept in Balinese Tradisional Architecture It's Possibilities for further Develeopment (A descriptive Analysis). Thesis: University of Hawaii Sastrowardoyo, R. Sularto. (tanpa tahun). A Brief Introduction: Traditional Architecture of Bali, some basic norms. Sulistyawati. (1996). Pengaruh Prinsip ATB Terhadap Arsitektur Non Tradisional, Denpasar: PT. Trio Mitra Wiryani, Rai. (1982). Hasta Kocali, Salah Satu Dasar Arsitektur Tradisional Bali, Naskah kerja pada Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi ke II, Jakarta 25-29 Pebruari 1980, Proyek Penelitian Purbakala Jakarta Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan