In the mountains, human lives, property, infrastructures and ecosystems are threatened repeatedly by various hazards and dangerous processes. Natural hazards in the mountains include large-scale hazards such as earthquakes, droughts, eruptions and hurricanes, as well as others originated by small-scale mass movements of water, snow, ice, soil and rock. Dangerous natural processes include avalanches, debris flows, floods, landslides, rockfalls and other disastrous mass movements of soil and rocks. In mountainous regions these processes easily lead to casualties, injuries, destruction of goods and ecological damage. Humans pursue safety-seek to remove risks or at least to diminish and control them-through both systematic planning and intuitive measures. This article introduces some methods for evaluating the hazards and dangers and for assessing and reducing risks, and describes various types of preventive measures. It emphasizes the role of forests and land use planning in mitigating risk in mountainous regions. It advocates consideration of the traditional risk adaptive measures of mountain communities. The socio-economic conditions of mountain people play an important part in their vulnerability to risk and their ability to prevent and mitigate disaster. The article concludes with a call for integrated, cross-sectoral, participatory approaches to risk mitigation.