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The Role of Self-esteem and Optimism in Job Satisfaction among Teachers of Private Universities in Bangladesh

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the role of self- esteem and optimism in job satisfaction among teachers of private universities in Bangladesh. The measuring instruments used in this study were: 1. Self-Esteem Scale (SES) (Rosenberg’s, 1965) for measuring self-esteem. 2. Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Scheier& Carver, 1985) for measuring Optimism. 3. Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) (Spector, 1985) for measuring job satisfaction. According to the objective of the present study the obtain data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation. The survey results revealed that self-esteem and optimism is significantly positively correlated with teacher’s job satisfaction.
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 114
The Role of Self-esteem and Optimism in Job Satisfaction
among Teachers of Private Universities in Bangladesh
Mozumdar Arifa Ahmed
1
1
Faculty of Business Administration, Eastern University, Bangladesh
ABSTRACT
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of self- esteem and optimism in job satisfaction among teachers of private
universities in Bangladesh. The measuring instruments used in this study were: 1. Self-Esteem Scale (SES) (Rosenberg’s, 1965)
for measuring self-esteem. 2. Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Scheier& Carver, 1985) for measuring Optimism. 3. Job Satisfaction
Survey (JSS) (Spector, 1985) for measuring job satisfaction. According to the objective of the present study the obtain data were
analysed using Pearson product moment correlation. The survey results revealed that self-esteem and optimism is significantly
positively correlated with teacher’s job satisfaction.
Keywords: Teaching, Teachers, Self-esteem, Optimism, Motivation, Job Satisfaction.
JEL Classification Code: M12; M51
1 I
NTRODUCTION
HE teacher can be rightly called a nation builder.
Flourishing national development and a society truly
prosperous with knowledge all begins from its teachers.
Knowledge cannot be acquired if it is not sought and
received through the help of the teacher. Teachers there-
fore, have to play a cardinal role in the building up of the
character of the next generation. It is a fact that a civiliza-
tion cannot rise out of a skeleton of mere ideas and ab-
stract concepts. Civilization finds a concrete shape in the
practical behaviour of a nation, based on these principles
and concepts. This necessitates the provision of a learn-
ing atmosphere throbbing with life in our educational
institutions through the presence of the teacher, with a
view to infuse confidence in our students and to enable
them to be proud of their culture, to respect their national
character and national emblems, and to ornament them-
selves with societal conduct and morals. They should
stand firm on the centuries old foundations of their cul-
tural tradition and at the same time should establish
standards of excellence in their academic performance.
Because of this, teachers need to have a high level of
commitment towards their duties and responsibilities.
But now a days teaching profession is facing problems
related toteachers’ job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction:
The most widely accepted explanation of job satisfaction
was presented by Locke (1976),who defined job satisfac-
tion as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state result-
ing from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (p.
1304). Additionally, job satisfaction has emotional, cog-
nitive and behavioral components. The emotional com-
ponent refers to feelings regarding the job, such as bore-
dom, anxiety, or excitement. The cognitive component of
job satisfaction refers to beliefs regarding one's job, for
example, feeling that one's job is mentally demanding
and challenging. Finally, the behavioral component in-
cludes people's actions in relation to their work. These
actions may include being tardy, staying late, or pretend-
ing to be ill in order to avoid work. Judge et al. (1997)
considered self-esteem and optimism to be the most fun-
damental manifestation of core self-evaluation or positive
self concept that was proposed as potential explanatory
variables in the dispositional source of job satisfaction.
They also argued that the construct should be related to
work motivation and job performance.
Self-esteem:
Self-esteem represents the overall value that one places
on oneself as a person. It reflects a person's overall evalu-
ation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Self-esteem
encompasses beliefs and emotions such as triumph, des-
pair, pride and shame.Self-esteem can apply specifically
to a particular dimension or have global extent. Accord-
ing to Maslow’s need hierarchy theory of motivation, the
esteem needs have two versions, a lower one and a high-
er one. The lower one is the need for the respect of oth-
ers, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, atten-
tion, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance.
The higher form involves theneed for self-respect, includ-
ing such feelings as confidence, competence, achieve-
ment, mastery, independence, and freedom.
Optimism:
Optimism is as having hopefulness and confidence about
the future or successful outcome of something; a tenden-
cy to take a favourable or hopeful view. It’s
a disposition or tendency to look on the more favourable
sieof events or conditions and to expect the most favoura
ble outcome. Some optimists consistently ascribe benevo-
T
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 115
lent motives to others and interpret situations in the best
possible light; others simply disassociate their internal
mood from external circumstances. Optimists tend to use
more problem- focused coping strategies than do pessim-
ist. When problem- focused coping is not a possibility,
optimists turn to more adaptive emotion- focused coping
strategies such as acceptance, use of humour, and posi-
tive reframing of the situation. Pessimists tend to cope
through overt denial and by mentally and behaviourally
disengaging from the goals with which the stressor is
interfering, regardless of whether something can be done
to solve the problem or not. Optimists are people who
tend to hold positive expectancies for their future; pes-
simists are people who tend to hold more negative expec-
tations for the future.
2 T
HEORETICAL
P
ERSPECTIVES
:
Employee job satisfaction and motivation can be studied
through several broad approaches content or need based
theories, process theories and reinforcement theories.
However, the term employee motivation is a complex
and difficult term to define; therefore a precise definition
of this concept is elusive as the notion comprises the cha-
racteristics of individual and situation as well as the per-
ception of that situation by the individual (Ifinedo 2003;
Rosenfeld & Wilson 1999). An organization’s liveliness,
whether public or private, comes from the motivation of
its employees, although their abilities play just as crucial a
role in determining their work performance their motiva-
tion (Lewis, Goodman &Fandt 1995).Golembiewski (1973,
p. 597) refers to motivation as the degree of readiness of an
organization to pursue some designated goal and implies
the determination of the nature and locus of the forces
inducing the degree of readiness. To Kelly (1974, p. 279),
motivation has to do with the forces that maintain and
alter the direction, quality and intensity of behaviour. Ac-
cording to Hoy and Miskel (1987, p. 176), employee moti-
vation is the complex forces, drives, needs, tension states,
or other mechanisms that start and maintain voluntary
activity directed towards the achievement of personal
goals. In short, Dessler (2001) defined motivation as the
intensity of a person’s desire to engage in some activity.
From the above definitions some issues are brought to
mind that deal with what starts and energizes human be-
havior, how those forces are directed and sustained as well
as the outcomes they bring about (performance). It follows
therefore that there is a relationship between motivation
and job satisfaction. Peretomode (1991) citing Gibson, et al.
pointed out that the two terms are related but are not syn-
onymous. They acknowledged that job satisfaction is one
part of the motivational process. While motivation is pri-
marily concerned with goal-directed behavior, job satisfac-
tion refers to the fulfillment acquired by experiencing var-
ious job activities and rewards.
Need-based Approach or Content theory
Several factors are believed to influence a person’s desire
to perform work or behave in a certain way. The need-
based theories explained these desires; they explained mo-
tivation primarily as a phenomenon that occurs intrinsical-
ly, or within an individual. We can widely recognize two
need-based theorists and their theories: Maslow’s hie-
rarchy of needs and Herzberg et al.’s two factor theory.
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow’s (1943, 1970) need-based theory of
motivation is the most widely recognized theory of moti-
vation and perhaps the most referenced of the content
theories. According to this theory, a person has five fun-
damental needs: physiological, security, affiliation, es-
teem, and self-actualization. The physiological needs in-
clude pay, food, shelter and clothing, good and comfort-
able work conditions etc. The security needs include the
need for safety, fair treatment, protection against threats,
job security etc. Affiliation needs include the needs of
being loved, accepted, part of a group etc. whereas es-
teem needs include the need for recognition, respect,
achievement, autonomy, independence etc. Finally, self-
actualization needs, which are the highest in the level of
Maslow’s need theory, include realizing one’s full poten-
tial or self development. According to Maslow, once a
need is satisfied it is no longer a need. It ceases to moti-
vate employees’ behaviour and they are motivated by the
need at the next level up the hierarchy.
However, in spite of Maslow’s effort and insights into the
theories of motivation, replicate studies failed to offer
strong support of the need-based theories. Also, studies
aimed at validating Maslow’s theory failed to find subs-
tantiation in support of the needs hierarchy (Ifinedo 2003;
Lawler &Suttle 1972), although many continue to find the
hierarchy model very attractive (Naylor, 1999).
Herzberg et al.’s Two Factor Theory
Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman’s (1959) two-factor
theory is heavily based on need fulfilment because of their
interest in how best to satisfy workers. They carried out
several studies to explore those things that cause workers
in white-collar jobs to be satisfied and dissatisfied. The
outcome of their study showed that the factors that lead to
job satisfaction when present are not the same factors that
lead to dissatisfaction when absent. Thus, they saw job
satisfaction and dissatisfaction as independent. They re-
ferred to those environmental factors that cause workers to
be dissatisfied as Hygiene Factors. The presence of these
factors according to Herzberg et al. does not cause satisfac-
tion and consequently failed to increase performance of
workers in white-collar jobs. The hygiene factors are com-
pany policy and administration, technical supervision,
salary, interpersonal relationship with supervisors and
work conditions; they are associated with job content.
Herzberg et al. indicated that these factors are perceived
as necessary but not sufficient conditions for the satisfac-
tion of workers. They further identified motivating fac-
tors as those factors that make workers work harder.
They posited that these factors are associated with job
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 116
context or what people actually do in their work and
classified them as follows: self respect, positive self con-
cept, achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility
and advancement. Achievement is represented by the
drive to excel, accomplish challenging tasks and achieve
a standard of excellence. The individuals’ need for ad-
vancement, growth, increased responsibility and work
itself are said to be the motivating factors.
Herzberg et al., (1959) pointed out that the opposite of
dissatisfaction is not satisfaction but no dissatisfaction.
Both hygiene factors and motivators are important but in
different ways (Naylor 1999: 542). Applying these con-
cepts to education for example, if education improve-
ment in universities depends, fundamentally, on the im-
provement of teaching, ways to increase teacher motiva-
tion and capabilities should be the core processes upon
which efforts to make universities more effective focus.
In addition, highly motivated and need satisfied teachers
can create a good social, psychological and physical cli-
mate in the classroom. Exemplary teachers appear able to
integrate professional knowledge (subject matter and
pedagogy), interpersonal knowledge (human relation-
ships), and intrapersonal knowledge (ethics and reflec-
tive capacity) when he or she is satisfied with the job
(Collinson, 1996; Connell & Ryan, 1984; Rosenholtz,
1989). Nonetheless, commitment to teaching and the
workplace have been found to be enhanced by psychic
rewards (acknowledgement of teaching competence),
meaningful and varied work, task autonomy and partici-
patory decision-making, positive feedback, collaboration,
administrative support, reasonable work load, adequate
resources and pay, and learning opportunities providing
challenge and accomplishment (Firestone &Pennel,
1993;Johnson, 1990;Rosenholtz, 1989). In contrast, extrin-
sic incentives, such as merit pay or effective teaching re-
wards have not been found to affect teacher job satisfac-
tion and effectiveness. The extrinsic factors evolve from
the working environment while the actual satisfiers are
intrinsic and encourage a greater effectiveness by design-
ing and developing teachers higher level needs. That is
giving teachers greater opportunity, self respect, respon-
sibility, authority and autonomy (Whawo,
1993).Conversely, Ukejeet al. (1992: 269) are of the opi-
nion that however highly motivated to perform a teacher
may be, he or she needs to posses the necessary ability to
attain the expected level of performance. Nevertheless, it
is hoped that if educational administrators and education
policy makers can understand teachers’ job satisfaction
needs, they can design a reward system both to satisfy
teachers and meet the educational goals.
Process Theories
The cognitive processes in determining employee level of
motivation and need satisfaction. Equity theory matches
the notions of “a fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay”. It
really focuses on perceptions of inequality in the output
ratio whose effect may be similar to the hygiene factors of
Herzberg et al. (Naylor, 1999). Equity and fairness in the
workplace has been found to be a major factor in deter-
mining employee motivation and job satisfaction (Lewis
et al. 1995: 502). As such, equity theory assumes that one
important cognitive process involves people looking
around and observing what effort other people are
putting into their work and what rewards follow that
effort. This achievement, recognition, work itself, re-
sponsibility, advancement, company policy and adminis-
tration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal rela-
tionship with supervisor, work condition social compari-
son process is driven by our concern for fairness and eq-
uity. Research by McKenna (2000, p. 112) and Sweeney
(1990) confirms equity theory as one of the most useful
frameworks for understanding and has a role to play in
the study of work motivation.
According to Lewis et al. (1995), expectancy theory is the
most comprehensive motivational model that seeks to
predict or explain task-related effort. The theory suggests
that work motivation is determined by two factors: (1)
the relationship between effort and performance and (2)
the desirability of various work outcomes that are asso-
ciated with different performance levels. Simply put, the
theory suggests that the motivation that will lead to job
satisfaction is a function of the perceived relationship
between an individual’s effort, performance, and the de-
sirability of consequences associated with job perfor-
mance (Lawler, 1973;Vroom, 1964). That is, employees are
influenced by the expected outcomes of their behaviours
and motivation at work or the perceptible link between
effort and reward. The most important attribute of both
types of process theory has been to draw attention to the
effects of cognitive and perceptual processes on objective
teachers’ work conditions. It suggests that educational
administrators and policy makers need to pay attention to
the expectancy values that is the link between effort and
teachers’ needs satisfaction and job performance, deter-
mine what outcome teachers value, link the reward that
teachers value to their job performance that teachers feel
equity as well as satisfaction in their job.
Reinforcement Theories
Reinforcement theories relate to the idea of operant con-
ditioning. They concentrate attention on the link between
behaviour and consequences. Reinforcement is defined as
any effect that causes behaviour to be repeated or inhi-
bited which can be positive or negative (Naylor, 1999, p.
549). Skinner (1939, 1971) carried out several studies and
came up with a conditioning model which proposes that
if pleasant consequences follow behaviour, the behaviour
will tend to continue whereas, if unpleasant conse-
quences follow a behaviour, the behaviour tends to stop
(Luthans&Kreitner, 1985). This theory of motivation sug-
gests that internal states of the mind such as needs are mis-
leading, scientifically immeasurable, and in any case hypo-
thetical. Therefore, reinforcement theory rests on two un-
derlying assumptions: first, human behaviour is deter-
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 117
mined by the environment, and second, human behaviour
is subject to observable laws and can be predicted and
changed. Hence, the foundation of the reinforcement
theory is the ‘law of effect’, which states that behaviour
will be repeated or not depending on whether the conse-
quences are positive or negative (Lewis et al., 1995).
3 R
ATIONALE OF THE STUDY
:
Teachers are important figure to develop a creative gen-
eration who will lead the country. Disgruntledteachers
who are not satisfied with their job could not be commit-
ted and productive and would not beat the best of their
capabilities. Now a days teaching profession is facing
problems related toteachers’ job satisfaction. The findings
of the present study may help the institutions to reduce
teachers’ dissatisfaction by giving emphasis on providing
intrinsic motivators, developing training program for in-
creasing personal growth as well as self-worth of the
teachers. It may also help the counsellors providing career
counselling to the younger who are looking for their jobs
to choose professions based on their personality traits.
4 R
ESEARCH
Q
UESTIONS
:
The present study gives rise to some question. Such as-
Is there any relationship between self-esteem and job
satisfaction among teachers of private universities in
Bangladesh?
Is there any relationship between optimism and job
satisfaction among teachers of private universities in
Bangladesh?
What are the magnitudes of these relationships?
5 O
BJECTIVES OF THE
S
TUDY
:
The objectives of the present study are as follows-
To investigate the relationship between self-esteem
and job satisfaction among teachers of private uni-
versities in Bangladesh.
To explore the relationship between optimism and
job satisfaction among teachers of private universi-
ties in Bangladesh.
To find out the magnitudes of the relationship be-
tween self-esteem and job satisfaction as well as op-
timism and job satisfaction.
6
M
ETHODOLOGY
Sample Selection
The population of this research was the faculty members
working in 51 private universities of Bangladesh. Accord-
ing to UGC (2008), there are 4,821 full-time faculty mem-
bers working in these private universities. The research
sample was selected from this population. The research
sample was selected from these private universities. At
first, the universities were divided into two clusters based
on the establishment year. One cluster was consisted of the
universities that were established within the year 1992 to
2001. The second cluster consists of the universities that
were established from the year 2002 and onward. Then the
Probability Proportionate to Sample (PPS) was applied on
these two clusters. There were 15 universities in the first
cluster and 28 universities in the second cluster. After ap-
plying PPS on the first cluster the selected universities
were Ahsanullah Engineering and Technology University,
University of Asia Pacific, and University of Development
Alternative (UODA). From the second cluster the list of
selected universities includes Stamford University, City
University, Green University, Bangladesh University of
Business and Technology (BUBT), University of Informa-
tion Technology and Science (UITS), and ASA University.
The ratio of the two clusters was 15:28. That’s why, 3 uni-
versities were selected from the first cluster and 6 universi-
ties were selected from second cluster.
Sample Size
In these 9 universities, 1113 full-time faculty members
were working. From these 9 universities a total number
of 88 faculty members were selected based on the Simple
Random Sampling technique. For identifying the sample
size, confidence level was 95% and confidence interval
was 10. According to the ratio for male and female facul-
ty members in the selected private universities, 28% of
the respondents were female. That means among 88 res-
pondents, 25 were female.
Data Collection Method
To examine the research questions both primary and sec-
ondary data obtained from different sources.
Primary Data
The primary data was collected through structured ques-
tionnaire survey.
Measures used to collect primary data:
To measure the independent (Self-esteem and Optimism)
and dependent variables (Job Satisfaction) the following
measuring scales were used -
1. Self-Esteem Scale (SES) (Rosenberg’s, 1965) for mea-
suring self-esteem.
2. Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Scheier& Carver, 1985)
for measuring Optimism.
3. Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) (Paul E. Spector, 1985)
for measuring job satisfaction.
In addition a Demographic Information Blank was also
used.
1. Self-Esteem Scale (SES)
Rosenberg’s (1965) 10-item Self-Esteem Scale (SES)
was used to assess self-esteem. The scale which pro-
vides a convenient measure of global attitudes about
the self has five negatively worded items and five
positively worded items. Participants were asked to
indicate their agreement on a scale of 1 (strongly dis-
agree) to 4 ( strongly agree) with statements such as
I feel I have a number of good qualities” and “At
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 118
times, I think I am no good at all”. This scale is one of
the most widely used measures of self- esteem and
has displayed good reliability and validity (Crandell,
1973; Rosenberg, 1965). In our sample, the scale had
an internal reliability of .88.
2. Life Orientation Test (LOT)
Optimism was measured by using the LOT (Schei-
er&Carver, 1985). The LOT is an eight-item self-
report measure (plus four filler items) assessing ge-
neralized expectancies for positive versus negative
outcomes. Respondents were asked to indicate their
degree of agreement with statements such as “ In un-
certain times, I usually expect the best,” and “ I hard-
ly ever expect things to go my way,” using a 5point
response scale ranging from 0 (strongly disagree) to
4 (strongly agree). Of the 8 scored items, 4 are
worded in a positive direction and 4 are worded in a
negative direction. After reversing the scoring for the
negatively worded items, item scores were totalled
to yield an overall optimism score with high scores
representing greater optimism. In our sample, scores
ranged from 0 to 32 Cronbach’s alpha was .82.
3. Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS)
Job satisfaction was measured by using The Job Satis-
faction Survey, JSS (Spector, P.E., 1985)is a 36 item, nine
facet scales to assess employee attitudes about the job
and aspects of the job. Each facet is assessed with four
items, and a total score is computed from all items. A
summated rating scale format is used, with six choices
per item ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly
agree". Items are written in both directions, so about
half must be reverse scored. The nine facets are Pay,
Promotion, Supervision, Fringe Benefits, Contingent
Rewards (performance based rewards), Operating Pro-
cedures (required rules and procedures), Co-workers,
Nature of Work, and Communication.
Secondary Data
The secondary data was collected from different sources,
such as academic articles, books, journals, earlier research
reports and other published documents i.e. Annual Re-
port of UGC.
6 R
ESULT
Pearson product moment correlation was used to deter-
mine the relationship between self esteem and job satis-
faction as well as optimism and job satisfaction.
The relationship between self esteem and job satisfaction
are shown in Table-1.
T
ABLE
1
C
ORRELATION OF SELF ESTEEM WITH JOB SATISFACTION
:
Correlation of self
esteem with job
satisfaction
r
Significant level
0.05
The table 1 indicated that self-esteem is significantly posi-
tively correlated with job satisfaction [r = .323, p<0.05].
Thus, the teachers who had high self-esteem had high job
satisfaction.
The relationship between optimism and job satisfaction is
shown in Table-2.
T
ABLE
2
C
ORRELATION OF OPTIMISM WITH JOB SATISFACTION
:
Correlation of
optimism with job
satisfaction
r
Significant level
.373**
0.01
The table 2 indicated that optimism is significantly posi-
tively correlated with job satisfaction [r = .373, p<0.01].
Thus, the teachers who had high optimism had high job
satisfaction.
The relation of self-esteem and optimism with the factors
that are related with job satisfaction are shown in Table-3
T
ABLE
3
C
ORRELATION OF SELF
-
ESTEEM AND OPTIMISM BETWEEN THE
FACTORS RELATED WITH JOB SATISFACTION
:
The factors related
with job satisfaction
Self
-
esteem
Optimism
Pay
.213
.106
Promotion
.477**
Supervision
-
.056
.522**
Benefits
.256
-
.012
Rewards
.132
Operating proc
e-
dures
-
.264
-
.515**
Co
-
workers
.106
Nature of work
.500**
Communication
.214
.188
*p<.05, two-tailed **p<.01, two-tailed
The table 3 indicated that self-esteem is significantly posi-
tively correlated with promotion and nature of work. On
the other hand, optimism is significantly positively corre-
lated with promotion, supervision, rewards, relationship
with co-workers as well as nature of work and negatively
correlated with operating procedure.
7 D
ISCUSSION
Results of this study showed that self-esteem and optim-
ism is significantly positively correlated with job satisfac-
tion. The results mean that teachers who had high self-
esteem had high job satisfaction. The result supports
Judge, Locke and Durham’s (1997)theory of core self-
evaluations. Locke, McClear, and Knight (1996) noted, "A
person with a high self-esteem will view a challenging
job as a deserved opportunity which he can master and
benefit from, whereas a person with low self-esteem is
more likely to view it as an undeserved opportunity or a
chance to fail" (p. 21). In fact, research suggests that indi-
viduals with high self-esteem maintain optimism in the
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 119
face of failure, which makes future success (and thus fu-
ture satisfaction) more likely (Dodgson & Wood, 1998).
Self-consistency theory (Korman, 1970) hypothesizes that
individuals are motivated to behave in a manner consis-
tent with their self-image. Thus, the theory predicts, in-
dividuals with high self-esteem will perform effectively
in order to maintain their positive self-image. Theories of
learned helplessness support a link between positive self-
evaluations and job performance. According to the model
of learned helplessness, when faced with unfavourable
circumstances, individuals with a positive, optimistic
explanatory style will be less likely to display motiva-
tional deficits (i.e., lower their effort, withdraw from task
oriented behaviours), whereas those with a pessimistic
explanatory style will display symptoms of helplessness
(Peterson & Seligman, 1984). Finally, control theory (Lord
&Hanges, 1987) predicts that when individuals perform
below their expectations, they exert additional effort to
obtain the performance goal, reduce their standard level
(lower their aspirations), or withdraw from the task en-
tirely. Research has shown that when individuals with an
internal locus of control are faced with discrepancies be-
tween acceptable standards of performance and actual
performance, they tend to increase their efforts to match
their actual performance to the standards (Weiss &
Sherman, 1973). Conversely, people who have low self-
esteem tend to either lower their standards or completely
withdraw from the task when given negative feedback
(Brockner, 1988).
Another result of this study showed that self-esteem is
significantly positively correlated with promotion and
nature of work. Another theoretical mechanism linking
this result to job satisfaction is suggested by Korman's
(1970) self consistency theory. Korman's theory predicts
that individuals with high self-esteem choose occupa-
tions consistent with their interests, which would lead to
greater levels of job satisfaction. More generally, Kor-
man's theory predicts that high self-esteem individuals
will engage in a broad array of behaviours and cogni-
tions that reinforce their self concept. Positive self con-
cept may help the person to perform well that leads to
promotion. Peretomode (1991) and Whawo (1993), have
suggested that the higher the prestige of the job, the
greater the job satisfaction. In our society as a profession
teaching is the noble and respectable job by nature of
work. The person who had high self- esteem may have
high preference of teaching for this task identity.
The result of the present study also shows that optimism
is significantly positively correlated with promotion, su-
pervision, rewards, relationship with co-workers and
nature of work.The result support with the findings, As-
pinwall and Taylor (1992) have shown that optimistic
persons adjust more favourably to important life transi-
tions than do persons who are more pessimistic in out-
look. Another finding of the present study indicates that
optimism is negatively correlated with operating proce-
dure. Related research suggests that these differences in
outcomes derive partly from differences between optim-
ists and pessimists in the manner in which they cope
with the challenges in their lives. Optimists differ from
pessimists in their stable coping tendencies (Carver,
Scheier&Weintraub, 1989) and in the kinds of coping res-
ponses that they spontaneously generate when given
hypothetical coping situations (Scheier, Weintraub, &
Carver, 1986). That’s why optimist may cope better with
difficult operating procedure and it make no sense to
them to decrease job satisfaction. Thou they face difficult
operating procedures; they have better satisfaction in job.
8 C
ONCLUSION
The present study indicates that studies on personality
traits are necessary for understanding the underline pat-
terns of individual issues of the teachers to increase job
satisfaction. More research still required in this field to
discover the relationship with lot more other factors.
Some limitations like economical, time and manpower
hindered this study in different ways such as - the study
was conducted only in Dhaka, sample size was too small,
scales for measuring were not in Bengali version etc. So
the study recommends further research on larger sample
from different areas of Bangladesh, that is proper repre-
sentative sample and with better methodological sophis-
tication.
R
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