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The Role of Self-esteem and Optimism in Job Satisfaction among Teachers of Private Universities in Bangladesh



The objective of this study was to investigate the role of self- esteem and optimism in job satisfaction among teachers of private universities in Bangladesh. The measuring instruments used in this study were: 1. Self-Esteem Scale (SES) (Rosenberg’s, 1965) for measuring self-esteem. 2. Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Scheier& Carver, 1985) for measuring Optimism. 3. Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) (Spector, 1985) for measuring job satisfaction. According to the objective of the present study the obtain data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation. The survey results revealed that self-esteem and optimism is significantly positively correlated with teacher’s job satisfaction.
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 114
The Role of Self-esteem and Optimism in Job Satisfaction
among Teachers of Private Universities in Bangladesh
Mozumdar Arifa Ahmed
Faculty of Business Administration, Eastern University, Bangladesh
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of self- esteem and optimism in job satisfaction among teachers of private
universities in Bangladesh. The measuring instruments used in this study were: 1. Self-Esteem Scale (SES) (Rosenberg’s, 1965)
for measuring self-esteem. 2. Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Scheier& Carver, 1985) for measuring Optimism. 3. Job Satisfaction
Survey (JSS) (Spector, 1985) for measuring job satisfaction. According to the objective of the present study the obtain data were
analysed using Pearson product moment correlation. The survey results revealed that self-esteem and optimism is significantly
positively correlated with teacher’s job satisfaction.
Keywords: Teaching, Teachers, Self-esteem, Optimism, Motivation, Job Satisfaction.
JEL Classification Code: M12; M51
1 I
HE teacher can be rightly called a nation builder.
Flourishing national development and a society truly
prosperous with knowledge all begins from its teachers.
Knowledge cannot be acquired if it is not sought and
received through the help of the teacher. Teachers there-
fore, have to play a cardinal role in the building up of the
character of the next generation. It is a fact that a civiliza-
tion cannot rise out of a skeleton of mere ideas and ab-
stract concepts. Civilization finds a concrete shape in the
practical behaviour of a nation, based on these principles
and concepts. This necessitates the provision of a learn-
ing atmosphere throbbing with life in our educational
institutions through the presence of the teacher, with a
view to infuse confidence in our students and to enable
them to be proud of their culture, to respect their national
character and national emblems, and to ornament them-
selves with societal conduct and morals. They should
stand firm on the centuries old foundations of their cul-
tural tradition and at the same time should establish
standards of excellence in their academic performance.
Because of this, teachers need to have a high level of
commitment towards their duties and responsibilities.
But now a days teaching profession is facing problems
related toteachers’ job satisfaction.
Job satisfaction:
The most widely accepted explanation of job satisfaction
was presented by Locke (1976),who defined job satisfac-
tion as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state result-
ing from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (p.
1304). Additionally, job satisfaction has emotional, cog-
nitive and behavioral components. The emotional com-
ponent refers to feelings regarding the job, such as bore-
dom, anxiety, or excitement. The cognitive component of
job satisfaction refers to beliefs regarding one's job, for
example, feeling that one's job is mentally demanding
and challenging. Finally, the behavioral component in-
cludes people's actions in relation to their work. These
actions may include being tardy, staying late, or pretend-
ing to be ill in order to avoid work. Judge et al. (1997)
considered self-esteem and optimism to be the most fun-
damental manifestation of core self-evaluation or positive
self concept that was proposed as potential explanatory
variables in the dispositional source of job satisfaction.
They also argued that the construct should be related to
work motivation and job performance.
Self-esteem represents the overall value that one places
on oneself as a person. It reflects a person's overall evalu-
ation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Self-esteem
encompasses beliefs and emotions such as triumph, des-
pair, pride and shame.Self-esteem can apply specifically
to a particular dimension or have global extent. Accord-
ing to Maslow’s need hierarchy theory of motivation, the
esteem needs have two versions, a lower one and a high-
er one. The lower one is the need for the respect of oth-
ers, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, atten-
tion, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance.
The higher form involves theneed for self-respect, includ-
ing such feelings as confidence, competence, achieve-
ment, mastery, independence, and freedom.
Optimism is as having hopefulness and confidence about
the future or successful outcome of something; a tenden-
cy to take a favourable or hopeful view. It’s
a disposition or tendency to look on the more favourable
sieof events or conditions and to expect the most favoura
ble outcome. Some optimists consistently ascribe benevo-
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 115
lent motives to others and interpret situations in the best
possible light; others simply disassociate their internal
mood from external circumstances. Optimists tend to use
more problem- focused coping strategies than do pessim-
ist. When problem- focused coping is not a possibility,
optimists turn to more adaptive emotion- focused coping
strategies such as acceptance, use of humour, and posi-
tive reframing of the situation. Pessimists tend to cope
through overt denial and by mentally and behaviourally
disengaging from the goals with which the stressor is
interfering, regardless of whether something can be done
to solve the problem or not. Optimists are people who
tend to hold positive expectancies for their future; pes-
simists are people who tend to hold more negative expec-
tations for the future.
2 T
Employee job satisfaction and motivation can be studied
through several broad approaches content or need based
theories, process theories and reinforcement theories.
However, the term employee motivation is a complex
and difficult term to define; therefore a precise definition
of this concept is elusive as the notion comprises the cha-
racteristics of individual and situation as well as the per-
ception of that situation by the individual (Ifinedo 2003;
Rosenfeld & Wilson 1999). An organization’s liveliness,
whether public or private, comes from the motivation of
its employees, although their abilities play just as crucial a
role in determining their work performance their motiva-
tion (Lewis, Goodman &Fandt 1995).Golembiewski (1973,
p. 597) refers to motivation as the degree of readiness of an
organization to pursue some designated goal and implies
the determination of the nature and locus of the forces
inducing the degree of readiness. To Kelly (1974, p. 279),
motivation has to do with the forces that maintain and
alter the direction, quality and intensity of behaviour. Ac-
cording to Hoy and Miskel (1987, p. 176), employee moti-
vation is the complex forces, drives, needs, tension states,
or other mechanisms that start and maintain voluntary
activity directed towards the achievement of personal
goals. In short, Dessler (2001) defined motivation as the
intensity of a person’s desire to engage in some activity.
From the above definitions some issues are brought to
mind that deal with what starts and energizes human be-
havior, how those forces are directed and sustained as well
as the outcomes they bring about (performance). It follows
therefore that there is a relationship between motivation
and job satisfaction. Peretomode (1991) citing Gibson, et al.
pointed out that the two terms are related but are not syn-
onymous. They acknowledged that job satisfaction is one
part of the motivational process. While motivation is pri-
marily concerned with goal-directed behavior, job satisfac-
tion refers to the fulfillment acquired by experiencing var-
ious job activities and rewards.
Need-based Approach or Content theory
Several factors are believed to influence a person’s desire
to perform work or behave in a certain way. The need-
based theories explained these desires; they explained mo-
tivation primarily as a phenomenon that occurs intrinsical-
ly, or within an individual. We can widely recognize two
need-based theorists and their theories: Maslow’s hie-
rarchy of needs and Herzberg et al.’s two factor theory.
Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow’s (1943, 1970) need-based theory of
motivation is the most widely recognized theory of moti-
vation and perhaps the most referenced of the content
theories. According to this theory, a person has five fun-
damental needs: physiological, security, affiliation, es-
teem, and self-actualization. The physiological needs in-
clude pay, food, shelter and clothing, good and comfort-
able work conditions etc. The security needs include the
need for safety, fair treatment, protection against threats,
job security etc. Affiliation needs include the needs of
being loved, accepted, part of a group etc. whereas es-
teem needs include the need for recognition, respect,
achievement, autonomy, independence etc. Finally, self-
actualization needs, which are the highest in the level of
Maslow’s need theory, include realizing one’s full poten-
tial or self development. According to Maslow, once a
need is satisfied it is no longer a need. It ceases to moti-
vate employees’ behaviour and they are motivated by the
need at the next level up the hierarchy.
However, in spite of Maslow’s effort and insights into the
theories of motivation, replicate studies failed to offer
strong support of the need-based theories. Also, studies
aimed at validating Maslow’s theory failed to find subs-
tantiation in support of the needs hierarchy (Ifinedo 2003;
Lawler &Suttle 1972), although many continue to find the
hierarchy model very attractive (Naylor, 1999).
Herzberg et al.’s Two Factor Theory
Herzberg, Mausner and Snyderman’s (1959) two-factor
theory is heavily based on need fulfilment because of their
interest in how best to satisfy workers. They carried out
several studies to explore those things that cause workers
in white-collar jobs to be satisfied and dissatisfied. The
outcome of their study showed that the factors that lead to
job satisfaction when present are not the same factors that
lead to dissatisfaction when absent. Thus, they saw job
satisfaction and dissatisfaction as independent. They re-
ferred to those environmental factors that cause workers to
be dissatisfied as Hygiene Factors. The presence of these
factors according to Herzberg et al. does not cause satisfac-
tion and consequently failed to increase performance of
workers in white-collar jobs. The hygiene factors are com-
pany policy and administration, technical supervision,
salary, interpersonal relationship with supervisors and
work conditions; they are associated with job content.
Herzberg et al. indicated that these factors are perceived
as necessary but not sufficient conditions for the satisfac-
tion of workers. They further identified motivating fac-
tors as those factors that make workers work harder.
They posited that these factors are associated with job
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 116
context or what people actually do in their work and
classified them as follows: self respect, positive self con-
cept, achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility
and advancement. Achievement is represented by the
drive to excel, accomplish challenging tasks and achieve
a standard of excellence. The individuals’ need for ad-
vancement, growth, increased responsibility and work
itself are said to be the motivating factors.
Herzberg et al., (1959) pointed out that the opposite of
dissatisfaction is not satisfaction but no dissatisfaction.
Both hygiene factors and motivators are important but in
different ways (Naylor 1999: 542). Applying these con-
cepts to education for example, if education improve-
ment in universities depends, fundamentally, on the im-
provement of teaching, ways to increase teacher motiva-
tion and capabilities should be the core processes upon
which efforts to make universities more effective focus.
In addition, highly motivated and need satisfied teachers
can create a good social, psychological and physical cli-
mate in the classroom. Exemplary teachers appear able to
integrate professional knowledge (subject matter and
pedagogy), interpersonal knowledge (human relation-
ships), and intrapersonal knowledge (ethics and reflec-
tive capacity) when he or she is satisfied with the job
(Collinson, 1996; Connell & Ryan, 1984; Rosenholtz,
1989). Nonetheless, commitment to teaching and the
workplace have been found to be enhanced by psychic
rewards (acknowledgement of teaching competence),
meaningful and varied work, task autonomy and partici-
patory decision-making, positive feedback, collaboration,
administrative support, reasonable work load, adequate
resources and pay, and learning opportunities providing
challenge and accomplishment (Firestone &Pennel,
1993;Johnson, 1990;Rosenholtz, 1989). In contrast, extrin-
sic incentives, such as merit pay or effective teaching re-
wards have not been found to affect teacher job satisfac-
tion and effectiveness. The extrinsic factors evolve from
the working environment while the actual satisfiers are
intrinsic and encourage a greater effectiveness by design-
ing and developing teachers higher level needs. That is
giving teachers greater opportunity, self respect, respon-
sibility, authority and autonomy (Whawo,
1993).Conversely, Ukejeet al. (1992: 269) are of the opi-
nion that however highly motivated to perform a teacher
may be, he or she needs to posses the necessary ability to
attain the expected level of performance. Nevertheless, it
is hoped that if educational administrators and education
policy makers can understand teachers’ job satisfaction
needs, they can design a reward system both to satisfy
teachers and meet the educational goals.
Process Theories
The cognitive processes in determining employee level of
motivation and need satisfaction. Equity theory matches
the notions of “a fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay”. It
really focuses on perceptions of inequality in the output
ratio whose effect may be similar to the hygiene factors of
Herzberg et al. (Naylor, 1999). Equity and fairness in the
workplace has been found to be a major factor in deter-
mining employee motivation and job satisfaction (Lewis
et al. 1995: 502). As such, equity theory assumes that one
important cognitive process involves people looking
around and observing what effort other people are
putting into their work and what rewards follow that
effort. This achievement, recognition, work itself, re-
sponsibility, advancement, company policy and adminis-
tration, technical supervision, salary, interpersonal rela-
tionship with supervisor, work condition social compari-
son process is driven by our concern for fairness and eq-
uity. Research by McKenna (2000, p. 112) and Sweeney
(1990) confirms equity theory as one of the most useful
frameworks for understanding and has a role to play in
the study of work motivation.
According to Lewis et al. (1995), expectancy theory is the
most comprehensive motivational model that seeks to
predict or explain task-related effort. The theory suggests
that work motivation is determined by two factors: (1)
the relationship between effort and performance and (2)
the desirability of various work outcomes that are asso-
ciated with different performance levels. Simply put, the
theory suggests that the motivation that will lead to job
satisfaction is a function of the perceived relationship
between an individual’s effort, performance, and the de-
sirability of consequences associated with job perfor-
mance (Lawler, 1973;Vroom, 1964). That is, employees are
influenced by the expected outcomes of their behaviours
and motivation at work or the perceptible link between
effort and reward. The most important attribute of both
types of process theory has been to draw attention to the
effects of cognitive and perceptual processes on objective
teachers’ work conditions. It suggests that educational
administrators and policy makers need to pay attention to
the expectancy values that is the link between effort and
teachers’ needs satisfaction and job performance, deter-
mine what outcome teachers value, link the reward that
teachers value to their job performance that teachers feel
equity as well as satisfaction in their job.
Reinforcement Theories
Reinforcement theories relate to the idea of operant con-
ditioning. They concentrate attention on the link between
behaviour and consequences. Reinforcement is defined as
any effect that causes behaviour to be repeated or inhi-
bited which can be positive or negative (Naylor, 1999, p.
549). Skinner (1939, 1971) carried out several studies and
came up with a conditioning model which proposes that
if pleasant consequences follow behaviour, the behaviour
will tend to continue whereas, if unpleasant conse-
quences follow a behaviour, the behaviour tends to stop
(Luthans&Kreitner, 1985). This theory of motivation sug-
gests that internal states of the mind such as needs are mis-
leading, scientifically immeasurable, and in any case hypo-
thetical. Therefore, reinforcement theory rests on two un-
derlying assumptions: first, human behaviour is deter-
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 117
mined by the environment, and second, human behaviour
is subject to observable laws and can be predicted and
changed. Hence, the foundation of the reinforcement
theory is the ‘law of effect’, which states that behaviour
will be repeated or not depending on whether the conse-
quences are positive or negative (Lewis et al., 1995).
3 R
Teachers are important figure to develop a creative gen-
eration who will lead the country. Disgruntledteachers
who are not satisfied with their job could not be commit-
ted and productive and would not beat the best of their
capabilities. Now a days teaching profession is facing
problems related toteachers’ job satisfaction. The findings
of the present study may help the institutions to reduce
teachers’ dissatisfaction by giving emphasis on providing
intrinsic motivators, developing training program for in-
creasing personal growth as well as self-worth of the
teachers. It may also help the counsellors providing career
counselling to the younger who are looking for their jobs
to choose professions based on their personality traits.
4 R
The present study gives rise to some question. Such as-
Is there any relationship between self-esteem and job
satisfaction among teachers of private universities in
Is there any relationship between optimism and job
satisfaction among teachers of private universities in
What are the magnitudes of these relationships?
5 O
The objectives of the present study are as follows-
To investigate the relationship between self-esteem
and job satisfaction among teachers of private uni-
versities in Bangladesh.
To explore the relationship between optimism and
job satisfaction among teachers of private universi-
ties in Bangladesh.
To find out the magnitudes of the relationship be-
tween self-esteem and job satisfaction as well as op-
timism and job satisfaction.
Sample Selection
The population of this research was the faculty members
working in 51 private universities of Bangladesh. Accord-
ing to UGC (2008), there are 4,821 full-time faculty mem-
bers working in these private universities. The research
sample was selected from this population. The research
sample was selected from these private universities. At
first, the universities were divided into two clusters based
on the establishment year. One cluster was consisted of the
universities that were established within the year 1992 to
2001. The second cluster consists of the universities that
were established from the year 2002 and onward. Then the
Probability Proportionate to Sample (PPS) was applied on
these two clusters. There were 15 universities in the first
cluster and 28 universities in the second cluster. After ap-
plying PPS on the first cluster the selected universities
were Ahsanullah Engineering and Technology University,
University of Asia Pacific, and University of Development
Alternative (UODA). From the second cluster the list of
selected universities includes Stamford University, City
University, Green University, Bangladesh University of
Business and Technology (BUBT), University of Informa-
tion Technology and Science (UITS), and ASA University.
The ratio of the two clusters was 15:28. That’s why, 3 uni-
versities were selected from the first cluster and 6 universi-
ties were selected from second cluster.
Sample Size
In these 9 universities, 1113 full-time faculty members
were working. From these 9 universities a total number
of 88 faculty members were selected based on the Simple
Random Sampling technique. For identifying the sample
size, confidence level was 95% and confidence interval
was 10. According to the ratio for male and female facul-
ty members in the selected private universities, 28% of
the respondents were female. That means among 88 res-
pondents, 25 were female.
Data Collection Method
To examine the research questions both primary and sec-
ondary data obtained from different sources.
Primary Data
The primary data was collected through structured ques-
tionnaire survey.
Measures used to collect primary data:
To measure the independent (Self-esteem and Optimism)
and dependent variables (Job Satisfaction) the following
measuring scales were used -
1. Self-Esteem Scale (SES) (Rosenberg’s, 1965) for mea-
suring self-esteem.
2. Life Orientation Test (LOT) (Scheier& Carver, 1985)
for measuring Optimism.
3. Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) (Paul E. Spector, 1985)
for measuring job satisfaction.
In addition a Demographic Information Blank was also
1. Self-Esteem Scale (SES)
Rosenberg’s (1965) 10-item Self-Esteem Scale (SES)
was used to assess self-esteem. The scale which pro-
vides a convenient measure of global attitudes about
the self has five negatively worded items and five
positively worded items. Participants were asked to
indicate their agreement on a scale of 1 (strongly dis-
agree) to 4 ( strongly agree) with statements such as
I feel I have a number of good qualities” and “At
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 118
times, I think I am no good at all”. This scale is one of
the most widely used measures of self- esteem and
has displayed good reliability and validity (Crandell,
1973; Rosenberg, 1965). In our sample, the scale had
an internal reliability of .88.
2. Life Orientation Test (LOT)
Optimism was measured by using the LOT (Schei-
er&Carver, 1985). The LOT is an eight-item self-
report measure (plus four filler items) assessing ge-
neralized expectancies for positive versus negative
outcomes. Respondents were asked to indicate their
degree of agreement with statements such as “ In un-
certain times, I usually expect the best,” and “ I hard-
ly ever expect things to go my way,” using a 5point
response scale ranging from 0 (strongly disagree) to
4 (strongly agree). Of the 8 scored items, 4 are
worded in a positive direction and 4 are worded in a
negative direction. After reversing the scoring for the
negatively worded items, item scores were totalled
to yield an overall optimism score with high scores
representing greater optimism. In our sample, scores
ranged from 0 to 32 Cronbach’s alpha was .82.
3. Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS)
Job satisfaction was measured by using The Job Satis-
faction Survey, JSS (Spector, P.E., 1985)is a 36 item, nine
facet scales to assess employee attitudes about the job
and aspects of the job. Each facet is assessed with four
items, and a total score is computed from all items. A
summated rating scale format is used, with six choices
per item ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly
agree". Items are written in both directions, so about
half must be reverse scored. The nine facets are Pay,
Promotion, Supervision, Fringe Benefits, Contingent
Rewards (performance based rewards), Operating Pro-
cedures (required rules and procedures), Co-workers,
Nature of Work, and Communication.
Secondary Data
The secondary data was collected from different sources,
such as academic articles, books, journals, earlier research
reports and other published documents i.e. Annual Re-
port of UGC.
6 R
Pearson product moment correlation was used to deter-
mine the relationship between self esteem and job satis-
faction as well as optimism and job satisfaction.
The relationship between self esteem and job satisfaction
are shown in Table-1.
Correlation of self
esteem with job
Significant level
The table 1 indicated that self-esteem is significantly posi-
tively correlated with job satisfaction [r = .323, p<0.05].
Thus, the teachers who had high self-esteem had high job
The relationship between optimism and job satisfaction is
shown in Table-2.
Correlation of
optimism with job
Significant level
The table 2 indicated that optimism is significantly posi-
tively correlated with job satisfaction [r = .373, p<0.01].
Thus, the teachers who had high optimism had high job
The relation of self-esteem and optimism with the factors
that are related with job satisfaction are shown in Table-3
The factors related
with job satisfaction
Operating proc
Nature of work
*p<.05, two-tailed **p<.01, two-tailed
The table 3 indicated that self-esteem is significantly posi-
tively correlated with promotion and nature of work. On
the other hand, optimism is significantly positively corre-
lated with promotion, supervision, rewards, relationship
with co-workers as well as nature of work and negatively
correlated with operating procedure.
7 D
Results of this study showed that self-esteem and optim-
ism is significantly positively correlated with job satisfac-
tion. The results mean that teachers who had high self-
esteem had high job satisfaction. The result supports
Judge, Locke and Durham’s (1997)theory of core self-
evaluations. Locke, McClear, and Knight (1996) noted, "A
person with a high self-esteem will view a challenging
job as a deserved opportunity which he can master and
benefit from, whereas a person with low self-esteem is
more likely to view it as an undeserved opportunity or a
chance to fail" (p. 21). In fact, research suggests that indi-
viduals with high self-esteem maintain optimism in the
Asian Business Review, Volume 1, Issue 1, September 2012 ISSN 2304-2613
Copyright © 2012, Asian Business Consortium | ABR Page 119
face of failure, which makes future success (and thus fu-
ture satisfaction) more likely (Dodgson & Wood, 1998).
Self-consistency theory (Korman, 1970) hypothesizes that
individuals are motivated to behave in a manner consis-
tent with their self-image. Thus, the theory predicts, in-
dividuals with high self-esteem will perform effectively
in order to maintain their positive self-image. Theories of
learned helplessness support a link between positive self-
evaluations and job performance. According to the model
of learned helplessness, when faced with unfavourable
circumstances, individuals with a positive, optimistic
explanatory style will be less likely to display motiva-
tional deficits (i.e., lower their effort, withdraw from task
oriented behaviours), whereas those with a pessimistic
explanatory style will display symptoms of helplessness
(Peterson & Seligman, 1984). Finally, control theory (Lord
&Hanges, 1987) predicts that when individuals perform
below their expectations, they exert additional effort to
obtain the performance goal, reduce their standard level
(lower their aspirations), or withdraw from the task en-
tirely. Research has shown that when individuals with an
internal locus of control are faced with discrepancies be-
tween acceptable standards of performance and actual
performance, they tend to increase their efforts to match
their actual performance to the standards (Weiss &
Sherman, 1973). Conversely, people who have low self-
esteem tend to either lower their standards or completely
withdraw from the task when given negative feedback
(Brockner, 1988).
Another result of this study showed that self-esteem is
significantly positively correlated with promotion and
nature of work. Another theoretical mechanism linking
this result to job satisfaction is suggested by Korman's
(1970) self consistency theory. Korman's theory predicts
that individuals with high self-esteem choose occupa-
tions consistent with their interests, which would lead to
greater levels of job satisfaction. More generally, Kor-
man's theory predicts that high self-esteem individuals
will engage in a broad array of behaviours and cogni-
tions that reinforce their self concept. Positive self con-
cept may help the person to perform well that leads to
promotion. Peretomode (1991) and Whawo (1993), have
suggested that the higher the prestige of the job, the
greater the job satisfaction. In our society as a profession
teaching is the noble and respectable job by nature of
work. The person who had high self- esteem may have
high preference of teaching for this task identity.
The result of the present study also shows that optimism
is significantly positively correlated with promotion, su-
pervision, rewards, relationship with co-workers and
nature of work.The result support with the findings, As-
pinwall and Taylor (1992) have shown that optimistic
persons adjust more favourably to important life transi-
tions than do persons who are more pessimistic in out-
look. Another finding of the present study indicates that
optimism is negatively correlated with operating proce-
dure. Related research suggests that these differences in
outcomes derive partly from differences between optim-
ists and pessimists in the manner in which they cope
with the challenges in their lives. Optimists differ from
pessimists in their stable coping tendencies (Carver,
Scheier&Weintraub, 1989) and in the kinds of coping res-
ponses that they spontaneously generate when given
hypothetical coping situations (Scheier, Weintraub, &
Carver, 1986). That’s why optimist may cope better with
difficult operating procedure and it make no sense to
them to decrease job satisfaction. Thou they face difficult
operating procedures; they have better satisfaction in job.
8 C
The present study indicates that studies on personality
traits are necessary for understanding the underline pat-
terns of individual issues of the teachers to increase job
satisfaction. More research still required in this field to
discover the relationship with lot more other factors.
Some limitations like economical, time and manpower
hindered this study in different ways such as - the study
was conducted only in Dhaka, sample size was too small,
scales for measuring were not in Bengali version etc. So
the study recommends further research on larger sample
from different areas of Bangladesh, that is proper repre-
sentative sample and with better methodological sophis-
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... Employees view job evaluation exercise for determining pay and promotional opportunities as not fair. This has left organizations with employees that are not sure about their future after such exercise Ahmed [5].Armstrong [3] recommended the need to have all employees understand their true performance and actual rewards if any, so that each of them can do a self-assessment as to whether they were motivated to do well or not. In so doing, the organization and the employees could be almost on the same level of understanding. ...
... In this regard, the scholar advised that, care must be taken to guard against biased appraisals that would make an employee appear to be very productive and rightfully rewarded when the opposite might be the truth on the ground. Ahmed [5] had the same conclusion in which the suggestion that employees can be happy without appropriate remunerations was rejected. The study therefore intends to fill these gaps by assessing the means that there are more factors affecting employees' job satisfaction than just good pay. ...
... In terms of reward, the equity theory tries to point to many factors that could contribute to acceptability of the kind of rewards given based on the method of measurement applied by the organization (Elma, 2013).To achieve the level of satisfaction that would make an employee motivated to participate fully in the organization activities without supervision, there is always the need to set the environment of the workplace fittingly for each group of employees. Equity theory points out that the various groupings of employees would be more confident if they work in an environment that gives them the freedom to fully express their skills and work with enthusiasm without the feeling of being spied upon by either employee of superior ranks or categories Ahmed [5]. Greenberg and Cohen (2014) question the simplicity of equity theory since many psychological variables that can be attributed to people, cannot be fully factored into any evaluation unless the rights of people are infringed upon. ...
... An individual with high self-esteem also has confidence in developing her ability to overcome difficulties. Ahmed (2012) found that self-esteem has a significantly positive correlation with job satisfaction. The results of meta-analysis by Judge and Bono (2001) show that self-esteem was positively related to job satisfaction. ...
... Optimism is an individual's tendency to have positive expectations about the future, while pessimism is an individual's tendency to have negative expectations about the future (Ahmed, 2012). An individual with optimistic outlook adjusts better to important life transitions than pessimists. ...
... Various studies showed that optimism is positively related to job satisfaction. Ahmed (2012) found that optimism has significantly positive correlation with job satisfaction. Chang et al. (2010) pointed out that optimism is related to job satisfaction. ...
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This study aims to examine the work-family enrichment (WFE) model as influence mediator of supervisor support, self-esteem, and optimism on job satisfaction. The population in this study is 263 permanent employees of Bank BPD DIY, who occupy the positions as staff, and are married, in 7 branch offices in the Special Region of Yogyakarta (DIY). This research uses census method, while data analysis uses AMOS. The results of this study show that work-family enrichment model acts as influencer mediator of supervisor support, self-esteem, and optimism on job satisfaction fit with the empirical data. Hypothesis testing results show that supervisor support implies positive effect on job satisfaction, self-esteem implies positive effect on job satisfaction, and optimism implies positive effect on job satisfaction. Supervisor support also implies positive effect on work-family enrichment, self-esteem implies positive effect on work-family enrichment, and optimism implies positive effect on work-family enrichment and work-family enrichment implies positive effect on job satisfaction. Work-family enrichment works significantly as influence mediator of supervisor support on job satisfaction, work-family enrichment works significantly as influence mediator of self-esteem on job satisfaction, and work-family enrichment works significantly as influence mediator of optimism on job satisfaction.
... The theory also predicts that individuals with high self-esteem are more vigilant and they work hard to achieve the target and satisfy their self-concept and also get better salary and promotion. Another study conducted by MozumdarArifa Ahmad (2012) showed that self-esteem is significantly positively correlated with job satisfaction among teachers of private universities in Bangladesh. According to him high self-esteem will engage in those healthy activities which in turns reinforce their self-concept and positive self-concept help a person to do better and hard work which lead to promotion and high job satisfaction. ...
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Aim of this study was to check association between self-esteem and job satisfaction. The study was conducted to investigate the effects of self-esteem on job satisfaction among operational Rescuers of Emergency Rescue Service Rescue 1122 District Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Participants for this study were selected through a specified criterion. Data for the present study was collected from 100 operational Emergency Medical Technicians and Fire Rescuers (Fire Fighters). Age ranges from 26 to 35-year, education ranges from intermediate and professional diploma to master degree. Purposive sampling technique was used. Self-esteem scale (Urdu) by Rifai and Tariq in 1999 and Job Satisfaction Survey (Urdu Version) by Shehzad and Begum (2011) were used. Results of the study report significant positive correlation between self-esteem and job satisfaction. Rescuers with high self-esteem were found more satisfied in their work as compare to low self-esteem rescuers. It was concluded that self-esteem has a positive and direct relationship with job satisfaction. Rescuers with high level of self-esteem were found more satisfied in their job as compared to low self-esteem rescuers
... age, gender, medium of education; Alam et al., 2014); achievement in community factors (Alam, 2015), etc. Also, there is some research considering self-esteem with demographic variables (Uzzaman et al., 2013), self-esteem with optimism (Ahmed, 2012), and self-esteem with social responsibility (Akhter & Hossain, 2012). Researchers were more interested in 'self-concept' than 'self esteem' with academic achievement in our country. ...
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Studies on academic achievement worldwide are sporadic, focusing on variables more or less have been taken by the researchers, and provided knowledge. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine how the school effect influences secondary school students' academic achievements by two important significant (study habits and self-esteem). With a convenient sampling method, 400 students from eight secondary schools in Bangladesh were selected for the study. Though the students were equally divided regarding gender (Boys, 200; Girls, 200), they were different regarding school types (Public, 188; Private, 212). Their ages range from 14 to 17, with an average of 14.8. They provided responses on two Bangla version scales: Study Habit Scale and Self-Esteem Scale. Academic achievement was significantly positively correlated with both study habits (r=.268, p<.01) and self-esteem (r=.291, p<.01). Two predictors of the study were also correlated with each other (r=.283, p<.01). Public and private school students were not varied significantly in studying habits and academic achievement, but they were significantly different in self-esteem. The study habits and self-esteem jointly explained 12.3% for public school students' academic achievement whileit explained 7.5% variance for the private school students. The discussion implies that how students' study habits and self-esteem facilitates their academic achievement. Further studies will reflect more factors influencing academic achievement.
... Literature has shown that management of human resources in a company is becoming increasingly important for firm satisfaction and business vision achievement (Ahmed, 2012). As regards organisational development, employees" satisfaction is considered a backbone for the industry (Shahzad et al. (2012). ...
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The study examined organisational and psychological factors as correlates of job satisfaction of faculty members in private university libraries. Descriptive research design was adopted in the study. The total population of the study comprised of 307 respondents in the 18 private universities in the Northern Indian states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. A seven-point questionnaire was adopted for collecting data from the professors.The data collected was used to run the regression analysis for the four factors The results of the study showed that organisational factors (organisational culture and organisational commitment) are stronger correlates of job satisfaction among faculty members in private university in India than psychological factors (work motivation and self-esteem).
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Academic performance at high school level is a crucial determinant of whether a student joins university or other tertiary colleges, thereby determining their future path and career progress. It is the scope of student-teacher achievement and the outcome of education goals in learning institutions. Yet despite various measures put in schools to enhance performance, many schools in Kenya continue to perform poorly academically. Prior empirical evidence suggests that transformational leadership can enhance school performance. However, the focus of past studies has almost exclusively been on the school principal while studies on how transformational leadership practices of a teacher relate to students' academic performance are sparse. This is problematic because the school teacher commands a comparatively larger share of interaction time with learners through classroom engagement. This scholarly neglect of the place of school teachers' transformational leadership practices in the students' academic performance equation can contribute to inadequate leadership policy interventions that target the classroom level. Utilizing qualitative methodology, the present study contributed to knowledge production by exploring transformational teacher practices in relation to students' academic performance within the context of Kirinyaga County schools. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews with 8 teachers and 30 students yielded five salient themes: lack of a strong culture of role modelling in schools by teachers, creativity and innovation in the practice of teaching, individualized connectivity and communication, encouragement through simulation of real exam scenarios, and appreciation of student's efforts by the teacher. These themes represented the mechanism through which transformational leadership translate to students' academic performance of County schools in Kirinyaga. Conclusion was drawn that transformational leadership model is suitable for enhancing teaching staff's professionalism and quality teaching with positive implications on students' academic performance. Teacher transformational leadership training workshops are proposed to turn classrooms and schools into centers of academic excellence.
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Job satisfaction remains until this date a prominent factor that managers seek in their employees to ensure the organization’s productivity and success. It has extensively drawn the attention of researchers in the educational field to inform policymakers and school leaders of its impact on teachers’ motivation, commitment, stress, retention, and burnout levels. The aim of this study is twofold. First, it will investigate teachers’ job satisfaction level in Lebanon, and second, it will look at their perceptions of their principals’ self-efficacy levels. A total of 133 Teachers Job Satisfaction Questionnaires (TJSQ) were collected from 6 private and 6 public K-12 schools to measure teachers’ perceptions about the factors that are mostly correlated with their job satisfaction levels. Despite that, overall means of intrinsic factors were higher than extrinsic factors, correlation analysis revealed that extrinsic factors (i.e., working conditions and professional development) were more associated with teachers’ job fulfillment. Findings from this study support the literature indicating that when teachers’ extrinsic needs are fulfilled in less developed countries, they will uplift their job satisfaction level. Further implications for research and practice are also discussed.
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The rapid growth and use of the Internet over the last several years has changed the way companies’ conduct of business activities, including the activities of human resource management. To attract and recruit best employees is one of the great challenges for Human Resource Department. Today online recruiting has become a significant tool for Human Resource Department. Bangladeshi companies also can recruit with their websites, job boards or resume banks, newspaper classified ads, and job boards. Online recruiting processes increase firms' competitive advantage through increased efficiency and lower costs and offers benefits and opportunities to jobseekers. This paper investigates the perceptions and behaviors of job-seekers concerning the use of the Internet as a recruiting source. 204 survey questionnaires were distributed to job seekers who are almost regularly using Internet for various purposes. The results showed that perceived usefulness and perceived enjoyment are positively and significantly related to the behavioral intention to use Internet as a job search tool. The study implies that the developers of online job sites need to provide additional useful functionalities or tools in the sites to help users for job search. The paper provides an insight for jobseekers to find employment by using Internet as a job search tool.
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A happy worker at workplace has a direct impact on the overall quality of his/her life and therefore it’s very important to understand what makes us happy or unhappy at work. Also a happy worker is an important factor for all organizations development and to enhance its productivity. A company should focus on workers to be happy because of their own improvement. But, surprisingly, there is an absence of sound framework for understanding such an important issue from both workers’ and organization’s perspective. This study focus on various kinds of workplaces of Bangladesh and for this purpose a survey is done among 200 employees of six private banks within both male and female employees. The present study focuses on five particular phenomena related to identify the dimensions of a happy worker as psychological wellbeing, peer behavior, work family conciliation, work stress, management cooperation and personal development.
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Compensation satisfaction represents an important construct to organizations and to the field of Human Resource Management because it serves as a critical mediator between an organization's compensation policy and relevant behavioral and attitudinal outcomes (Blau, 1994; Lawler, 1981; Sturman & Short, 2000). Compensation plays a significant role in determining employees' job satisfaction. According to Bozeman & Gaughan (2011), the perception of being paid what one is worth predicts job satisfaction. This study, therefore, seeks to establish the effects of compensation on job satisfaction among primary school teachers, secondary school teachers and college teachers in Bangladesh. The questionnaires prepared for this purpose are applied to 250 teachers who are currently working in various schools and colleges in Bangladesh. The collected data have been analyzed through several techniques by using SPSS 17.0 program. Analyses of the study reveal that a significant relation is observed between the compensation factors and the job satisfaction of the teachers. Overall, the teachers' job satisfaction levels are not so elevated (mean value is 3.46 and a standard deviation is 0.982). Besides, the differences among the demographic variables (age, gender, monthly income level, job experience, and education) and the attitudes towards these factors and the levels of job satisfaction are also measured. This study provides significant information for educational institutions regarding compensation factors of job satisfaction.
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The push for more complex, intellectually demanding approaches to teaching suggests that teacher commitment will continue to be important for effective education. This article develops a framework for assessing how differential incentive policies affect teacher commitment. It identifies seven key workplace conditions that contribute to teacher commitment: job design characteristics, feedback, autonomy, participation, collaboration, learning opportunities, and resources. This framework is used to assess the effects of such differential incentive policies as merit pay and career ladders. The selection mechanisms in these two programs are found to reduce autonomy and collaboration, but the job enrichment aspects of career ladders are found to increase participation, collaboration, and resources. We recommend combining policies that increase participation, collaboration, and feedback rather than continuing to experiment with differential incentives.
Written with the student audience in mind, this book is about the motivational determinants of behavior in work organizations. For practicing managers, helpful information may be found in the chapters dealing with day-to-day motivational problems. Three chapters deal specifically with motivational theory, and five chapters emphasize research and practice in motivation, since the book is primarily directed to the undergraduate or graduate student. Four approaches to motivation are emphasized as styles of management practice: paternalistic approach, scientific management approach, participative management, and a fourth called the combination approach. The contents of the book are structured within the framework of the following chapters: motivation and behavior in work organizations; drives, needs, and outcomes; motivation and behavior; satisfaction and behavior; the decision to work in an organization; extrinsic rewards and job performance; job design and job performance; interpersonal influences; and an overview of motivation in organizations. (DS)
Most learning is done to achieve extrinsic goals which have been internalized. It is extremely difficult to create the proper classroom context for promoting internalization without a broader contextual perspective for teacher education. Four developmental stages of extrinsic motivation are discussed and implications for teacher education are offered. (MT)