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Die chinesischen Land- und Süßwasser-Gastropoden des Natur-Museums Senckenberg

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... Pachychilids typically inhabit fast running rivers, streams and lakes (Köhler and Dames, 2009;Marwoto and Isnaningsih, 2012). Yen (1939) recorded four species of Sulcospira, i.e., Sulcospira sinensis (Reeve, 1859), Sulcospira biconical (Brot, 1886), Sulcospira ebenina (Brot, 1883), Sulcospira hainanensis (Brot, 1872), and three species of Brotia, i.e., Brotia variabilis (Benson, 1836), Brotia swinhoei (H. Adams), Brotia squamosa Yen, 1939from China. ...
... Yen (1939) recorded four species of Sulcospira, i.e., Sulcospira sinensis (Reeve, 1859), Sulcospira biconical (Brot, 1886), Sulcospira ebenina (Brot, 1883), Sulcospira hainanensis (Brot, 1872), and three species of Brotia, i.e., Brotia variabilis (Benson, 1836), Brotia swinhoei (H. Adams), Brotia squamosa Yen, 1939from China. Liu et al. (1993 recorded S. hainanensis and Brotia microsculpta in Hainan Island, China. ...
... ebenina as junior synonyms to S. hainanensis (Brot, 1872). Du et al. (2017) and Du and Yang (2019) treated Semisulcospira trivolvis Yen, 1939 as a junior synonym to Semisulcospira paludiformis Yen, 1939 and placed it in Sulcospira, and thus its accepted species name is Sulcospira paludiformis. Du (2019) considered that B. swinhoei was a synonym of Brotia herculea (Gould, 1846) based on molecular evidence and mentioned that B. microsculpta was misidentified from Hainan Island, and was a shell variation of S. paludiformis. ...
Article
A new species of pachychilid freshwater gastropod, Sulcospira elonga sp. nov., is described from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters, including eight to 11 whorls, spiral lirae and axial ribs present, the shell width is about 1.4-1.6 times the maximum width except for the body whorl, and stomach with outer and inner crescentic pads connected to each other.
... Historically, the status of these named taxa has been interpreted very differently. For example, Kobelt (1909) recognized narrowly delimited species within a quadrata 'Formenkreise' (= superspecies), Annandale (1924) treated quadrata as a species comprising named forms between which intermediates exist, Prashad (1928) included a number of forms such as reevei, aeruginosa and heudei in quadrata and Yen (1939) interpreted quadrata in China alone as comprising 12 named subspecies. Since these studies, several new species have been added to Sinotaia (Brandt, 1968;Gozhik & Prysjazhnjuk, 1978;Zhang, Liu & Wang, 1981;Liu, Zhang & Wang, 1982;Datsenko, 2001;Ng, Tan & Yeo, 2014), and a total of 37 extant accepted species are currently listed in MolluscaBase (2020). ...
... Yen (1939. V. Sinotaia turritus; Viviparus quadratus turritus Yen, 1939. SMF40241. ...
... Y. Sinotaia annulatus. Viviparus annulatus Yen, 1939. SMF40244. ...
Article
The taxonomy of species in the caenogastropod genus Sinotaia (Viviparidae: Bellamyinae) has been a complex and controversial issue since the 19th century. Sinotaia quadrata, the type species of Sinotaia, comprises many named forms and transitions between them, and the taxonomic validity of some species similar to S. quadrata also requires clarification. To clarify relationships in this common and significant member of the freshwater benthos, we reconstructed a phylogeny for species related to S. quadrata based on the 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes to test which classifications are robust using modern data and interpretation. We also compared the shell outline morphology of type material of most species in the genus Sinotaia from the original literature. The combination of phylogenetic and shape variance data suggests that seven currently recognized species of Sinotaia should be synonymized with S. quadrata. We used microsatellite markers and landmark-based geometric morphometric analysis to examine the genetic differentiation and shell shape variation of S. quadrata populations in both China and Japan. Genetic and shape variations were not congruent, suggesting that minor variations in shell shape do not indicate distinct Sinotaia species. Shell shape variation shows no clear separations and shows environmental plasticity. Using data on molecular phylogenetics, genetic diversity and shell morphology, we provide a more inclusive species concept for S. quadrata. This provides a basis to formally revise this taxon and the seven closely related nominal species that are widely distributed in China and East Asia.
... As a result, we regard it impossible to distinguish our species morphologically from T. oblongus. T. boeningi was described from Taiwan and Yen (1939) reported additional specimens from Hongkong, and with T. [b.] inexpectatus regarded as subspecies or even synonym it is known also from the adjacent Ryukyu Islands and the Izu Islands south of Honshu. Furthermore, it occurs on the Ogasawara Islands as reported by Wada, Kawakami & Chiba (2012) who observed its survival of the passage through a bird's digestive system thus suggesting a bird-mediated dispersal mode. ...
... Furthermore, it occurs on the Ogasawara Islands as reported by Wada, Kawakami & Chiba (2012) who observed its survival of the passage through a bird's digestive system thus suggesting a bird-mediated dispersal mode. Conchological comparison to images of the lectotype (Yen, 1939: fig. 26 and Fig. 2) and a Japanese specimen figured by Sasaki (2008: fig. ...
... Regarding the type material of T. boeningi there is some confusion that should be clarified. Our conclusion is that Yen (1939) correctly designated the lectotype from the original material and that the type locality is Tamsui: While the species was explicitly described from material originating from northern Taiwan [Formosa] (Tamsui) (other than most material dealt with by Schmacker & Boettger (1891) in the same paper which came from Takao, southern Taiwan), Yen (1939) gave as type locality "Takao, Formosa", both under the species account as well as in the figure caption of the lectotype. A request at the SMF confirmed that the original label by Boettger states "Takao, S. Formosa", but Zilch as curator at the time added a label with "N-Formosa: Tamsui". ...
Article
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Three previously unreported species of tropical land snails were found in the greenhouses of the Gothenburg (Göteborg) Botanical Garden and the Public Science Center Universeum in Gothenburg. For Tornatellides cf. boeningi (Schmacker & Boettger, 1891) and Ovachlamys fulgens ( Gude, 1900 ) this is the first observed occurrence in a European greenhouse, while Discostrobilops hubbardi ( Brown, 1861 ) was first reported very recently in the Vienna Botanical garden. Tornatellides and Discostrobilops seem to be spread with orchid culture and trade. Identification of the Tornatellides species proved extremely difficult and a genetic sequence-based approach completely failed due to the unavailability of reference data. This was unexpected considering the importance of these introduced species in horticultural trade. A broader assessment of available sequence data for genetic identification based on COI or 16S for other snail species reported from horticultural facilities showed that such reference data in GenBank are still scarce and only for a limited number of species this approach would support identification.
... The taxonomy of the genus Acusta Martens, 1860 (type species Helix ravida Benson, 1842) has long perplexed taxonomists and ecologists (Pilsbry, 1895;Moellendorff, 1899;Yen, 1939;Richardson, 1983). Molecular data alone cannot determine species status directly, but we considered the criteria of reciprocal monophyly of molecular phylogeny, morphological differentiation, genetic distance, geographic distribution, and available type materials (pictures not shown here) to provide updated taxonomic recommendations. ...
... A more comprehensive taxonomic work on these variable species will be reported elsewhere.1. Regarding relationships within the ravida subclade, it seems to be not a single species but rather a species group (Moellendorff, 1899) showing a more complex and heterogeneous taxonomy than previous classification (Yen, 1939;Richardson, 1983). Many Chinese Acusta taxa have been classified as subspecies or synonyms of A. ravida (Yen, 1939;Chen and Zhang, 2004). ...
... Regarding relationships within the ravida subclade, it seems to be not a single species but rather a species group (Moellendorff, 1899) showing a more complex and heterogeneous taxonomy than previous classification (Yen, 1939;Richardson, 1983). Many Chinese Acusta taxa have been classified as subspecies or synonyms of A. ravida (Yen, 1939;Chen and Zhang, 2004). Our evidence proves they are either independent species or are allied to A. redfieldi. ...
Article
East Asia has highly diverse and endemic biota due to its complex geological and climatic history and its diversified topography. The continental and insular distributions of land snail genus Acusta in East Asia provide a good opportunity to compare the evolutionary processes in this group under different biogeographical conditions. In this study, we inferred the evolutionary history of the land snail genus Acusta by a molecular phylogeny and investigated how the palaeogeographic events shaped species diversity and the distribution of the Acusta genus within the island arc. A concatenated dataset generated from sequences of one nuclear (ITS2) and two mitochondrial (16S, COI) gene fragments, include most of nominal taxa of the genus, four related species and one outgroup. We constructed the phylogeny and the evolutionary history of the genus through maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference methods, using a Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range estimation. Our results suggested that currently recognized species in Acusta are polyphyletic. The traditionally accepted concept of the affinity of Acusta and Bradybaena is not supported. The hypothesis of colonization via land bridges during the Pleistocene glaciations for the biota of East Asian islands is not supported. Instead, the origin and diversification of the genus Acusta was dated to the late Miocene–Pliocene from an area around North and Northeast China to South China and East Asian islands Three major evolutionary lineages were identified. Two of the major lineages demonstrate distinct evolutionary histories, as sympatric speciation is the major speciation process for the continental clade, while the insular clade originated from founder events. Taiwan functioned as an important source of diversification for species on the East Asian islands possibly through passive dispersal of different mechanisms. The sea level fluctuations caused by the Pleistocene glacial cycles play a role in the subsequent dispersion and diversification of species of the continental clade, such as the more recent range expansion of A. redfieldi from South China to Taiwan and Japan.
... Yen, 1939, including its synonym Semisulcospira trivolvis Yen, 1939, is, in fact, a member of the pachychilid genus Sulcospira Troschel, 1848. However, many other nominal species-group taxa are still poorly known, and their statuses and correct taxonomic assignments require further scrutiny. ...
... The name Melania cancellata Benson was erroneously attributed to a publication in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1833, volume 2, page 119 by Brot (1875, in 1874-1879: 82) and Yen (1939). This publication does not exist. ...
... However, Oxytrema was originally described for North American taxa and is not applicable for Chinese semisulcospirids. Therefore, Morrison's (1952) treatment has not been followed by Chinese researchers (Yen 1939;Tchang and Tsi 1949;Zhang et al. 1997), who placed all species in Semisulcospira. Strong and Köhler (2009) resurrected Hua based on comparative morpho-anatomy and molecular phylogenetics for the assignment of the Vietnamese species Melania jacqueti (Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1906). ...
Article
The taxonomic history of Chinese semisulcospirids is confusing. Originally placed in Melania by late 19th century authors, species have subsequently been dispersed into four different genera, i.e. Semisulcospira Böttger, 1886, Senckenbergia Yen, 1939, Hua Chen, 1943, and Namrutua Abbott, 1948; however, these placements were not conducted within a phylogenetic context. Based on examination of newly collected samples from the Chinese provinces Yunnan, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Anhui and Chongqing, we revised the systematics of the Chinese Semisulcospiridae based on comparative anatomy and mitochondrial phylogenetics. We have examined shell, radular, and reproductive features and employed Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses of partial sequences of mitochondrial genes cytochrome coxidase I and 16S rRNA to resolve the phylogenetic relationships. The results revealed that Semisulcospiridae is represented by three genera in China, which differ in their reproductive strategy, including Semisulcospira, which is viviparous and contains three species (S. ningpoensis, S. gredleri, and S. pleuroceroides); Hua, which is oviparous and contains 11 species; and Koreoleptoxis, which is oviparous and contains one species. Namrutua and Senckenbergia are identified here as junior subjective synonyms of Semisulcospira. All taxa recognised herein formed well differentiated clades in three mitochondrial phylogeny, and could be reliably distinguished by differences in shell shape and sculpture. Four new species of Hua are described from Yunnan Province. This is the first comprehensive study to review the taxonomy of semisulcospirids in China. These species are sensitive to water quality, and economic development and infrastructure expansion have negatively impacted many populations. We fear that some species may have disappeared before being investigated or described scientifically. Therefore, this research will hopefully inspire further studies and surveys to foster our understanding of freshwater gastropod diversity in China.
... Semisulcospirids are an ecologically important and taxonomically challenging family of freshwater snails distributed in lakes, rivers, and streams in eastern Asia, including Far East Russia, Japan, Korean peninsula, and China, and in western North America (Köhler, 2016(Köhler, , 2017Liu et al., 1993;Strong & Köhler, 2009;Yen, 1939). Basic knowledge on freshwater gastropods in China was first established in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (e. g., Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1906, 1908Fulton, 1914;Heude, 1888), with all cerithioidean freshwater gastropods designated under the single genus Melania Lamarck, 1799 (junior synonym of Thiara Röding, 1798). ...
... Heude (1888Heude ( , 1889Heude ( (1882Heude ( -1890) recorded 24 species of Melania in south China, especially in the Yangtze River Basin. Yen (1939) subsequently identified Chinese freshwater snails from the Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Germany, and recorded 12 Chinese species of Thiaridae and a new genus, Senckenbergia Yen, 1939, for the type species Melania pleuroceroides from Sichuan. Chen (1943) later described two genera, Wanga (type species Melania henriettae Gray, 1833) and Hua (type species Melania telonaria Heude, 1888), into which were placed eight and eleven nominal species, respectively. ...
... Heude (1888Heude ( , 1889Heude ( (1882Heude ( -1890) recorded 24 species of Melania in south China, especially in the Yangtze River Basin. Yen (1939) subsequently identified Chinese freshwater snails from the Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Germany, and recorded 12 Chinese species of Thiaridae and a new genus, Senckenbergia Yen, 1939, for the type species Melania pleuroceroides from Sichuan. Chen (1943) later described two genera, Wanga (type species Melania henriettae Gray, 1833) and Hua (type species Melania telonaria Heude, 1888), into which were placed eight and eleven nominal species, respectively. ...
Article
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The systematics of Semisulcospiridae in China is revised here based on morphological characters and mitochondrial phylogenetics. Phylogenetic relationships within the Chinese semisulcospirids were assessed via DNA sequences from mitochondrial analysis (cytochrome c oxidase I and 16S rRNA). This research contains most morphospecies of semisulcospirids previously recorded in China. Based on these results, the family of Chinese Semisulcospiridae is represented by three genera: i. e., viviparous Semisulcospira Böttger, 1886, oviparous Hua Chen, 1943 and Koreoleptoxis Burch and Jung, 1988. These genera can be distinguished from each other by reproductive anatomy, reproductive mode, and radula features. Species of Hua are mainly distributed in southwest China and Guangxi, whereas Koreoleptoxis and Semisulcospira are mainly distributed in south and northeast China.
... In 1885, Heude described H. mola from Ta-kouan (=Daguan, Zhaotong, Yunnan). In 1887, Gredler described H. franciscanorum (Peishan, Hunan), which was assigned to subspecies of Trichochloritis hungerfordiana by Yen (1939) and was later listed as Chloritis (Trichochloritis) hungerfordiana franciscanorum by Zilch (1974;not "1886not " " in Zilch 1974 Zilch (1974). Yen assigned T. submissa (Deshayes, 1873), T. diploblepharis (Möllendorff, 1899), T. hungerfordiana (Yen 1939;1940), T. mola, T. percussa, T. herziana, T. molina, T. hunanensis Yen, 1939(Yen 1939, Helix patungana Gredler, 1887(not "patungensis" in Yen 1942not "Gredler, 1888" in Richardson 1983 and Helix epixantha Pfeiffer, 1850 (Yen 1942) to ...
... In 1887, Gredler described H. franciscanorum (Peishan, Hunan), which was assigned to subspecies of Trichochloritis hungerfordiana by Yen (1939) and was later listed as Chloritis (Trichochloritis) hungerfordiana franciscanorum by Zilch (1974;not "1886not " " in Zilch 1974 Zilch (1974). Yen assigned T. submissa (Deshayes, 1873), T. diploblepharis (Möllendorff, 1899), T. hungerfordiana (Yen 1939;1940), T. mola, T. percussa, T. herziana, T. molina, T. hunanensis Yen, 1939(Yen 1939, Helix patungana Gredler, 1887(not "patungensis" in Yen 1942not "Gredler, 1888" in Richardson 1983 and Helix epixantha Pfeiffer, 1850 (Yen 1942) to ...
... In 1887, Gredler described H. franciscanorum (Peishan, Hunan), which was assigned to subspecies of Trichochloritis hungerfordiana by Yen (1939) and was later listed as Chloritis (Trichochloritis) hungerfordiana franciscanorum by Zilch (1974;not "1886not " " in Zilch 1974 Zilch (1974). Yen assigned T. submissa (Deshayes, 1873), T. diploblepharis (Möllendorff, 1899), T. hungerfordiana (Yen 1939;1940), T. mola, T. percussa, T. herziana, T. molina, T. hunanensis Yen, 1939(Yen 1939, Helix patungana Gredler, 1887(not "patungensis" in Yen 1942not "Gredler, 1888" in Richardson 1983 and Helix epixantha Pfeiffer, 1850 (Yen 1942) to ...
Article
Full-text available
Two new camaenid land snails are reported from Central China. The new genus, represented by Sinochlo-ritis lii Wu & Chen, gen. & sp. nov., the type of the genus from Sichuan, is close to Yakuchloritis Habe, Nipponochloritis Habe, Neochloritis Minato and Trichochloritis Pilsbry, but is well characterized by the smooth adult shell, highly developed epiphallic papilla, absence of penial caecum, and the presence of an epiphallus-binding muscle that binds the proximal epiphallus to the distal penis. A new species Bradybaena linjun Wu & Chen, sp. nov. is described from Hubei Province and is characterized by having two shell bands, a spoon-shaped love dart and the proportionally shortest mucous glands among Chinese congeners.
... The East Asian monsoon region in China is unique in that it is characterized by a significant spatial water-energy gradient, strong climatic seasonality (four distinct seasons and large seasonal differences between summer and winter), and diverse habitats (Liu, 1985;Qian, 1991). Terrestrial mollusks are one of the most diverse groups of invertebrates in the region and they represent a substantial part of terrestrial biodiversity (Yen, 1939;Liu, 1985;Chen and Gao, 1987). As early as the 1980s, 211 species of terrestrial mollusks were reported for the whole of China (Chen and Gao, 1987). ...
... As early as the 1980s, 211 species of terrestrial mollusks were reported for the whole of China (Chen and Gao, 1987). It is now estimated that there are N720 species in this species pool of mollusks in China (Yen, 1939;Qian and Zhou, 2014). However, previous malacological studies focused mainly on the description of new species and a spatial distribution survey (Zhou et al., 1999;Wang et al., 2015). ...
... After drying, shells were manually separated from the remaining material under a stereo microscope, and then all mollusk individuals were identified and counted. The identification follows the specimens we stored and the monographs by Yen (1939) and Chen and Gao (1987). All individuals were identified to species level. ...
... Sulcospira is known to occur in Laos (Köhler et al. 2010), Vietnam ) and Hong Kong (Dudgeon 1982), but the full extent of its distribution in southern China remains unclear. Yen (1939) recorded four species of Sulcospira from China, namely Sulcospira sinensis (Reeve, 1859), Sulcospira biconica (Brot, 1886), Sulcospira ebenina (Brot, 1883) and Sulcospira hainanensis (Brot, 1872). Liu et al. (1993) recorded S. hainanensis from Hainan Island. ...
... However, Köhler and Glaubrecht (2002) regarded S. sinensis, S. biconica and S. ebenina as synonyms of S. hainanensis. Additionally, Du et al. (2017) placed Semisulcospira paludiformis Yen, 1939 into Sulcospira based on examination of radula, operculum and stomach characters. Wang et al. (2018) described Sulcospira hunanensis from Hunan Province, China. ...
... Sulcospira paludiformis (Yen, 1939) Semisulcospira paludiformis Yen 1939: 55, pl. 4, fig. 73. ...
Article
A revision of Chinese freshwater Sulcospira gastropods is presented here based on analysis of the morphological characteristics and partial sequences of the mitochondrial genes 16S rRNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). A total of three species was reported in China by earlier authors, including Sulcospira hainanensis, S. hunanensis and S. paludiformis. In this study, two new species of Sulcospira are described from Hunan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region based on morphological and molecular evidence.
... Remarks: The type species of this genus is intended to be the Hong Kong taxon described below, not Salinator swatowensis Yen 1939, if it proves to be distinct. Salinator swatowensis was originally included in Salinator based on shell characters (Yen 1939). ...
... Remarks: The type species of this genus is intended to be the Hong Kong taxon described below, not Salinator swatowensis Yen 1939, if it proves to be distinct. Salinator swatowensis was originally included in Salinator based on shell characters (Yen 1939). However, anatomically, the Hong Kong material attributed to N. cf. ...
... Naranjia cf. swatowensis (Yen, 1939) Salinator swatowensis Yen, 1939: 65, pl Redescription: Shell (Fig. 2M): Fragile, spire short, diameter to 7 mm, exterior smooth with faint striae. Last whorl relatively large, spiral line or ridge on shoulder of lower whorls present in some specimens. ...
Article
The taxonomy of the pulmonate superfamily Amphiboloidea is investigated with particular reference to Australasian taxa. Anatomical features of the alimentary, reproductive and central nervous systems differ substantially between taxa, and conchological, opercular and radular characters are also described. Four genera are recognised in Amphibolidae; Amphibola Schumacher, 1817, Salinator Hedley, 1900, Lactiforis gen. nov. and Naranjia gen. nov.. Two additional genera are assigned to new families; Phallomedusa gen. nov. (Phallomedusidae fam. nov.) and Maningrida gen. nov. (Maningrididae fam. nov.). Phallomedusidae fam. nov. is characterised by a paucispiral, keeled operculum and syntremous diaulic reproductive system with a complex, spiral penis. Maningrididae fam. nov. has an expanded operculum with a marginal nucleus and a syntremous diaulic reproductive system with two novel copulatory structures at the genital aperture. Taxonomic descriptions and a key are provided for eight Australian species; Salinator fragilis (Lamarck, 1822), Salinator tecta sp. nov., Salinator rhamphidia sp. nov., Salinator rosacea sp. nov., Lactiforis tropicalis sp. nov., Phallomedusa solida (Martens, 1878), Phallomedusa austrina sp. nov., and Maningrida arnhemensis sp. nov. and three non-Australian taxa; Amphibola crenata (Martyn, 1786), Lactiforis takii (Kuroda, 1928) and Naranjia cf. swatowensis (Yen, 1939).
... Liu (1985), in 'Loess and the Environment', put forward a detailed compilation of the research conducted into terrestrial mollusk fossils during this period. It can be concluded that this period's body of work could be subdivided into: (1) the period prior to the 1950s, when the focus was placed on descriptions of the genus and species of terrestrial mollusks (Yen, 1939(Yen, , 1943; (2) the period from the 1950s to the 1980s, when the emphasis was still on the collection of terrestrial mollusk data, apart from some detailed work on the taxonomic identification and classification of terrestrial mollusks. A focus was placed on stratigraphic records and the ages of the strata in which the fossils were found (Yu et al., 1963;Li, 1966). ...
... Nonetheless, there are marked differences in the sensitivities to changes in temperature and RH displayed by different terrestrial mollusk species (Li et al., 2016). Yen (1939) conducted an outstanding piece of mollusk research, producing a systematic survey and classification of modern Chinese terrestrial mollusks. This remains a seminal point of reference when identifying terrestrial mollusk species. ...
... Research on Chinese modern terrestrial mollusks has made substantive progress, providing a foundation for the ecological classification of the terrestrial mollusk fossils found in loess. Using previously published data on the geographical distribution and habitats of modern terrestrial mollusks (Yen, 1939;Chen and Gao, 1987;Chen and Zhang, 2004;Qian, 2008;Wang and Chen, 2011;Qian and Zhou, 2014), and combining with our investigations into the geographical distribution of modern terrestrial mollusks, we subdivided modern terrestrial mollusks from the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) into four ecological groups, i.e. terrestrial mollusks which are: (1) eurytopic group; (2) semi-aridiphilous and sub-humidiphilous group; (3) coldaridiphilous group; and (4) thermo-humidiphilous group (Fig. 1). ...
Article
The terrestrial mollusk fossils found in Chinese loess strata have been studied for over one hundred years. However, the greatest progress in these studies has been made only in the last two decades. In this paper, we review the advancements, advantages and limitations of terrestrial mollusk studies in Chinese loess deposits. Improvements in research methods and approaches have allowed the extraction of more detailed paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic information from mollusk assemblages. The broadened research scope and content have yielded many new findings and results. The mollusk record has thus become one of the most important proxies in the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic reconstruction of loess-paleosol sequences in China. The greatest progress in the studies of terrestrial mollusks in Chinese loess sequences can be summarized as follows: (1) modern mollusk assemblages can be classified into four ecotypes, based on their temperature and humidity requirements, including eurytopic, semi-aridiphilous and sub-humidiphilous, cold-aridiphilous, and thermohumidiphilous types; (2) Quaternary mollusk assemblages can be modified into the following three ecological types: glacial loess, interglacial paleosol, and interstadial weakly-developed paleosol assemblages; (3) mollusk records successfully reveal long-term climatic and environmental changes reflective of the history of East Asian monsoonal variations since the Late Cenozoic, and the succession of mollusk species also indicate short-term environmental changes such as millennial climate variability during Last Glacial Maximum and unstable climatic fluctuations during glacial and interglacial periods; and (4) more recently, new analytical approaches have offered increased research potential in areas such as paleotemperature reconstruction using the isotopic compositions of modern and fossil mollusk shells, combined with higher accuracy 14C dating of Quaternary loess deposits, which will greatly improve future loess paleoenvironmental research.
... One exception is the photographs of the type specimens from the MNHN-IM collection, which are credited to the museum taken under project E-RECOLNAT: ANR-11-INBS-0004. (1885), Kobelt (1906) and Yen (1939); 3 Kobelt (1902), Thiele (1929), Wenz (1938 and Egorov (2009);4 Kobelt (1912), and Low and Tan (2017); 5 Gude (1921) and Kobelt (1911 ...
... Within the overall limits of its total geographical distribution (Table 2), Rhiostoma occupies a more restricted area than other cyclophorids such as Pterocyclos and Cyclotus. The boundary of the genus is demarcated in the west with the endemic genera Spiraculum and Theobaldius Nevill, 1878 of South Asia; in the north with Ptychopoma and Scabrina Blandford, 1863 of China (Yen 1939); and in the south, with the dominant and closely related Pterocyclos in Greater Sunda Islands and the Philippines. ...
Article
Full-text available
The snorkel snail genus Rhiostoma Benson, 1860 is comprised of terrestrial cyclophorid snails with wide-ranging species diversity and radiation in Southeast Asia. The typical characters of the genus are a depressed shell, a detached and descending portion of the last whorl with a distinctive peristomal breathing device attached, and a calcareous cup-shaped operculum. Herein, we have revised the systematics of extant species based on shell morphology combined with COI barcoding. From these thirty recognised species, twelve are described as new to science: R. ? amarapuraense sp. nov. , R. anceyi sp. nov. , R. breviocollar sp. nov. , R. ebenozostera sp. nov. , R. cheliopegma sp. nov. , R. furfurosum sp. nov. , R. gnomus , sp. nov. , R. lannaense sp. nov. , R. laoense sp. nov. , R. platymorpha sp. nov. , R. rhothonotaphrosa sp. nov. , and R. tigrina sp. nov. All conchological characters are provided via illustrations of type specimens and living snails, and descriptions of the shells and radulae. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial COI gene sequences strongly supports the designated morphospecies and a monophyletic Rhiostoma , confirming that all pterocyclinid snails with a calcareous, cup-shaped operculum belong to the same clade. A high intra-specific divergence was observed in R. jalorensis and R. housei populations from locations in close proximity, suggesting a lower dispersal and higher level of isolation. The low inter-specific divergence found in R. hainesi , R. samuiense , R. asiphon , and R. rhothonotaphrosa sp. nov. supports their recent diversification and local adaptation, and is congruent with their marked morphological differences. Finally, nine formerly Rhiostoma -placed species were reclassified into either the genus Cyclotus or the genus Opisthoporus .
... Since Boettger (1886) neither designated any name-bearing types for S. multigranosa, nor explicitly stated the number of the examined specimens of this species collected from Lake Biwa, it remains unclear how many specimens should receive the syntype status of S. multigranosa. A part of Schmacker's malacological collection is known to have been maintained at the Geosciences Collection of the University of Bremen (Lehmann 2018); nonetheless, Yen (1939) revisited Boettger (1886)'s Chinese specimens, including a M. schmackeri specimen kept at Senckenberg Naturmuseum, Frankfurt. Zilch (1942) subsequently added specimens to the specimens' catalogue, including semisulcospirid species that were not treated by Yen (1939). ...
... A part of Schmacker's malacological collection is known to have been maintained at the Geosciences Collection of the University of Bremen (Lehmann 2018); nonetheless, Yen (1939) revisited Boettger (1886)'s Chinese specimens, including a M. schmackeri specimen kept at Senckenberg Naturmuseum, Frankfurt. Zilch (1942) subsequently added specimens to the specimens' catalogue, including semisulcospirid species that were not treated by Yen (1939). However, neither of these studies referred to the type series of S. multigranosa, and therefore the syntypes have been deemed missing. ...
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The type series of Semisulcospira multigranosa Boettger, 1886 was found in the Malacological Collection at the Senckenberg Naturmuseum for the first time in ca. 135 years after its original description. The syntypes consisted of 38 specimens, which could be classified into four species. The examination of adult shell morphology of these original materials revealed that the current taxonomic account of S. multigranosa should be amended. Therefore, we designate a lectotype for S. multigranosa, and thus describe S. multigranosa auct. as Semisulcospira davisi sp. nov. Semisulcospira davisi can be discriminated from the other congeners by the characteristics of adult and embryonic shells, and radulae morphology. The present study can resolve one of the fundamental taxonomic problems remaining with the Semisulcospira snails.
... There are 24 species of the genus distributed in southern China belonging to two subgenera, Camaena and Camaenella. Twenty-three species belong to Camaena (Yen 1939;Chen and Zhang 1999;Schileyko 2003;Ai et al. 2016;Ding et al. 2016), and only one species is in Camaenella (Pilsbry 1894;Yen 1939;Chen and Zhang 1999). The subgenus Camaenella was treated as a synonym of Camaena or as a genus in its own right by some scholars (Chen and Gao 1987;Chen and Zhang 1999). ...
... There are 24 species of the genus distributed in southern China belonging to two subgenera, Camaena and Camaenella. Twenty-three species belong to Camaena (Yen 1939;Chen and Zhang 1999;Schileyko 2003;Ai et al. 2016;Ding et al. 2016), and only one species is in Camaenella (Pilsbry 1894;Yen 1939;Chen and Zhang 1999). The subgenus Camaenella was treated as a synonym of Camaena or as a genus in its own right by some scholars (Chen and Gao 1987;Chen and Zhang 1999). ...
Article
In this study, four new dextral camaenid from China are reported, based on shell morphology, reproductive system anatomy, and molecular phylogenetic analyses: Camaena funingensis Zhou, Wang & Lin, sp. nov. , Camaena gaolongensis Zhou, Wang & Lin, sp. nov. , Camaena maguanensis Zhou, Wang & Hu, sp. nov. , and Camaena yulinensis Zhou, Wang & Hu, sp. nov. Detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics including shells and genitalia, DNA sequences, and living environments of the four new species are provided, with further comparisons with congeners.
... Moreover, Kobelt's (1902) monograph referred to Chamalycaeus as it was introduced by Kobelt and Möllendorff (1897). Almost all subsequent treatments erroneously attributed the name Chamalycaeus to Kobelt & Möllendorff, 1897(Kobelt 1902Gude 1921;Yen 1939;Zilch 1957;Azuma 1980;Minato 1982bMinato , 1987aMinato , 2005Minato and Yano 1988;Egorov 2005;Zhang et al. 2008) and referred to Alycaeus andamaniae Benson, 1861 as the type species as subsequent designated by Gude (1921). The ICZN Code 70.2 states the following: "If it is found that an earlier type species fixation has been overlooked, the overlooked fixation is to be accepted and any later fixations are invalid. ...
... Alycaeus globulus Möllendorff, 1885: 162. Dioryx globulus -Kobelt andMöllendorff 1897: 146;Kobelt 1902: 338;Yen 1939: 28, pl. 2, fig. 28. ...
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412 species-group names (including 11 replacement names), and 14 genus-group names of the Alycaeidae have been introduced to date. Type materials of 85% (336) of the known species and subspecies were examined, a further 5% (19) of the taxa were studied using available non-type material, and for another 6% (22) the original descriptions were sufficiently detailed to evaluate their taxonomic status. Only 3% of the taxa (12) could not be examined. Special attention was paid to the sculpture of the embryonic whorls and the sutural tube-microtunnel system in order to provide a novel classification for this group. In this study 363 taxa (320 species or 43 subspecies) are accepted within the family Alycaeidae. Of these, 22 have been described by the lead author and his coauthors in previous publications. In addition, there are 18 species that were formerly classified in Cycloryx and now belong to Pincerna due to its synonymy with Cycloryx. Among the remaining 323 species, 209 (65%) are transferred here to another genus, whilst 114 (35%) have remained in their original genus. Seven genera are accepted. While some questions (e.g., the distinction between Pincerna and Alycaeus) remained unanswered, this revision made three main achievements: (1) The Dicharax species were identified based on the absence of spiral striation on the entire shell; (2) the Metalycaeus species were identified based on the spiral striation of the protoconch; (3) and Stomacosmethis was separated from Alycaeus based on the extremely short sutural tube. Five nominal species are being synonymised with other species, and eight species are now treated as subspecies. The following replacement names are proposed: Dioryx urnula niosiensis Páll-Gergely, nom. nov. for Alycaeus urnula var. daflaensis Godwin-Austen, 1914; Dioryx urnula rotundus Páll-Gergely, nom. nov. for Alycaeus urnula var. globosus Godwin-Austen, 1914; Pincerna crenilabris juttingae Páll-Gergely, nom. nov. for Alycaeus crenilabris laevis van Benthem Jutting, 1959; Pincerna crenilabris korintjiensis Páll-Gergely, nom. nov. for Alycaeus crenilabris latecostatus van Benthem Jutting, 1959; Dicharax conicus jatingaensis Páll-Gergely, nom. nov. for Alycaeus conicus var. nanus Godwin-Austen, 1914; Metalycaeus godwinausteni Páll-Gergely, nom. nov. for Alycaeus neglectus Godwin-Austen, 1914; and finally Metalycaeus suhajdai Páll-Gergely, nom. nov. for Alycaeus varius Godwin-Austen, 1914.
... In general, freshwater lymnaeids in China are rather poorly known. The body of available literature is chiefly based on conchological traits and do not contain information on the soft body anatomy let alone molecular data (Yen 1939;Liu et al. 1979;Quian et al. 2012;Sun et al. 2015). Recently obtained genetic data have revealed the uniqueness of the region and the presence of gaps in the taxonomy of Chinese gastropods (von Oheimb et al. 2011;Aksenova et al. 2018). ...
... There is a plethora of nominal species of Chinese aquatic gastropods described on the basis of shell morphology alone (e.g. Yen 1939;Qian et al. 2012), and their integrative revision is much urgent. The data obtained in this study and in a few previous works (von Oheimb et al. 2011;Aksenova et al. 2018;Qin et al. 2019) disprove the statement of Sun et al. (2015) that all Chinese species of the genus Radix should be lumped into one species, i.e. ...
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A new representative of the genus Radix has been recorded from eastern China, Radix dgebuadzei sp. nov. This peculiar species was recorded from the Qinling Mountains, a remote highland region sharing the high levels of faunal and floral endemism. The phylogeny indicate that the new species belongs to the Radix alticola species group, being sister to the widespread species R. plicatula (Yunnan and Gansu in China and Southeast Asia) and R. euphratica (Middle East, Central Asia, and Eastern Europe). At first glance, we could assume that Radix dgebuadzei sp. nov. represents a local lineage endemic to the Qinling Region, while this preliminary hypothesis needs to be confirmed in the future. Our novel discovery highlights that China harbors a largely endemic fauna of the Lymnaeidae and that isolated mountain ranges in East Asia could be considered evolutionary hotspots of the radicine pond snails.
... Sequence data were analysed using Bayesian inference (BI) in MrBayes 3.2.4 (Ronquist et al. 2012) and maximum likelihood (ML) implemented in Pilsbry and Hirase (1908), Kuroda and Taki (1933), Yen (1939), Minato (1973), Habe and Chinen (1974), Wang et al. (2014), Wu and Tsai (2014), Wu and Wu (2017), . The distribution of snail-eating snake Pareas species is according to Hoso et al. (2010) and Zhao et al. (1998). ...
... Based on shell morphology, three additional sinistral snail species distributed in mainland China probably belong to Satsuma: Satsuma (?) fortunei (Pfeiffer 1850), Satsuma (?) uncopila (Heude 1882) and Satsuma (?) latilabris (Möllendorff, 1874). The three species have similar morphology to Satsuma meridionalis according to the plate of type specimens of Yen (1939). These species also mostly occur in the range of Pareas snakes according to the available records ( Figure 1). ...
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The species of Satsuma are mostly endemic to East Asia except for one species distributed in Batan Island of the Philippines. More than 99% of the known species of this genus are endemic to the island environment. Only three species are currently known to occur on the mainland. Here we describe a new sinistral Satsuma species from China, Satsuma guandi n. sp. We studied the shell morphology and genital anatomy of the new species and reconstructed the molecular phylogeny of the genus based on partial nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and nuclear markers from the ribosomal RNA cistrons (the internal transcribed spacer and the external transcribed spacer regions). The new species differs from other sinistral Satsuma species by having a strongly angulated shell and an open dark brownish-red umbilicus. The new species also differed from all other sinistral congeners in details of its reproductive anatomy. The molecular analysis supports the validity of the new species within the genus Satsuma.
... Gredler (1881) Yen (1939) grouped H. spelaea, H. sekingeriana, and H. franciscana into Kaliella Blanford, 1863and H. zikaveiensis (in Yen 1939sicaveiensis" was a typographical error) into Microcystina Mörch, 1876;he placed H. sinensis, H. planula, H. planata, and H. rejecta in Macrochlamys and moved H. rathouisii to Euplecta Semper, 1870. None of the above mentioned species was anatomically examined. ...
... Over-dependence on shell morphology caused many conflicts in the early classification of Chinese species of Hyalina. Furthermore, none of the above-mentioned species that had once been treated as Hyalina has been studied since Yen (1939), and the existence of true oxychilid species in China has been questioned. However, our recent work on the malacofauna of Sichuan, has found a species which meets the morphological definition of Oxychilidae Hess, 1927 but conchologically differs from above-mentioned Hyalina species. ...
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A new and the first proven oxychilid species endemic to China is reported from Sichuan Province. Sinoxychilusgen. nov. is established based on this new species and has diagnostic traits of the sculptured protoconch, partial epiphallus wrapped by developed penis sheath, penial retractor muscle inserting on the top of penial caecum, spinelets on penial pilasters, absence of epiphallic papilla and perivaginal gland present on vagina and proximal bursa copulatrix duct. In light of shell morphology and through geometric morphometric analyses, Zonites scrobiculatus scrobiculatus Gredler and Z. scrobiculatus hupeina Gredler are proposed to be included in the new genus. A phylogenetic inference based on ITS2 gene indicates that the new genus is systematically close to Oxychilus Fitzinger, which is known from the Western Palearctic and the Southwestern Arabian Peninsula, regions that are geographically far from the distribution range of the new genus.
... Gastrocopta armigerella (Reinhardt, 1877) type locality Misaki (Japan), has been reported from Japan (Möllendorff 1901;Nekola et al. 2012;Nishi et al. 2017;WMSDB) and China: Gansu, Batang, eastern Tibet, Hunan, Xifeng, Yangtze region, Anhui, Zikarvei, Dshiangsu, Shandong, Shanghai (Möllendorff 1901;Pilsbry 1916Pilsbry -1918Yen 1939;Chen and Gao 1987;Wu et al. 2007;Zhouxing and Deniu 2008;Pokryszko and Stworzewicz 2004;WMSDB). Gastrocopta armigerella has also frequently been found in a fossil state (Pleistocene) (e.g., Wu et al. 2007;Wu and Wu 2011) on the Chinese loess plateau (Xifeng and Luochuan). ...
... As G. coreana Pilsbry, 1916, G. theeli has been reported from China: Tsinan Fu, Shangdong (Yen 1939), fossil (Pleistocene) from the Chinese loess plateau (e.g. Wu et al. 2007;Wu and Wu 2011); from Japan (e.g. ...
Article
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Gastrocoptaarmigerella (Reinhardt, 1877) has been described from Japan and is widespread in the Far East and China. Surprisingly, a few occurrences in central and western Asia have also become known. Forcart (1935) found G.armigerella in northern Iran. The authors found evidence of G.armigerella in western Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan. The form from northern Tajikistan described by Schileyko (1984) as G.huttoniana agrees morphologically with G.armigerella as well. Gastrocoptahuttoniana is known from western India and the Himalayan region. The evidence of G.armigerella from central and western Asia has come thus far from drift material at the high water line in river floodplains which suggests that these are sub-fossil or fossil shells (Holocene or Pleistocene) which have been relocated. No living example of Gastrocopta has been found there as yet. Possibly the species is now extinct in this region. Gastrocoptatheeli (Westerlund, 1877) is the most widespread Gastrocopta in Eurasia. Its area ranges from the Caucasus to the Far East. The findings reported here are the first for this species in western Tien Shan.
... B. similaris, favoring the tropical and temperate climate, is considered indigenous in Southeastern Asia, but has successfully invaded regions of Africa, Australia and Central and South America. In China, B. similaris has been reported to live in the warm and humid area such as Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi (Heude, 1882;Yen, 1939;Wu, 2015). This species is commonly seen in gardens or on sheltered grounds covered with organic debris and is harmful to a variety of plants with soft foliage. ...
... They tend to wander at the roots of plants, or some low-rise herbaceous plants and shrubs (our field observation); optimal living temperature for this species can vary from 18 to 39°C (He et al., 2008). The third one, C. fasciola, widely distributed in the northern China, is a dominant species in northern regions such as Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Shandong and northern Jiangsu (the southernmost distribution of this species), where cool and arid climate prevails in winter (Yen, 1939;Wu, 2015). This species has also been observed frequently in the loesspaleosol deposits in Chinese Loess Plateau (Wu et al., 2006). ...
Article
Carbon isotope compositions of land snail shells (δ¹³Cshell) are shown to be indicative of local climate conditions. However, it is largely unknown how the responses of δ¹³Cshell to climatic factors changes amongst different species. In this study, we collected 3 species of land snail shells across the East Asian monsoon region of China to explore the overall relationship between δ¹³Cshell as well as the response of individual species to the regional climate. Results show that, whereas all species collectively can provide a consensus relation between δ¹³Cshell and local climatic factors such as temperature and precipitation; the response of individual species to the fluctuations of these factors is not uniform. Specifically, while the southerly species Bradybaena similaris exhibits robust δ¹³Cshell – mean precipitation correlation in both linearity and sensitivity, a common northerly species, Cathaica fasciola, only finds limited utility as a climate indicator, particularly for precipitation. Meanwhile, the south -central species Acusta ravida appears to be able to faithfully record past climate conditions despite showing a wider distribution and a broader habitat. Such species-dependent nature in the relations between δ¹³Cshell and local climatic factors can be attributed to the effect of ingested carbonate and variations in eco-physiological factors of different species, and is expected to be widespread, suggesting the need to be taken into consideration for future studies.
... However, these subspecies are different each other in shell shape and size, openness of umbilicus, sharpness of peripheral angel, convexity of whorls and the presence of a hump beside umbilicus. These taxa previously were treated as synonyms, varieties or subspecies of C.cicatricosa based on only comparative shell morphology [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] . In 2016, the sinistral were revised and upgraded to species by Ding et al. according to shell morphology, anatomical as well as molecular characteristics 21 . ...
... In 2016, the sinistral were revised and upgraded to species by Ding et al. according to shell morphology, anatomical as well as molecular characteristics 21 . Some studies have indicated that this snail is mainly distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan, Hainan and Vietnam 17,22,23 . However, researchers recently clarified the phylogeny and taxonomy of sinistral camaenids, and found that this camaenid snail is distributed only in the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi 21 . ...
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The phylogeographic structure of the land snail Camaena cicatricosa was analyzed in this study based on mitochondrial gene (COI and 16srRNA, mt DNA) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) sequences in 347 individuals. This snail is the vector of the zoonotic food-borne parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis and one of the main harmful snails distributed exclusively in China. The results revealed significant fixation indices of genetic differentiation and high gene flow between most populations except several populations. An isolation-by-distance test showed no significant correlation between genetic distance and geographical distance among C. cicatricosa populations, which suggested that gene flow was not restricted by distance. The levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity of C. cicatricosa were generally high, except those in some special populations, according to the mt DNA and ITS2 data. Furthermore, the phylogenetic trees and asteroid networks of haplotypes indicated nonobvious genetic structure, the same as results got based on the synonymous and non synonymous sites of 347 sequences of the COI gene. All lines of evidence indicated that climatic changes and geographical and human barriers do not substantially affect the current population structure and distribution of the investigated snails.
... Stenogyropsis -Yen, 1939: 152. Stenogyropsis -Schileyko, 2004(1998-2007: 1689. ...
Article
Stenogyropsis is one of the few genera of Helicoidea having a high-spired shell. Here, we describe a new species (Stenogyropsis chorismenostoma n. sp.) that has a further remarkable trait: its last quarter whorl is detached from the penultimate whorl. We also show that a partly detached last whorl has evolved much more frequently in terrestrial Caenogastropoda than in Stylommatophora relative to the number of species within those groups. This may be due to the more superficial contact of the neighbouring whorls in the former group.
... Each sample comprised ∼15 kg of soil material, and all samples were washed and sieved in the field using a 0.5-mm mesh sieve to remove fine soil. The mollusk shells were then picked and identified under a binocular microscope; the identification procedures followed Yen (1939) Frontiers in Earth Science | www.frontiersin.org November 2021 | Volume 9 | Article 788738 4 and Chen and Gao (1987). ...
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The magnitude and rate of the expansion of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) rain belt under future climatic warming are unclear. Appropriate ecological proxy data may provide an improved understanding of the spatial extension of the EASM during past warming intervals. We reconstructed the spatiotemporal pattern of the extension of the EASM since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), using six well-dated mollusk fossil sequences from Chinese loess sections located on the modern northern edge of the EASM. The abundance of typical dominant mollusk species indicative of EASM intensity shows a delayed response, from ∼17 ka in the southeastern sections to ∼9 ka in the northwestern sections, during the last deglacial warming. Isoline plots based on a mollusk data synthesis show that the mollusk EASM indicators have a northeast-southwest zonal distribution for both the present-day, the cold LGM, and the warm mid-Holocene, which is consistent with the spatial pattern of modern precipitation. The resulting estimated expansion rate of EASM intensity accelerated during ∼12-9 ka (∼50 km/ka), which corresponds to the early Holocene interval of rapid climatic warming, a northwestward shift of ∼150 km compared to today. This implies that the northern fringe of the EASM in northern China will become wetter in the coming century, under moderate warming scenarios.
... The identifiable mollusk remains were counted following Rousseau and Wu (1997). The identification procedures followed Yen (1939), and Chen and Gao (1987). All individual mollusks were identified to species level. ...
Article
Ongoing climate change threatens biodiversity and directly affects the stability of plant-animal communities. However, it is unclear how the species diversity of biological communities responds to natural climate warming, and whether the temporal stability of biodiversity in the face of climate warming varies with environmental gradients in different communities due to the lack of long-term data. We present three high-resolution records of terrestrial mollusk fossils dating back 25 kyr along a climatic and vegetation gradient from southeast to northwest across the Chinese Loess Plateau. The records show that deglacial warming increased the mollusk diversity by ∼30% in species-poor steppe communities; however, in high-diversity forest-steppe communities, the effect was less, and diversity's dynamic stability was even maintained. The high-diversity communities adjusted their composition by substituting thermo-humidiphilous taxa for cold-tolerant taxa, with the compositional turnover reaching ∼60%. The mollusk diversity of species-poor communities is shown to be more sensitive to the last deglacial warming and associated with the strengthening of the East Asian Summer monsoon than that of diverse communities. The increased temporal instability and sensitivity of biodiversity in species-poor communities in the face of climate disturbances, from a long-term perspective, highlights the potential risk of collapse of soil communities under future anthropogenic biodiversity loss.
... ( Table 4) and the geometric morphometric result (Figs. 32, 33) suggest that P. t. anderssoni are not closely related to P. t. depressus, and the treatment of putting P. t. depressus as a subspecies under P. tectumsinense than a subspecies under P. anderssoni (Yen 1939) is supported. This confirms again the idea that the integrated application of shell morphology, anatomy and molecular information are necessary for the taxonomy of land snails. ...
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The genus PseudiberusAncey, 1887, in Shandong, China, distributed in the mid to the south mountainous areas of the province, represents the largest terrestrial mollusks in this region. By molecular phylogenetic inference and genetic distance comparison based on ITS2 + 16S sequences, P. tectumsinense tectumsinense (Martens, 1873), P. tectumsinense zenonis (Gredler, 1882), P. tectumsinense anderssoni (Odhner, 1925) and P. tectumsinense depressus (Yen, 1935), are confirmed to be subspecies under P. tectumsinense (Martens, 1873). Pseudiberus tectumsinense pingi, new subspecies, is proposed to be new based on shell morphology, anatomy, and evidence of molecular phylogeny. Pseudiberus futtereri (Andreae, 1900) is removed from the species list of Shandongese Pseudiberus. The proximal accessory sac, observed in all the anatomically known Pseudiberus from Shandong, is described for the first time in dart sac apparatus from the bradybaenine snails. The variations and patterns of the proximal accessory sac among Pseudiberus tectumsinense subspecies and P. chentingensis distributed east to the Taihangshan Mountain Chain are examined. The close relationship among Shandong's Pseudiberus might be indicative of their rather recent evolutionary divergence, which was possibly driven by allopatric isolation of populations confined to refugial habitats like isolated mountain tops surrounded by extensive flood plains.
... In the Xifeng section, 15 species were identified from the L2 and L1 loess layers, and 23 species were identified in the Luochuan section. Identifications were based on previously archived specimens and on the monographs of Yen (1939), Chen & Gao (1987) and Nekola et al. (2015). The principal species are shown in Fig. 3. ...
Article
Knowledge of the structures and intensities of past glaciations is crucial for understanding Quaternary palaeoclimatic evolution. Terrestrial molluscs are a reliable proxy of past environmental conditions and can provide specific climatic insights into glacials. Here we compare the climatic evolution of the last two glacials, based on mollusc fossils from the L2 and L1 loess units (equivalent to Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 6 and 4-2, respectively) of the Xifeng and Luochuan sections of the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). The results show that both glacials had a tripartite structure but with different intensities, as indicated by variations in the abundance of the dominant cold-aridiphilous (CA) mollusc species, Vallonia tenera and Pupilla aeoli. The first stage, from~191 to 184 ka for MIS 6, and from~71 to 57 ka for MIS 4, was characterized by a cold, arid climate, as indicated by the abundance of V. tenera and P. aeoli, and the limited occurrence of thermo-humidiphilous (TH) species. The second stage, from~184 to 155 ka for MIS 6, and from~57 to 29 ka for MIS 3, was characterized by a relatively mild, humid climate, indicated bya decrease in V. tenera and P. aeoli, and an increase in TH species. The last stage, from~155 to 130 ka for MIS 6, and from~29 to 11.7 ka for MIS 2, experienced the coldest and driest conditions, as indicated by the dominance of V. tenera and P. aeoli in late MIS 6 and by the reduced occurrence of the grassland biomass, necessary for the growth of CA species, in MIS 2. The climate during MIS 2 was much colder and drier than that during late MIS 6. We suggest that the structures of the glacials were controlled mainly by insolation driven by changing astronomical configurations, amongst which obliquity likely played the major role. The different glacial intensities across the CLP may also have been related to variations in Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and the temperature of the tropical oceans.
... The genus Sinoennea Kobelt, 1904(in Kobelt, 1904a is widely distributed in Asia from the southwestern Himalaya region through the Chinese Sichuan and Hubei Provinces to Korean Peninsula and Japan, and to northern Borneo and Sumatra in the south (Yen, 1939;Zilch, 1961;Azuma, 1982;Maassen, 1999Maassen, , 2001Vermeulen, 2007;Ramakrishna et al., 2010;Budha et al., 2015;Tanmuangpak et al., 2015). The number of known species is at least eighty. ...
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High-spired South and Southeast Asian Streptaxoidea has been classified mostly in the Diapheridae, and partly in the Streptaxidae, and the systematic position of several of them has not been resolved yet. The examination of conchological characters and the analysis of the homologies of apertural barriers revealed that some new genera must be introduced. Parasinoennea Z.-Y. Chen & Páll-Gergely, new genus, is erected to include a few species from Vietnam and southern China. Platylennea Páll-Gergely, new genus, and Rowsonia Páll-Gergely, new genus, include species from the Western Ghats of southern India. Pupennea Páll-Gergely, new genus, is erected for Pupa planguncula Benson, 1863, which inhabits central India. All these three are probably members of the Diapheridae. We list all Diapheridae species of India and Myanmar, and describe three new species from Myanmar as follows: Diaphera polita Páll-Gergely, new species; Diaphera turbanophora Páll-Gergely & Grego, new species; Sinoennea montawana Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, new species. Sinoennea longtanensis S. Ouyang, X.-M. Liu & X.-P. Wu, 2012 is treated as a synonym of Parasinoennea splendens (Möllendorff, 1882).
... The malacofauna of western Hubei has usually been studied at some well-known localities along the Yangtze River, for example in Badong and Changyang (Heude 1882, 1885, 1890Yen 1939). In the region farther south, which encompasses vast areas of limestone mountains, the land snail fauna is still poorly known. ...
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Two new species, Sinoarinia feii Chen, gen. et sp. nov. and Pincerna vallis Chen & Wu, sp. nov., are described from western Hubei, China. The new genus Sinoarinia Chen & Wu, gen. nov. is established based on the strongly constricted penultimate whorl and the ascending last whorl. The Vietnamese species Pincerna costulosa (Bavay & Dautzenberg) is newly reported from Yunnan, China. For comparison, photographs of the shells of closely related species are provided. A key to the known species of Sinoarinia gen. nov. is included.
... Sinoennea consists of more than 80 species, and the genus ranges from the southern Himalaya through the Chinese Sichuan and Hubei Provinces, Indonesia to southern Korea, Taiwan, and Japan (Pilsbry & Hirase, 1908;Yen, 1939;Zilch, 1961;Azuma, 1982;Maassen, 1999Maassen, , 2001B.-C. Hsieh et al., 2006;Vermeulen, 2007;Budha et al., 2015;Tanmuangpak et al., 2015). ...
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Seven new species of Sinoennea Kobelt, 1904, are described as follows: S. ljudmilena Páll-Gergely, new species, S. otostoma Páll-Gergely, A. Reischütz & Maassen, new species, S. angustistoma Páll-Gergely, A. Reischütz & Maassen, new species, S. infantilis Páll-Gergely & Grego, new species, and S. variabilis Páll-Gergely & Grego, new species (all five from Laos), Sinoennea panhai Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, new species, and Sinoennea sutchariti Páll-Gergely & Hunyadi, new species (both from Thailand). Laoennea Páll-Gergely, new genus, is established for a new species from Laos, Laoennea carychioides Páll-Gergely, A. Reischütz & Maassen, new species, due to several unique morphological traits. With the exception of S. variabilis, all new species are so far known only from their type localities. The high level of diapherid species diversity in Laos suggests that the country is probably one of the centres of this family’s radiation.
... Rachis Albers, 1850 (type species Bulimus punctatus Anton, 1838; SD Martens in Albers 1860) is an enoid genus comprised of many known species from Africa and India (Schileyko 1998b). Two Chinese land snail species with conical shells were assigned to this genus based on shell morphology (Gredler 1887;Yen 1939;Wu 2018). Although Möllendorff (1901) placed them in Buliminus and thought they appeared to be related to the group, including Bulimus cantori Philippi, 1844 (= Mirus cantori), he wondered about the absence of an angular nodule that is ubiquitously observed in the Chinese enids. ...
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A new land snail species that represents a new genus is reported from Hubei, China. The snail has a conical shell with pits and/or granules on embryonic whorls and a smooth teleoconch with straight peristome. The head of the animal has a developed wart. The mantle lobe is only developed on the left side. At the front of the buccal mass there is no chitinous jaw that is without exception seen in Chinese camaenids. Its radular teeth are usually slender and tongue-shaped, not typical in bradybaenine snails. The genital system is typical of Bradybaeninae and is characterized by the absence of a membranous sac surrounding the terminal genitalia, penial caecum or flagellum; a well-developed penis sheath; a symmetrical dart sac apparatus; and one distally branched mucous gland. The new species Sinorachis baihu Wu & Chen, gen. and sp. nov., is assigned to the type species of the new genus, in which all the known Chinese Rachis species are included. Thereby, the new genus is composed of three species, namely Sinorachis onychinus (Heude), comb. nov., Sinorachis aureus (Heude), comb. nov. and the new species. Min Wu, Zheyu Chen, Liwan Zhang.
... These characters are consistent the diagnosis of Japonia Gould, 1859 and Lagocheilus Blanford, 1864. According to several systematic revision of the land snails [30][31][32][33] , Lagocheilus Blanford, 1864 has been widely used for Southeast Asian species of Japonia Gould, 1859 because Japonia was established without any morphological examinations and the type materials of Japonia have been lost, so some authors consider Japonia to be nomen dubious [34][35][36] . Although the status of Japonia has not been resolved, it may be preferable to use Lagocheilus. ...
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... Specimens were collected from ponds in Nanchang (28 39 0 39 00 N, 115 47 0 20 00 E), China, in 2019. Morphological identification was following the literature (Yen 1939;Liu et al. 1993). The voucher specimens were deposited in the Nanchang University, Nanchang, China. ...
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... 因此通过 [11,12] . 本文选择 2 种 不同生态类型的蜗牛种类进行壳体稳定同位素分析, 其中 P. aeoli 为典型的喜冷干种蜗牛, P. orphana 为典 型的喜暖湿种蜗牛 [4,11,12,24,25] . P. aeoli 喜好生活于相 对干冷的气候条件, 现今主要分布在西北内陆半干旱 气候带 [11] , 这些地区日均温度≥10℃的持续天数大约 在 140~180 d, 夏季持续时间短, 一般小于 45 d [20] . ...
... (1) [28,29] . , 55. 1 3 XRD, a, ce, b, df 55 . 1 : , , , ; , (50~100) [1] , 1 (55), . ...
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