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Descrição de um novo gênero e espécie de Macraucheniidae (Mammalia, Litopterna) do Pleistoceno do Brasil

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... The foramen opens dorsal to the transverse level of the distal part of M2 ( . 5C), Paranauchenia denticulata, and X. bahiense (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Schmidt and Ferrero, 2014). The infraorbital foramen is positioned slightly more rostrally in O. zeballosi (MACN-PV 13671) where it opens above the M1/M2 embrasure; in MACN-PV 8903 (referred to S. bravardi), it is situated at the level of the mesial part of M2. ...
... In Theosodon (Scott, 1910) and Cramauchenia (Dozo and Vera, 2010), the gap is relatively larger. By contrast, in X. bahiense and M. patachonica the bar is continuous and thus the orbit is completely encircled by bone (Scott, 1910;Soria, 1986;Cartelle and Lessa, 1988). According to Rovereto (1914, plate XXIX.4), the postorbital bar was reportedly complete in the holotype of H. cristata. ...
... Despite their proximity caudally, the temporal lines do not actually meet in the midline and consequently there is no sagittal crest in IANIGLA-PV 29. There is instead a flat polygonal area, seen also in MLP 41-IV-29-4, a specimen referred to H. cristata (Burmeister, 1864;Rusconi, 1932;Fernández de Álvarez, 1940;Soria, 1986;Cartelle and Lessa, 1988). The holotype of H. cristata ( fig. ...
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The Huayquerías Formation (late Miocene, Huayquerian SALMA) is broadly exposed in west-central Argentina (Mendoza). The target of several major paleontological expeditions in the first half of the 20th century, the Mendozan Huayquerías ("badlands") have recently yielded a significant number of new fossil finds. In this contribution we describe a complete skull (IANIGLA-PV 29) and place it systematically as Huayqueriana cf. H. cristata (Rovereto, 1914) (Litopterna, Macraucheniidae). The specimen shares some nonexclusive features with H. cristata (similar size, rostral border of the orbit almost level with distal border of M3, convergence of maxillary bones at the level of the P3/P4 embrasure, flat snout, very protruding orbits, round outline of premaxillary area in palatal view, and small diastemata between I3/C and C/P1). Other differences (e.g., lack of sagittal crest) may or may not represent intraspecific variation. In addition to other features described here, endocast reconstruction utilizing computer tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a derived position of the orbitotemporal canal running below the rhinal fissure along the lateroventral aspect of the piriform lobe. CT scanning also established that the maxillary nerve (CN V₂) leaves the skull through the sphenoorbital fissure, as in all other litopterns, a point previously contested for macraucheniids. The angle between the lateral semicircular canal and the plane of the base of the skull is about 26°, indicating that in life the head was oriented much as in modern horses. Depending on the variables used, estimates of the body mass of IANIGLA-PV 29 produced somewhat conflicting results. Our preferred body mass estimate is 250 kg, based on the centroid size of 36 3D cranial landmarks and accompanying low prediction error. The advanced degree of tooth wear in IANIGLA-PV 29 implies that the individual died well into old age. However, a count of cementum lines on the sectioned left M2 is consistent with an age at death of 10 or 11 years, younger than expected given its body mass. This suggests that the animal had a very abrasive diet. Phylogenetic analysis failed to resolve the position of IANIGLA-PV 29 satisfactorily, a result possibly influenced by intraspecific variation. There is no decisive evidence for the proposition that Huayqueriana, or any other litoptern, were foregut fermenters.
... Cramaucheniinae includes some Oligocene and early Miocene primitive forms: Coniopternium Ameghino, 1895, Cramauchenia, Phoenixauchenia Ameghino, 1904a, Pternoconius Cifelli and Soria, 1983 and Theosodon. Macraucheniinae is represented from the late Miocene to late Pleistocene-early Holocene and comprises Macrauchenia, Scalabrinitherium Ameghino, 1883a, Oxyodontherium Ameghino, 1883b, Paranauchenia Ameghino, 1904a, Promacrauchenia Ameghino, 1904a, Cullinia Cabrera and Kraglievich, 1931, Huayqueriana Kraglievich, 1934, Macraucheniopsis Paula Couto, 1945, Xenorhinotherium Cartelle and Lessa, 1988, and Windhausenia Kraglievich, 1930(Soria, 1981Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Schmidt, 2013). Some of these taxa need a full taxonomic revision, particularly Theosodon (Cassini et al., 2012). ...
... The study was performed through morphometric description and comparisons with other Macraucheniidae stored at the MLP and MACN collections (Tables S1, S2 in Supplementary Data). Bibliographic data mainly come from Scott (1910), Soria (1981Soria ( , 1986, Cifelli (1983), Cifelli and Soria (1983), Cartelle and Lessa (1988), and . ...
... Marshall et al. (1984) regarded Windhausenia as a synonym of Macraucheniopsis. However, Soria (1986) and Cartelle and Lessa (1988) considered these taxa as different evolutionary lineages. Our phylogenetic analysis shows Windhausenia closer to Xenorhinotherium than to Macraucheniopsis. ...
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Associated fragments of a maxilla and mandible of Theosodon hystatus Cabrera and Kraglievich (Macraucheniidae, Litopterna) from the late Miocene Arroyo Chasicó locality (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) are described and taxonomically reinterpreted. The systematic arrangement is supported by the first phylogenetic analysis of the family. The holotype (MLP 29-IX-1-75) of T. hystatus was originally poorly described and its generic assignation was not fully justified. The comparison of MLP 29-IX-1-75 with Paranauchenia denticulata Ameghino from the ‘Mesopotamiense’ (lower member of the Ituzaingó Formation, Entre Ríos Province; late Miocene) shows significant morphological similarities that lead us to propose that T. hystatus belongs to the genus Paranauchenia Ameghino, resulting in the new combination Paranauchenia hystata. The phylogenetic analysis of Macraucheniidae supports this proposal because both taxa form a monophyletic clade, sharing one synapomorphy: metaconid of m2 lingually placed. This new taxonomic interpretation implies the geographic extension of Paranauchenia to Buenos Aires Province. The obtained phylogeny also corroborates the monophyly of Macraucheniidae, but not that of the currently considered subfamilies, because Cramaucheniinae is paraphyetic.
... The family Macraucheniidae includes three subfamilies and 16 genera of middle size to very large forms. The representatives of this family are more conservative in dental and postcranial aspects than proterotherids, and are characterized mainly by the retraction of the nasals and the Paula-Couto (1945), Alvarez (1974), Marshall et al. (1984), Cartelle & Lessa (1988), Oliveira et al., (1989), Bergqvist (1993), Bergqvist et al. (1997), MacFadden & Shockey (1997), Perea et al. (1998), Bond (1999), Casamiquela (1999), Tauber (2000), Bond et al. (2001), Guérin & Faure (2004), Ubilla (2004), López & Labarca (2005), Scherer et al. (2006), Coltorti et al. (2007), Ubilla et al. (2007), Socorro (2006), and Vezzosi et al. (2009). ...
... The studied material consists of mandibular and postcranial elements deposited in the Paleovertebrates The bony terminology follows Sisson & Grossman (1963) and Schaller (1992), whenever possible. The dental terminology follows Cartelle & Lessa (1988). The systematics follows Cartelle & Lessa (1988), for the Macraucheniidae, and Bond et al. (2001) and Soria (2001) Figure 3A) has an elongated and slightly narrow morphology; its trochlea is pulley-shaped with strong vertical crests roughly parallel to the astragalar body. ...
... The dental terminology follows Cartelle & Lessa (1988). The systematics follows Cartelle & Lessa (1988), for the Macraucheniidae, and Bond et al. (2001) and Soria (2001) Figure 3A) has an elongated and slightly narrow morphology; its trochlea is pulley-shaped with strong vertical crests roughly parallel to the astragalar body. The lateral crest is greater than the medial one; the neck is short and shows a very concave fossa at the base of the neck, located on the dorsal face, which supports the anterior process of the tibia distal end. ...
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New materials of the order Litopterna from the late Pleistocene (Lujanian) of Rio Grande do Sul State are presented here. The specimens are an astragalus and calcaneum, assigned to cf. Neolicaphrium recens, and fragments of mandible, humeri, tibia and fibula, astragali, besides vertebrae and metatarsal, all of them attributed to Macrauchenia patachonica. The material described here comes from the municipalities of Santa Vitoria do Palmar (Hermenegildo Beach, Chui Creek), Uruguaiana (Touro Passo Creek), Alegrete (Sanga da Cruz Creek) and Pantano Grande (Sanga Borba Creek). The record of these taxa in the Lujanian of Rio Grande do Sul State shows a greater similarity with the fauna in the same latitudinal belt of Argentina and Uruguay than that of the intertropical region.
... The genus Xenorhinotherium, the focus of this study, occurred in Late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Its record is mainly in the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR), and it has also been recorded in Mato Grosso State and Venezuela, but these two occurrences of X. bahiense need to be revised (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Cartelle, 1999;Salles et al., 2006;Socorro, 2006). Moreover, we do not agree with the nomenclatural action by Guérin and Faure (2004), which assigned X. bahiense Cartelle and Lessa, 1988 as a junior synonym of Macrauchenia patachonica Owen, 1838. ...
... Its record is mainly in the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR), and it has also been recorded in Mato Grosso State and Venezuela, but these two occurrences of X. bahiense need to be revised (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Cartelle, 1999;Salles et al., 2006;Socorro, 2006). Moreover, we do not agree with the nomenclatural action by Guérin and Faure (2004), which assigned X. bahiense Cartelle and Lessa, 1988 as a junior synonym of Macrauchenia patachonica Owen, 1838. First, Guérin and Faure (2004) did not compare their sample from caves in Piauí State with the type material of X. bahiense. ...
... First, Guérin and Faure (2004) did not compare their sample from caves in Piauí State with the type material of X. bahiense. Second, Guérin and Faure (2004) did not contest any diagnostic features of X. bahiense as originally assigned by Cartelle and Lessa (1988). Instead, Guérin and Faure (2004) deemed the observed variation between X. bahiense and M. patachonica species-level variation without properly testing such an assumption. ...
Article
Litopterna is represented in the Pleistocene of the Brazilian Intertropical Region by a monospecific genus of Macraucheniidae, Xenorhinotherium . Although most of the knowledge about this family is derived from the dentition, some dental features still remain unknown. This study describes the eruption sequence of permanent dentition and classifies the hypsodonty status of X . bahiense . The specimens studied are from Toca dos Ossos, a limestone cave located in Bahia State. We perform qualitative macroscopic analysis to describe the eruption dental sequence. Additionally, we perform quantitative analysis to determine the hypsodonty index. The dental eruption sequence of the juvenile specimen is M1, M2, I1, I2, M3, I3, P1, P2, P3, and P4. In addition, the analysis of tooth wear in adult specimens provides similar results. The hypsodonty index assigns a mesodont tooth crown for X . bahiense . The dental eruption sequence is most similar to a rapid-growth extant mammal. Moreover, our results do not support afrotherian-like delayed dental eruption to Litopterna. The hypsodonty index can be related to data on vegetation of the Brazilian Intertropical Region and the shape of the premaxilla of X . bahiense , both of which suggest a browsing diet for this macraucheniid.
... The foramen opens dorsal to the transverse level of the distal part of M2 ( . 5C), Paranauchenia denticulata, and X. bahiense (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Schmidt and Ferrero, 2014). The infraorbital foramen is positioned slightly more rostrally in O. zeballosi (MACN-PV 13671) where it opens above the M1/M2 embrasure; in MACN-PV 8903 (referred to S. bravardi), it is situated at the level of the mesial part of M2. ...
... In Theosodon (Scott, 1910) and Cramauchenia (Dozo and Vera, 2010), the gap is relatively larger. By contrast, in X. bahiense and M. patachonica the bar is continuous and thus the orbit is completely encircled by bone (Scott, 1910;Soria, 1986;Cartelle and Lessa, 1988). According to Rovereto (1914, plate XXIX.4), the postorbital bar was reportedly complete in the holotype of H. cristata. ...
... Despite their proximity caudally, the temporal lines do not actually meet in the midline and consequently there is no sagittal crest in IANIGLA-PV 29. There is instead a flat polygonal area, seen also in MLP 41-IV-29-4, a specimen referred to H. cristata (Burmeister, 1864;Rusconi, 1932;Fernández de Álvarez, 1940;Soria, 1986;Cartelle and Lessa, 1988). The holotype of H. cristata ( fig. ...
... In the paper "Fantastic beasts and what they ate: Revealing feeding habits and ecological niche of late Quaternary Macraucheniidae from South America", Oliveira et al. (2020) interpret that both Xenorhinotherium bahiense Cartelle and Lessa (1988) and Macrauchenia patachonica Owen, 1838 were likely grazers. They got to this conclusion by using three different methods: enamel microwear analysis (EM), occlusal enamel index (OEI), and interpretation of available information on stable carbon isotope ratios (d 13 C) for these species. ...
... Premaxillary shape is one of the several cranial features that can provide information on dietary habits (Solounias et al., 1988;Janis, 1995;Dompierre and Churcher, 1996). Moreover, as stated by Cartelle and Lessa (1988), premaxillary morphology also is one of the traits that distinguish X. bahiense from M. patachonica. ...
Article
In this reply we present several methods mistakes in the interpretation of the diet of late Pleistocene Macrauchenids from South America, showing the correct interpretation for the studied taxa." as abstract section.
... No Nordeste brasileiro já foram registrados duas espécies pertencentes a esta subfamília. De acordo com Cartelle & Lessa (1988) a maioria das ocorrências no Nordeste brasileiro seriam atribuídas a Xenorhinotherium bahiense Cartelle & Lessa, 1988, no entanto, Guerin & Faure (2004 Comentários. À família Felidae são atribuídos a porção proximal de um metacarpo LPUFS 4927, e um unciforme LPU-FS 5217. ...
... No Nordeste brasileiro já foram registrados duas espécies pertencentes a esta subfamília. De acordo com Cartelle & Lessa (1988) a maioria das ocorrências no Nordeste brasileiro seriam atribuídas a Xenorhinotherium bahiense Cartelle & Lessa, 1988, no entanto, Guerin & Faure (2004 Comentários. À família Felidae são atribuídos a porção proximal de um metacarpo LPUFS 4927, e um unciforme LPU-FS 5217. ...
... The estimated mass for each species was taken from previous studies (e.g. . For Xenorhinotherium bahiense (not referred to in previous studies), a purportedly endemic macraucheniid of Brazilian Intertropical Region (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988; but see; Guerin and Faure, 2004), the estimated mass for Macrauchenia patachonica Owen, 1838 was used, a macraucheniid with size similar to X. bahiense. Finally, this study follows in the use of the terms specimen and skeletal element. ...
... Specimens described by Vidal ( , 1955 as M. patachonica and Equus sp. were revised through comparisons with up to date literature and attributed here to X. bahiense (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Mammalia, Litopterna, Macraucheniidae) and Equus (Amerhippus) neogaeus (Lund, 1840; Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equidae), respectively. Phalanx attributed to Mylodon sp. by was reassigned to Glossotherium sp. ...
Thesis
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Tank deposits consist in the main source of information about the Paleoecology of Quaternary vertebrates of Brazil and paleoenvironments of the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR) during the Late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Taphonomic researches involving fossil assemblages of tank deposits performed recently have always local amplitude, not allowing the recognizing of regional processes/phenomena (e.g. climate, stratigraphic control, geomorphology) that can have driven the taphonomic histories of deposits of this sort. This Thesis aims the proposition of a taphonomic model for Quaternary vertebrates of tank deposits through a regional-scale taphonomic analysis of bearing-vertebrate tank deposits. Taphonomic aspects of five paleontological sites were evaluated: (i) Jirau (municipality of Itapipoca, CE); (ii) João Cativo (municipality of Itapipoca, CE); (iii) Campo Alegre (municipality of Taperoá, PB); (iv) Curimatãs (municipality of Pocinhos, PB); and (v) Lage Grande (municipality of Alagoinha, PE). All material analyzed here is housed at Paleovertebrates collections of Museu Nacional and of Paleontology of Museu de Pré-história de Itapipoca. Biostratinomic, fossildiagenetic and paleoecological features were recognized and interpreted. When disponible, sedimentological and stratigraphic features were also analyzed and interpreted. This analysis indicates taphonomic similarities among the tank deposits related mainly to biostratinomic processes, such as transport and weathering, however, also indicates differences related to the biogenic processes (e.g. scavenging, trampling and butchering). Paleoecological features are constant for nearly all tank deposits, such as the predominance of the ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi and the paucity of small-sized vertebrates. In general, the fossil assemblages show different degrees of time-averaging, and some consist in “time-averaged samples” (Lage Grande) and others in “time-averaged samples” (Jirau, João Cativo Curimatãs and Campo Alegre). Furthermore, the comparative taphonomic analysis among different vertebrate groups of a same fossil assemblage (megamammals and anurans) indicates the occurrence of spatial-mixing within a same tank deposit. The taphonomic model for tank deposits includes taphonomic features unleashed by physical processes and variations related to biogenic aspects. The integrative approach of the data gathered in this Thesis evidences that the probable taphonomic scenario for this model is a result from a paleoclimatic control on the genesis of fossiliferous deposits of tanks during the Late Pleistocene-early Holocene.
... Although findings of Pleistocene mammals are abundant and frequently found in several regions of the Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil, such as Lagoa Santa, Janaúba, Bambuí, Pains, Cordisburgo, Montes Claros, Francisco Sá, Patos de Minas, Araxá (Price, 1944; Lund, 1950; Paula Couto, 1953, 1954 Simpson and Paula Couto, 1957; Cartelle and Lessa, 1988; Cartelle, 1989 Cartelle, , 1994 Cartelle, , 1999 Monteiro, 1998), there are to date no records of Quaternary fauna in the Triângulo Mineiro region. The Quaternary discoveries in Minas Gerais State were extremely important for the paleontological history of Brazil as a whole, because since the beginning of the 19th Century these findings had worldwide repercussion for paleontologists and archaeologists (e.g., Hoch and Prous, 1985; Cartelle, 2002 ). ...
... The works started with the pioneering contributions of Peter W. Lund and Herluf Winge (e.g., Lund, 1950), who studied thousand of specimens recovered from natural karstic caves filled with PleistoceneeHolocene sediments (see Cartelle, 1994 Cartelle, , 2002), from different localities from the center and north of Minas Gerais. Later on, especially since the second half of 20th Century, several contributions enlarged considerably the Quaternary studies of Minas Gerais State (e.g., Price, 1944; Simpson and Paula Couto, 1957; Paula Couto, 1979; Cartelle and Lessa, 1988; Cartelle, 1989 Cartelle, , 1994 Cartelle, , 1999 Monteiro, 1998; Neves et al., 1999; Hadler et al., 2009; Mothé et al., 2010). In 2006, the staff of the Centro de Pesquisas Paleontológicas Lewellyn Ivor Price (CPP), now owned by the Complexo Cultural e Científico de Peirópolis of the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro (CCCP/UFTM) excavated several cranial and postcranial bones from a sand-clay deposit overlaying Late Cretaceous rocks from the Bauru Group, in the Uberaba City (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). ...
... According to Cartelle (1999), only one litoptern species is known for the BIR: Xenorhinotherium bahiense (Cartelle and Lessa 1988). However, Guérin and Faure (2004) believed this species does not differ from Macrauchenia patachonica, assigning fossils found in the Piauí state to the latter. ...
... Given that this discussion is beyond the scope of this study, the systematic proposal of Cartelle (1999) will be considered here. Cartelle and Lessa (1988) assigned to X. bahiense a diet based on grasses and herbaceous plants, what is supported by previous research about the Pleistocene flora in the region where the type specimen was found (i.e., state of Bahia), and because the specimen of the BIR was found in an aggregation with other species of grazing megamammals. Fariña et al. (1998) assigned to M. patachonica a body mass of about 1000 kg, which we also tentatively suggest for X. bahiense. ...
Chapter
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This chapter reviews information about the extinct fauna that lived in the Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR) between 64 and 10 ka B.P. Data from the available literature regarding dating (14C, ESR, U-series) and paleodiet reconstruction (δ13C) for some of taxa of the BIR are herein presented. Furthermore, paleoenvironmental reconstructions of two climatic moments are presented, one at 64 ka, and another between 27 and 10 ka B.P.
... referred to in previous studies), a purportedly endemic macraucheniid of Brazilian Intertropical Region (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988; but see; Guerin and Faure, 2004), the estimated mass for Macrauchenia patachonica Owen, 1838 (Prevosti and Vizcaíno, 2006) was used, a macraucheniid with size similar to X. bahiense. Finally, this study follows Lyman (1994) in the use of the terms specimen and skeletal element. ...
... Specimens described by Vidal (1946Vidal ( , 1955 as M. patachonica and Equus sp. were revised through comparisons with up to date literature and attributed here to X. bahiense (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Mammalia, Litopterna, Macraucheniidae) and Equus (Amerhippus) neogaeus (Lund, 1840; Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equidae), respectively. Phalanx attributed to Mylodon sp. by Vidal (1946) was reassigned to Glossotherium sp. ...
Article
Biological, stratigraphic, and temporal processes act on the origin of fossil concentrations. The influence of these phenomena on fossil vertebrate accumulations from tank deposits recently began to be analyzed in detail. This paper documents taphonomic patterns recognized in the late Pleistocene fossil vertebrate accumulation from a tank deposit of Lage Grande Paleontological Site (LGPS), Pernambuco State, northeastern Brazil. The preservation observed in LGPS differs strongly from the expected for tank accumulations and, given the high quality of preservation and the low rate of time-averaging inferred (indicated by the low degrees of surface bone modifications), it seems reasonable that LGPS accumulation reflects nearly non-biased biocenotic patterns. Under this hypothesis, Eremotherium laurillardi was the most abundant species in the region of Lage Grande during the late Pleistocene, similarly to other areas with tank deposits. Surprisingly, cingulates were rare or absent. Non-mammalian vertebrates and Glossotherium were rare in that area. Taphonomic signatures indicate that the thanatocoenosis of Lage Grande experienced a short time span of subaerial exposure prior to burial and short transport to inside the tanks by debris-flows. Thus, LGPS accumulation can be classified as parautochthonous. Besides the inferred rapid burial of the LGPS assemblage, when compared to other tank accumulations, another feature that may had generated the peculiar taphonomic setting of LGPS accumulation is the uncommon pond-like morphology of this deposit. Morphology of the tanks may be one additional factor responsible for differential preservation of vertebrates in this kind of deposit.
... A temperatura média da região era muito mais baixa do que a atual e a umidade era mais elevada, o que pode indicar uma maior ocorrência de corpos d'água ao longo do ano (Cartelle 1999;Guérin & Faure 2008;Valli 2018). Esse mosaico de microrregiões possibilitou que a região fosse ocupada por uma megafauna com alta biodiversidade como: Megalonychidae, Megatheriidae, Mylodontidae, Dasypodidae, Glyptodontoidea, Macraucheniidae, Toxodontidae, Gomphotheriidae, Ursidae, Camelidae, Equidae, Felidae, Cervidae (Cartelle & Lessa 1988;Cartelle et al. 1989;Cartelle 1992;1999;Dantas & Tasso 2007;Dias Neto et al. 2008;Guérin & Faure 2008;Ribeiro e Carvalho 2009;Lobo et al. 2017;Valli 2018). ...
Article
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Resumo Pinturas rupestres na região Nordeste do Brasil retratam diversas espécies da fauna local. Uma pintura descrita na localidade de Lajedão do Riacho Largo, no município de Central, no Estado da Bahia foi identificada em meados dos anos de 1980 como representando a caça de um Toxodon, animal extinto de grande porte que habitou a América do Sul. Desde então, essa identificação tem sido criticada por diversos pesquisadores. Nós propomos uma nova identificação do animal retratado, como uma fêmea adulta de um grande cervo, possivelmente Cervo do Pantanal, Blastocerus dichotomus. A presença deste cervo, atualmente extinto na região, representaria a ocorrência mais oriental desta espécie no território brasileiro durante a pré-história. Abstract Rock paintings in the Northeast of Brazil depict several species of the local fauna. A painting described in the region of Lajedão do Riacho Largo, in the municipality of Central in the State of Bahia was identified in the mid-1980s as the hunting of a Toxodon, a large extinct animal that inhabited South America. Since then, such identification has been criticized by several researchers. We propose a new identification of the portrayed animal as an adult female of a large deer, possibly the Pantanal Deer, Blastocerus dichotomus. The presence of such deer, currently extinct in the region, would represent the most eastern occurrence of this species in the Brazilian territory.
... No Rio Grande do Norte, E. laurillardi foi registrada em todos os depósitos prospectados, representada nos tanques, principalmente, por material pós-craniano diverso e dentes isolados e fragmentados (vide Santos et al., 1989;Porpino et al., 1998;Santos, 2001) , Currais Novos (Porpino & Santos, 1997), Rui Barbosa e Antônio Martins (Santos, 2001). O dente inferior da série pré-molo-molar estudado é facilmente reconhecível pela marcada selenodontia (Cartelle & Lessa, 1988) -Cunha, 1966; e Toxodon platensis Owen, 1840 (Damasceno, 1973;Santos et al., 1989). Neste trabalho, apesar da família ser reconhecida com base na disposição das faixas de esmalte, não foi possível, em decorrência da má preservação do material, uma identificação mais precisa, uma vez que a mesma é feita, essencialmente, com base na morfologia dos dentes. ...
Article
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RESUMO ‐ Sao registradas novas ocorrencias de mamiferos pleistocenicos coletados no Lajedo de Soledade, em Apodi (RN). O material consiste em ossos pos-cranianos, dentes isolados, osteodermos de carapaca e fragmentos de dentario encontrados em associacao. Foram identificados: Hippidion sp., Glyptodon sp., Panochthus greslebini, Eremotherium laurillardi, Holmesina paulacoutoi, Palaeolama major, Xenorhinotherium bahiense, Equus (Amerhippus) cf. neogaeus, Smilodon populator e Toxodontidae. Registrase, pela primeira vez, Arctotherium sp., Cerdocyon thous, Protocyon troglodites, Leopardus cf. L. tigrinus e Tolypeutes tricinctus em associacao com restos da megafauna no Estado. As caracteristicas ecologicas dos taxa sugerem a vigencia de condicoes ambientais distintas da atual para o Pleistoceno final-Holoceno na regiao, incluindo areas abertas de savana em associacao com fisionomias mais fechadas. Palavras-chave: Mamiferos, Pleistoceno superior-Holoceno, Rio Grande do Norte, Apodi.
... Northeastern Brazil is relatively rich in the presence of Pleistocene-Holocene vertebrate remains in caves (e.g. Cartelle, 1992Cartelle, , 1994Cartelle, , 1995Cartelle, , 1999Cartelle and Abuhid, 1994;Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996;Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Lessa et al., 1998). However, investigations concerning invertebrate remains in these caves are missing. ...
Article
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O Parque Nacional de Ubajara apresenta o mais significativo relevo cárstico do Es-tado do Ceará, composto por nove morros calcários onde se encontram 14 grutas. Entre estas grutas destaca-se a do Urso Fóssil, no Morro do Pendurado, na qual crânio e man-díbula de um urso Arctotherium brasiliense (Lund, 1840), foram encontrados em 1978. Nesta gruta recentemente foi coletado o primeiro registro de moluscos de idade eoholo-cênica do Estado do Ceará, que está reportado neste trabalho. Os espécimes são conchas de gastrópodes completas e fragmentadas, que foram retiradas durante escavação em uma das salas, denominada Sala da Entrada. O material estudado está depositado na coleção científica do Museu Dom José, Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú, e através de ana-tomia comparada e observação dos caracteres e feições de ornamentação, foi identificado como pertencente às famílias: Bulimulidae, Subulinidae e Odontostomidae. Os táxons de gastrópodes encontrados sugerem que a região da Ibiapaba não passou por mudanças drásticas pelo menos nos últimos 8.000 anos já que a fauna é semelhante à atualmente encontrada na área.
... Dantas & Tasso, 2007;Dantas et al., 2008;Ribeiro & Carvalho, 2009) Guérin & Faure (2004) sinonimizam as duas espécies anteriormente citadas através de material oriundo de uma caverna localizada no Estado do Piauí, entretanto esta proposta não tem sido suportada pelos trabalhos recentes, sendo necessária uma revisão Schmidt & Ferrero, 2014). O material pós-craniano de Macraucheniinae apresenta pequenas diferenças entre os táxons (Cartelle & Lessa, 1988;Scherer et al., 2009). Devido à ausência de caracteres que diferenciam o material estudado daquele de X. bahiense e seguindo-se a proposta biogeográfi ca de Cartelle (1999), sugere-se que o material estudado pertence a esta espécie. ...
Article
LATE PLEISTOCENE MEGAFAUNA FROM MATINA, BAHIA, BRAZIL: SYSTEMATIC, CHRONOLOGY AND PALEOECOLOGY. Fossils of Pleistocene mammals are well-represented in all Northeastern Brazil. In Bahia State these are found in caves and tanks fossiliferous outcrops. This paper focuses on the study of fossil mammals from the tank known as " Sítio Novo " , in the municipality of Matina, Bahia. The research identifi ed seven taxa: Megatheriidae (Megatheriinae, Eremotherium laurillardi), Mylodontidae, Glyptodontidae, Macraucheniidae (Macraucheninae, Xenorhinotherium bahiense), Toxodontidae, Gomphotheriidae (Notiomastodon platensis) e Camelidae. This locality has one of the most diverse records of extinct mammalian fauna until now among the tanks found in Bahia. Based on the studied assemblage and dates of the same taxa from this and others assemblages, we suggest that the local fauna lived during the late Pleistocene.
... Entre los ungulados nativos, Macrauchenia patachonica presenta un amplia distribución, registrándose desde el sur de la Argentina, en la provincia de Santa Cruz, hasta Brasil, Paraguay y Bolivia (Paula Couto, 1947;1980b;Cartelle & Lessa, 1988;Tonni & Scillato-Yané, 1997;Guérin & Faure, 2004;Coltorti et al., 2007;. Asimismo, Toxodon platensis exhibe una amplia geonemia en Sudamérica y es la única especie bien caracterizada morfológicamente del género (Miño-Boilini et al., 2006). ...
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A new mammalian assemblage from the Upper Pleistocene of the Dique "Los Quiroga" locality (Santiago del Estero province, Argentina), positioned in the Chaco Region is here described. The material here described were collected from fine sand and shale deposits of an unnominated stratigraphic unit. Panochthus greslebini and Mixotoxodon larensis, are described for the first time for the country, and Holmesina paulacoutoi and Toxodon gracilis are reported for the first time for such geographic region. An analysis of the present material, together with previous studies in the zone suggest more favourable climatic conditions than proposed by previous authors, as well as stronger biogeographic ties together with the Mesopotamia Region.
... Along with differences in anatomy, Macrauchenia and Xenorhinotherium appear to have distinctive geographical distributions. Cartelle & Lessa [74] suggest biogeographic segregation between Macrauchenia patachonica from Bolivia to southern Chile and Xenorhinotherium bahiense from Brazil & Venezuela [75]. In the Pampas region, the presence of Macrauchenia sp. ...
Article
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Megafauna paintings have accompanied the earliest archaeological contexts across the continents, revealing a fundamental inter-relationship between early humans and megafauna during the global human expansion as unfamiliar landscapes were humanized and identities built into new territories. However, the identification of extinct megafauna from rock art is controversial. Here, we examine potential megafauna depictions in the rock art of Serranía de la Lindosa, Colombian Amazon, that includes a giant sloth, a gomphothere, a camelid, horses and three-toed ungulates with trunks. We argue that they are Ice Age rock art based on the (i) naturalistic appearance and diagnostic morphological features of the animal images, (ii) late Pleistocene archaeological dates from La Lindosa confirming the contemporaneity of humans and megafauna, (iii) recovery of ochre pigments in late Pleistocene archaeological strata, (iv) the presence of most megafauna identified in the region during the late Pleistocene as attested by archaeological and palaeontological records, and (v) widespread depiction of extinct megafauna in rock art across the Americas. Our findings contribute to the emerging picture of considerable geographical and stylistic variation of geometric and figurative rock art from early human occupations across South America. Lastly, we discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the early human history of tropical South America. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Tropical forests in the deep human past’.
... Recently C. Cartelle & G. Lessa (1988) proposed the denomination of Xen orhi noth e ri u m bahiense for the Pleistocene Macraucheniidae living in the tropical regions of Brazil, reserving M. patachonicà for thole of the more Southerà zon.es. Not knowing the boundaries of generic ano specific variability of the latter we will provisionally utilize the denomination to M. cf . ...
... Two subfamilies of Macraucheniidae are traditionally recognized, Macraucheniinae and Cramaucheniinae, but many authorities have suggested that Cramaucheniinae are paraphyletic (Soria, 1981;Cifelli and Soria, 1983;Schmidt and Ferrero, 2014). Cramaucheniinae include the stratigraphically older (Eocene to middle Miocene) genera Coniopternium Ameghino, 1895, Cra- Cartelle and Lessa, 1988. The middle Miocene Phoenixauchenia Ameghino, 1904, is a genus known from an astragalus and metapodial fragments and is not considered in this study (Kraglievich, 1930;Cheme-Arriaga et al., 2016). ...
Article
We describe two new macraucheniid litopterns from the late middle Miocene (ca. 13 Ma) Quebrada Honda Fauna of southern Bolivia. The holotype of ‘Theosodon’ arozquetai, sp. nov., is a partial cranium preserving RI2–M3 and LP1–M3, elements of the hind limb, and two metapodials. An upper cheek tooth series is also referred to this species. The holotype of Llullataruca shockeyi, gen. et sp. nov., is a mandible preserving nearly the entire lower dentition. A dentary, several upper teeth, and a variety of postcranial elements are also referred to this species. Two specimens from the slightly older locality of Cerdas, Bolivia, are assigned to L. cf. shockeyi. A phylogenetic analysis recovers ‘T.’ arozquetai as sister to Theosodon spp., and we provisionally refer it to that genus pending its revision. Llullataruca shockeyi forms a polytomy with three late Oligocene–early Miocene ‘cramaucheniines’ and the later-diverging macraucheniids. The body mass of ‘T.’ arozquetai is estimated at 80.8–116.2 kg, slightly smaller than early Miocene T. garretorum. Llullataruca shockeyi is among the smallest known macraucheniids based on dental dimensions and is estimated at 35.3–54.6 kg. Theosodon' arozquetai and L. shockeyi are the first well-characterized macraucheniids from the middle Miocene, and the latter species demonstrates that relatively early-diverging lineages persisted at least 7 million years longer in tropical latitudes than they did in Patagonia. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D26BB67B-D8E1-4D36-9552-4391874CF69C SUPPLEMENTAL DATA—Supplemental materials are available for this article for free at www.tandfonline.com/UJVP Citation for this article: McGrath, A. J., F. Anaya, and D. A. Croft. 2018. Two new macraucheniids (Mammalia: Litopterna) from the late middle Miocene (Laventan South American Land Mammal Age) of Quebrada Honda, Bolivia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2018.1461632.
... In the 1980's, paleontologists start to look for fossils in the karsts of the State of Bahia that revealed several discoveries, and among them, new fossils of the large capybara Neochoerus sulcidens (Cartelle, 1983;Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Lessa et al., 2008), which were restricted to is type-locality. It is important to note, that these fossils were only Rusconi (1934), Hoffstetter (1952), Lemon and Churcher (1961), Oliveira et al. (1985), Mones (1991), Marshal and Sempere (1991), Ubilla (1996), Villarroel et al. (1996), Deschamps (1998), Cozzuol et al. (2006), Salles et al. (2006), Martinez and Jacay (2000), Kerber and Ribeiro (2011), Kerber et al. (2016), Kerber (2017), and this work. ...
Article
In this work, new fossils of Hydrochoerinae rodents (Caviomorpha: Caviidae: Hydrochoerinae) from the Quaternary of the intertropical region of Brazil are described, almost 180 years after the first fossils of these animals were found in Lagoa Santa, Minas Gerais. The fossils studied herein were collected in caves of States of Bahia (Toca dos Ossos and Lapa dos Brejões) and Minas Gerais (Lapa Vermelha cave, Lagoa Santa karst). The analyzed material is assigned to the extinct large rodent Neochoerus sulcidens and is composed of skull portion, upper and lower cheek teeth, mandible, humerus, innominate, femur, tibia, and calcaneus. The specimens were assigned to this taxon based on the presence of an M3 with 14 prisms; incisor alveolus reaching the pr. II do m2; anteriormost level of the palatine at the level of the Pr. II of the M2; and larger size than the living species. The p4 is mesiodistally longer than the m1 and m2, distinct from previous interpretations in which the mesiodistal length of the p4 of N. sulcidens would be smaller than the m2, indicating the presence of a variable character. Except for the differences in size, the postcranial bones of N. sulcidens are quite similar to H. hydrochaeris.
... Other characteristics of macraucheniids are long neck and limbs, three digits, complete dentition and browser-grazer or typically browser diet (Bond, 1999;Cassini et al., 2012;Croft, 2016). Their nares were positioned posteriorly with very small nasal bones in macraucheniines such as Huayqueriana, Macrauchenia and Xenorhinotherium Cartelle andLessa, 1988 (Schmidt andFerrero, 2014;Forasiepi et al., 2016), although primitive forms (e.g., Cramauchenia Ameghino, 1902) present the nasal notch anteriorly placed (Dozo and Vera, 2010). ...
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In this contribution we present new specimens of Litopterna recovered during the last decade in Que-brada Fiera (Mendoza Province, Argentina), whose fossiliferous sediments, currently recognized as the base of Agua de la Piedra Formation, are assignable to Late Oligocene (Deseadan South American Land Mammal Age). Two remains mentioned in the first publication on this locality were neither detailed nor described, and they have not been located in the corresponding repository. The new material consists of postcranial fragmentary remains (astragali, calcaneum, and metapodials) of Macraucheniidae (Cramaucheniinae) and an incomplete upper molar (M3) of Proterotheriidae (Proterotheriinae). These few remains of litopterns contrast with the abundance of notoungulates at Quebrada Fiera. A comparative study was carried out with material from Patagonia (Argentina) and taxa recorded in Bolivia and Peru for the same temporal interval. The specimens of Cramaucheniinae are assigned to Coniopternium andinum and the molar of Proterotheriinae to cf. Lambdaconus suinus. This contribution allows us to extend the geographical range of Coniop-ternium, filling the gap between the Patagonian and lower latitude localities (Bolivia and Peru) in which this genus was found. The record of L. suinus in Quebrada Fiera expands the geographical range of this species outside from Patagonia.
... The caves hold important information about the megafauna's scenario in the Quaternary for much of the Brazilian territory, providing an exceptional environment for the preservation of skeletal remains (Cartelle and Lessa, 1988;Cartelle and Hartwig, 1996;Czaplewski and Cartelle, 1998;Cartelle et al., 2008;Oliveira et al., 2013). ...
... After its initial identification, this macraucheniid was also recorded in Paraguay, Peru, Chile, Brazil, Bolivia and Uruguay, as well as in several other locations in Argentina (Ochsenius, 1979;Bond, 1999;Scherer et al., 2009). A few decades ago, a new macraucheniid genus and species were recognized from the South American Pleistocene, Xenorhinotherium bahiense Cartelle and Lessa, 1988. Both X. bahiense and M. patachonica have similar size, although their morphological differences rely on rostral anatomy, and on the robustness of vertebrae and appendicular skeleton (Lessa, 1992;Silva, 2008). ...
Article
The extinction of the Quaternary megafauna stands out among the evolutionary history of Cenozoic mammals. In South America, nearly 80% of the megamammals went extinct, including the native un-gulates Macrauchenia patachonica and Xenorhinotherium bahiense. Little is known about the causes of the macraucheniids' extinction and their paleobiology. Here, we have reconstructed the dietary habits of M. patachonica and X. bahiense using enamel microwear and occlusal enamel index analyses, and also inferred their niches using species distribution modeling and stable isotope paleoecology, in addition to enamel microwear and occlusal enamel index data. We found that both macraucheniids had grazer-feeding habits, although their environmental requirements were different. M. patachonica could live in colder temperatures and arid, subtropical/temperate ecosystems, while X. bahiense was adapted to warmer temperatures and more humid, semi-arid tropical environments. Thus, despite similar feeding habits, these macraucheniids had distinct environmental requirements and ecological niches, which might explain the disjunction in the South American records.
... 1); they were twice as diverse (four species vs. two species) and inhabited a much wider geographic range. Pleistocene macraucheniids are found throughout South America (Owen, 1838;Cartelle & Lessa, 1988;Tonni et al., 2009;Chávez Aponte et al., 2010), whereas contemporary proterotheriids are known exclusively from northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southeastern Brazil (Bond et al., 2001;Soria, 2001;Scherer et al., 2009;Ubilla et al., 2011;Corona et al., 2019a). This pattern suggests that macraucheniids were less affected than proterotheriids by competition with northern immigrants during the 'Interamerican Phase' of Cenozoic South America (sensu Goin et al., 2012) or that they had broader habitat tolerances. ...
... typum Ameghino (1875), Pachyarmatherium cf. brasiliense Porpino et al. (2009) and Xenorhinotherium bahiense Cartelle and Lessa (1988) occurring at the same stratigraphic level indicate a Late Pleistocene age for the deposit (Cartelle, 1999). The remaining taxa represented at this stratigraphic level are species alive today (e.g. ...
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Although five genera of procyonids are currently present in South America, only two of the extant genera, Procyon and Nasua are represented in the South American fossil record. A recent discovery of a procyonid lower second molar in Late Pleistocene deposits of Aurora do Tocantins, northern Brazil, offers potential to further our understanding of the stratigraphic and temporal range of South American fossil procyonids. We use geometric morphometric analysis of two-dimensional landmarks and semilandmarks to explore morphological variation in the lower second molars of extant Procyon lotor and Procyon cancrivorus and multivariate methods to support the identification of the Pleistocene specimen as P. cancrivorus. This material represents the second fossil record of P. cancrivorus in South America Procyonids entered South America in two phases: the first comprising by Cyonasua and Chapadmalania during the Late Miocene, and the other recent genera, beginning in the Late Pleistocene. These Late Miocene procyonids were more carnivorous than Late Pleistocene-Recent omnivorous taxa and possible went extinct due to competition with other placental carnivorans that entered South America and diversified during the latest Pliocene-Early Pleistocene.
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4, 5 RESUMO: A variação geográfica em caracteres cranianos de nove amostras populacionais recentes e uma amostra sub-fóssil foi investigada através da amplitude de distribuição do roedor histricomorfo Kerodon rupestris (Wied, 1820), endêmico do semi-árido brasileiro. Análises univariadas e multivariadas foram baseadas em 22 caracteres medidos em 319 espécimens. Os resultados mostraram que a variação craniana apresentou um padrão clinal de aumento de tamanho do norte para o sul. A população localizada ao norte, proveniente de Itapajé (CE), possui o menor tamanho craniano quando comparada à do sul, proveniente de Botumirim (MG). Estas duas populações encontram-se completamente discriminadas no espaço multivariado de caracteres cranianos. As demais amostras situam-se em posição intermediária entre as populações do norte e do sul. Uma população de Kerodon acrobata inserida em uma segunda análise, ocupou um espaço inteiramente isolado em relação às demais populações de K. rupestris, revelando a distinção morfométrica entre as duas espécies do gênero. Padrões clinais na variação morfométrica não têm sido considerados para a delimitação de subspécies; no entanto, níveis diferenciados de variação infraespecífica estão ocorrendo entre as populações estudadas de K. rupestris. O padrão observado em K. rupestris sugere uma estrutura de variação que pode estar associada ao isolamento dos diferentes afloramentos rochosos habitados pela espécie. Estudos adicionais abordando limites geográficos de variação genética serão necessários para definir o nível preciso de diferenciação entre essas populações. Palavras-chave: Kerodon rupestris, variação geográfica, morfometria craniana, nordeste, Brasil. ABSTRACT: Geographic variation in quantitative cranial characters of Kerodon rupestris (Wied, 1820) (Rodentia, Caviidae). Geographic variation in cranial characters in nine recent population samples and one sub-fossil sample was investigated throughout the range of distribution of the histricomorph rodent Kerodon rupestris (Wied, 1820), endemic of the semi-arid region in Brazil. Univariate and multivariate analyses based on 22 measurements taken from 319 specimens show that overall size variation follows a north-south clinal pattern of increasing size. The northern population from Itapajé (CE) showed the smaller cranial size when compared to the southern population from Botumirim (MG). The Itapajé and the Botumirim populations were completely discriminated in the multivariate space. The other populations occupied an intermediate position in relation to the northern and southern samples. A sample of Kerodon acrobata, included in a second analysis, occupied a completely distinct multivariate space in relation to K. rupestris samples. revealing the morphological distinction between the two species of the genus. A clinal pattern of variation has not been considered in the delimitation of subspecies. Nevertheless, different levels of variation are occurring among the populations of K. rupestris.The pattern observed in K. rupestris suggests a structure of variation that may be related to the isolation among rock outcrops inhabited by the species throughout its distributional range. Additional studies addressing the geographical limits of genetic variation will be necessary to show the precise level of differentiation among these populations.
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The São Raimundo Nonato (Piauí, Northeastern Brazil) area yielded about 50 Macraucheniidae remains. The study of this material and of other fossils from Northeastern Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte) shows a great similarity to Macrauchenia patachonica as it was defined in Argentina, which is the most abundant of the three species pertaining to the genus. Thus the taxon Xenorhinotherium bahiense created in 1988 by Cartelle et Lessa for a material discovered in the Bahia State and assigned to use for all the Quaternary Litopterns from tropical Brazil appears to be no more than a junior synonym of it. M. patachonica seems to have occupied very varied biotopes from sea level up to a high of 4000 m, and from the cold Southern Patagonia to the Equatorial Venezuela. The species lived from the Middle Pleistocene up to the beginning of the Holocene.
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Although the registrations of mammals pleistocenes are common in a large part of the Brazilian Northeast area, the State of Alagoas just have a vague plenty citation. In this work mammals coming from the place of Lagoa da Pedra, Municipal district of Igaci are described: a type of Pilosa (Megatheridae), a Gomphoteriidae (Stegomastodon waringi), a Litopterna (Macraucheniidae) and an Equidae. In spite of there not being information about the stratigraphy of the tank or age of the fossils, the present work contributes with larger information on the distribution paleomastozoological of the Northeast.
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More than 10,000 years ago spectacularly large mammals roamed the pampas and jungles of South America. This book tells the story of these great beasts during and just after the Pleistocene, the geological epoch marked by the great ice ages. Megafauna describes the history and way of life of these animals, their comings and goings, and what befell them at the beginning of the modern era and the arrival of humans. It places these giants within the context of the other mammals then alive, describing their paleobiology--how they walked; how much they weighed; their diets, behavior, biomechanics; and the interactions among them and with their environment. It also tells the stories of the scientists who contributed to our discovery and knowledge of these transcendent creatures and the environment they inhabited.
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Touro Passo Creek is one of the most important fossiliferous late Pleistocene localities from southern Brazil. Although fossil vertebrates collected from this locality have been studied since the 1970s, several questions remain open. This paper provides a review of the knowledge on this subject accumulated since the original proposition of the Touro Passo Formation in 1976. The fossil assemblages of Touro Passo Creek show a predominance of mammals, and among them, artiodactyls and cingulates are the most diverse. The available absolute ages indicate that the fine-grained lithological levels (at least) were deposited during humid conditions of the Last Glacial Maximum, within oxygen isotope stages 3 and 2. The mammal assemblages contain a mixture of intertropical and pampean taxa. The large span of time that encompasses the deposition of the Touro Passo Creek beds could have contributed to this faunal mixture.
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Resumo: Embora os registros de mamíferos pleistocênicos sejam comuns em grande parte da região Nordeste Brasi-leira, o Estado de Alagoas possui apenas uma vaga citação. Neste trabalho descrevem-se mamíferos procedentes da lo-calidade de Lagoa da Pedra, Município de Igaci: um tipo de Pilosa (Megatheridae), um Gomphoteriidae (Stegomastodon waringi), um Litopterna (Macraucheniidae) e um Equidae. Apesar de não haver informações sobre a estratigrafia do tan-que ou idade dos fósseis, o presente trabalho contribui com maiores informações sobre a distribuição paleomastozooló-gica da região Nordeste. Palavras-chave: Pleistoceno. Mamíferos. Nordeste Brasilei-ro. Pilosa. Abstract: Although the registrations of mammals pleistocenes are common in a large part of the Brazilian Northeast area, the State of Alagoas just have a vague plenty citation. In this work mammals coming from the place of Lagoa da Pedra, Municipal district of Igaci are described: a type of Pilosa (Megatheridae), a Gomphoteriidae (Stegomastodon waringi), a Litopterna (Macraucheniidae) and an Equidae. In spite of there not being information about the stratigraphy of the tank or age of the fossils, the present work contributes with larger information on the distribution paleomastozoological of the Northeast.
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A new mammalian assemblage from the Upper Pleistocene of the Dique “Los Quiroga” locality (Santiago del Estero province, Argentina), positioned in the Chaco Region is here described. The material here described were collected from fine sand and shale deposits of an unnominated stratigraphic unit. Panochthus greslebini and Mixotoxodon larensis, are described for the first time for the country, and Holmesina paulacoutoi and Toxodon gracilis are reported for the first time for such geographic region. An analysis of the present material, together with previous studies in the zone suggest more favourable climatic conditions than proposed by previous authors, as well as stronger biogeographic ties together with the Mesopotamia Region.
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