ArticlePDF Available

Evaluation of the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of oil from castor seeds (Ricinus communis linn)

Authors:
21 | P a g e
Evaluation of the Antimicrobial and Phytochemical Properties
of Oil from Castor Seeds (Ricinus communis Linn)
Momoh, A.O*, Oladunmoye, M.K. and Adebolu,T.T.
Department of Microbiology,Federal University of Technology, Akure, P.M.B 704,Akure,Nigeria.
*Corresponding author’s E-mail-davemoh20@yahoo.com
ABSTRACT
The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of castor (Ricinus communis) seeds extracted using soxhlet extractor in 98% n-
hexane was assessed using in-vitro assay. Twenty microorganisms made up of fourteen bacteria and six fungi were used in
the bioassay. Comparatively, bacteria were found to be more susceptible than fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration
(MIC) of the extract was found to range between 6.25 mg/ml and 12.50 mg/ml for bacteria while that of fungi ranged from
12.50mg/ml to 25.00mg/ml. Comparison of the antimicrobial efficacy of the extract and commercial antibiotics showed that
the latter were more potent against the test organisms with the exceptions of erythromycin, ampiclox and rifampin group for
Gram positive organisms and, septrin and ceporex group for Gram negative organisms respectively. The quantitative
phytochemical screening showed that tannin, phenol, alkaloid, phytate, oxalate, saponin, cyanogenic glycoside and flavonoid
were present in a decreasing order. The spectrophotometric data of the extract using ultraviolet radiation, infrared and H-
NMR as well as carbon 13 NMR showed the presence of various compounds such as cineole, 2- octanol, terpenene -4-ol,
limonene, sabinene, pinene, terpinene, and methyl groups in the oil.
Key words: antimicrobial, phytochemicals, castor oil, microorganisms.
INTRODUCTION
The oils of medicinal plants have been used for treatment of various ailments since men learnt the
art of extraction [1]. Clove oil for instance has been used for dental pain as an anodyne (painkiller),
as antihelmintic and as aromatherapy when warming of the digestive system is needed as far back
as 1721 BC [2].
Castor plant, Ricinus communis, is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Its seed is the castor bean which, despite its name, is not a true bean. Castor plant is indigenous to
the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India, but is widespread throughout
tropical regions [3]. Although monotypic, the castor oil plant can vary greatly in its growth, habitat
and appearance. It is a fast-growing, suckering perennial shrub which can reach the size of a small
tree (around 12 metres / 39 feet). If sown early, under glass, and kept at a temperature of around
20 °C (68 °F) until planted out, the castor oil plant can reach a height of 2–3 metres (6.6–9.8 ft) in a
year. The flowers are borne in terminal panicle-like inflorescences of green or, in some varieties,
shades of red. The oil from the castor seed is colourless or faintly yellow, almost odorless, viscid
liquid, having a taste at first bland but subsequently avid and nauseating. It is fixed and dries very
slowly, having a specific gravity, 0.958. It is slightly dextrorotatory, about + 4o 301. It has a
refractive index, 1.4790 to 1.4805 and solidifies at -10o C to - 18oC. Its acidity is expressed as oleic
acid which is 1.5 percent. The oil extracted from the seed have been used in small doses in clinical
setting for numerous medical conditions such as liver and gallbladder disturbances, abscesses,
headaches, appendicitis, epilepsy, hemorrhoids, constipation, diarrhea, intestinal obstructions, skin
diseases, hyper activity in children and to avert threatened abortion in pregnant women [4,5,6].
Traditionally, the Ebira people in Kogi State of Nigeria use it for skin diseases, purgative, heal
irritated or inflammed nipples and to aid delivery in delayed expectant mothers. Although, much
has been documented on the uses of castor oil, there is no report on its antimicrobial activity. This
study therefore was designed to evaluate the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of castor
oil.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant materials
Original Article
Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences
Online ISSN 2277 – 1808
Bull. Environ. Pharmacol. Life Sci.; Volume 1 [10] September 2012: 21 - 27
© All Rights Reserved Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, India
Website: www.
bepls.com
22 | P a g e
The castor plant seeds used in this study were the white variety of the Ricinus communis L. This
was collected from a farm at Eika village, Okene, Kogi state, Nigeria.
Microorganisms used in the bioassay
The microorganisms used were obtained from the Microbiology Department, University of Ibadan
Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The Gram positive bacteria used include:
Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus
marcesene and Streptococcus mitis while the Gram negative used were Escherichia coli,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium,
Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus vulgaris. The fungi used are Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium
oxalicum, Candida albicans, Penicillium cinirium, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger.
Extraction of oil from the seeds
The soxhlet extraction of castor oil from 500g of castor seeds using one litre of n-hexane was done
according to the method of Odugbemi, [6].
Antimicrobial sensitivity testing of the extracted oil.
With the aid of a sterile pipette, 1ml of 18 hour old peptone broth culture of the test organism
cultured at 37˚C was added to 20ml sterile molten NA and PDA respectively which had already
cooled to 45oC. This was well-mixed and allowed to set. With the aid of sterile 4mm cork borer, 3
wells were bored on the agar surface. To each of the 2 wells was added 2 drops (0.4ml) of the oil
using Pasteur pipette aseptically. The well in the center was filled with same amount of sterile
distilled water to serve as control.
Antibiotic assay
The Optu-sensitivity discs were used for this assay. The discs were picked with sterile forceps and
placed on the surface of the solidified NA previously seeded with 106 an overnight bacterial culture.
The plates were incubated at 37oC for 24hours. The plates were then examined for clear zones of
inhibition of bacterial growth around the discs. The procedure was repeated for test fungi. The
antimycotic drug used was fulcin and incubation was done at 25oC for 5 days. The results were
then compared with that of oil extract.
Minimum inhibitory concentration determination
The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the method described by
Olutiola et al. [7]. Standardization of inoculum size was determined using spectrophotometer and
the plate count method. Different concentration of the extract were prepared at 25, 12.5, 6.25 and
3.1mg/ml, and 5ml of an 18hour old culture of the organism was pipetted into test tubes. Using
sterile syringe, 1ml of the different concentrations of the extract was poured into the broth culture
and incubated for 24hours at 37o C. The tubes were checked for growth as indicated by turbidity
and confirmed with the aid of spectrophotometer. The least concentration at which inhibition was
noticed was taken as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
Phytochemical screening
Basic phytochemical analysis was carried out to determine the bioactive ingredient present in the
extract and their percentages. The standard methods of analysis of analytical methods committee
of Royal Society of chemistry, (2002) were adopted to determine cyanogenic glycosides, tannin,
saponin, oxalate, phytate, phenol, alkaloid and flavonoid.
Spectrophometric analyses
Nuclear magnetic resonance, infra-red and ultra violet analyses of the oil extract was carried out in
Central Science Laboratory, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State of Nigeria according to
standard methods of analysis of analytical methods committee of Royal Society of chemistry,
(2002).
Statistical analysis
The data gathered were processed using descriptive one way analysis of variance, SPSS Version 10
Microsoft Windows 7. The Duncan Multiple Range Test was used as a follow up test.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In vitro inhibitory effect of castor oil on test organisms
The extracted castor oil inhibited the growth of all the test organisms. Among the Gram positive
bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive and Micrococcus luteus was the least
sensitive with zones of inhibition of 7.00 mm and 2.50 mm respectively. Among the Gram negative
Momoh
et al
23 | P a g e
bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most sensitive and Proteus vulgaris was the least sensitive with
zones of inhibition of 6.50 mm and 3.00 mm respectively. Among the fungi, Fusarium oxysporum
was the most sensitive while Aspergillus niger was least sensitive to the oil with zones of inhibition
of 4.00 mm and 1.50 mm respectively. Generally, the oil was more effective on bacteria than fungi
as shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Sensitive pattern of selected microorganisms to the extracted castor oil
Standard culture
(cfu/mL)
Organism
Diameter of
Zone of inhibition
(mm)
2.6×10
6
Bacillus
cereus
4.00
2.4×10
6
Bacillus macerans
3.00
3.6×10
6
Micrococcus luteus
2.50
3.0×10
6
Staphylococcus aureus
7.00
2.8×10
6
Streptococcus faecium
4.50
3.4×10
6
Streptococcus mitis
5.00
3.1×10
6
Streptococcus pyogenes
5.50
3.9×10
6
Escherichia coli
6.50
2.6×10
6
Klebsiella pneumoniae
4.00
2.9×10
6
Proteus vulgaricus
3.00
3.1×10
6
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
4.50
3.7×10
6
Salmonella enteriditis
5.00
3.5×10
6
Salmonella typhimumium
4.50
3.6×10
6
Shigella dysenteriae
5.00
3.0×10
5
Aspergillus flavus
2.00
4.0×10
5
Aspergillus niger
1.50
6.0×10
5
Candida albicans
3.00
2.0×10
5
Fusarium oxysporum
4.00
2.0×10
5
Penicillium cinirium
2.50
3.0×10
5
Penicillium oxalicum
2.50
Antibiotic sensitivity assay
The result of the antibiotic sensitivity assay on Gram positive bacteria is shown on figure 1. Some of
the antibiotics were found to have higher antimicrobial activities on the organisms than the castor
oil. Rifampin, lincomycin and floxapen had lower antimicrobial activities on the organisms than the
extract while streptomycin, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin and ciproflox showed higher
antimicrobial activities than that of the extract. Erythromycin and ampiclox had approximately the
same effect as that of the extract on the test bacteria.
On the Gram negative bacteria, tarivid, streptomycin, nalidixic acid, gentamycin, augmentin and
ciproflox showed higher antimicrobial activities than the extract. The result also showed that some
of the test organisms were resistant to ampicillin, peflacine and ceporex making the extract more
effective than the antibiotics as shown on figure 2.
Penicillum cinirum was most sensitive while Candida albicans was least sensitive to Fulcin with
zones of inhibition of 12 mm and 4 mm respectively. However, in general, the antifungal agent
(Fulcin) was more effective than the extract as shown in figure 3.
Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)
All the Gram positive bacteria had a constant MIC value (12.50 mg/ml) except Staphylococcus
aureus that had a lower value of 6.25 mg/mL. The MIC for the fungal group were however higher.
Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium cinirium had 25.00 mg/mL as their MIC while
Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium oxalicum had 12.50 mg/mL.
Momoh
et al
24 | P a g e
Figure 1: Bar –chart showing the comparison of the activities of extract and standard antibiotics
on Gram positive bacteria.
Keys S = Streptomycin, NB = Norfloxacin, CH = Chloramphemicol, CPX = Ciproflox, E = Erythromycin, LC = Lincocin, CN = Gentamycin,
APX = Ampiclox, RD = Rifampin, FLX = Floxapen
Figure 2: Comparative antimicrobial activities of castor oil extract and standard antibiotics on Gram
negative bacteria. Keys S = Streptomycin, PN = Ampicillin, OFX = Tarivid, NA = Nalidixic acid, PEF = Peflacine,
CN = Gentamycin, AU = Augmentin, CPX = Ciproflox, SXT = Septrin, CEP = Ceporex.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
S NB CH CPX E LC CN APX RD FLX CO
Antibiotics and castor oil extract
Zo n es of in hibi ti on ( mm )
Bacillus cereus
Bacillus macerans
Micrococcus luteus
Staphylococcus aureus
Streptococcus faecium
Streptococcus mitis
Streptococcus pyogenes
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
S PN OFX NA PEF CN AU CPX S XT CEP CO
Antibiotics and castor oil extract
Zones o f inhibit ion (mm)
Escherichia coli
Klebsiella pneumoniae
Proteus vulgaris
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Salmonella enteritidis
Salmonella typhimurium
Shigella dysentariae
Momoh
et al
25 | P a g e
Figure 3: Comparative antimicrobial activities of extract and standard antifungal agent on selected
fungi.
Phytochemical analysis
Phytochemical screening of the extract for the presence of bioactive compounds revealed the
presence of tannin, saponin, alkaloid, phytate, oxalate, flavonoid, cyanogenic glycoside and phenol.
The most abundant phytochemical present in the extract was tannin (0.35 %) while the least was
observed in flavonoid and cyanogenic glycoside (0.03 %) each.
Ultra-violet Result
The following absorptions were observed: 220 nm, 226 nm and 236 nm with 226 nm being the
lambda maximum. These absorptions may be as a result of conjugated double bond that is present
in some of the fatty acid present. Minor absorptions were observed at 268 and 280 nm
respectively.
Infrared Result
The Infrared result, at different wave number per centimeter and their probable functional groups
are shown below in Table 2.
Nuclear magnetic Resonance Result
The result of the NMR shows different functional groups as well. The various frequencies and their
corresponding identification is shown in Table 3. The proton NMR of the extract and its
identification is shown in Table 4.
Table 2= Infra-red result
S/N
Wave number (cm
-1
)
Probable functional group
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
3346
2693
2879
1730.7
1646.8
1437
1377.6
1078.5
1042.7
875.1
OH, C
-
H (stretch), COOH, NH
O-H, CH
O-H, C-H, CH2, CH3
C=O, ketones
C-H, CH2, C-O
CH2 (Stretch), C-H (bending)
C-H, C-O, C=C
C-H, CH2, C=C
C-H (stretch), CH2
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus niger Candida albicans Fusarium
oxysporum
Penicillium
cinirium
Penicillium
oxalicum
Antifungal agent (Fulcin)
Castor oil
Momoh
et al
26 | P a g e
Table 3: NMR frequencies and their identifications
Index
Frequency
Identification
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
8729.775
6630.101
6316.905
3590.839
3470.673
3124.287
2882.047
1838.695
1762.017
1714.714
1706.321
1598.743
14.83.918
1474.762
1462.173
1456.069
1372.144
1285.547
1244.729
1133.336
889.188
696.540
C = O
CH
CH
CH-O
CH-O
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH3
CH3
Table 4: Proton NMR of the extract and their identifications
Proton NMR (ppm)
Identification
4.38 (broad)
3.29 – 3.45
1.75 – 2.15
0.80, 0.85, 0.90, 0.98, 1.00, 1.05
OH Signals
Alcohols of Cineole and 2
Octanol
CH = CH of Limonene, Sabinene, Pinene and
Terpinene.
CH2 (Methylene group of the essential oil)
CH3 Signals (Methyl group of the essential oil).
DISCUSSION
The findings in this research work indicate that the percentage yield of the extract using 98% N-
hexane as solvent of extraction is about 20% of the total mass of the seed. This corroborate the
report of Gerhard et al,. [8] that the amount of volatile oil in castor beans is 20%.
From the results of this investigation, the antimicrobial activities of the extract against test
organisms highly varied. Bacteria were observed to be more sensitive than fungi. One reason for
the low susceptibility of fungi is probably their eukaryotic nature, which is responsible for their
advance cellular and molecular process, when compared to bacteria which are prokaryotic in
nature.
The susceptibility of some of the organisms used may be due to their genetic make - up and
absence of resistant transfer factor. Streptococcus species used showed moderate susceptibility to
the extract and this may be due to their ability to produce different enzymes and toxins which may
be able to degrade some of the active components of the essential oil. The Bacillus species showed
low susceptibility to the extract probably due to their ability to form spores which could have
shielded them from the extract. Fungi were less susceptible to the castor oil extract than bacteria,
however none of the fungi tested for was resistant to the extract. Though, the mechanism of action
of the extract was not studied, the presence of biologically active chemicals such as saponin, tannin,
phenol, cyanogenic glycoside and flavonoids could be responsible for the antimicrobial activity of
the oil. The presence of the various compounds revealed by the spectrophotic analysis of this
Momoh
et al
27 | P a g e
extracts shows that the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil could be traced to these
compounds. According to Omidbeygi et al, [9] and Rota et al, [10], the composition, structure, as
well as the functional group of an essential oil play an important role in determining its
antimicrobial activity.
This study has been able to show that castor oil has antimicrobial activity in addition to its
purgative, anti-inflammatory and labor inducing ability that has been documented earlier on by
many researchers. It is therefore conceivable that castor oil could be used in treating infections
caused by the test organisms used in this work in the absence of conventional therapy or
antibiotics.
REFERENCES
1. Dan B; Steven, C; Erich’s; Andrew, G (2004).Chinese herbal medicine: Materia Medica 3rd edition. 3:79-90.
2. Weiss, R.F. and Fintelmann, V. (2010). Herbal medicine, 2nd edition, Herbs Publisher thieme, New York, USA. 505pp
3. Phillips, R. and Martyn, R. (1999). Annuals and Biennials. London: Macmillan. P. 106. ISBN 0333748891.
4. Christopher, B. ed (1996). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. London: Dorling
Kindersley. pp. 884–885. ISBN 0751303038
5. LA Betancur-Galvis, Morales. G. E., Forero, J. E. and Roldan, J. (2009), "Cytotoxic and Antiviral Activities of
Colombian Medicinal Plant Extracts of the Euphorbia genus", Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 97 (4): 541-546.
Retrieved through Bioline International (keywords: herpes simplex - Bioline Code: oc02103).
6. Odungbemi; T. (2006).Outline and pictures of medicinal plants from Nigeria, University of Lagos press, Yaba Lagos,
Nigeria. 283pp.
7. Olutiola, P.O., Famurewa, O., Sonntag, H.G (2000). Introduction to general Microbiology, 2nd Edition, Heidelberg,
Nigeria. 267pp.
8. Gerhard, R;keith, R.O; amram, A. (2004). Oil crops of the world – their breeding and utilization. McGraw hil, New
York. 553pp.
9. Omidbeygi, M; Barzegar M. Hamidi, 2; Naghdibadi; H. (2007). Antifungal activities of thyme, summer savory and
clove essential oils against Aspergillus flavus in liquid medium and tomato paste. Food control, 18:1518-1523.
10. Rota, C., Carraminanna, J.J., Bunillo, J. Herrera, A. (2009). In vitro antimicrobial activity of essential oils from
aromatic plants against selected food borne pathogens. Journal of food protection. 67:1252-1256.
11. Celikel, N and Kavas, G. (2003). Antimicrobial properties of some essential oils against some pathogenic
microorganisms. Czech Journal of food science. 26:174-181.
QR CODE: T100178
http://www.bepls.com
Momoh
et al
BEPLS ABSTRACTED AND INDEXED
Zoological Records [USA, Thompson Reuters], ISI Master Journal List,
Index Copernicus, EJournal, WorldCat, ABC Open Directory, Newjour,
Geneva Medical Foundation, Electronic Journal Library, Global
Education Index, Indiawaterportal, Valiasr, Google, Google Scholar
and listed in many more libraries.

Supplementary resources (14)

... Previous work done on other plant using methanol as solvent of extraction showed that it has the ability to extract more of the active ingredient of most plants than some other solvents. For instance the extraction of the active ingredient of Beniseed using methanol and N-hexane by Momoh et al., (2012) [8] revealed that the methanol extract was more effective than N-hexane. The effect of the media used which showed that there was higher zone of inhibition on the Muller Hilton agar than on the Nutrient agar agreed with the result obtained by Aakanksha et al., (2013). ...
... Previous work done on other plant using methanol as solvent of extraction showed that it has the ability to extract more of the active ingredient of most plants than some other solvents. For instance the extraction of the active ingredient of Beniseed using methanol and N-hexane by Momoh et al., (2012) [8] revealed that the methanol extract was more effective than N-hexane. The effect of the media used which showed that there was higher zone of inhibition on the Muller Hilton agar than on the Nutrient agar agreed with the result obtained by Aakanksha et al., (2013). ...
... This is true as it was easier to measure the zone of inhibition of the extract on Muller Hilton agar than on the nutrient agar used for all the isolate in this work. On susceptibility of the isolate to commercial antibiotics, chloramphenicol and streptomycin has always been the drug of choice for most of the bacteria according to Momoh et al., (2012) [9] . However, the fact that the methanol extract exerted a higher zone of inhibition on all the test organisms used. ...
Article
Full-text available
... They selected four bacterial genera -two Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa); and two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus fecalis) and found that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts ranged between 8-32 mg ml -1 for all. Iqbal et al., (2012) Momoh et al., (2012) studied the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of castor (Ricinus communis) seeds extracted using soxhlet extractor in 98% n -hexane against fourteen bacteria and six fungi. Comparatively, fungi were found to be less susceptible than bacteria. ...
... The evaluation of antimicrobial and phytochemical activity in castor oil revealed that flavonoid, cyanogenic glycoside, saponin, oxalate, phytate, alkaloid, and tannin were present in the ascending order (Momoh et al., 2012). Udegbunam et al. (2015) in their studies also detected these biologically active chemical compounds in castor oilseed during screening of in vitro antimicrobial activity among seven bacteria. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing world population has markedly increased the demand for vegetable oils for domestic and industrial purposes. Plant-based vegetable oils have been identified as one of the oils with high nutritive value. Castor plant is one of the oilseed with rich oil content owing to its high monounsaturated fatty acid and bioactive compounds. Its fatty acid profile constitutes mainly of ricinoleic acid and other minor acids such as stearic, palmitic, and oleic acid. Ricinoleic acid of castor oil is unique among all other vegetable oils, making it attractive for a wide spectrum of applications. The predominant triglyceride component in the oil is triricinolein. Minor biological compounds including carotenoid, tocopherol, tocotrienol, phytosterol, phospholipid, phytochemical, and phenolic compounds are present in castor oil. These compounds offer oxidation stability, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties to the oil. The acid, anisidine, iodine, viscosity, and saponification values indicate that castor has good oil quality compared to other vegetable oils. Castor oil composition is influenced by the area of production and method of extraction adopted. The chemical structure of castor oil is centered on the ricinoleic acid and three major functional groups linked by glycerol moiety. More research on the oil’s component is being investigated nevertheless efficient and eco-friendly extraction methods are required. This review, therefore, summarizes the castor oil composition namely the triglyceride, various fatty acids and bioactive compounds, extraction methods, as well as its physicochemical properties.
... Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) Asteraceae alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoid, tannins, terpenoid and phenols [56] 27 ...
Article
The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus is one of the most prevalent and a major destructive insect pest of stored legumes. Organophosphorus, pyrethroid insecticides, and the fumigants (i.e. phosphine and methyl bromide) are basically use in the control of these insect populations around the world. Although effective, their repeated use for decades has fostered environmental imbalance, sabotaging non-target organisms and human health concerns, high persistence as well as genetic resistance. This present article is a collection of up to date information on biological control of 60 different types of plants extract against the Callosobruchus maculatus activity on cowpea and their effect on human health by different authors.
... Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia) Asteraceae alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoid, tannins, terpenoid and phenols [56] 27 ...
Article
Full-text available
The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus is one of the most prevalent and a major destructive insect pest of stored legumes. Organophosphorus, pyrethroid insecticides, and the fumigants (i.e. phosphine and methyl bromide) are basically use in the control of these insect populations around the world. Although effective, their repeated use for decades has fostered environmental imbalance, sabotaging non-target organisms and human health concerns, high persistence as well as genetic resistance. This present article is a collection of up to date information on biological control of 60 different types of plants extract against the Callosobruchus maculatus activity on cowpea and their effect on human health by different authors.
Article
The multifactorial pathogenesis and interrelationship of blepharitis, meibomian gland dysfunction and dry eye disease poses challenges to any therapeutic approach. Current treatments are mostly palliative, with success limited by perceived inefficacy and poor patient compliance. Castor oil, a natural derivative of the Ricinus communis plant, is widely used as an emollient in cosmetics and personal care products, drug delivery systems and wound dressings. Castor oil is deemed safe and tolerable, with strong anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive, analgesic, antioxidant, wound healing and vaso-constrictive properties. Its main constituent, ricinoleic acid, has a bipolar molecular structure that promotes the formation of esters, amides and polymers. These can supplement deficient physiological tear film lipids, enabling enhanced lipid spreading characteristics and reducing aqueous tear evaporation. Studies reveal that castor oil applied topically to the ocular surface has a prolonged residence time, facilitating increased tear film lipid layer thickness, stability, improved ocular surface staining and symptoms. This review summarises the properties, current uses of, and therapeutic potential of castor oil in managing ocular surface disease. The biochemical, medicinal actions of castor oil are explored from the perspective of ocular surface pathology, and include microbial and demodectic over-colonisation, inflammatory and oxidative processes, as well as clinical signs and symptoms of dryness and discomfort.
Thesis
Abstract The current study included the collection of (79) pathogenic samples including urin swabs of (tonsils,ear and wounds and burns), Sixty-seven of these samples showed positive growth on blood agar, (84.8%) of total samples, while 12 (15.2%) did not Give growth on the same medium, Eighty-two bacterial isolates were distributed among Staphylococcus aureus (23) isolation (28.04%), Streptococcus pyogenus (13) isolation (15.85%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29) isolation (35.36%) and Escherichia coli (17) isolation (20.73%). Fixed and volatile oils wrer extracted from seeds of some msdicinal plants. Fixed oils were extracted from the seeds of (Linum usitatissimum, Ricinus communis, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Lepidium sativum) via hexane solvent by using Soxhlet and Column-chromatography (CC). In this study, the volatile oils were extracted from the seeds of the selected plants under study using Cleavenger,s apparatus, the isolated oils were identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) technique.
Article
Full-text available
Sarvavishadi Thaila (SVT) is one of the widely used herbal preparations in the traditional system of medicine in srilanka. It has been used in the treatment of different type of diseases such as Thundikeri (Tonsilitis), Sarpavisha (Snake bites), Keetavisha (Insect bites), Ratharoga (Skin diseases), Krimiroga (Worm infections), Arshas (Haemorrhoids), Ullogam (Trush), Vruna (Ulcers), Vidradhi (Abcess) & Granthi shotha (Edema). Its formula is consisting with many herbs, oils, spices & minerals which are having different therapeutic Activities. Reviewing of antibacterial and antifungal effect of the medicinal plants used in this formula is the key objective of this study. Review is highlighted that the many studies reveal that the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the medicinal plant used in the formula of sarvavishadi thaila.
Article
Full-text available
- Sarvavishadi Thaila (SVT) is one of the widely used herbal preparations in the traditional system of medicine in Sri Lanka. It has been used in the treatment of different type of diseases such as Thundikeri (Tonsilitis), Sarpavisha (Snake bites), Keetavisha (Insect bites), Ratharoga (Skin diseases), Krimiroga (Worm infections), Arshas (Haemorrhoids), Ullogam (Trush), Vruna (Ulcers), Vidradhi (Abcess) & Granthi shotha (Edema). Its formula is consisting with many herbs, oils, spices & minerals which are having different therapeutic Activities. Reviewing of antibacterial and antifungal effect of the medicinal plants used in this formula is the key objective of this study. Review is highlighted that the many studies reveal that the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the medicinal plant used in the formula of Sarvavishadi Thaila.
Article
Purpose To evaluate the effects of topical castor oil application to the eyelids on ocular surface and tear film parameters in patients with blepharitis. Methods Twenty-six participants (14 females, 12 males; mean ± SD age, 38 ± 21 years) with clinical signs of blepharitis were enrolled in a prospective, investigator-masked, randomized, paired-eye trial. A 100% cold pressed castor oil formulation (Lotus Garden Botanicals, Biddeford, ME, USA) was applied to the eyelids of one eye (randomized), twice daily for 4 weeks. Ocular surface characteristics, symptoms, and tear film parameters were assessed at baseline and day 28. Results Baseline measurements did not differ between treated and control eyes (all p > 0.05). A significant reduction in OSDI symptomology score was observed following the four-week treatment period (p = 0.001). Clinical improvements in eyelid margin thickening, telangiectasia, eyelash matting, madarosis, cylindrical dandruff, and lid wiper epitheliopathy were limited to treated eyes (all p < 0.01), while greater decreases in staphylococcal and seborrheic eyelash crusting were observed in treated than control eyes (both p < 0.05). No adverse events were reported during the treatment period. Conclusion Topical castor oil application effected significant improvements in ocular surface signs and symptoms in patients with blepharitis. The favourable therapeutic profile would suggest that castor oil demonstrates promise as a potential treatment for blepharitis, and support further efficacy trials with longer follow up. Trial registration number ACTRN12618000856213.
Article
Full-text available
Investigations were carried out to assess the efficiency of five plant essential oils: thyme, myrtle, laurel, sage, and orange oils as natural food preservatives. The effect of the plant essential oils against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans at concentrations of 5-20 μl/disk (diameter 6 mm) and 0.5-3% (v/v) was studied in agar diffusion test medium and milk medium. The essential oils of these extracts exhibited markedly antibacterial and bacteriostatic activity, with thyme showing the highest inhibition and orange the lowest. However, with thyme extract, high inhibitory activity was observed for all tested concentrations, L. monocytogenes showed less sensitivity towards essential oil extracts.
Article
Full-text available
Forty-seven plant extracts of 10 species of the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) used by Colombian traditional healers for the treatment of ulcers, cancers, tumors, warts, and other diseases, were tested in vitro for their potential antitumour (antiproliferative and cytotoxic) and antiherpetic activity. To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the lytic activity of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and the reduction of viability of infected or uninfected cell cultures, the end-point titration technique (EPTT) and the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] colorimetric assay were used, respectively. The therapeutic index of the positive extracts for the antiviral activity was determined by calculating the ratio CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration) over IC50 (50% inhibitory concentration of the viral effect). Five of the 47 extracts (11%) representing 3 out of 10 Euphorbia species (30%) exhibited antiherpetic action; the highest activity was found in the leaf/stem water-methanol extracts from E. cotinifolia and E. tirucalli. The therapeutic indexes of these two plant species were > 7.1; these extracts exhibited no cytotoxicity. Six extracts (13%) representing 4 plant species (40%) showed cytotoxic activity. The highest cytotoxicity was found in the dichloromethane extract obtained from E. cotinifolia leaves and the CC50 values for the most susceptible cell lines, HEp-2 and CHO, were 35.1 and 18.1 microgram/ml, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of selected essential oils for the control of growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms of significant importance in food hygiene and to determine whether the antimicrobial effect was due to the major compounds of the oils. MIC and MBC were determined by the tube dilution method. Essential oils from Thymus vulgaris from Spain and France, Salvia sclarea, Salvia officinalis, Salvia lavandulifolia, Lavandula latifolia, Lavandula angustifolia, three hybrids of Lavandula latifolia x Lavandula angustifolia (Lavandin 'Super', Lavandin 'Abrialis', and Lavandin 'Grosso'), Rosmarinus officinalis, Hissopus officinalis, and Satureja montana were evaluated. Inhibition ranged from the strong activity of Satureja montana and Thymus vulgaris (France) to no inhibition with Salvia sclarea and Hissopus officinalis for each of the test strains: Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b, and Staphylococcus aureus. Because some of the essential oils were highly inhibitory in small quantities to selected pathogenic microorganisms, they may provide alternatives to conventional antimicrobial additives in foods.
Article
Antifungal activity of essential oils of thyme, summer savory and clove were evaluated in culture medium and tomato paste. Aspergillus flavus were inoculated in Sabouraud Dextrose Broth and tomato paste and then 0, 50, 200, 350 and 500 ppm of essential oils were added to each sample and then kept at 25 ± 0.5 °C for 2 months. Results showed that all essential oils could inhibit the growth of A. flavus and the thyme oil and summer savory, showed the strongest inhibition at 350 ppm and 500 ppm, respectively. Taste panel evaluations were carried out in a tomato ketchup base, and the percent of inhibition of each essential oil in tomato paste was lower than culture medium. Taste panel was carried out and sample with 500 ppm thyme oil was accepted by panelists.
Herbal medicine, 2 nd edition, Herbs Publisher thieme Annuals and Biennials
  • R F Weiss
  • V R Fintelmann
  • R Martyn
Weiss, R.F. and Fintelmann, V. (2010). Herbal medicine, 2 nd edition, Herbs Publisher thieme, New York, USA. 505pp 3. Phillips, R. and Martyn, R. (1999). Annuals and Biennials. London: Macmillan. P. 106. ISBN 0333748891.
Introduction to general Microbiology, 2 nd Edition
  • P O Olutiola
  • O Famurewa
  • H Sonntag
Olutiola, P.O., Famurewa, O., Sonntag, H.G (2000). Introduction to general Microbiology, 2 nd Edition, Heidelberg, Nigeria. 267pp.
Herbal medicine, 2 nd edition
  • R F Weiss
  • V Fintelmann
Weiss, R.F. and Fintelmann, V. (2010). Herbal medicine, 2 nd edition, Herbs Publisher thieme, New York, USA. 505pp
The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. London: Dorling Kindersley
  • B Christopher
Christopher, B. ed (1996). The Royal Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. London: Dorling Kindersley. pp. 884-885. ISBN 0751303038