ResearchPDF Available

How Emotion Can Be the Meaning of a Music Work

Authors:
  • Braavo Enterprises

Abstract

This paper lays out the foundation for a new semiotics of music - that is in line with the most up-to-date research on neurophysiology of emotion. It shows how the traditional view of music as a “language of emotions,” which prevailed up until the 20th century, can indeed hold true in relation to perception of music. This is the English translation of the original publication in Spanish, in 2015.
!"#$%&"'(")$*+)$,-$'.-$/-+)()0$"1$+$/23(4$5"67$
The$ issue$ of$ musical$ meaning$ has$ proved$ to$ be$ rather$ elusive:$on$ one$ hand$ it$ is$
intuitively$obvious$to$professional$performers$and$listeners,$yet$on$the$other$hand$it$has$
caused$endless$controversies$amongst$ researchers$ of$music.$In$this$ paper$ I$will$try$to$lay$
out$ the$ foundation$ for$ new$ semiotics$ of$ music$ <$ that$ is$ in$ line$ with$ the$ most$ up<to<date$
research$on$neurophysiology$ of$emotion.$It$will$show$how$the$traditional$ before$the$20th$
century$ view$ of$ music$ as$ a$ “language$ of$ emotions”$ can$ indeed$ hold$ true$ in$ relation$ to$
perception$of$music.$$
Art$of$Performance$
In$the$traditional$aesthetic$view$formed$by$the$end$of$the$18th$century,$the$meaning$of$
music$ originates$ from$ the$ inherent$ values$ of$ the$ music$ structures$ recorded$ by$ the$
composer,$and$illustrated$by$the$performer.$This$ view$holds$that$the$listener$finds$a$ piece$
of$music$meaningful$when$the$performer$convinces”$him$in$ the$authenticity$ of$ a$ certain$
emotional$state$inherent$to$the$performed$music.$$
Once$ the$ listener$ “believes”$ the$ performer$ and$ starts$ experiencing$ the$ projected$
emotional$state,$ he$opens$up$to$the$appreciation$of$other$aspects$of$music.$Disbelief$in$the$
performer$and$the$lack$of$emotional$communication,$on$the$other$hand,$blocks$the$capacity$
of$the$listener$to$identify$the$changes$in$music$and$therefore$prevents$aesthetic$evaluation$
–$ no$ matter$ how$ virtuosic$ or$ grammatically$ “correct”$ the$ music$ appears,$ the$ audience$
remains$unmoved.$$$
The$bulk$of$the$music$repertoire$most$often$heard$in$concert$halls$and$studied$in$music$
schools$consists$of$performances$created$in$accordance$with$this$view.1$The$philosophy$of$
music$education$therefore$heavily$leans$toward$regarding$musical$structures$as$a$primary$
source$ for$ deriving$ meaning$ and$ formulating$ interpretation.$ These$ structures$ are$
considered$ much$ more$ important$ than$ the$ biographical$ circumstances$ of$ the$ composer,$
social$environment$during$the$time$of$ composition,$ the$ initial$ reception$of$the$music,$the$
dramatic$context$associated$with$it,$etc.$<$the$consensus$in$music$schools$tends$to$regard$all$
these$notions$as$secondary$to$musical$structures$as$the$basis$for$performance$renditions.$
The$ same$ view$ is$ usually$ applied$ onto$ musical$ traditions$ other$ than$ classical$ music$
today.$ They$ are$ also$ seen$ to$ operate$on$ the$ premise$ of$ some$ musical$ grammar$ that$
prescribes$ which$ musical$ structures$ ought$ to$ be$ used,$ and$ the$ performer$ is$ expected$ to$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
1$Of$course,$the$ connection$of$music$with$emotion$remains$a$matter$of$aesthetic$preference.$Some$
people$might$choose$to$create$or$consume$music$that$is$deliberately$unemotional.$Noteworthy$is$
the$anti<emotional$rhetoric$of$Stravinsky$(Stravinsky$1936,$83).$But$even$more$noteworthy$is$his$
double<standard:$nowhere$in$his$copious$writings$did$he$ever$name$a$performer$who$would$have$
over<emotionalized$ his$ music,$ moreover,$ he$ pronounced$ Samuel$ Dushkin$ to$ be$ one$ of$ the$ best$
interpreters$of$his$works$(Stravinsky$2005,$3556),$while$Dushkin,$the$pupil$of$Auer$and$Kreisler,$
as$ expected$ from$ a$ world$ class$ violinist$ in$ the$ first$ half$ of$ the$ 20th$century,$ pl ayed$ Stravinsky$
with$utmost$Romantic$passion$(as$evident$from$his$recordings).$It$seems$that$emotional$affinity$of$
music$tends$to$find$a$way$to$penetrate$even$those$music$works$that$are$claimed$to$be$devoid$of$it.$$$
2$
$
know$that$grammar,$ and$use$it$to$ generate$an$emotionally$charged$ music$composition$by$
either$improvising$it$or$varying$some$pre<existing$model.$$
86'$"1$9-61"6&+)4-$+3$+)$84'$"1$%&"'(")+:$;)'-6<6-'+'(")$
The$ exact$ way$ in$ which$ musical$ structures$ convey$ meaning$ remains$ open$ to$ debate,$
with$different$disciplines$proposing$different$explanations.$The$only$uncontested$feature$is$
that$ musical$ expression$ is$ based$ on$ emotion.$ The$ majority$ of$ musicians$ involved$ in$ the$
production$of$music$and$educators$that$work$with$performers$who$support$the$traditional$
autonomous$ aesthetic$ theory$ hold$ emotional$ response$ as$ the$ fundamental$ mechanism$ of$
musical$ communication.$ The$ composer$ is$ believed$ to$ conceive$ a$ certain$ emotionally$
charged$musical$idea$and$construct$a$plot$akin$to$a$dramatic$play$where$the$progression$of$
themes$and$their$development$generate$a$flow$of$musical$events,$each$colored$with$its$own$
emotional$tint.$The$job$of$the$performer,$then,$is$to$discover$the$plot$and$transform$it$into$a$
drama$similar$to$how$the$play$director$takes$the$script$of$a$play$and$creates$a$show$out$of$
it.$$
This$ “theatrical”$ model$ was$ coined$by$ Franz$ Liszt$ as$ part$ of$ the$ concept$ of$ public$
recital.$ The$ music$ life$ as$ we$ know$ it$ today$ largely$ originates$ from$ the$ experiments$ of$
Niccolo$ Paganini.$ Paganini$ was$ the$ first$ musician$ to$ start$ performing$ in$ public$ from$
memory$ in$ order$ to$ produce$ the$ impression$ of$ sincerity$and$ spontaneous$ creativity.$ He$
considered$ act<out$ to$ be$ a$ constituent$ of$ technical$ execution,$ often$ bringing$ in$ theatrical$
effects,$even$stage$action,$to$accompany$his$ performances.$His$playing$was$designed$as$an$
actor’s$ monologue,$ exposing$ the$ chain$ of$ emotions,$ characteristic$ images,$ often$
unpredictably$ mixed$ with$ humor,$ tragedy$ and$ passions.$ Paganini$ forged$ the$ image$ of$ a$
performing$ violinist$ as$ a$ bold$ Romantic$ hero,$ who$ challenges$ his$ fate$ in$ the$ manner$ of$
Beethoven.2$$
However,$ Paganini’s$ love$ for$ mystery$ and$ secrecy$ in$ his$ methods$ of$ producing$ his$
supernatural$impression$on$ audiences$limited$his$impact$ on$the$performance$practices$ of$
his$day.$It$took$Liszt,$with$his$charisma$and$connections$with$conservatoires’$staff$all$over$
Europe$ to$ undertake$ a$ major$ revision$ of$ the$ ways$ for$ a$ performer$ to$ select$ music$ for$
performance,$work$with$the$score,$build$the$interpretation,$and$present$it$to$the$public.$The$
immense$ authority$ of$ a$ composer,$ performer,$ teacher$ and$ promoter$ allowed$ Liszt$ to$
influence$most$of$European$schools$during$the$second$half$of$the$19th$century.$$
At$the$heart$of$his$innovation$was$the$idea$of$the$necessity$for$a$performance$to$carry$a$
poetic$image$representative$of$the$entire$music$composition$being$performed.$Just$as$in$his$
own$ compositions,$ Liszt$ could$ not$ think$ musically$ without$ associations$ with$ poetry,$
literature,$history,$ architecture,$ etc.$ In$ the$ same$ way,$ he$ could$ not$ conceive$ an$
interpretation$of$someone$else’s$work$without$supporting$the$musical$ideas$with$ imagery$
of$some$kind$–$in$essence$“re<composing”$that$work.$This$deeply$personal$attitude,$invoked$
by$ such$ “re<composition,”$ set$ the$ tone$ for$ sincere$ and$ integral$ presentation$ of$ the$
composition$–$a$form$of$sharing$one’s$life$experience$with$the$audience.$$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
2$Paganini$ often$ hired$ an$ orchestra$to$play$ Beethoven’s$ 5th$ symphony$ during$ his$ violin$ recitals$
(Yampolskii$1961,$1718).$
3$
$
Liszt$ postulated$the$ requirements$ of$ studying$ a$ composition$ in$ order$ to$ perform$ it,$
“living$ through$ it”$ and$ playing$ from$ memory,$ as$ though$ spontaneously$ improvising.$ He$
emphasized$ the$ necessity$ of$ these$ rules$ for$ the$ purpose$ of$ avoiding$ any$ formalistic$ bias,$
temptation$ to$ show$ off$ one’s$ technical$ skills,$ or$ playing$ exclusively$ for$ the$ sake$ of$ one’s$
own$pleasure.$Liszt$ recited$poems,$told$ stories,$acted$out$with$ gestures$and$mimics$ to$his$
students$during$lessons$in$order$to$stimulate$their$imagination.$He$considered$the$ability$to$
fantasize$and$feel$far$more$important$than$technique,$and$used$to$drop$pupils$who$did$not$
show$great$imagination$(Milstein$1971,$2:7179).$
The$ Romantic$ composers$ and$ performers$ were$ the$ most$ ardent$supporters$of$ this$
theatrical$approach,$where$the$performer$combined$the$ functions$of$the$play$director$and$
the$actor$in$order$to$convince$the$audience$of$the$“reality”$of$the$expressions$projected$by$a$
musical$ composition.$ Associations$ with$ Romanticism$ did$ not$ compromise$ this$ approach$
during$ the$ 1910<1920’s$ when$ the$ anti<Romantic$ sentiments$ caused$ the$ rejection$ of$
liberties$ and$ exaggerations$ that$ characterized$ previous$ generations$ of$ performers.$
Performers$ like$ Prokofiev,$ Schnabel,$ or$ Backhaus,$ known$ for$ their$ aversion$ to$ Romantic$
style,$still$conceived$images$and$characters$by$ analyzing$the$ score$ and$ inventing$suitable$
scenarios$to$be$acted$out$ in$ front$ of$ the$audience$in$their$renditions.$The$ same$ approach$
directs$the$interpretive$effort$of$modern$mainstream$performers$of$classical$music.$
Their$ work$ on$ assigning$ the$ expressive$ parameters$ of$ timing,$ dynamics,$ articulation$
and$timbre$to$particular$notes$in$the$score$is$based$on$the$relationship$of$these$notes$to$the$
principal$ idea$ of$ the$ composition,$ which$ is$ regarded$ as$ a$ particular$ character,$ emotional$
state$ or$ happening.$ This$ work$ of$ musical$ interpretation$ is$ equivalent$ to$ the$work$ of$ an$
actor$who$deduces$the$way$of$pronouncing$and$acting$out$a$ line$in$a$play$script,$based$on$
the$ relation$ of$ that$ line$ to$ the$ context$ of$ the$scene,$ act$ and$ the$ entire$ play.$ A$ common$
method$amongst$modern$musicians$to$prepare$for$performance$is$to$expressively$sing$the$
parts$ of$ the$ score$ that$ are$ under$ consideration$ (which$ is$ equivalent$ to$ an$ actor’s$
experiments$in$different$styles$of$enunciation$for$a$text$line).$As$common,$is$the$creation$of$
an$extra<musical$program$for$a$piece$of$music,$in$the$form$of$a$story,$characteristic$image,$a$
descriptive$event,$or$emotional$sequence$(Reid$2002).$
The$ only$ major$ deviation$ from$ this$ approach$ to$ performance$ is$ by$ the$ authentic$
performance$movement$of$the$ mid<20th$century,$ which$ insists$on$historic$accuracy$above$
all$ other$ criteria.$ According$ to$ their$ principles,$ dramatic,$ theatrical$ interpretation$ is$
appropriate$only$ for$those$pieces$that$were$composed$when$such$a$ Romantic$approach$to$
performance$was$commonplace.$$
Playing$a$concerto$by$Vivaldi$or$Bach$in$Romantic$manner$(in$fact,$a$standard$practice$
for$ performers$ like$ Sergei$ Rachmaninov,$ Bronislaw$ Huberman$ or$ Willem$ Mengelberg)$
today$would$be$considered$anachronism$ and$a$distortion$ of$music.$However,$even$purists$
celebrate$ the$ interpretation$ of$ Rameau$ in$ the$theatrical$ style$ of$ Racine$ and$ Corneille$ by$
authenticist$ performers$ such$ as$ Christophe$ Rousset.$ The$ historic$restriction$ of$ dramatic$
development$in$interpretation$does$not$mean$that$pre<19th$century$music$is$tabooed$from$
narrativity$and$picturism.$Baroque$music$is$still$predominantly$performed$today$according$
to$the$method$of$image$creation,$which$often$involves$a$dramatic$component,$especially$in$
compositions$like$fantasies,$big$preludes,$passacaglias$and$other$variation$or$free$forms.$$
4$
$
%&"'(")$+3$/23(4+:$=/-+)()0>$
The$ practice$ of$ defining$ the$ imagery$ for$ a$ piece$ of$ music$ as$ the$ groundwork$ for$ its$
interpretation$suggests$that$ emotion$is$the$ primary$component$of$ musical$meaning.$If$ the$
job$ of$ the$ performer$ is$ to$ highlight$ for$ the$ listener$ what$ is$ meaningful$ in$ the$ musical$
composition,$and$ the$“program$narrative”$is$the$main$content$generated$by$the$performer$
(in$addition$to$the$information$obvious$in$the$score),$then$the$emotional$ properties$of$the$
narrative$manifest$the$meaning$of$the$music.$$
Psychological$research$supports$this$conclusion:$Hodges$and$Lipscomb$(Lipscomb$and$
Hodges$1996)$reviewed$the$studies$on$perception$of$music,$and$were$able$to$identify$seven$
types$of$information$retrieved$by$the$listeners$from$auditioning$musical$works$ –$all$seven$
comprising$an$integrative$knowledge$ system$ centered$around$emotion.$The$ list$ consisted$
of:$
1) Feelings$ <$ the$ affective$ response$ of$ the$ listener,$ sympathetic$ to$ the$ display$ by$
the$performer$of$features$that$characterize$a$given$emotional$state;$
2) Aesthetic$ experiences$ <$ the$ judgment$ of$ proportionality,$ appropriateness$ and$
sublimity$in$organization$of$the$expressive$means$within$the$given$composition;$
3) Musical$ thought$ <$ the$ choice$ of$ the$ thematic$ material$ for$ a$ music$ work$ by$ its$
composer,$ and$ the$ treatment$ of$ that$ material$ within$ the$ composition,$
specifically$the$coherence$diversity$in$its$development;$
4) Formal$ organization$ <$ a$ style$ of$ logical$ connection$ of$ the$ musical$ elements$
together$employed$by$the$composer$as$a$discipline$ of$his$musical$ thought,$and$
grasped,$and$highlighted$by$the$performer;$$
5) Realization$of$musical$time$<$ a$unique$experience$of$time$evoked$in$listener$ by$
the$ musical$ timing$ style$ of$ the$ composition,$ reflected$ in$ relation$ of$ tempo$ to$
density$of$musical$events,$correlated$to$the$musical$movement;$
6) Personal$ identity$ <$ the$ set$ of$ qualities$ and$ attitudes$ that$ resonates$ with$ the$
listener’s$ self<image$ and$ serves$ to$ reinforce$ or$ compensate$ for$ a$ particular$
vision$of$himself;$
7) Group$ identity$ <$ the$ set$ of$ values$ that$ is$ recognized$ by$ the$ listener$ as$
characteristic$ to$ a$ specific$ social$ group,$ used$ to$ identify$ his$ attitude$ towards$
that$group.$$
All$ seven$ types$ of$ information$ conveyed$ by$ a$ music$ piece$ depend$ on$ the$ emotional$
reaction$ of$ the$ listener.$ He$ experiences$ those$ feelings$ that$ have$ been$ conditioned$ in$ his$
previous$ life$ to$ form$ an$ emotional$ reflex$ triggered$ by$ a$ particular$ type$ of$ stimulus.$ A$
listener$cannot$feel$dignity$in$music,$unless$he$has$developed$the$sense$of$dignity$prior$to$
listening.$$
Aesthetic$evaluation$ of$music$ can$only$occur$if$the$listener$is$placed$in$an$appropriate$
emotional$ state.$ A$ comedy$ will$ appear$ silly$ to$ a$ person$ who$ is$ in$ a$ serious$ mind$ set.$ A$
tragedy$will$appear$ridiculous$to$ a$person$in$a$playful$disposition.$Without$identifying$the$
target$ emotional$ condition,$ the$ listener$ will$ not$ be$ able$ to$ judge$ how$ harmonious,$
appropriate,$or$expressive$the$rendition$of$the$musical$elements$was.$
5$
$
A$ listener$ recognizes$ a$ particular$ musical$ thought$ in$ music$ based$ on$ its$
characterization.$ It$ is$ the$ change$ in$ character$ that$ separates$ one$ musical$ theme$ from$
another.$So,$in$order$to$follow$the$compositional$plan,$the$listener$has$to$ be$stimulated$by$
every$change$in$character:$each$instance$of$change$in$the$thematic$material$in$music$ought$
to$bring$in$a$new$emotional$state.$$
In$ music,$ formal$ organization$ is$ built$ around$ the$ thematic$ work$ as$ well.$ One$ section$
differs$ from$ another$ section$ by$ utilizing$ a$ different$ theme,$ and$ more$ than$ anything$ else,$
themes$differ$by$their$character.$$In$order$to$be$aware$of$the$composer’s$logical$plan$for$the$
piece,$ a$ listener$ must$ self<reflect$ on$ changes$ of$ his$ feelings$ throughout$ the$ music,$
remember$them,$and$relate$them$to$each$other$as$the$composition$progresses.$
More$intense$or$diverse$emotional$experience$leads$to$subjective$compression$of$time.$
A$ shortage$ of$ emotional$ response$ to$ music$ leads$ to$ boredom$ and$ the$illusion$ of$ time$
becoming$ longer,$ or$ slower.$ The$ same$ applies$ to$ the$ impression$ of$ musical$ movement.$
Emotionally$unmoving$performances$are$not$capable$of$generating$a$sense$of$characteristic$
movement$in$music.$$$$
Finally,$ personal$ and$ group$ identities$ are$ forged$ largely$ by$ the$ experience$ of$ a$
particular$ music$ work$ in$ terms$ of$ its$ emotional$ content.$ Group$ identity,$ in$ particular,$
depends$on$the$ mechanisms$of$emotional$ contagion.$As$we$can$see,$musical$emotion$ is$at$
the$center$of$the$entire$sphere$of$semantic$connotations$in$music.$$
Emotion$of$a$Music$Work$versus$Emotion$of$a$Listener$
Now$lets$ask$the$following$question:$what$exactly$in$the$music$works$as$a$carrier$of$the$
emotion,$ and$ how$ is$ it$ related$ to$ the$ actual$ emotion$ that$ humans$ normally$ experience?$
Obviously,$emotion$cannot$be$encoded$ in$ a$ music$score.$Emotion$is$a$ set$ of$ physiological$
changes$in$the$body,$and$cannot$be$“transcoded”$into$notes.$Obviously,$listeners$recognize$
particular$combinations$of$ sounds$as$possessing$ characteristics$similar$to$the$display$of$a$
particular$ emotion$ they$ know.$ For$ instance,$ anger$ is$ associated$ with$ loud$ dynamics,$ fast$
tempo,$abrupt$articulation,$and$wide$jumps$in$pitch.$Once$the$listener$recognizes$a$similar$
set$of$features$in$music,$he$ entrains$his$state$ correspondingly.$So,$the$ mastermind$behind$
the$musical$emotion$is$a$performer.$Then,$how$does$a$performer$come$to$grasp$a$particular$
emotion$in$music?$
?(6'2+:$@--:()0$@(A-B$()$/23(4$$
Many$musicians$would$agree$that$the$meaning$of$a$work$of$music$is$to$create$a$“virtual$
person”$as$a$protagonist$ in$ some$“virtual$reality”$designated$by$ “virtual$ time”$(evident$in$
rhythm,$ meter,$ tempo,$ articulation,$ and$ form)$ in$ conjunction$ with$ “virtual$ space”$ <$ a$
subjective$ impression$ from$ musical$ movement$ (interaction$ of$ rhythm,$ meter,$ tempo$ and$
articulation$with$melody,$harmony$and$texture).$The$adventures$of$such$a$“virtual$person”$
are$usually$derived$from$the$development$of$thematic$material$within$the$composition.$
$What$eventually$happens$with$a$“virtual$person”$in$“virtual$reality”$constitutes$a$sort$
of$internal$cinema$<$played$back$in$the$listener’s$ and$ the$ performer’s$ mind$ alongside$ the$
course$ of$ the$ music.$ The$ only$ difference$ from$ film$ here$ is$ the$ inherent$ vagueness$ of$
6$
$
imaging,$leading$to$substantial$variations$in$renditions$of$the$same$musical$composition$by$
different$ performers,$ as$ well$ as$ variations$ in$ experiencing$ the$ same$ performance$ by$
different$listeners.$
Watt$and$Ash$(Watt$and$Ash$1998)$ conducted$ an$ experimental$ study$ and$ found$that$
listeners$routinely$attribute$traits$such$as$gender,$age,$temper,$and$mood$to$the$music$they$
hear.$In$ essence,$ they$ construct$ a$ “virtual$ person”$ as$ representative$ of$ the$ thematic$
material$in$music$in$a$way$similar$to$how$ a$ reader$ constructs$ a$ protagonist$ of$ a$story$in$
their$mind$while$ reading$a$novel.$The$ listener$then$starts$ interacting$with$the$personality$
of$this$“virtual$person”$–$which$can$lead$to$quite$complex$emotional$changes$depending$on$
how$the$listener$identifies$himself.$
The$vagueness$of$this$musical$ personality$and$the$openness$of$ the$interaction$of$that$
personality$with$the$personality$of$a$listener$are$actually$!"#!$%!&'($of$music$medium$over$
film,$which$has$a$precise$and$concrete$ representation$ of$ events.$ $ Watching$the$same$film$
over$again$will$not$alter$the$personality$of$a$protagonist$of$that$film.$Listening$to$the$same$
music$ composition$ performed$ by$ different$ performers$ can$ radically$ change$ the$ “virtual$
person”$ –$ the$ more$ creative$ the$ performer,$ the$ greater$ the$ differences$ in$ this$ “virtual$
person”.$$
The$greater$variety$of$emotional$experience$from$musical$sources$is$one$of$the$reasons$
why$music$became$the$format$of$communication$ dedicated$to$emotion.$Exact$repetition$ is$
known$to$increase$predictability$and$induce$relaxation.$Relaxation$is$an$emotional$marker,$
and$will$interfere$with$transmission$ of$a$whole$range$of$ emotions$(such$as$anger,$anxiety,$
jealousy,$ etc.).$ Variance$ in$ performance$ allows$ for$ a$ fair$ representation$ of$ all$ emotional$
states$ by$ keeping$ the$ senses$ of$ the$ listener$ alert,$ registering$ the$ small$ changes$ and$
discrepancies$from$previous$performances.$
@6"&$?(6'2+:$@--:()0$'"$?(6'2+:$9-63")+:('C$
There$is$ample$evidence$that$many,$if$not$most,$listeners$perceive$music$to$reflect$their$
own$ personality:$ the$ way$ they$ think,$ their$ likes$ and$ dislikes,$ strengths$ and$ weaknesses.$
One$of$the$leading$preferences$in$choice$of$music$to$listen$ to$ is$ known$ to$ be$ the$ need$ to$
confirm$ one’s$own$ identity.$ Gabrielsson$ and$ Lindstrom$ Wik$ (Gabrielsson$ and$ Wik$ 2003)$
investigated$ the$ reports$ of$ “strong$ experiences$ related$ to$ music”$ (SEM)$ by$ 900$ subjects.$
Reactions$ included$ sensation$ of$freedom,$ inspiration,$ upliftedness;$ comfort,$ hope,$ power,$
relief$–$obviously,$all$of$ which$appear$to$be$dispositions$towards$actions.$Evidently,$music$
serves$as$an$agent$capable$of$motivating$people$towards$specific$behaviors$in$a$way$that$is$
essentially$similar$to$real$life$encounters.$In$fact,$it$is$likely$that$music$provides$even$more$
intense$emotional$action,$since$ many$participants$remembered$their$ responses$from$long$
time$ago$and$kept$it$private$<$never$relating$their$SEM$to$anyone$else.$
The$ advance$ of$ cognitive$ sciences,$ and$ especially$ of$ neurophysiology,$ during$ the$ last$
twenty$years,$has$provided$new$evidence$in$support$of$the$traditional$view$of$emotions$as$
the$ basis$ of$ musical$ communication.$ For$ about$ two$ thousand$ years$ emotions$ have$ been$
understood$ as$ “the$ appraisals$ of$ consciously$ detected$ feeling$ states$ named$ with$ familiar$
words”$(Kagan$2007,$154).$$
7$
$
The$consensus$between$scholars$was$that$emotion$was$a$mentalized$form$of$feeling,$
common$ for$ all$ individuals,$ and$ therefore$ designated$ by$ a$ group$ of$ common$ words$ with$
essentially$the$same$meaning$(anger,$rage,$ire,$annoyance).$This$traditional,$“grammarian,”$
view$stemmed$from$the$Aristotelian$tradition$of$focusing$on$the$way$in$which$a$concept$is$
expressed$in$language.$
Modern$ neuroscience$ examines$ emotions$ as$ they$ are,$ and$ not$ as$ they$ are$ named$ or$
referred$to.$Subsequently,$the$definitions$of$emotions$and$feelings$have$been$redrawn.$The$
traditional$ meaning$ of$ “emotion”$ is$ addressed$ in$ affective$ neuroscience$ by$ the$ term$
“feeling”$ –$ which$ represents$ a$ person’s$ subjective$ evaluation$ and$ perception$ of$ their$
emotional$state.$$
“Emotion”$is$seen$as$a$“largely$automated$program$of$actions$concocted$by$evolution”$<$
a$stable$mechanism$of$triggering$a$particular$physiological$state$that$is$vitally$important$for$
the$ survival$ of$ an$ organism$ and$ a$ species.$ “Mood”$ is$ separated$ into$ its$ own$ category,$
regarded$as$a$continuous$affective$state$that$is$relatively$diffused,$without$an$acute$mental$
awareness$of$its$character,$and$ detached$ from$ the$environmental$stimuli$(Damasio$2012,$
116).$$
So,$what$happens$during$an$audition,$is$that$the$listener$constructs$a$virtual$person$of$a$
certain$ gender,$ age,$ temper$ and$ mood,$ and$ assigns$ to$ that$ person$ a$ particular$ emotional$
state.$This$state$keeps$changing$throughout$the$piece$of$music,$prompting$ the$ listener$ to$
imagine$ some$ sort$ of$ happening,$ the$ chain$ of$ events$ that$ are$ likely$ to$ trigger$ a$ specific$
chain$ of$ emotional$ states.$ Because$ the$ plot$ here$ is$ set$ by$ the$ emotional$ descriptors,$ it$
leaves$a$very$wide$range$for$fantasy:$each$listener$ can$ envisage$ the$ story$ of$ music$ in$his$
own$way.$$
D'624'26-$"1$%&"'(")$+)B$/23(4+:$;B("&$
If$mood$and$feeling$are,$in$essence,$perceptions$<$then$emotion$is$basically$an$action$
generated$ by$ the$ organism$ in$ response$ to$ selective$ types$ of$ stimuli.$ Once$ the$senses$
capture$data$and$ the$ brain$ recognizes$ the$presence$ of$ stimuli$ that$ have$ been$ registered$
previously$ as$ related$ to$ certain$ emotional$ responses,$ the$ brain$ activates$ a$ number$ of$
emotion<triggering$regions$(amygdala$and$frontal$ lobe$ cortex).$ The$endocrine$glands$and$
subcortical$ nuclei$ start$ secreting$chemicals$ like$cortisol$ or$ adrenalin.$ Injected$ into$ the$
bloodstream,$these$chemicals$quickly$reach$the$ internal$organs$and$regulate$their$activity$
in$ a$ way$ stereotypical$to$ a$ given$ emotion$ (e.g.$ surge$ of$ adrenalin$ enables$ intense$ action,$
like$fighting$in$anger).$$
This$pattern$of$changes$in$the$physiological$state$of$the$body$is$fixed$for$each$emotion.$
Though$the$context$of$invocation$for$a$given$emotion$can$be$radically$different$each$ time,$
all$instances$of$the$experience$of$a$particular$emotion$by$a$given$individual$are$essentially$
identical$(ibid.).$It$is$this$structural$stability$of$emotion$that$makes$it$possible$for$music$to$
function$as$a$language$of$emotions.$$
Contrary$to$public$ opinion,$the$meaning$of$ music$is$no$less$ clear$than$the$ meaning$of$
speech.$Just$as$the$way$in$ which$ the$word$“chair”$refers$to$ something$ on$which$a$person$
can$sit$comfortably,$the$pattern$of$pitch,$rhythm$and$harmony$in$music$refers$to$a$specific$
physiological$state.$Stable$structure$of$emotion$is$connected$to$stable$structure$of$sounds$–$
8$
$
what$can$be$called$a$“musical$idiom”:$$an$audible$pattern$of$sounds$segregated$into$a$group$
that$ would$ be$ associated$ with$ a$ particular$ mood,$ attitude,$ character,$ or$ idea$ by$ different$
listeners$upon$numerous$auditions.$
In$ linguistics,$ an$ idiom$ is$ a$ group$ of$ words$ commonly$ used$ together,$ where$ the$
meaning$of$the$group$is$not$equal$to$the$sum$of$meanings$for$the$constituent$words$(as$in$
“pulling$ one’s$ leg”).$ In$ order$for$the$idiom$to$be$understood$properly,$the$listener$has$to$
know$the$convention$(Saeed$2015,$5960).$$
In$ music,$ the$ word$ “idiom”$ is$ used$ to$ mean$ “a$ characteristic$ trait$ of$ the$ specific$
progression$of$tones$<$a$trait$by$which$the$listener$can$identify$that$the$music$belongs$to$a$
certain$ type”.$For$ instance,$ a$ melody$ based$ on$ the$ sounds$ of$ a$ triad,$ with$ an$ overall$
ascending$direction,$in$a$major$key,$and$ loud$ dynamics$ is$ usually$ recognized$ as$“fanfare”$
and$ regarded$ as$ idiomatic$ to$ the$ tone$ of$ the$ trumpet$(i.e.$ Tchaikovsky$ –$ the$ opening$ of$
)%!*+!$,-!./+00+1).$ Similarity$to$the$ linguistic$idiom$is$ obvious:$the$listener$ knows$how$the$
sounds$ are$ made$ on$ the$ trumpet$ and$ what$ kinds$ of$ melodic$ patterns$ are$ the$ easiest$ to$
produce$on$it.$$
Then$the$stereotypical$properties$of$ trumpet$ music$ become$projected$on$the$musical$
idiom$of$fanfare:$trumpet$ (and$ other$ brass$instruments)$calls$have$been$ used$ in$ Western$
culture$as$signals$to$announce$something$important$for$the$public$(Huron$and$Berec$2009).$
Therefore,$the$idiom$of$fanfare$connects$to$emotion$of$courage.$The$linkage$goes$something$
like$this:$$public$announcements$usually$are$related$to$public$authorities,$authority$has$to$
do$ with$ power,$ and$ display$ of$ power$ irrespective$ of$ circumstances,$ even$ in$ situation$ of$
danger,$characterizes$courage.$
So,$listening$to$the$opening$of$)%!*+!$,-!./+00+1,by$Tchaikovsky$makes$a$listener$who$is$
aware$ of$ the$ significance$ of$ brass$ music$ in$ Western$ civilization$ experience$ the$
physiological$condition$that$is$essentially$the$same$as$what$one$feels$when$he$stands$up$for$
his$ beliefs$ regardless$ of$ the$repercussions.$ It$ may$ appear$ that$ the$ knowledge$ of$ the$
convention$ for$ the$ fanfare$ is$ something$ esoteric,$ which$ would$ make$ emotional$
communication$through$music$way$too$exclusive$for$music$to$be$considered$a$“language.”$$
But$012.'%'$0'$in$language$is$much$wider$than$'3.'/%+('$in$language.$Most$people$are$
passively$ aware$ of$ things$ they$ cannot$ actively$ express$ in$ words.$ In$ the$ same$ way,$
familiarity$with$fanfare$does$not$require$explicit$knowledge$of$the$history$of$music,$nor$the$
'3!0%$structures$that$comprise$it.$$
Most$ people$ who$ lived$ for$ few$ years$ in$ a$ Western$ country$ would$ have$ witnessed$
ceremonies$ that$ involve$ fanfares:$ national$ celebrations,$ military$ funerals,$ openings$ of$
important$ sport$ events,$ etc.$ Subsequently$ recognizing$ similar$ sound$ structures$ in$ the$
context$ of$ a$ soundtrack$ in$ some$ movie$ would$ reinforce$ its$ musical$ meaning,$ and$ enable$
one$to$identify$fanfare$within$the$context$of$a$musical$work,$like$-!./+00+1,)%!*+'$$'.$
$
$
9$
$
The$capacity$for$ intuitive$competence$in$musical$ idioms$is$not$unique$ to$the$Western$
classical$ music.$ Any$ naturally$ evolved$ music$ culture3$operates$ on$ the$ same$ semiotic$
principles:$there$is$a$pool$ of$ patterns$ of$melody,$rhythm,$meter,$articulation,$and$ texture,$
which$ are$ reused$ in$ every$ musical$ composition$ and$ require$ from$ the$ music$ user$ the$
knowledge$of$conventional$reference$to$corresponding$emotional$conditions.$User$of$any$
kind$of$traditional$music4$is$usually$competent$in$the$music$of$his$native$culture.$$$$
The$configuration$of$the$musical$aspects$of$pitch,$rhythm,$and$harmony$determines$the$
structure$of$a$music$idiom.$The$configuration$of$features$of$a$physiological$state$constitutes$
the$structure$of$emotion.$A$ cultural$ convention$ stitches$the$structure$of$a$ music$ idiom$ to$
the$ structure$ of$ an$ emotion$ –$ thus$ providing$ the$ foundation$ for$ a$ music$ “language.$ A$
person$with$sufficient$ musical$training$has$enough$ command$of$music$idioms$ to$conceive$
them$mentally$–$to$think$in$terms$of$music.$$
E.-$F"'(")$"1$/23(4+:$%&"'(")$
Laypeople$cannot$rely$on$musical$thinking.$Their$command$of$ music$ is$ more$ passive$
than$active.$This$might$suffice$for$simple$forms$of$music$making,$such$as$folk$music.$But$for$
art$music,$such$as$classical$music$or$jazz,$their$lack$of$ear$training$will$be$an$obstacle$in$the$
detection$of$music$idioms$in$a$musical$composition,$whether$improvising$music$or$playing$
by$ear.$They$need$an$emotional$agent$in$order$to$convert$the$emotional$content$of$a$music$
language$into$an$artwork.$ They$need$a$master$performer$who$is$capable$of$converting$the$
musical$ structures$ into$ emotions.$ Then$ the$ layperson$ will$ sympathize$ with$ the$
performance$and$generate$the$corresponding$emotional$states.$
To$ bridge$ the$ gap$ between$ musical$ idiom$ and$ human$ emotion,$ we$ must$ therefore$
consider$another$structural$entity$–$the$musical$emotion.$A$musical$emotion$is$the$emotion$
implied$ by$ the$ notes$ of$ a$ score,$ encoded$ in$ the$ musical$ text$ by$ means$ of$ cultural$
convention,$and$designed$to$be$retrieved$ and$re<enacted$by$ a$performer.$The$ structure$of$
this$emotion$ is$very$complex$and$the$rules$for$interpretation$of$these$emotions$are$vague,$
strongly$intuitive,$and$are$intermingled$with$numerous$exceptions$ and$conditions.$That$is$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
3$Artificially$ invented$ music$ systems,$ such$ as$ dodecaphony$ by$ Schoenberg$ and$ Webern,$ or$serial$
music$by$Boulez$ and$Stockhausen,$are$the$exception.$They$ denounce$the$pre<existing$ grammar$
and$ lexicon$ of$ musical$ expressions,$ and$ substitute$ them$ with$ completely$ new$ grammar$ and$
lexicon.$This$radical$approach$makes$intuitive$competence$impossible$in$relation$to$these$types$of$
music,$ as$ well$ as$ in$ later$ compositional$ techniques$ that$ followed$ the$ same$ trend$ (i.e.$ new$
complexity).$$$
4$A$number$of$genres/styles$of$Western$popular$music$constitute$a$special$case.$Their$use$of$idioms$
usually$becomes$severely$ limited$ by$the$commercial$goals$of$production:$ even$where$a$style$ of$
popular$ music$ originates$ from$ some$ folk$ prototype,$ the$ popular$ version$ usually$ drops$ many$
idioms$ and$ simplify$ the$ rest$ of$ the$ idioms$ in$ order$ to$ widen$ the$ base$of$ potential$ buyers.$ The$
prime$ goal$ of$ such$ music$ is$ for$it$ to$ be$ liked$ by$ as$ many$ people$ as$ possible,$ without$ requiring$
them$to$learn$any$idioms.$This$usually$makes$the$mass<produced$Western$popular$music$rely$on$
the$superficial$ “phonic”$characteristics$of$sound$as$well$as$non<musical$means$of$communication$
(lyrics,$titles,$histrionic$aspects$of$presentation,$costumes,$stage$design,$etc.)$–$rather$than$musical$
idioms$–$in$emotional$communication.$$$
10$
$
why$it$takes$years$for$a$person$to$learn$ music$interpretation,$and$ there$are$relatively$ few$
masters$who$can$do$it$well.$$
$Musical$emotion$ has$nothing$to$do$with$feeling$(in$the$scientific$sense$of$the$term).$
Feeling$ is$ the$ “face”$ of$ the$ emotion$ for$ the$ listener.$ One$ of$ the$ leading$ specialists$ on$
emotion,$Antonio$Damasio,$defines$feeling$as$a$perception$of$an$emotional$state;$the$mental$
awareness$ of$ the$ physiological$ state$ of$ the$ body$ as$ well$ as$ the$ concurrent$ state$ of$ mind$
(Damasio$2012,$117).$In$relation$to$music$listening,$an$example$would$be$the$experience$of$
thrills$(goose<bumps$from$strong$emotional$reaction)$–$the$listener$becomes$aware$of$them$
and$connects$them$to$previous$instances$of$feeling$in$the$same$way.$In$this$way,$causes$and$
behavioral$ reactions$ from$ the$ past$ connect$ with$ the$ feeling$ of$ “now,”$ and$ the$feeling$ of$
thrill$becomes$structured$into$the$emotion$of$pleasure.$$
Together,$ feeling$ and$ emotion$ go$ hand$ in$ hand,$ forming$ a$ cycle:$ perception$ of$ data$
triggers$an$emotional$reaction$that$starts$in$the$brain,$involving$glands,$which$spreads$over$
the$entire$body.$ At$ this$point,$the$feeling$ stage$kicks$in$<$ activating$the$new$brain$ regions$
and$concluding$the$cycle,$as$the$ brain$ becomes$ conscious$ of$the$overall$state$of$the$ body$
and$relates$it$to$a$particular$mode$of$behavior.$$
The$ principal$ difference$ between$ emotion$ and$ feeling$ is$ that$ feeling$ is$ rather$ free<
floating$and$even$optional$<$it$can$follow$the$emotional$response,$or$be$altogether$omitted,$
depending$on$the$attention,$urgency$and$self<awareness$of$a$person.$Emotion,$on$the$other$
hand,$ is$ highly$ structured$ and$ automated.$ Modern$ psychology$ defines$ emotions$ as$ bio<
behavioral$systems$that$consist$of$at$least$four$core$components$(Humrichouse$et$al.$2007):$$
(a) a$subjective$experience$(e.g.$seeing$a$dog$that$is$perceived$as$“dangerous”);$
(b) a$ physiological$ reaction$ (e.g.$ fear,$ manifested$ by$ increased$ heart$ rate$ and$
general$sympathetic$$activation);$
(c) overt$expression$of$the$physiological$state$$(raised$eyebrows$and$wide<open$
eyes);$
(d) a$behavioral$response$(a$chosen$strategy$to$cope$with$the$situation,$such$as$a$
decision$to$freeze$or$flee).$
$ These$components$follow$each$other$in$ a$ coordinated$manner$in$a$short$ period$ of$
time,$ in$the$ order$ of$ seconds,$ mostly$ beyond$ the$ control$ of$ an$ individual.$ Only$ the$
behavioral$ response$ stage$ is$ partially$ controllable,$ when$ the$ mind$ has$ the$ capacity$ to$
moderate$or$modify$the$ behavior$ rather$than$acting$upon$the$ first$ impulse.$ In$relation$to$
musical$emotion,$this$fourth$component$is$ usually$ suppressed:$ listeners$ do$not$run$away$
from$ the$ concert$ hall$ upon$ hearing$ scary$ music;$ however$ they$ can$ root$ or$ cheer$ while$
listening$ to$ some$ fiery$ march.$ The$ exact$ choice$ for$ behavior$ depends$ on$ the$ place$ and$
purpose$of$application$of$music.$
The$ time$ frame$ for$ musical$ emotion$ to$ kick$ in$ is$ shown$ to$ be$ about$ 8$ seconds.$ A$
dedicated$study$of$emotional$response<time$to$music$found$that$music$expertise$has$little$
to$do$with$the$speed$of$emotional$response$in$listeners,$and$is$significantly$accelerated$in$
cases$where$the$music$is$already$familiar$to$the$listener$(Bachorik$et$al.$2009).$
11$
$
%&"'(")3$846"33$*2:'26-3$
Fixed$structure$allows$for$reliable$emotional$communication.$ Numerous$experimental$
studies$ have$ confirmed$ that$ people$ from$ Papua$ New$ Guinea,$ America,$ Japan,$Brazil,$$
Argentina,$ $ Indonesia$$and$ Russia$ all$ are$ capable$ of$recognizing$facial$ displays$ of$ basic$
emotions$ (anger,$ disgust,$ fear,$ happiness,$ sadness,$ and$ surprise).$ This$ recognition$ works$
quite$ reliably$ across$ cultural$ and$ ethnic$ differences,$ indicating$ universality$ of$ the$ way$
emotions$ are$ experienced$ and$ facially$ expressed$ in$ humans.$ Video$recordings$ of$ people$
emoting$ privately$ and$ publically$ support$ the$ conclusion$ that$ emotions$ are$ distinguished$
even$in$cultures$ that$lack$words$ for$certain$emotions$ –$and$it$ is$the$management$of$facial$
expressions$ that$ varies$ from$ culture$ to$ culture,$ and$ not$ their$ structure$ (Ekman$ 2003,$ 1–
16).$
Moreover,$there$ is$evidence$ that$human$display$of$basic$emotions$closely$matches$the$
display$ patterns$ by$ other$ primates,$ making$ it$ possible$ to$ recognize$ emotions$ across$
species.$ Emotional$ contagion$ appears$ to$ be$ a$ mechanism$ universal$ amongst$ mammals.$
Thus,$one$monkey$reads$another$monkey’s$body$language,$becomes$empathetic$and$adopts$
the$ same$ emotion.$ The$ same$ effect$ was$ observed$ in$ mice$ demonstrating$ intensified$ pain$
response$after$these$mice$watched$other$mice$in$pain.$Evidently,$witnessing$an$emotional$
state$automatically$and$unconsciously$activates$the$subject’s$neural$representations$of$the$
same$states$from$past$experience$(de$Waal$2011).$$
The$omnipresence$of$emotional$contagion$ across$the$animal$world$must$be$explained$
by$ its$ strong$ survival$ value.$ Making$ an$ animal$ more$ responsive$ to$ changes$ in$ the$
environment$ by$ means$ of$ empathy$ allows$ that$ animal$ to$ act$ earlier$ and$ have$ a$ time$
advantage$in$expressing$a$ particular$ behavior.$In$human$culture,$ empathy$ plays$a$central$
role$in$benevolent$behavior,$which$is$so$vital$to$social$structure$and$group$cohesion.$
In$fact,$experimental$evidence$suggests$that$empathy$regulates$recognition$of$emotions$
in$ music$ and$ the$ induction$ of$ emotions$ in$ listeners.$ Thus,$ the$ data$ recorded$ from$ more$
than$ 3,000$ participants$ (Hauke$ Egermann$ and$ McAdams$ 2013)$ indicates$ that$ listeners$
consciously$ directed$ their$ empathy$ in$order$ to$ moderate$ whether$ the$ musical$ emotions$
were$felt$or$not.$Musical$preference$ was$found$to$be$the$ strongest$moderator$of$empathy.$
Liking$a$piece$of$music$is$likely$to$increase$a$listener’s$attention$to$the$expressed$emotions,$
thereby$increasing$ their$ ability$ to$ empathize$ and$ experience$ the$ emotional$ content$
suggested$by$the$music.$
Of$ course,$ it$ should$ be$ stressed$ that$ the$ universality$ of$ basic$ emotions$ by$ no$ means$
exempts$them$from$cultural$differences.$ According$to$Matsumoto$(Matsumoto$and$Hwang$
2012)$ emotions$ are$ biologically$ programmed,$ but$ the$ process$ of$ learning$ to$ perceive$ an$
emotional$ expression,$ as$ well$ as$ the$ control$ over$ the$ display$ of$ emotions$ depends$ on$
cultural$factors.$Members$of$a$certain$society$learn$what$to$become$emotional$about$based$
on$the$set$of$cultural$values$cultivated$within$that$society.$They$also$learn$what$kinds$of$
emotional$reactions$are$appropriate$to$have$after$an$emotion$is$elicited,$and$what$range$of$
behaviors$is$acceptable$for$individuals$to$engage$in$after$emotions$occur.$$
Cultures$ generate$ attitudes,$ values,$ and$ beliefs$ about$ emotions$ that$ are$ supposed$ to$
guide$individuals$in$handling$their$emotions.$In$that$sense,$cultures$can$promote$or$inhibit$
emotions,$ and$ even$ produce$ culture<specific$ emotions.$ $ Thus,$ American,$ Japanese,$ and$
Korean$cultures$are$found$to$cultivate$different$patterns$ of$covering$anger$ with$the$social$
12$
$
smile,$which$also$affects$the$way$in$which$the$display$of$such$complex$emotional$states$are$
perceived$by$the$observers$within$those$cultures$(Matsumoto,$Hwang,$and$Yamada$2012).$$
Music$ addresses$ such$ enculturation$ issues$ by$ placing$ musical$ emotions$ within$ a$
specific$context$of$a$genre,$title,$tempo$and$dynamics.$Together,$these$referents$are$capable$
of$significantly$altering$a$ display$of$a$particular$ emotion,$prompting$the$listener$ to$take$a$
particular$attitude$towards$music.$Thus,$the$national$anthem$of$Israel,$4!%+5#!$expresses$a$
sad$emotion.$The$genre$of$a$ national$ anthem$ points$ to$ the$importance$of$this$emotion$to$
Jewish$ culture,$ and$ the$ fact$ that$ it$ is$ not$ regarded$ as$ negative.$ The$ confident$ impression$
produced$ by$ a$ gradual$ melodic$ line,$ slow$ tempo,$ and$ loud$ dynamics$ further$ corroborate$
this$ impression$ by$ suggesting$ that$ sadness$ in$ Jewish$ culture$ should$ not$ be$ viewed$ as$
depression,$ but$ rather$ awareness$ of$ past$ history$ of$ prosecutions$ and$ strong$ value$ for$
compassion.$
Long<lasting$exposure$to$a$particular$piece$of$music$definitely$is$capable$to$reinforce$a$
certain$ cultural$ perspective$ on$ a$ given$ emotion.$ Thus,$ listening$ to$ 4!%+5#!$ many$ times$
within$ the$ celebrative$ context$ will$ likely$ reinforce$ the$ attitude$ that$ being$ sensitive$ and$
emotional$ should$ not$ be$ regarded$ as$ sense$ of$ weakness,$ and$ on$ another$ hand,$ being$ in$
touch$with$ your$own$private$feelings$is$very$important$for$the$entire$nation.$Such$cultural$
connotation$is$specific$to$Jewish$culture,$and$therefore$is$cultivated$in$Jewish$music.$$$$
Emotion$ can$ be$ seen$ as$ fundamental$ means$ of$ mediating$ between$ one’s$ inner$ and$
outer$ world,$ a$ tool$ of$ adapting$ one’s$ behavior$ that$ is$ more$ immediate$ and$ reliable$ than$
cognition.$Emotions$do$not$depend$on$thinking$<$they$are$“relational”,$ that$ is,$ they$ result$
from$the$impact$of$noticed$changes.$Emotions$present$their$own$peculiar$angle$of$reflecting$
on$ reality$ by$ allowing$ an$ individual$ to$ maintain$ or$ adjust$ a$ particular$ relation$ to$ given$
events$which$are$important$to$that$individual.$The$strong$adaptive$value$gives$emotion$an$
evolutionary$magnitude.$$
E.-$G-)-'(4$H""'3$"1$%&"'(")$+)B$/23(4$
The$ fact$ that$ the$ display$ patterns$ for$ the$ same$ emotion$ stay$ very$ similar$ across$
different$ species$testifies$ to$ the$ importance$ of$ emotion$ to$the$ survival$ in$ the$ animal$
kingdom.$ Thus,$ the$ baring$ of$ teeth,$ characteristic$ in$ display$ of$ anger,$ was$ adaptive$ as$ a$
preparation$for$biting$in$attack;$narrowing$of$the$eyes$was$protecting$the$eye$from$injury$in$
combat.$High$reactivity$towards$specific$stimuli$early$in$life$also$points$to$the$evolutionary$
origin$ of$ emotions:$ goslings$ show$ fear$ when$ exposed$ to$ the$ shape$ resembling$ a$ hawk$
without$ever$seeing$an$ actual$ hawk.$ Evolutionary$ factors$are$found$to$speed$up$ linking$ a$
given$environmental$stimulus$with$emotion,$of$enduring$such$a$connection,$and$mediating$
the$intensity$of$the$emotion.$$
It$appears$that$emotions$are$somewhat$pre<programmed$for$their$rapid$establishment,$
differentiation,$ and$ fine<tuning$ in$ the$ best$ interests$ of$ an$ individual.$ A$ number$ of$
neurobiologists,$ like$ Paul$ MacLean$ or$ Jaak$ Panksepp,$ speak$ about$ emotional$circuits$
embedded$subcortically$within$the$mammalian$brain.$Such$a$genetically$dictated$emotional$
operating$ system$ allows$ newborn$ animals$ to$ begin$ responding$ adequately$ to$ their$
environment$at$the$stage$when$these$animals$lack$any$cognitive$means$of$ realization.$The$
circuits$ responsible$ for$ dreaming,$ anticipation,$ the$ pleasures$ of$ eating$ as$ well$ as$ the$
13$
$
consumption$of$other$resources,$anger,$fear,$love,$lust,$maternal$acceptance,$grief,$play,$and$
joy$ensure$effective$start$in$the$process$of$mental$development$(Panksepp$1998,$4).$
Panksepp$ explains$ the$ organization$ of$ these$ emotional$ circuits$ in$ terms$ of$ computer$
hardware.$ The$ brain<bio<computer$ has$ an$ operating$ system$ installed$ in$ the$ read<only$
memory$(ROM)$from$the$moment$of$birth.$ ROM$functions$are$genetic$and$reside$in$ lower,$
subcortical$ regions$ of$ the$ brain.$ More$ intricate$ functions$ of$ learning$ and$ cognition$ are$
elaborated$in$the$random<access$memory$(RAM),$which$is$more$flexible,$faster$and$can$be$
programmed$by$the$ user$of$the$ computer.$These$functions$ are$evolutionarily$more$ recent$
and$ are$ concentrated$ in$ the$ neo<cortex.$ All$ mammals$ appear$ to$ have$ very$ similar$ ROM$
functions,$while$humans$rely$on$ far$more$developed$RAM<like$neuro<computational$space$
than$ other$ mammals.$ The$ basic$ emotions$ belong$ to$ ROM,$ whereas$ cognition$ operates$ in$
RAM$(ibid.,$20).$
By$this$scheme,$complex$emotions$and$adjusted$basic$ emotions$(such$as$ sense$of$fear$
moderated$in$certain$situations,$i.e.$a$stage$fright)$are$entered$in$RAM,$as$cognition$keeps$
regulating$ the$ pre<programmed$ emotional$ responses$ to$ the$ needs$ of$ an$ individual.$ The$
capacity$ for$ fine<tuning$ emotions$ is$ crucial$ for$ success,$ especially$ in$ the$ modern$ urban$
environment,$ where$ complex$ social$ organization$ makes$ an$ individual$ cater$ to$ multiple$
contacts,$services,$and$tasks.$For$one$situation,$ it$might$be$beneficial$to$have$a$ heightened$
sense$ of$ fear$ (investment$ in$ the$ stock$ market),$ whereas$ for$ another$ <$ to$ have$ fear$
minimized$(stage$fright).$ Failure$ to$optimize$an$emotion$ is$directly$connected$to$ negative$
outcomes$that$would$hurt$the$career$of$that$individual.$
Music,$ with$ its$ capacity$ to$continually$ exercise$ emotional$ response,$ and$ with$ the$
individual’s$ control$ over$ the$ choice$ of$ a$ particular$ kind$ of$ music,$ provides$ a$ tool$ par$
excellence$for$calibrating$emotions.$The$fixed$structure$of$emotion,$per$se,$as$well$ as$ the$
fixed$patterns$ in$ the$expression$ of$ emotional$ display$ (frowning,$ smiling),$ testify$ to$ the$
objectivity$of$emotions,$thereby,$correcting$the$older$scientific$views$ dominant$in$the$ 20th$
century$which$held$emotion$to$be$as$something$inherently$changeable$and$subjective.$If$the$
mechanism$ of$ basic$ emotions$ is$ genetically$ embedded,$ and$ their$ communication$ is$
universal,$as$indicated$by$the$most$recent$research$that$distinguishes$between$universality$
of$basic$and$non<basic$ emotions$(Matsumoto$and$Hwang$ 2012),$then,$it$becomes$possible$
to$claim$that$people$experience$each$of$the$basic$emotions$in$essentially$the$same$way.$$
*6"33I&"B+:$9-64-<'(")$"1$/23(4$$
Given$this$objective,$the$structured$status$of$emotion,$basic$musical$emotions$become$a$
likely$candidate$for$the$foundation$of$a$ universal$“emotional$language”$of$music,$ provided$
that$the$musical$descriptors$of$musical$emotions$(pitch,$rhythm,$meter,$ harmony,$texture)$
do$ not$ require$ any$ conventional$ referents$(knowledge$ of$ a$ specific$ configuration$ of$
pitch/rhythm/meter/harmony/texture$ pattern).$ Many$ elements$ of$ musical$ composition$
can$be$emotionally$ interpreted$on$this$ basis,$and$are$ clear$in$their$meaning$purely$by$the$
virtue$of$their$physical$properties:$loudness$–$standing$for$intensity,$register$–$for$size$(K.$
K.$Evans$ and$Treisman$2011),$tempo$–$for$motion$(Feldman,$Epstein,$and$Richards$1992).$
There$ are$ a$ number$ of$ acoustic$ attributes$ of$ sound$ that$ do$ not$ require$ knowledge$ of$
convention$to$be$understood$<$they$ act$on$a$synesthetic$basis,$by$automatically$converting$
an$auditory$stimuli$into$some$sensory$images$or$qualities$of$other$sensory$modalities,$such$
14$
$
as$ vision$ or$ palpation$ (Marks$ 2014).$ Such$ cross<modal$ integration$ seems$ to$ be$ a$
widespread$phenomenon,$ presenting$a$norm$rather$than$anomaly$for$humans$(Parise$and$
Spence$2009).$It$is$just$that$some$people$are$conscious$of$synesthetic$connections,$whereas$
others$are$not$(Simner$2012).$$
The$ramifications$of$this$for$ emotional$communication$are$far<reaching.$An$ emotional$
reaction$can$be$primed$by$ a$visual$stimulus,$and$transferred$onto$the$auditory$ domain$by$
means$ of$ shared$ neural$ resources.$ There$ is$ experimental$ support$ for$ such$ cross<modal$
interaction$of$auditory$ and$visual$emotions$ for,$both,$simultaneous$ stimuli$and$sequential$
processing$(Logeswaran$and$Bhattacharya$2009).$An$example$of$such$interaction$could$be$
found$in$the$cross<modal$correspondence$between$the$tonality/mode$of$music$and$colors$–$
evidently,$ mediated$ by$ emotion$ (Palmer$ et$ al.$ 2013).$ In$ practice,$ emotional$ reference$
works$ in$ a$ complex$ manner,$ integrating$ a$ specific$ configuration$ of$ auditory$ attributes:$
thus,$music<color$associations$involve$a$combination$of$tempo,$mode,$timbre,$and$harmony$
(Tsang$and$Schloss$2012).$$
However,$ some$ important$ auditory$ attributes$ have$ demonstrated$ stable$ synesthetic$
associations$that$can$bear$definitive$emotional$values.$$
The$connection$between$loudness$and$intensity$ (K.$ K.$ Evans$and$Treisman$2011)$
easily$ directs$ one$ to$ perceive$ very$ soft$ sounds$as$ tender,$ whereas$ very$ loud$ <$ as$
angry.$$
The$ register/size$ correspondence$ (Marks$ 1978,$ 53)$suggests$ cuteness$ of$ sounds$
that$are$very$high$in$pitch,$and$potential$threat$associated$ with$ very$ low$ pitches,$
since$they$characterize$very$big$creatures$that$can$inadvertently$harm$a$person.$$
Similar$correspondence$of$thickness$and$pitch,$discovered$in$infants$(Dolscheid$et$
al.$2014),$supports$ the$association$of$ chords$with$security,$whereas$ single$sounds$
with$vulnerability.$$
Synesthetic$ mapping$ between$ lightness$ and$ melodic$ interval$ (Hubbard$ 1996)$
allows$ to$ associate$ a$ stepwise$ melody$ in$ high$ register$ with$ light$ and$ kindness,$
versus$leaps$in$low$register$with$darkness$and$evil.$$
The$ cross<modal$ link$ between$ audition$ and$ tactile$ sensation$ (Kim$ and$ Zatorre$
2010)$enables$the$vibrotactile$discrimination$of$musical$timbre$and$texture$(Russo,$
Ammirante,$ and$ Fels$ 2012):$ i.e.$ pleasant$ velvet”$ sound$ of$ tenor$ saxophone$
(Nykänen$2004).$There$is$ evidence$ of$connection$between$the$ growling$ timbre$of$
distorted$electric$guitar$and$the$state$of$aggression$(Tsai$et$al.$2010).$$
Musical$ articulation$ also$ carries$ cross<modal$ functionality:$ staccato$ manner$ of$
performance$ is$ associated$ with$ angular$ shapes$ and$ discomfort,$ whereas$ legato$
articulation,$with$rounded$shapes$and$pleasure$(Weinstein$and$Gridley$2010).$$
Hearing$ of$ musical$ patterns$ with$ salient$ features$ of$ register,$ loudness,$ textural$
thickness,$articulation,$melodic$intervallic$size,$ and$ timbre$ –$coordinated$with$tempo$and$
metro<rhythmic$ features,$ are$ capable$ of$ invoking$ imagery$ of$ physical$ motion$ of$ very$
specific$ type,$ i.e.$ gesture$ or$ gait$ that$can$ be$ highly$ suggestive$ of$ a$ particular$ expression$
(Clarke$ 2001).$ Thus,$ music$ can$ project$ the$ impression$ of$ panting$ while$running.$ or$ of$
laziness$ while$stretching.$ The$ connection$ between$ a$ particular$ configuration$ of$ auditory$
markers$is$shown$to$provide$a$stable$reference$to$a$certain$cross<modal$analog$in$physical$
15$
$
reality:$i.e.$descending$melodic$motion$is$associated$with$diminuendo$and$relaxation$(Eitan$
and$Granot$2006).$$$
Such$ emotional$ associations$ do$ not$ really$ depend$ that$ much$ on$ the$ listener’s$
familiarity$with$the$conventions$of$musical$grammar$adopted$within$his$music$community.$
Unless$ his$ musical$ culture$ deliberately$ breaks$ away$ from$ the$ “natural”$ synesthetic$
connections$(which$is$not$that$common),$any$listener$has$a$good$chance$of$figuring$out$the$
emotional$ “meaning”$ of$ a$ music$ work$ by$just$ resorting$ to$ its$ cross<modal$ functionality.$$
Universality$ of$ basic$ musical$ emotions$ across$ different$ cultures$ must$ owe$ itself$ to$ such$
synesthetic$connections.$
/23(4+:$%&"'(")3$846"33$*2:'26-3$
There$ is$ enough$ evidence$ to$ conclude$ safely$ that$ the$ basic$ emotions$ are$ universally$
recognized$within$the$same$culture:$where$the$presented$music$is$native$to$the$listeners.$In$
a$major$experimental$study$(Mohn,$Argstatter,$and$Wilker$2011)$a$group$of$115$university$
students$were$able$to$identify$six$basic$universal$emotions$in$completely$unknown$musical$
stimuli,$in$most$cases$well$ above$ chance$ level.$The$ability$to$detect$musical$ emotions$ did$
not$seem$to$ be$influenced$by$musical$experience$or$personality$ traits,$with$recognition$ of$
happiness$and$sadness$with$extremely$high$reliability$–$testifying$to$the$centrality$of$these$
two$emotions$for$Western$music.$Evidently,$laypeople$ are$competent$enough$to$recognize$
and$match$the$ structures$of$musical$ idioms$to$the$structure$of$basic$emotions$ –$following$
the$convention$accepted$within$their$native$culture.$
The$research$in$recognition$of$emotions$in$music$across$different$cultures$is$limited,$
but$ seems$ to$ point$ in$ the$ direction$ of$ music$ being,$ not$ only$ a$ refined$ product$ of$ human$
culture,$but$part$of$human$nature$–$a$part$ of$humanity’s$genetic$foundation.$Indeed,$those$
few$studies$that$examined$recognition$of$musical$emotions$by$the$listeners$across$Western,$
Japanese,$ Hindustani,$ and$ Chinese$ cultures$reported$ that$ subjects$ did$ succeed$ in$
distinguishing$joy,$sadness$and$anger$in$music$ unfamiliar$to$their$cultures.$Early$ability$to$
extract$ emotion$ intentions$ from$ music,$ when$ nine$ months$ old$ infants$ are$ shown$ to$
discriminate$ between$ happy$ and$ sad$ music,$ also$ supports$ the$ idea$ of$ biological$
preparedness$for$music$(Peretz$2013).$$
One$ of$ such$ studies$ examined$ emotional$ recognition$ of$ Western$ music$ by$ German$
listeners$ and$ Mafa$ people,$ with$ music$ composed$ specifically$ for$ this$ experiment$ (Fritz,$
Sammler,$ and$ Koelsch$ 2006).$ The$ Mafa$ are$ one$ of$ approximately$ 250$ ethnic$ groups$ that$
make$up$the$population$of$ Cameroun.$They$are$culturally$isolated$ and$live$in$the$Extreme$
North$Province$in$the$Mandara$mountain$range.$The$remote$Mafa$settlements$do$not$even$
have$electrical$supply,$and$are$inhabited$ by$ individuals$ who$pursue$a$traditional$lifestyle$
and$have$not$ been$exposed$to$Western$ music.$Both,$German$ and$Mafa$listeners$identified$
all$ three$ emotions$ in$ the$ music$ samples$ at$ levels$ that$ were$ above$ chance$ performance.$
Among$ German$ listeners,$ recognition$ of$ happy$ music$ (99%)$ was$ slightly$ better$ than$ sad$
music$ (93%)$ or$ scary$ music$ (81%).$ Similarly,$ among$ the$ Mafa$ listeners,$ recognition$ of$
happy$music$ (65%)$was$better$than$sad$music$(49%)$or$scary$music$(48%).$Interestingly,$
the$capacity$to$decode$emotional$expressions$was$significantly$correlated$with$the$degree$
of$appreciation$of$the$compositions,$supporting$the$studies$on$the$contribution$of$empathy$
to$emotional$reaction$to$music.$
16$
$
The$universality$of$basic$musical$emotions$could$originate$in$common$neural$pathways$
shared$by$emotional$vocalizations$in$verbal$language$and$music.$A$recent$study$(Bowling$et$
al.$2012)$examined$the$spectral$analysis$of$happy$and$sad$music$of$Western$(classical)$and$
Eastern$ (South$ Indian$ Carnatic)$ traditions$ versus$ the$ happy$ and$ sad$ speech$ of$ American$
English$and$Indian$Tamil$speakers.$The$results$demonstrated$close$relationships$ between$
tonal$variations$in$the$prosody$of$both$verbal$ languages$and$both$ types$of$music.$ Melodic$
intervals$ in$ both$traditions$were$ found$to$ be$ generally$larger$in$happy$ melodies,$ and$
smaller$ in$ sad$ ones.$ $ Similarly,$ in$ both$ languages,$ negative/subdued$ expressions$ were$
characterized$by$relatively$small$ prosodic$intervals,$whereas$positive/excited$expressions$
were$ characterized$by$relatively$ large$ prosodic$intervals.$ This$ finding$ supports$ the$
previous$ reports$ of$ similarity$ between$ tempo,$ intensity$ and$ timbre$ between$ verbal$ and$
musical$expressions$of$the$same$emotion$(Juslin$and$Laukka$2003).$
For$ example,$ in$ both$ vocal$ and$ musical$ expressions,$ happiness$ and$ anger$ are$
associated$with$increases$in$speech$rate/tempo$ and$ voice$ intensity/sound$level,$whereas$
sadness$ and$ tenderness$ are$ associated$ with$ decreases$ in$ speech$ rate/tempo$ and$ voice$
intensity/sound$ level.$ A$ review$ of$ 77$ studies$ of$ vocal$ expression$ and$ 35$ music$
performances$ seems$ to$ support$ the$ conclusion$ that$ musicians$ spontaneously$ structure$
their$performance$in$a$way$that$resembles$the$overt$expression$of$emotions$in$speech.$The$
most$recent$studies$support$this$assumption:$thus,$American$listeners$were$quite$effective$
in$identifying$3$basic$emotions$(happiness,$sadness,$&$anger)$in$Korean$folk$songs$(Kwoun$
2009).$
Yet$ another$ possibility$ is$ that$ music$ and$ movement$ share$ a$ common$ structure$ that$
affords$ equivalent$ and$ universal$ emotional$ expressions.$ The$ computer$ generations$ of$
matching$ patterns$ of$ music$ and$ motion$ appear$ to$ trigger$ similar$ emotional$ response$ in$
American$college$students$and$ inhabitants$ of$a$Kreung$village$in$ Cambodia$ (Sievers$et$al.$
2013).$ The$ Kreung$ participants’$ idea$ of$ “sad”$ was$ more$ similar$ to$ the$ American$ “sad”$
prototype$ than$ to$ any$ other$ emotional$ prototype,$ and$ this$ cross<cultural$ similarity$ was$
observed$for$all$emotions$except$“angry.”$This$pattern$ also$held$for$ the$movement$results$
when$ considered$ separately$ from$ music.$ When$ the$ music$ results$ were$ evaluated$ alone,$
three$of$the$five$emotions$(happy,$sad,$and$scared)$were$closer$ to$the$matching$ American$
prototype$ than$ any$ nonmatching$ prototypes.$ These$ results$suggest$ that$ the$ dynamic$
features$ of$ emotional$expression$ are$ cross<culturally$ universal$for$ “angry,”$ “happy,”$
“peaceful,”$ “sad,”$ and$ “scared”$ expression,$ and$ share$ similar$ dynamic$ contours$ in$ both$
music$and$movement.$
$The$cross<modal$nature$of$musical$expression$must$be$responsible$for$the$ability$of$
human$ newborns$ to$ readily$ respond$ to$ emotional$ communication$ –$ together$ with$ the$
genetic$ component$ of$ emotional$ receptivity.$ In$ newborns,$ display$ of$ emotional$
organization$ can$ be$observed$early$ in$ life,$ such$ as$ disturbed$ limb$ movement$ that$
accompanies$the$wiping$of$the$baby’s$nose.$Differentiation$between$emotions$occurs$within$
the$first$year$ of$life:$distress$at$four$ weeks$of$age,$joy$ at$six$weeks,$anger$ at$ four$months,$
disgust$<$at$six,$and$fear$<$at$eight$months$(Witherington$et$al.$2010).$
The$development$of$complex$emotions$goes$by$the$same$accelerated$pace.$The$basic$
emotions,$universally,$and$likely$genetically$shared$by$all$mammals,$are$believed$to$interact$
in$ their$ mechanisms$ and$ produce$ more$ complex,$ at$ first$ secondary,$ and$ then$ tertiary$
emotions.$ As$ the$ infant$ grows,$ so$ does$his$ awareness$ of$ his$surroundings.$ He$ becomes$
17$
$
involved$in$more$complex$interactions$with$his$caretakers.$Researchers$report$observing$
such$ complex$ emotions$ as$ shyness$ in$ four$ month$ olds,$ jealousy$ in$ babies$ of$ about$ 8$
months,$ and$ embarrassment$ in$ the$ ages$ between$ nine$ months$ and$ two$ years$ (Draghi<
Lorenz,$Reddy,$and$Costall$2001).$
The$ structural$ consistency$ of$ the$ primary$ emotions$ is$ what$ allows$ more$ complex$
emotions$ to$ form.$ In$ order$ for$ a$ complex$ emotion$ to$ evolve,$ each$ of$ the$ emotional$
components$that$comprise$that$new$state,$important$in$the$life$of$that$given$individual,$has$
to$ be$ continuously$ re<experienced$ until$ the$ new$ state$ is$ sufficiently$ reinforced$ to$ be$
remembered$ by$ the$ organism.$ $ Despite$ their$ non<genetic$ component,$ it$ is$ likely$ that$
complex$emotions$are$also$transferrable$across$cultural$barriers.$
Thomson$ and$ Balkwill$ (Thompson$ and$ Balkwill$ 2010)$ define$ a$ special$ category$ of$
markers$responsible$for$emotional$connotations$across$cultures$<$psychophysical$cues$that$
include$rate,$ intensity,$ timbre$ and$ pitch,$ and$ along$ with$ culture<specific$ cues$ (e.g.$
harmonic,$ rhythmic$ patterns)$ enhance$ the$ recognition$ process$ for$ members$ of$ the$ same$
culture.$These$psychophysical$ cues$are$not$merely$ the$result$of$ innate$processes,$but$also$
reflect$ other$ systemic$constraints:$ i.e.$ musical$ expression$of$ high<arousal$ emotions$ (like$
anger$or$excitement)$may$be$ characterized$by$attributes$that$reflect$the$increased$oxygen$
requirements$ associated$ with$ high<arousal$ states$(faster$ respiratory$ rate).$ Because$ the$
connection$ between$ oxygen$ requirements$ and$ arousal$ states$ is$ ubiquitous,$ certain$
attributes$of$high<arousal$music$are$likely$to$occur$ across$cultures.$When$ cultural<specific$
cues$ are$ unfamiliar$ or$ absent,$ listeners$ may$ still$ perceive$ psychophysical$ cues$ such$ as$
faster$tempo$and$increased$[auditory]$volume.$These$cues$provide$listeners$with$a$general$
understanding$ of$ the$ intended$ emotion$ even$ for$ unfamiliar$ musical$ styles$ –$ providing$ a$
work<around$when$the$listener$has$no$knowledge$of$that$culture’s$musical$conventions.$
Are$Musical$Emotions$Objective?$
The$connection$between$music$and$emotion$is$quite$well$established:$79$experimental$
studies$between$1892$and$2000$have$found$a$stable$connection$between$the$recognition$of$
at$ least$ a$ few$ emotional$ states$ or$ emotional$ conditions$ and$ specific$ pieces$ of$ music.$ The$
accuracy$varied$depending$on$the$ emotion$ and$ music.$Accuracy$was$very$high$for$ gaiety,$
joy,$and$assertion;$lower,$but$still$well$above$chance$level$for$calm,$sorrow,$tenderness,$and$
yearning;$but$less$direct$with$the$latter$ones,$which$were$sometimes$confused$with$each$
other.$The$ability$to$discriminate$musical$emotional$expressions$had$no$relation$to$general$
intelligence$or$ musical$ training,$ and$ carried$ only$ low$ correlations$ with$ scores$ on$ the$
Seashore$Measures$of$Musical$ Talents,$ suggesting$that$emotional$communication$through$
music$ is$ a$ general$ function$ for$ any$ human$ being.$ Overall,$ recognition$ stays$ reliable$for$
positive$emotions$of$gaiety,$happiness,$joy,$mischievousness;$negative$emotions$of$sadness,$
sorrow;$anger<hate;$dullness;$states$of$high$arousal$and$low$arousal$(excitement/calm)$and$
social$emotions$of$tenderness,$and$dignity$(Gabrielsson$and$Juslin$2003).$
Emotional$communication$through$ music$appears$to$operate$ on$objective$grounds,$at$
least$with$an$adult$audience$that$shares$the$same$cultural$background$as$the$creator$of$the$
music.$A$musical$emotion$is$realized$by$the$musician,$brought$to$life$through$performance,$
identified$ by$ the$ adult$ listener,$ who$ then$ generates$ the$ same$ emotional$ state$ via$ the$
mechanisms$ of$ emotional$ contagion.$ Such$ a$ chain$ supports$ the$ objective$ perspective$ of$
18$
$
musical$emotion.$$This$is$not$to$say$that$there$is$no$subjective$component$in$it.$Like$verbal$
expression,$musical$expression$involves$both$facets:$the$information$conveyed$through$the$
act$ of$ perception$ and$ auditory$ processing$ of$ the$ signal$ is$ objective,$ but$ the$ individual$
listener’s$associations$and$experience$of$the$physiological$response$is$subjective.$
*"))"'+'(")$+)B$J-)"'+'(")$()$/23(4$
The$objective$basis$ of$emotion$lies$ in$the$shared$ physiological$structures$of$ the$basic,$
primary$ emotions.$ In$ linguistic$ terms,$ this$ objective$ aspect$ can$ be$ called$ “denotation.$
Musical$ emotion$ denotes$ a$ certain$ set$ of$ physiological$ conditions$ in$ listeners.$ The$
subjective$aspect$of$emotion$can$be$called$“connotation”:$musical$emotion$invokes$not$only$
a$sympathetic$response$in$listeners,$but$it$also$triggers$certain$attitudes,$ evaluations$ and$
resolutions$ from$ the$ listener’s$ past$ experience,$ unique$ to$ that$ individual.$ For$ instance,$ a$
sad$ expression$ can$ connote$ nostalgia$ in$ one$ person,$ melancholy$ in$ another,$ and$
misanthropy$in$a$third.$Such$variance$depends$on$the$post<emotional$mentalization$at$the$
moment$of$listening,$combined$with$the$person’s$memory$of$the$past$experience.$$
The$ discrepancy$ between$ connotational$ and$ denotational$ emotional$ “meanings”$ is$
responsible$for$apparent$contradictions$in$semantic$values$of$the$very$same$music$in$eyes$
of$ different$ people.$ Using$ an$ example$ of$ Stephan$ Vitas,$ many$ people$ hear$ the$ opening$ of$
Beethoven’s$ 9th$ Symphony$ as$“man$ meets$ the$ Creator$ in$the$ great$ hall$ of$ the$ universe”;$
yet$on$ a$ radio$ talk$ show$ one$ woman$ said$ she$ heard$ the$ same$ passage$ as$“the$ rapist$
confronts$his$victim.”$It$appears$that$both$emotions$deny$each$other,$therefore$testifying$
towards$ arbitrariness$ of$ musical$ emotion.$ However,$ the$ contradiction$ in$ this$ example$ is$
illusory.$$What$matters$here$is$not$the$conceptual$conclusion,$but$the$perception$prior$to$it.$
Musical$communication$handles$matters$up$to$this$point:$both,$an$admirer$of$Beethoven,$
and$ this$ woman$ agree$ in$ recognizing$ the$ strength$ and$ awe$ represented$ by$ Beethoven’s$
configuration$of$pitch,$meter,$rhythm$and$texture.$Beyond$that$comes$the$turn$for$cognition$
of$feeling$and$psychological$interpretations.$But$this$is$no$different$than$reaction$to$speech,$
where$the$realization$of$being$ offended$often$follows$after$some$ deliberation$of$what$was$
heard.$ If$ no$ one$ would$ dispute$ the$ capacity$ of$ speech$ to$ convey$ emotion,$ then$ the$ same$
should$be$reserved$for$music.$
Emotional$ communication$ through$ music$ operates$ primarily$ through$ emotional$
denotation,$leaving$emotional$connotation$as$an$individualized$response$of$each$listener.$
Musical$experience$is$shown$to$be$very$private.$Experimental$investigation$of$psychological$
and$physiological$reactions$(skin$conductance$ response)$while$listening$ in$a$social$setting$
versus$ private$ listening$ demonstrates$ (H.$ Egermann$ et$ al.$ 2011),$ beyond$ any$ doubt,$ that$
listening$ to$ music$ privately$ is$ more$ arousing$ than$ listening$ in$ a$ group.$ There$ are$ more$
chills$ reported$ during$ solitary$ listening,$ and$ the$ intensity$ of$ excitement$ is$ substantially$
higher.$This$leads$to$believe$that$emotional$connotation$is$the$primary$ focus$of$emotional$
response$ to$ music$ for$ an$ individual.$ Emotional$ denotation,$ then,$ is$ needed$ for$ social$
reasons$–$to$keep$an$individual$in$tune$with$the$social$group$and$cultural$environment.$It$is$
important$ to$ remember$ that$ language$ of$ music$ has$ been$ shaped$ by$ the$ emotional$
denotation,$ and$ emotional$ communication$ would$ not$ be$ possible$ without$ it.$ Emotional$
19$
$
denotation$ constitutes$ the$ principal$ meaning$ of$ music,$ and$ emotional$ connotation$ builds$
upon$it.5$
Karl$Pribram$was$one$of$the$first$neuroscientists$to$put$forward$a$model$of$emotional$
semiosis$ for$ music$ –$ an$ explanation$ of$ how$ denotative$ emotional$ meaning$ is$ formed$
(Pribram$1982).$$According$to$ his$model,$a$particular$ music$structure$obtains$ its$meaning$
as$the$listener$builds$a$solid$memory$of$how$he$feels$while$listening$to$that$structure$–$the$
listener$ averages$ numerous$ instances$ of$ listening$ to$ it$by$ aggregating$patterns$of$
repetitions$ of$ that$ structure,$ as$ well$ as$ variations$ on$ these$ patterns.$ The$ mechanism$ of$
learning$ is$ based$ on$ priming:$ when$ multiple$ repetitions$ establish$ and$ reinforce$ an$
emotional$ reflex$ until$ the$ numerous$ cultural$ cues$ adjust$ the$ emotional$ reaction,$ finalize,$
and$fix$a$particular$emotional$state.$Once$this$emotional$response$is$reinforced$a$number$of$
times,$ this$ state$ becomes$ conditioned$ by$ the$ given$ musical$ structure.$ It$ can$ still$ be$
modified$or$reconditioned$by$variations$in$the$conditioning$pattern,$if$these$variations$are$
structurally$stable$enough$and$sufficiently$repeated.$$
According$ to$ Pribram,$ this$ kind$ of$ emotional$ meaning$ is$ processed$ in$ parallel,$ quite$
independently$ from$ the$ aesthetic$ meaning,$ which$ is$ related$ mostly$ to$ recognition$ of$
variations$between$the$familiar$musical$structures.$Pribram$believes$that$the$reason$for$the$
controversy$between$musicologists$as$to$ what$ constitutes$meaning$in$music$were$ largely$
because$the$scholars$looked$for$sources$of$meaning$in$things$that$relate$to$music$structure$
by$ reference,$ via$ cultural$ convention,$ whereas$ in$ truth$ musical$ structures$ '#15'$feeling$
rather$than$/'6'/'$0+$&$them.$
An$illustration$of$purely$ emotional$ meaning,$at$the$absence$of$ aesthetic$ evaluation$of$
music,$ would$ be$ what$ is$ called$ in$ psychomusicology$ “evaluative$ conditioning”$ –$ the$
induction$ of$ emotion$ by$ purely$ mechanical$ pairing$ of$ a$ specific$ piece$ of$ music$ with$ a$
specific$positive$or$negative$stimulus.$Over$time,$ after$repeated$exposure,$this$pairing$ will$
become$fixed$into$a$“conditioned$stimulus,”$so$that$the$mere$entrance$of$familiar$pattern$of$
sounds$ will$ evoke$ the$ conditioned$ emotional$ state$ even$ if$ the$ person$ is$ not$ consciously$
aware$of$music,$not$paying$attention$to$it,$or$is$busy$with$something$else.$Obviously,$in$such$
a$ case,$ a$ person$ would$ not$ be$ capable$ of$ executing$ aesthetic$ evaluation,$ yet$ he$ will$ stay$
receptive$to$the$denotative$emotional$meaning$of$music$(Juslin$2011).$
Pribram’s$ insight$ resolves$ the$ question$of$ the$ objectivity$ of$ music.$ If$ musical$
denotation$ is$ made$ by$ means$ of$ direct$ conditioning,$ and$ not$ the$ conscious$ effort$ of$
memorizing$a$reference,$then$musical$denotation$is$undoubtedly$an$objective$process.$Just$
as$ the$ smell$ of$ food$ induces$ the$ emotion$ of$ hunger$ –$ musical$ structures$ elicit$ specific$
emotional$responses$in$a$listener.$$
The$objectivity$of$musical$emotion$ is$ further$ supported$ by$progress$in$the$automatic$
recognition$ of$ perceived$ emotion$ in$ music.$ A$ number$ of$ engineers,$ starting$ from$ 2000,$
$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
5$Of$ course,$ it$ should$ be$ remembered$ that$ denotation$ is$ a$ voluntary$ act,$ and$ as$ such,$ learning$ a$
denotation$requires$ an$individual’s$willingness$to$admit$the$ convention$of$ ascribing$a$ particular$
emotional$condition$to$a$ particular$structural$ element$of$music.$If$for$some$reason$an$individual$
has$ aversion$ to$ such$ an$ emotional$ condition$ or$ musical$ element,$ the$ denotation$ mechanism$
cannot$ be$ established.$ This$ is$ in$ contrast$ to$ the$ musical$ connotation,$ which$ seems$ to$ operate$
semi<automatically.$$
20$
$
have$been$working$to$build$applications$capable$of$organizing$musical$databases$according$
to$the$emotional$content$of$music.$Automated$emotion$recognition$obviously$would$not$be$
possible$unless$there$is$a$ definable$set$of$emotional$markers$objectively$present$in$music.$
Most$of$such$software$is$based$on$the$extraction$of$musical$attributes$from$a$live$stream$of$
music$and$formulating$ an$ analytic$algorithm$for$the$ computer$to$follow,$in$ the$process$of$
which$ the$ program$ would$ fine<tune$ the$ correlation$between$ a$ detected$ structure$ and$ a$
particular$ emotional$ label$ provided$ by$ the$ human$ annotators$ –$ quite$ similar$ to$ optical$
character$recognition$(OCR)$(Yang$and$Chen$2011,$1533).$
;3$/23(4$/-+)()0$*2&2:+'(K-L$
A$ relatively$ common$ argument$ against$ the$ objective$ nature$ of$ emotional$
communication$ in$ music$ expressed$ in$ musicological$ papers$ is$ that$ the$ listener$
spontaneously$imagines$certain$characters$upon$listening$to$ music,$ and$ then$ experiences$
emotional$ states$ that$ are$ completely$ unique$ and$ individual$ to$ himself.$ According$ to$ this$
view,$ a$ listener$ comes$ up$ with$ his$ own$ stories$ and$ emotional$ sequences,$ following$ his$
intuition$ and$ previous$ experience,$ and$ music$ only$ serves$ as$ a$ general$ trigger$for$ this$
creative$process.$
This$view$is$corrected$by$a$number$of$studies$that$ demonstrate,$ rather$ convincingly,$
that$listeners$tend$to$agree$/'2!/5!7*8$close$to$each$other$in$their$definition$of$emotional$
states$ for$ a$ given$ piece$ of$ music.$ Even$ stronger$ evidence$ for$ the$ objectivity$ of$ musical$
emotions$ is$ provided$ by$ studies$ that$ trace$ which$ exact$ structural$ element$ in$ a$ musical$
composition$ was$ responsible$ for$ triggering$ a$ specific$ emotional$ reaction.$ Studies$
conducted$by$John$Sloboda$and$Patrick$Juslin$demonstrate$that$the$emotional$response$to$a$
piece$ of$ music$ comes$ not$ as$ a$ result$ of$ some$ average$ mentalized$ impression$ from$ the$
entirety$of$the$music,$but$occurs$at$the$moment$when$the$listener$detects$(.'0+6+0$musical$
structures.$Thus,$Sloboda$(Sloboda$1991)$reported$that$a$significant$number$of$people$can$
reliably$ recall$ “peak”$ emotional$ experiences$ pinpointing$ the$ place$ in$ the$ music$ where$ it$
happened.$ Not$ only$ that,$ but$ repeated$ listening$ to$ the$ same$ place$ would$ subsequently$
evoke$the$same$reaction.$In$most$cases$the$reported$location$corresponded$with$a$syntactic$
change$ in$ the$ composition,$ when$ one$ musical$ element$ audibly$ replaced$ some$ other$
element.$ $ Later$ analysis$ made$ it$ possible$ to$ reduce$ the$ typology$ of$ the$ changes$ in$ music$
syntax$to$ten$harmonic,$melodic,$rhythmic,$metric$or$textural$contrasts$in$music.$The$more$
of$ these$ 10$ devices$ coincided$ in$ time,$ the$ more$ intense$ were$ the$ peaks$ of$ emotional$
experience$(Lehmann,$Sloboda,$and$Woody$2007,$220).$
The$ syntactic$ basis$ for$ these$ emotional$ reactions$ is$ also$ evident$ in$ the$ practice$ of$
learning$ a$ new$ music$ piece$ by$ a$ professional$ musician$ or$ student$ of$ music.$ As$ a$ rule,$
preparing$for$performance$involves$affective$“self<induction”:$a$performer$practices$to$“get$
into$ the$ mood”$ of$ a$ piece.$ At$ this$ stage$ it$ is$ common$ for$ performers$ to$ analyze$ music$ in$
search$of$the$musical$idioms$that$would$mark$a$contrast,$a$transformation,$or$a$variation$in$
musical$ emotion.$ Once$ such$ idioms$ are$ detected$ and$ emotionally$ understood,$ the$
performer$proceeds$to$build$a$ screenplay”$for$the$ emotional$changes$within$that$musical$
composition$–$essentially,$designing$the$emotional$plan$for$future$performance.$$The$notion$
of$giftedness$of$a$performer,$in$effect,$transpires$into$the$ability$to$construct$an$“emotional$
reality”$ out$ of$ a$ musical$ text.$ This$ ability$ is$ the$ chief$ merit$ capable$ of$ elevating$ the$
21$
$
performer’s$ status$ to$ that$ of$ a$ composer$ –$ the$ most$ direct$ indicator$ of$ the$ performer’s$
creativity$(Persson$2010).$$
Obviously,$there$must$be$a$limit$for$performer’s$“self<induction.”$It$would$ not$be$right$
for$ him$ to$ develop$ an$ insight$ into$ a$ lullaby$ as$ a$ manifestation$ of$ a$ heroic$ character,$ and$
perform$ the$ lullaby$ loudly,$ energetically,$ and$ in$ fast$ tempo.$ The$ syntax$ of$ the$ music$
composition$is$responsible$for$moderating$the$fantasy$of$ an$artist.$The$ musical$idioms$set$
the$limits$as$to$how$far$a$particular$emotional$characteristic$can$be$pushed$in$performance,$
and$ at$ which$ point$ it$ has$ to$ be$ substituted$ by$ some$ other$ characteristic$ feature.$ For$
instance:$if$the$music$started$with$a$sad$expression,$and$suddenly,$there$is$a$fanfare$pattern$
appearing$ in$ the$ melody,$ this$ would$ be$ a$ signal$ for$ the$ performer$ to$ switch$ to$ another$
musical$emotion$–$even$at$the$absence$of$any$instructions$in$the$score$made$by$a$composer.$
Not$doing$so$would$violate$the$music$text.$$
Musical$ emotions$ depend$ on$ musical$ structures,$ and$ the$ emotional$ meaning$ is$
cumulative.$ One$ emotional$ change$ overrides$ another$ and$ builds$ a$ narrative$ no$ different$
than$a$play$in$theater$or$a$film$in$cinema.$Similar$to$the$way$in$which$a$certain$ending$in$a$
theatrical$ play$ makes$ sense$ after$ a$ certain$ beginning,$ in$ the$ same$ way$ in$ a$ musical$
composition,$ one$ musical$ emotion$ makes$ sense$ in$ conjunction$ with$ another$ musical$
emotion.$$
It$ is$ one$ thing$when$ music$ starts$ as$ a$happy$ dance,$ becomes$ sad,$ and$then$ finally$
returns$ back$ to$ its$original$happy$ state$ (as$in$ Grieg’s$ “Homeward”,$ Op.$ 62,$ No.$ 6).$ It’s$ an$
entirely$ different$ matter$ when$ the$ sequence$ of$ emotions$ occurs$ in$ reverse$ order$ (as$ in$
Grieg’s$“Homesickness”,$Op.$57,$No.$6).$$
In$the$first$ case$(Homeward),$the$music$ makes$an$overall$impression$of$ “merriment”,$
temporarily$ clouded$ by$a$sad$ episode$ in$ the$ middle,$ which$ appears$ as$ a$ moment$ of$
weakness$ and$ loneliness,$ amidst$ a$ general$ state$ of$ happiness.$ In$ this$ second$ case$
(Homesickness),$ the$ overall$ impression$ becomes$ one$of$tragic$ hopelessness.$ Here,$ the$
music$starts$in$a$sad$mood,$changes$into$a$happy$dance$temporarily,$and$then$returns$back$
to$its$original$sad$mood.$It$is$worth$noting$that$both$pieces$were$written$within$2$years,$by$
the$same$artist,$for$the$same$instrument$(piano$solo),$within$the$same$genre$of$“lyric$piece”$
(coined$by$Grieg),$and$are$extremely$close$stylistically.$This$is$all$to$say$that$the$emotional$
differences$are$a$result$1$*8$due$to$the$different$order$of$musical$emotions$presented$–$not$
any$secondary$factors$due$to$style,$genre,$etc.$
It$appears$that$the$rule$of$ a$ thumb$ in$ the$ accumulation$of$emotional$meaning$is$that$
whichever$ a$ musical$ emotion$ is$ “sandwiched”$ between$ two$ occurrences$ of$ another$
emotion,$ this$ “sandwiched”$ emotion$ serves$ only$ to$ reinforce$ the$ initial$ (and$ concluding)$
musical$emotion.$It$ is$therefore$evident$ that$the$order$ of$the$musical$ emotions$affects$the$
emotional$meaning$of$a$music$work.$$
Surveys$of$expert$ musicians$from$different$ countries$reveal$that$99%$of$them$believe$
that$music$expresses$ emotions,$and$define$expression$mainly$in$terms$ of$“communicating$
emotions.”$Most$of$ them$(83%)$consider$themselves$expressing$specific$emotions$in$their$
playing$“always”$or$“often$(Juslin$2005).$The$musical$markers$of$certain$emotions,$evident$
from$ the$ body$ of$ psychoacoustic$ research,$ include$ tempo,$ harmonic$ mode,$ harmonic$
changes,$ modulation$ in$ key,$ pitch$ contours,$ micro<tonal$ inflections,$ intervallic$ contrasts,$
rhythmic$ grouping,$ dynamic$ and$ timbral$ contrasts,$ expressive$ timing,$ articulation,$
22$
$
accentuation,$tone$attacks$and$decays,$and$vibrato.$Specific$combinations$of$these$markers$
are$ shown$ to$ provide$ cues$ for$ which$ emotion$ is$ implied$ in$ music.$ Thus$ fast$ tempo,$ loud$
dynamics$ and$ detached$ articulation$ characterizes$ the$ display$ of$ joy.$ One$ of$ the$ reasons$
why$ becoming$ highly$qualified$ in$ music$ performance$ takes$ so$ long,$ and$ relatively$ few$
students$ attain$ the$ level$ of$ mastery$ in$ being$ able$ to$ emotionally$ drive$ their$ audiences$
according$ to$ their$ plan$ –$ is$ the$ sheer$ complexity$ of$ the$ configuration$ of$ the$ structural$
elements$of$music$in$relation$to$the$emotional$expression.$There$are$an$enormous$amount$
of$syntactic$units$and$rules$a$performer$must$know$in$order$to$be$able$to$detect$most$music$
idioms$contained$in$a$music$work.$
86-$/23(4+:$%&"'(")3$H-+::C$@-:'L$
Recently,$a$number$of$researchers$raised$an$interesting$question:$are$musical$emotions$
really$felt?$$ Or,$do$listeners$ simply$recognize$what$emotion$is$implied$by$music,$but$block$
themselves$ from$ its$ direct$ experience?$ Many$ earlier$ studies$ did$ not$ account$ in$ their$
experimental$setting$ for$the$possibility$that$verbal$self<reports$of$musical$emotions$by$the$
subjects$of$a$study$may$be$unreliable$–$because$listeners$confuse$the$emotions$expressed$+$,
%9', 2:(+0$with$ their$ 1;$$ emotions$ in$ their$ answers$ to$ the$ questionnaires.$ Yet$ another$
problem$is$the$way$in$which$performers$handle$their$emotional$reactions$during$practicing$
–$ especially,$ when$ they$ drill$ “cold”$ technical$ use$ of$specific$expressive$ structures$
(Gabrielsson$2002).$$
Of$course,$a$number$of$studies$have$avoided$this$pitfall$ by$ cross<referring$ the$ verbal$
reports$with$the$data$of$physiological$responses$to$music.$Several$experiments$have$shown$
that$music$listening$can$give$rise$to$physiological$responses$very$similar$to$those$shown$by$
“natural”$ emotional$ stimuli,$ such$ as$ physical$ events.$ The$ reports$ on$ psychophysiological$
responses$to$music$include$changes$in$heart$rate,$biochemical$responses,$skin$temperature,$
skin$ conductance,$ respiration,$ blood$ pressure,$ muscular$ tension,$ blood$ volume,$ gastric$
mobility,$blood$oxygen,$and$pupillary$and$startle$reflexes$(Juslin$1993).$
Different$ pieces$ of$ music$ can$ produce$ different$ patterns$ of$ physiological$ responses,$
such$ that$ it$ is$ possible$ to$ discriminate$ between$ emotions$ based$ on$ the$unique$
configuration$of$psychophysiological$measurements$(Krumhansl$1997).$
More$recent$studies$of$brain$ activation$provide$ additional$support$for$the$ “reality”$of$
emotional$reactions$to$music.$Listeners’$responses$to$music$activate$brain$regions$that$are$
known$ from$ previous$ studies$ to$ be$ implicated$ in$ emotional$ responses.$ Functional$
neuroimaging$and$lesion$studies$ show$ that$music<evoked$emotions$can$ modulate$ activity$
in$ virtually$ all$ limbic$ and$ paralimbic$ brain$ structures.$ These$ structures$ are$ crucially$
involved$in$the$initiation,$generation,$ detection,$ maintenance,$regulation,$and$termination$
of$emotions$(Koelsch$2010).$$
Further$evidence$that$listeners$actually$“feel”$musical$ emotions$ comes$ from$ research$
on$behavior$influenced$by$exposure$to$music.$Observation$of$changes$of$facial$expressions$
corroborated$with$electromyographic$(EMG)$measures$of$facial$muscles$and$measurement$
of$heart$rate$ fluctuations$throughout$listening$ to$music$that$ expresses$different$emotions,$
leave$ no$ doubt$ that$ listeners$ actually$ feel$ what$ they$ report.$ The$ negative$ reaction$ to$
negative$ emotions,$ and$ positive$ reaction$ to$ positive$ emotions$ becomes$ even$ more$
23$
$
pronounced$ with$ longer$ exposure$ to$ music$ (Witvliet$ and$ Vrana$ 2007).$Lundqvist$et$ al.$
added$ extra$ measurements$ of$ skin$ conductance$ and$ finger$ temperature,$ and$ had$ music$
composed$ specifically$ for$ the$ study$ to$ avoid$ possible$ familiarity$ of$ the$ subjects$ with$ the$
music$that$could$have$ affected$their$emotional$reactions.$The$ results$confirmed$the$other$
studies,$leading$to$the$conclusion$that$emotions$induced$by$music$are$genuine$emotions$<$
the$same$as$people$experience$in$real$life”$(Lundqvist$et$al.$2008).$
More$specific$psychological$studies$based$on$questionnaires$addressed$the$issue$of$the$
authenticity$ of$ musically$ induced$ emotions$ by$ directly$ asking$ the$ subjects$ what$ they$ felt$
while$ listening,$ and$ what$ emotion$ they$ recognized$ in$ the$ music.$ For$ the$ most$ part,$ the$
correspondence$ between$ the$ two$ was$ high.$ There$ was,$ however,$ a$listener$ bias:$ positive$
musical$ emotions$ were$ reported$ as$ felt$ more$ often$ than$ recognized,$ while$ the$ opposite$
held$for$negative$emotions$(i.e.$fear).$This$may$reflect$ most$listeners’$aesthetic$bias$–$they$
identify$fear$as$a$negative$emotion$within$the$context$of$music,$but$regard$the$experience$of$
“fear”$as$“positive”$in$relation$to$their$listening$experience$(Kallinen$and$Ravaja$2006).$This$
is$ not$ unlike$ people’s$ enjoyment$ of$ horror$ films$ and$ roller$ coasters$ which$ elicit$ strong$
negative$emotions,$but$are$reported$as$“enjoyable”$activities.$Similar$results$were$obtained$
when$the$subjects$were$asked$to$imagine$a$piece$of$music$and$report$the$emotional$content$
of$the$imagined$sounds$(P.$Evans$and$Schubert$2008).$
A$ dedicated$ interview<based$ study,$ designed$ to$ define$ the$ relationship$ between$ felt$
and$performed$emotions$in$performing$musicians$while$preparing$for$their$performances,$
revealed$that$musicians$use$different$strategies$to$ manipulate$ their$ emotions.$ In$ the$first$
stages$ of$ work,$ they$ distinguish$ between$ their$ own$ practice<related$ emotions$ (i.e.$
frustration)$and$emotions$ related$to$music$ (i.e.$delight).$As$the$study$progresses,$they$ cut$
down$on$the$practice<related$emotions$and$focus$more$on$the$musical$emotions.$When$the$
performance$plan$is$created,$ the$ “feeling”$of$musical$emotions$ transforms$ into$“knowing”$
them.$As$the$ performer$polishes$the$musical$ expressions$in$preparation$ for$a$concert,$the$
intensity$ of$ 6'*%$ emotions$ wanes.$ Finally,$ when$ a$ performer$ comes$ close$ to$ the$ date$ of$ a$
public$performance,$and$the$technicality$of$the$piece$is$mastered,$he$emphasizes$6''*+$&$the$
musical$emotions$once$more$(Van$Zijl$and$Sloboda$2011).$
In$ addition$ to$ the$ emotions$ directly$ induced$ by$ music,$ another$ important$ emotional$
response$to$consider$is$the$listener’s$aesthetic$evaluation$of$the$music$they$hear.$A$number$
of$composers,$critics,$and$musicologists$of$the$20th$century$contend$that$“beauty”$in$music$
is$historically$limited,$and$no$longer$relevant$for$modern$art.$This$view$is$inconsistent$with$
psychological$ investigations$ of$ aesthetic$ perception$ of$ music$ by$ performers,$ for$ instance,$
which$ confirm$ that$ musicians$ evaluate$ music$ in$ terms$ of$ “beauty”.$ This$indicates$that$
beauty$ is$ central$ to$ the$ concept$ of$ aesthetic$ response$ to$ music.$ The$ feature$ of$ being$
“beautiful”$rates$the$highest$as$the$most$positive$of$the$adjectives$used$to$refer$to$the$value$
of$music.$Not$surprisingly,$experiencing$music$as$“beautiful”$tends$to$enhance$the$listener’s$
responses$to$the$expression$of$ positive$ musical$emotions.$However,$“beauty”$can$be$ a$ bit$
more$ nuanced$ than$ it$ would$ first$ seem$ <$ “sad”$ and$ “beautiful”$ can$co<occur$ in$ an$
individual’s$ estimation$ of$ a$ musical$ expression,$ whereas$ “ugly”$ and$ “beautiful”,$ were$ not$
ever$reported$together$by$study$participants$(Van$Zijl$and$Sloboda$2011).$
So,$ there$ are$ three$ distinct$ emotional$ phases$ that$ make<up$ the$ music$ listening$
experience:$$
24$
$
(1) the$ musical$ emotion,$ i.e.$ the$ denotative$ expressive$ idiom(s)$ conveyed$by$the$
music,$$
(2) a$ listener’s$ physiological$ emotional$ response$ to$ the$ musical$ emotion$
(contingent$upon$the$listener$having$sufficient$emotional$priming$to$experience$
it),$and$$
(3) the$ emotional$ response$ the$ listener$ experiences$ as$ part$ of$ his$ aesthetic$
evaluation$of$the$musical$work.$$
For$example,$let’s$consider$a$piece$of$music$which$contains$a$period$(section$of$music)$
with$ a$ very$ melancholy$ character$ $ (1)$(eg.$ “Adagio$ for$ Strings”$ by$ Barber).$ The$ listener$
recognizes$this$music$ as$“sad”,$and$emotes$ to$it$by$experiencing$ the$emotion$of$“sadness”$
(2).$ However,$ the$ listener’s$ aesthetic$ judgment$ (3)$ of$ the$ work$ is$ “positive”$ –$ so$ he$
considers$ that$ he$ has$ enjoyed$ the$ work,$ despite$ his$ emotional$ state$ being$ negative$
throughout$the$listening.$The$lack$of$understanding$of$the$distinction$between$the$second$
and$third$states$described$above$is$the$source$of$much$confusion$and$controversy$amongst$
researchers$in$the$field$of$music$and$emotion.$
It$ seems$ that$ Karl$ Pribram$ was$ generally$ right$ in$ claiming$ that$ emotional$ meaning$
should$ be$ distinguished$ from$ aesthetic$ meaning,$ and$ that$ both$ of$ them$ can$ oppose$ each$
other.$Patrick$Juslin$also$finds$ it$ common$ for$emotion$to$form$peculiar$ relations$ with$ the$
aesthetic$ response.$ Although$ in$ many$ cases,$ aesthetic$ evaluation$ follows$ the$ emotional$
response,$a$piece$of$music$is$perfectly$capable$of$evoking$an$emotion$in$ a$listener$without$
triggering$any$aesthetic$evaluation.$This$is$especially$likely$in$relation$to$a$piece$of$popular$
music,$which$usually$ is$not$perceived$ as$an$“art$object.”$ On$another$hand,$it$is$possible$to$
prefer$a$piece$ of$music$over$some$ other$piece,$without$the$ music$arousing$any$emotion$ –$
just$ by$ the$ virtue$ of$ liking$ the$ lyrics$ of$ that$ song$ or$ the$ sound$ of$ a$ particular$ musical$
instrument$(Juslin$2011).$
Altogether,$the$intricacies$of$distinguishing$emotional$and$aesthetic$meanings$in$music$
are$no$more$complex$than$in$speech.$Poetic$speech$presents$exactly$the$same$problem:$the$
literal$ meaning$ of$ words$ in$ a$ poem$ cannot$ be$ taken$ literally$ without$ consulting$ the$
aesthetic$ aspect$ of$ verbal$ expression.$ And$ the$ greater$ the$ aesthetic$ value$ in$ poetic$
expression$is,$the$less$clear$the$exact$meaning$of$the$words$is.$The$opposite$is$also$true:$the$
more$clear$the$verbal$expression,$usually$the$less$value$it$bears$from$an$artistic$standpoint.$
Emotional$ communication$ through$ music$ pretty$ much$ follows$ the$ same$ route$ as$
conceptual$ communication$ through$ verbal$ speech.$ Both$ are$ designed$ to$ facilitate$
coordination$ between$ an$ individual$ and$ a$ group.$ Where$verbal$ language$ focuses$ on$
conveying$ factual$ data,$ music‘s$ purpose$ is$ to$ communicate$ emotions.$ This$ narrow$
specialization$determines$the$entire$infrastructure$in$both,$music$and$verbal$language.$$
The$context$of$verbal$language$ serves$ to$establish$the$framework$of$ reference$
for$concrete$objects,$their$qualities,$actions,$and$events.$$
The$ context$ of$ music$ reflects$ on$ emotional$ states,$ utilizing$ representations$ of$
qualities$and$ actions$to$the$extent$necessary$to$establish$a$correlation$between$
conceptual$and$emotional$modes$of$thinking.$$
The$ way$ in$ which$ verbal$ language$ encourages$ conceiving$ ideas$to$ reflect$ on$ reality,$
music$promotes$the$generation$of$emotions.$Both$verbal$and$musical$modes$form$two$sides$
of$the$same$communication$coin.$ The$ development$ of$ both$the$conceptual$and$emotional$
25$
$
faculties$is$vital$for$the$survival$of$an$individual.$What$ makes$ music$ special$ is$ its$ greater$
accessibility:$ due$ to$ its$ reliance$ on$ genetically$ embedded$ sound$ gestures$ rather$ than$
referential$conventions$of$ meaning,$it$reaches$ more$people$across$ wider$cultural$borders.$
So$we$can$safely$conclude,$then,$that$the$common$figure$of$speech$is$literally$true:$music$+($
the$universal$language$of$emotion.$
$
REFERENCES:$
Bachorik,$ Justin$ Pierre,$ Marc$ Bangert,$ Psyche$ Loui,$ Kevin$ Larke,$ Jeff$ Berger,$ Robert$ Rowe,$ and$
Gottfried$ Schlaug.$ 2009.$ “Emotion$ in$ Motion:$ Investigating$ the$ Time<Course$ of$ Emotional$
Judgments$ of$ Musical$ Stim uli.”$ <:(+0,='/0'.%+1$>,?$,)$%'/"+(0+.*+$!/8,@1:/$!*$26$ (4):$35564.$
doi:10.1525/mp.2009.26.4.355.$
Bowling,$ Daniel$ Liu,$ Janani$ Sundararajan,$ Shui’er$ Han,$ and$ Dale$ Purves.$ 2012.$ “Expression$ of$
Emotion$in$Eastern$and$Western$Music$Mirrors$Vocalization.”$Edited$by$Olaf$Sporns.$=A1B,CDE$
7$(3):$e31942.$doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031942.$
Clarke,$ Eric$ F.$ 2001.$ “Meaning$ and$ th e$ Specification$ of$ Motion$ in$ Mus ic.”$ <:(+0!',B0+'$%+!'$5$ (2):$
21334.$doi:10.1177/102986490100500205.$
Damasio,$ Antonio.$ 2012.$B'*6, -12'(, %1,<+$">,-1$(%/:0%+$&, %9',-1$(0+1:(,F/!+$.$ New$ Y ork:$ Vintage$
Books.$https://books.google.com/books?id=PBH40<TgBCgC.$
de$ Waal,$ Frans$ B.$ M.$ 2011.$ “What$ Is$ an$ Animal$ Emotion?”$ ?$$!*(, 16, %9', D';, G1/5, ?0!"'28, 16,
B0+'$0'($1224$(April):$191206.$doi:10.1111/j.1749<6632.2010.05912.x.$
Dolscheid,$ S.,$S.$ Hunnius,$ D.$ Casasanto,$ and$ A.$ Majid.$2014.$ “Prelinguistic$ Infants$ Are$ Sensitive$ to$
Space<Pitch$ Associations$ Found$ Across$ Cultures.”$ =(8091*1&+0!*, B0+'$0'$25$ (6):$ 125661.$
doi:10.1177/0956797614528521.$
Draghi<Lorenz,$Riccardo,$Vasudevi$Reddy,$and$Alan$ Costall.$2001.$ “Rethinking$the$ Development$of$
‘Nonbasic’$ Emotions:$ A$ Critical$ Review$ of$ Existing$ Theories.”$ H'#'*1.2'$%!*,I'#+';$21$ (3):$
263304.$doi:10.1006/drev.2000.0524.$
Egermann,$H.,$M.$E.$Sutherland,$O.$Grewe,$F.$Nagel,$R.$Kopiez,$and$E.$Altenmuller.$2011.$“Does$Music$
Listening$in$ a$Social$Context$Alter$Experience?$A$Physiological$ and$Psychological$Perspective$
on$Emotion.”$<:(+0!',B0+'$%+!'$15$(3):$30723.$doi:10.1177/1029864911399497.$
Egermann,$ Hauke,$ and$ Stephen$ McAdams.$ 2013.$ “Empathy$ and$ Emotional$ Contagion$ as$ a$ Link$
Between$ Recognized$ and$ Felt$ Emotions$ in$ Music$ Listening.”$ <:(+0, ='/0'.%+1$>, ?$,
)$%'/"+(0+.*+$!/8,@1:/$!*$31$(2):$13956.$doi:10.1525/mp.2013.31.2.139.$
Eitan,$ Zohar,$ and$ Roni$ Y.$ Granot.$ 2006.$ “How$ Music$ Moves.”$ <:(+0, ='/0'.%+1$$23$ (3):$ 22148.$
doi:10.1525/mp.2006.23.3.221.$
Ekman,$ Paul.$ 2003.$ E21%+1$(,I'#'!*'">, I'01&$+J+$&,K!0'(,!$", K''*+$&(,%1, )2./1#',-122:$+0!%+1$,
!$",E21%+1$!*,A+6'.$London:$Macmillan.$https://books.google.com/books?id=JJ9xHXo7hPgC.$
Evans,$K.$ K.,$and$ A.$Treisman.$2011.$“Natural$Cross<Modal$Mappings$between$Visual$and$Auditory$
Features.”$@1:/$!*,16,L+(+1$$10$(1):$66.$doi:10.1167/10.1.6.$
Evans,$P.,$and$E.$ Schubert.$ 2008.$“Relationships$between$ Expressed$ and$ Felt$Emotions$in$Music.”$
<:(+0!',B0+'$%+!'$12$(1):$7599.$doi:10.1177/102986490801200105.$
Feldman,$Jacob,$David$Epstein,$and$Whitman$Richards.$1992.$“Force$Dynamics$of$Tempo$Change$in$
Music.”$ <:(+0, ='/0'.%+1$>, ?$, )$%'/"+(0+.*+$!/8, @1:/$!*$10$ (2):$ 185203.$
doi:10.2307/40285606.$
Fritz,$ Thomas,$ Daniela$ Sammler,$ and$ Stefan$ Koelsch.$ 2006.$ “How$ Far$ Is$ Music$ Universal?$ An$
Intercultural$ Comparison.”$ In$ M%9, )$%'/$!%+1$!*, -1$6'/'$0', 1$, <:(+0, ='/0'.%+1$, N, -1&$+%+1$O,
F1*1&$!O,)%!*8,$edited$by$M.$Baroni,$ A.$R.$Addessi,$R.$Caterina,$and$M.$Costa,$ 88.$Bologna,$Italy:$
26$
$
Bolonia$University$Press.$
Gabrielsson,$Alf.$2002.$“Emotion$Perceived$and$Emotion$Felt:$Same$or$Different?”$<:(+0!',B0+'$%+!'$
5$(1$suppl):$12347.$doi:10.1177/10298649020050S105.$
Gabrielsson,$ Alf,$ and$ Patrik$ N.$ Juslin.$ 2003.$ “Emotional$ Expression$ in$ Music.”$ In$ 4!$"7115, 16,
?66'0%+#',B0+'$0'(,$edited$by$R.$J.$Davidson,$K.$R.$Scherer,$and$H.$H.$Goldsmith,$50334.$Series$in$
Affective$Science.$New$York,$NY,$US:$Oxford$University$Press.$
Gabrielsson,$Alf,$and$Siv$Lindström$Wik.$2003.$“Strong$Experiences$Related$to$Music:$Adescriptive$
System.”$<:(+0!',B0+'$%+!'$7$(2):$157217.$doi:10.1177/102986490300700201.$
Hubbard,$ Timothy$ L.$1996.$ “Synesthesia<like$ Mappings$ of$ Lightne ss,$ Pitch,$ and$ Melodic$ Interval.”$
P9',?2'/+0!$,@1:/$!*,16,=(8091*1&8$109$(2):$21938.$
Humrichouse,$ John,$Michael$ Chmielewski,$ Elizabeth$ A.$ McDade<Montez,$and$David$ Watson.$2007.$
Affect$Assessment$Through$Self<Report$Methods.”$In$E21%+1$,!$",=(8091.!%91*1&8>,F/+"&+$&,
?66'0%+#',!$",-*+$+0!*,B0+'$0',$edited$by$J.$Rottenberg$and$S.$L.$Johnson,$1334.$Washington,$DC,$
US:$American$Psychological$Association.$
Huron,$David,$and$Jonathon$Berec.$2009.$“Characterizing$Idiomatic$Organization$in$Music:$A$Theory$
and$ Case$ Study$ of$ Musical$ Affordances.”$ E2.+/+0!*, <:(+01*1&8, I'#+';$4$ (3):$ 10322.$
http://hdl.handle.net/1811/44531.$
Juslin,$Patrik$N.$ 1993.$“Psychophysiological$ Measures.”$In$4!$"7115,16,<:(+0,!$",E21%+1$>,P9'1/8O,
I'('!/09O,?..*+0!%+1$(,$ edited$ by$ Patrik$ N.$ Juslin$ a nd$ John$ A.$ Sloboda,$ 279311.$ Oxford,$ UK:$
Oxford$University$Press.$
———.$ 2005.$ “From$ Mimesis$ to$ Catharsis.”$ In$ <:(+0!*, -122:$+0!%+1$,$ edited$ by$ Dorothy$ Miell,$
Raymond$MacDonald,$and$David$J.$Hargreaves,$85116.$Oxford,$UK:$Oxford$University$Press.$
———.$2011.$“Music$and$Emotion:$Seven$Questions,$Seven$Answers.”$In$<:(+0,!$",%9',<+$",$edited$
by$ Irène$ Deliège$ and$ Jane$ Davidson,$ 11338.$ Oxford,$ UK:$ Oxford$ University$ Press.$
http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/view/10.1093/acprof:osobl/9780199581566.001.0001/
acprof<9780199581566<chapter<7.$
Juslin,$ Patrik$ N.,$ and$ Petri$ Laukka.$ 2003.$ “Communication$ of$ Emotions$ in$ Vocal$ Expression$ and$
Music$Performance:$Different$Channels,$Same$Code?”$=(8091*1&+0!*,F:**'%+$$129$(5):$770814.$
doi:10.1037/0033<2909.129.5.770.$
Kagan,$ Jerome.$ 2007.$ Q9!%, )(, E21%+1$R>, 4+(%1/8O, <'!(:/'(O, !$", <'!$+$&(.$ New$ Haven,$ CT:$ Yale$
University$Press.$
Kallinen,$ K.,$ and$ N.$ Ravaja.$ 2006.$ “Emotion$ Perceived$ and$ Emotion$ Felt:$ Same$ and$Different.”$
<:(+0!',B0+'$%+!'$10$(2):$191213.$doi:10.1177/102986490601000203.$
Kim,$ Jung<Kyong,$ and$ Robert$ J.$ Zatorre.$ 2010.$ “Can$ You$ Hear$ Shapes$ You$ Touch?”$ E3.'/+2'$%!*,
F/!+$,I'('!/09$202$(4):$74754.$doi:10.1007/s00221<010<2178<6.$
Koelsch,$ Stefan.$ 2010.$ “Towards$ a$ Neural$ Basis$ of$ Music<Evoked$ Emotions.”$ P/'$"(, +$, -1&$+%+#',
B0+'$0'($14$(3):$13137.$doi:10.1016/j.tics.2010.01.002.$
Krumhansl,$ C.$ L.$ 1997.$ “An$ Exploratory$ Study$ of$ Musical$ Emotions$ and$ Psychophysiology.”$
-!$!"+!$,@1:/$!*,16,E3.'/+2'$%!*,=(8091*1&8,S,I'#:',-!$!"+'$$',H',=(8091*1&+',E3.T/+2'$%!*'$
51$(4):$33653.$http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9606949.$
Kwoun,$ S.<J.$ 2009.$ “An$ Examination$ of$ Cue$ Redundancy$ Theory$ in$ Cross<Cultural$ Decoding$ of$
Emotions$in$Music.”$@1:/$!*,16,<:(+0,P9'/!.8$46$(3):$21737.$doi:10.1093/jmt/46.3.217.$
Lehmann,$ Andreas$ C.,$ John$ A.$ Sloboda,$ and$ Robert$ H.$ Woody.$ 2007.$ =(8091*1&8, 61/, <:(+0+!$(U>,
V$"'/(%!$"+$&,!$",?0W:+/+$&,%9',B5+**(.$Oxford,$UK:$Oxford$University$Press,$USA.$
Lipscomb,$ Scott$ D;,$ and$ Donald$ Hodges.$ 1996.$ “Hearing$ and$ Music$ Perception.”$ In$ 4!$"7115, 16,
<:(+0,=(8091*1&8,$edited$by$Donald$Hodges,$2nd$ed.,$83132.$San$Antonio,$TX:$IMR$Press.$
27$
$
Logeswaran,$Nidhya,$and$Joydeep$Bhattacharya.$2009.$“Crossmodal$Transfer$of$Emotion$by$Music.”$
D':/1(0+'$0',A'%%'/($455$(2):$12933.$doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2009.03.044.$
Lundqvist,$L.<O.,$F.$Carlsson,$P.$Hilmersson,$and$P.$N.$Juslin.$2008.$ “Emotional$Responses$to$Music:$
Experience,$ Expression,$ and$ Physiology.”$ =(8091*1&8, 16, <:(+0$37$ (1):$ 6190.$
doi:10.1177/0305735607086048.$
Marks,$ Lawrence$ E.$ 1978.$P9', V$+%8,16,%9', B'$('(>,)$%'//'*!%+1$(,!21$&,%9', <1"!*+%+'(.$ New$ York:$
Academic$Press.$
———.$2014.$“Synesthesia.”$In$L!/+'%+'(,16,?$12!*1:(,E3.'/+'$0'>,E3!2+$+$&,%9',B0+'$%+6+0,E#+"'$0',$
edited$ by$ Etzel$ Cardena,$ Steven$ J.$ Lynn,$ and$ Stanley$ Krippner,$ 12149.$ Washington$ DC:$
American$Psychological$Association.$https://books.google.com/books?id=BRbDnQEACAAJ.$
Matsumoto,$ D.,$ and$ H.$ S.$ Hwang.$ 2012.$ “Culture$ and$ Emotion:$ The$ Integration$ of$ Biological$ and$
Cultural$ Contributions.”$ @1:/$!*, 16, -/1((X-:*%:/!*, =(8091*1&8$43$ (1):$ 91118.$
doi:10.1177/0022022111420147.$
Matsumoto,$ D.,$ H.$ S.$ Hwang,$ and$ H.$ Yamada.$ 2012.$ “Cultural$ Differences$ in$ the$ Relative$
Contributions$ of$ Face$ and$ Context$ to$ Judgments$ of$ Emotions.”$ @1:/$!*, 16, -/1((X-:*%:/!*,
=(8091*1&8$43$(2):$198218.$doi:10.1177/0022022110387426.$
Milstein,$Yakov.$1971.$A+(J%.$2nd$ed.$Vol.$2.$Moscow:$Muzyka.$
Mohn,$ C.,$ H.$ Argstatter,$ and$ F.<W.$ Wilker.$ 2011.$ “Perception$ of$ Six$ Basic$ Emotions$ in$ Music.”$
=(8091*1&8,16,<:(+0$39$(4):$50317.$doi:10.1177/0305735610378183.$
Nykänen,$Arne.$2004.$<'%91"(,61/,B.'0+6+0!%+1$,16,B1:$",Y:!*+%8,?..*+'",%1,B!31.91$',B1:$".$Luleå,$
Sweden:$ Luleå$ University$ of$ Technology.$ http://epubl.ltu.se/1402<1757/2004/70/LTU<LIC<
0470<SE.pdf.$
Palmer,$ S.$ E.,$ K.$ B.$ Schloss,$ Z.$ Xu,$ and$ L.$ R.$ Prado<Leon.$ 2013.$ “Music<Color$ Associations$ Are$
Mediated$ by$ Emotion.”$ =/10''"+$&(, 16, %9', D!%+1$!*, ?0!"'28, 16, B0+'$0'($110$ (22):$ 883641.$
doi:10.1073/pnas.1212562110.$
Panksepp,$ Jaak.$ 1998.$ ?66'0%+#', D':/1(0+'$0'>, P9', K1:$"!%+1$(, 16, 4:2!$, !$", ?$+2!*, E21%+1$(.$
Oxford,$UK:$Oxford$University$Press.$
Parise,$ Cesare$ Valerio,$ and$ Charles$ Spence.$ 2009.$ “‘When$ Birds$ of$ a$ Feather$ Flock$ Together’:$
Synesthetic$ Correspondences$ Modulate$ Audiovisual$ Integration$ in$ Non<Synesthetes.”$ Edited$
by$David$C.$Burr.$=A1B,CDE$4$(5):$e5664.$doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005664.$
Peretz,$ Isabelle.$ 2013.$ “Towards$a$ Neurobiology$ of$ Musical$ Emotions.”$ In$ 4!$"7115,16,<:(+0, !$",
E21%+1$>,P9'1/8O,I'('!/09O,?..*+0!%+1$(,$edited$by$Patrik$N.$Juslin$and$John$A.$Sloboda,$99126.$
Oxford,$UK:$OUP$Oxford.$doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230143.003.0005.$
Persson,$ R.S.$ 2010.$ “Adding$ Emotion$ to$ the$ Gifted$ Musical$ Mind:$ Towards$ a$ Model$ of$ Musical$
Thinking.”$P9',)$%'/$!%+1$!*,@1:/$!*,16,-/'!%+#+%8,!$",=/17*'2,B1*#+$&$20$(2).$The$International$
Journal$of$Creativity$and$Problem$Solving:$85107.$
Pribram,$ Karl$ H.$ 1982.$ “Brain$ Mechanism$ in$ Music:$Prolegomena$ for$ a$ Theory$ of$ the$ Meaning$ of$
Meaning.”$In$<:(+0O,<+$"O,!$",F/!+$>,P9',D':/1.(8091*1&8,16,<:(+0,$edited$by$Manfred$Clynes,$
2135.$New$York:$Plenum$Press.$https://books.google.com/books?id=XqPVBwAAQBAJ.$
Reid,$Stefan.$2002.$“Preparing$for$Performance.”$In$<:(+0!*,='/61/2!$0'>,?,Z:+"',%1,V$"'/(%!$"+$&,$
edited$by$John$Rink,$10212.$Cambridge,$UK:$Cambridge$University$Press.$
Russo,$ Frank$ A.,$ Paolo$ Ammirante,$ and$ Deborah$ I.$ Fels.$ 2012.$ “Vibrotactile$ Discrimination$ of$
Musical$ Timbre.”$ @1:/$!*,16,E3.'/+2'$%!*,=(8091*1&8[,4:2!$,='/0'.%+1$,!$", ='/61/2!$0'$38$
(4):$82226.$doi:10.1037/a0029046.$
Saeed,$John$I.$2015.$B'2!$%+0(.$Oxford,$UK:$John$Wiley$&$Sons.$
Sievers,$ Beau,$ Larry$ Polansky,$ Michael$ Casey,$ and$ Thalia$ Wheatley.$ 2013.$ “Music$ and$ Movement$
Share$a$Dynamic$Structure$That$ Supports$ Universal$Expressions$of$Emotion.”$ =/10''"+$&(,16,
28$
$
%9', D!%+1$!*, ?0!"'28, 16, B0+'$0'(, 16, %9', V$+%'", B%!%'(, 16, ?2'/+0!$110$ (1):$ 7075.$
doi:10.1073/pnas.1209023110.$
Simner,$Julia.$2012.$“Defining$Synaesthesia:$ A$Response$to$ Two$Excellent$Commentaries:$Defining$
Synaesthesia.”$ F/+%+(9, @1:/$!*, 16, =(8091*1&8$103$ (1):$ 2427.$ doi:10.1111/j.2044<
8295.2011.02059.x.$
Sloboda,$ J.$ A.$ 1991.$ “Music$ Structure$ and$ Emotional$ Response:$ Some$ Empirical$ Findings.”$
=(8091*1&8,16,<:(+0$19$(2):$11020.$doi:10.1177/0305735691192002.$
Stravinsky,$ Igor.$ 1936.$ ?:%17+1&/!.98.$ Translated$ by$ Walter$ Nouvel.$ -9/1$+W:'(, "', <!, L+'.$ New$
York:$Simon$and$Schuster.$
———.$2005.$-9/1$+W:'(,"',<!,L+',\]^_`abc,d_ef,dghibcjk`_f,lah`am.$ Edited$ by$I.$Vershinina.$
Translated$by$V.M.$Bogdanov<Berezovskii.$Moscow:$Kompozitor$[Композитор].$
Thompson,$ W.$ F.,$ and$ L.<L.$ Balkwill.$ 2010.$ “Cross<Cultural$ Similarities$ and$ Differences.”$ In$
4!$"7115,16,<:(+0,!$",E21%+1$>,P9'1/8O,I'('!/09O,?..*+0!%+1$(,[,$ 75588.$Oxford,$UK:$Oxford$
University$Press.$doi:10.1037/e512802011<003.$
Tsai,$ Chen<Gia,$ Li<Ching$ Wang,$ Shwu<Fen$ Wang,$ Yio<Wha$ Shau,$ Tzu<Yu$ Hsiao,$ and$ Wolfgang$
Auhagen.$ 2010.$ “Aggressiveness$ of$ the$ Growl<Like$ Timbre:$ Acoustic$ Characteristics,$ Musical$
Implications,$ and$ Biomechanical$ Mechanisms.”$ <:(+0, ='/0'.%+1$$27$ (3):$ 20922.$
doi:10.1525/mp.2010.27.3.209.$
Tsang,$Tawny,$and$Karen$B.$Schloss.$2012.$“Associations$between$Color$and$Music$Are$Mediated$by$
Emotion$and$Influenced$by$Tempo.”$P9',G!*',I'#+';,16,V$"'/&/!":!%',I'('!/09,+$,=(8091*1&8$
82:$8293.$
Van$Zijl,$A.$G.$W.,$and$J.$Sloboda.$2011.$“Performers’$Experienced$Emotions$in$ the$Construction$of$
Expressive$ Musical$ Performance:$ An$ Exploratory$ Investigation.”$ =(8091*1&8,16,<:(+0$39$ (2):$
196219.$doi:10.1177/0305735610373563.$
Watt,$Roger$J.,$and$Roisin$L.$Ash.$1998.$“A$Psychological$Investigation$of$Meaning$in$Music.”$<:(+0!',
B0+'$%+!'$2$(1):$3353.$doi:10.1177/102986499800200103.$
Weinstein,$Bryan,$and$Mark$C.$Gridley.$2010.$“Visual$Perception$of$Music.”$=(8091*1&8,@1:/$!*$7$(3):$
8087.$
Witherington,$David$C.,$Joseph$J.$Campos,$Jennifer$A.$Harriger,$Cheryl$Bryan,$and$Tessa$E.$Margett.$
2010.$ “Emotion$ and$ Its$ Development$ in$ Infancy.”$ In$ P9',Q+*'8XF*!05;'**,4!$"7115,16, )$6!$%,
H'#'*1.2'$%,$edited$by$J.$Gavin$Bremner$and$Theodore$D.$Wachs,$56891.$Oxford,$UK:$Wiley<
Blackwell.$doi:10.1002/9781444327564.ch19.$
Witvliet,$ Charlotte$ V.$ O.,$ and$ Scott$ R.$ Vrana.$ 2007.$ “Play$ It$ Again$ Sam:$ Repeated$ Exposure$ to$
Emotionally$ Evocative$ Music$ Polarises$ Liking$ and$ Smiling$ Responses,$ and$ Influences$ Other$
Affective$ Reports,$ Facial$ EMG,$ and$ Heart$ Rate.”$ -1&$+%+1$, N, E21%+1$$21$ (1):$ 325.$
doi:10.1080/02699930601000672.$
Yampolskii,$ Izrail$ Y.$ 1961.$ D+001*1, =!&!$+$+>, A+6', !$", -!/''/, \nabb_j_, ocpc`a`a[, qah`k, a,
rs_^teurs_m.$Moscow:$Gos$Muz$Izdat$[Гос.$музыкальное$изд<во].$
Yang,$Yi<Hsuan,$and$Homer$H.$Chen.$2011.$<:(+0,E21%+1$,I'01&$+%+1$.$Boca$Raton,$FL:$CRC$Press.$
$
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
A theory of idiomaticism is developed and illustrated using music for B- flat valve trumpet. Physical measures were collected from two trumpet performers and used to construct a computer model of the instrument/performer. Using this model, several works composed by both trumpet virtuosi and non-trumpet players were analyzed. A conceptual distinction is made between measures of performance difficulty (how hard it is to play a particular passage) and measures of performance idiomaticism (how well suited a passage is to a specific instrument). Methods for characterizing both difficulty and idiomaticism are described. In general, the results suggest that detailed modeling of the mechanics of performance can help to pinpoint aspects of musical organization that arise from performance idioms or affordances. Repercussions for ethnomusicology, historical musicology and music analysis are discussed.
Article
"In this overview of human emotions, a widely respected psychologist and author addresses the ambiguities and embraces the controversies that surround this intriguing subject. An insightful and lucid thinker, Jerome Kagan examines what exactly we do know about emotions, which popular assumptions about emotions are incorrect, and how scientific study must proceed if we are to uncover the answers to persistent and evasive questions about emotions." "Integrating the findings of anthropological, psychological, and biological studies in his wide-ranging discussion, Kagan explores the evidence for great variation in the frequency and intensity of emotion among different cultures. He also discusses variations among individuals within the same culture and the influences of gender, class, ethnicity, and temperament on a person's emotional patina. In his closing chapter, the author proposes that three sources of evidence - verbal descriptions of feelings, behaviors, and measures of brain states - provide legitimate but different definitions of emotion. Translating data from one of these sources to another may not be possible, Kagan warns, and those who study emotions must accept - at least for now - that their understanding is limited to and by the domain of their information.".
Article
A Perspective on the Nature of EmotionMultiple Component Processes and Emotional DevelopmentPhylogenetic Starting Points for Emotional DevelopmentPostnatal Ontogenetic Starting Points for Emotional DevelopmentThe Emergence of Social Smiling and Dyadic CoordinationIncreased Attention to the World of ObjectsFrom Impulsiveness to Wariness: The Emergence of FearFrom Dyad to Triad: Relating the Worlds of People and ObjectsConclusion References
Article
A basic issue about musical emotions concerns whether music elicits emotional responses in listeners (the 'emotivist' position) or simply expresses emotions that listeners recognize in the music (the 'cognitivist' position). To address this, psychophysiological measures were recorded while listeners heard two excerpts chosen to represent each of three emotions: sad, fear, and happy. The measures covered a fairly wide spectrum of cardiac, vascular, electrodermal, and respiratory functions. Other subjects indicated dynamic changes in emotions they experienced while listening to the music on one of four scales: sad, fear, happy, and tension. Both physiological and emotion judgments were made on a second-by-second basis. The physiological measures all showed a significant effect of music compared to the pre-music interval. A number of analyses, including correlations between physiology and emotion judgments, found significant differences among the excerpts. The sad excerpts produced the largest changes in heart rate, blood pressure, skin conductance and temperature. The fear excerpts produced the largest changes in blood transit time and amplitude. The happy excerpts produced the largest changes in the measures of respiration. These emotion-specific physiological changes only partially replicated those found for non-musical emotions. The physiological effects of music observed generally support the emotivist view of musical emotions.