ArticlePDF Available

Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. In West Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, northeastern India: Re-collection and implications for conservation

Authors:

Abstract

p> Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. [= Michelia lanuginosa Wall.], a rare tree species of Meghalaya, is restricted to the West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya. The species was considered to have become extinct from the state. The present paper reports a recent re-collection of the species from four locations in the West Khasi Hills after a lapse of almost 100 years. In addition, the population structure, regeneration status and the threat to the species are also discussed so as to develop effective strategies for its conservation. </div
^«ÊÙãÊÃÃçÄ®ã®ÊÄ
D¦Äʽ®½Ä禮ÄÊÝ;t½½͘Ϳ&®¦½ÙΙEÊÊã͘®ÄtÝã<«Ý®
,®½½ÝÊ¥D¦«½ù͕ÄÊÙã«ÝãÙÄ/Ä®͗ÙͲʽ½ã®ÊÄÄ
®ÃÖ½®ã®ÊÄÝ¥ÊÙÊÄÝÙòã®ÊÄ
Aabid Hussain Mir, Viheno Iralu, Ngakhainii Trune Pao, Gunjana
Chaudhury, Clarence G. Khonglah, K.L. Chaudhary, B.K. Tiwari &
Krishna Upadhaya
26 January 2016 | Vol. 8 | No. 1 | Pp. 8398–8402
ϭϬ͘ϭϭϲϬϵͬũŽƩ͘ϮϮϰϮ͘ϴ͘ϭ͘ϴϯϵϴͲϴϰϬϮ
dŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚTaxa
ůůĂƌƟĐůĞƐƉƵďůŝƐŚĞĚŝŶƚŚĞ:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨdŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚdĂdžĂĂƌĞƌĞŐŝƐƚĞƌĞĚƵŶĚĞƌƌĞĂƟǀĞŽŵŵŽŶƐƩƌŝďƵƟŽŶϰ͘Ϭ/ŶƚĞƌŶĂͲ
ƟŽŶĂů>ŝĐĞŶƐĞƵŶůĞƐƐ ŽƚŚĞƌǁŝƐĞŵĞŶƟŽŶĞĚ͘:Ždd ĂůůŽǁƐƵŶƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƚĞĚƵƐĞŽĨ ĂƌƟĐůĞƐŝŶĂŶLJŵĞĚŝƵŵ͕ƌĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶĂŶĚ
ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶďLJƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐĂĚĞƋƵĂƚĞĐƌĞĚŝƚƚŽƚŚĞĂƵƚŚŽƌƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƐŽƵƌĐĞŽĨƉƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶ͘
KWE^^
Partner
ǁǁǁ͘ƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚƚĂdžĂ͘ŽƌŐ
/^^EϬϵϳϰͲϳϵϬϳ;KŶůŝŶĞͿͮ/^^EϬϵϳϰͲϳϴϵϯ;WƌŝŶƚͿ
dŚĞŝŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂůũŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƚĂdžŽŶŽŵLJ
:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨdŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚdĂdžĂ
Publisher/Host
&Žƌ&ŽĐƵƐ͕^ĐŽƉĞ͕ŝŵƐ͕WŽůŝĐŝĞƐĂŶĚ'ƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐǀŝƐŝƚŚƩƉ͗ͬͬƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚƚĂdžĂ͘ŽƌŐͬďŽƵƚͺ:Ždd͘ĂƐƉ
&ŽƌƌƟĐůĞ^ƵďŵŝƐƐŝŽŶ'ƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐǀŝƐŝƚŚƩƉ͗ͬͬƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚƚĂdžĂ͘ŽƌŐͬ^ƵďŵŝƐƐŝŽŶͺ'ƵŝĚĞůŝŶĞƐ͘ĂƐƉ
&ŽƌWŽůŝĐŝĞƐĂŐĂŝŶƐƚ^ĐŝĞŶƟĮĐDŝƐĐŽŶĚƵĐƚǀŝƐŝƚ ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚƚĂdžĂ͘ŽƌŐͬ:ŽddͺWŽůŝĐLJͺĂŐĂŝŶƐƚͺ^ĐŝĞŶƟĮĐͺDŝƐĐŽŶĚƵĐƚ͘ĂƐƉ
&ŽƌƌĞƉƌŝŶƚƐĐŽŶƚĂĐƚфŝŶĨŽΛƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚƚĂdžĂ͘ŽƌŐх





1,2,3,4,5,7Department of Environmental Studies, 8Department of Basic Sciences and Social Sciences,
North-Eastern Hill University, Umshing Mawkynroh, Shillong, Meghalaya 793022, India
6Department of Botany, Lady Keane College, Secretariat Hills, Shillong, Meghalaya 793001, India
1aabidm4@gmail.com, 2viheiralu@gmail.com, 3atrune@gmail.com, 4cgunjana@gmail.com,
5rex05hgmg@gmail.com, 6klchaudhary31@gmail.com, 7bkwarinehu@gmail.com,
8upkri@yahoo.com (corresponding author)

ISSN 0974-7907 (Online)
ISSN 0974-7893 (Print)



DOI: hp://dx.doi.org/10.11609/jo.2242.8.1.8398-8402
P. Lakshminarasimhan, Botanical Survey of India, Pune, India.  26 January 2016 (online & print)
Ms # 2242 | Received 27 August 2015 | Final received 07 December 2015 | Finally accepted 30 December 2015
 Mir, A.H., V. Iralu, N.T. Pao, G. Chaudhury, C.G. Khonglah, K.L. Chaudhary, B.K. Tiwari & K. Upadhaya (2016). Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot.
in West Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, northeastern India: re-collecon and implicaons for conservaon. Journal of Threatened Taxa 8(1): 8398–8402; hp://dx.doi.
org/10.11609/jo.2242.8.1.8398-8402
 © Mir et al. 2016. Creave Commons Aribuon 4.0 Internaonal License. JoTT allows unrestricted use of this arcle in any medium, reproducon and
distribuon by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publicaon.
State Forest Department, Government of Meghalaya
(No MFD/ThFC/2012-13/8289 dated 26 September 2014).
The authors declare no compeng interests.
The authors are thankful to the State Forest Department, Government of Meghalaya for nancial assistance (No MFD/ThFC/2012-13/8289
dated 26 September 2014). We are also thankful to the Head, Botanical Survey of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong for allowing us to consult the herbarium.
The help and cooperaon received from the Tradional Instuon and the local people are also acknowledged.
 Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. [= Michelia
lanuginosa Wall.], a rare tree species of Meghalaya, is restricted to
the West Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya. The species was considered
to have become exnct from the state. The present paper reports
a recent re-collecon of the species from four locaons in the West
Khasi Hills aer a lapse of almost 100 years. In addion, the populaon
structure, regeneraon status and the threat to the species are also
discussed so as to develop eecve strategies for its conservaon.
 Conservaon, Data Decient, Khasi Hills, sacred grove.
Magnolia L. [Incl. Elmerrillia, Kmeria, Mangliea,
Michelia, Pachylarnax, Talauma], belonging to the
family Magnoliaceae, consists of 219 species distributed
in the Himalaya to Japan and western Malaysia, eastern
North America to tropical America (Mabberley 2008).
According to Kumar (2014), a total of 30 species and one
variety are recognised from the Indian region.

[Synonyms: Michelia lanuginosa Wall., Michelia
lanceolata E.H. Wilson, Michelia veluna DC., Sampacca
lanuginosa (Wall.) Kuntze and Magnolia veluna (DC.)
Figlar] is a threatened tree, which is less commonly
found in Meghalaya. It is chiey found in the forest
slopes at 1500–2400 m of India (West Bengal, Sikkim,
Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur),
Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet and southwestern China
(Yunnan). In the Chinese Red List, the species has been
assessed as ‘regionally exnct’ suggesng that it may
have reduced its range of occurrence in China (Wheeler &
Rivers 2014). It has also been reported as a less common
tree in the Kanchenjunga range in Darjeeling (Cheri et
al. 2008). In Meghalaya, it is restricted exclusively to the
West Khasi Hills. The only collecon was from Kynshi
by U.N. Kanjilal in the year 1915 (ASSAM 5889). Kanjilal
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 January 2016 | 8(1): 8398–8402 
Re-collecon of Magnolia lanuginosa from West Khasi Hills Mir et al.
& Bor (1940) in ‘Flora of Assam’ reported it to be a less
commonly found species. Haridasan & Rao (1985) in
the ‘Forest Flora of Meghalaya’ stated that it might have
been eliminated from the state. The species has been
classied as ‘Data Decient’ by the IUCN Red List of
Threatened Species (Wheeler & Rivers 2014) as there is
neither any informaon on exisng subpopulaons nor
are the threats and uses known.
While carrying out orisc studies in the Mawnai
sacred grove at West Khasi Hills, one of the species
was idened as Magnolia lanuginosa. The identy
of the species was conrmed by comparing it with the
herbarium specimens housed at the Botanical Survey
of India, Eastern Regional Centre, Shillong (ASSAM). It
was collected aer a lapse of almost 100 years from the
state. Therefore, a detailed study was conducted with
the following objecves: (i) to assess the distribuon
of the species in the state of Meghalaya, (ii) esmate
the populaon structure and regeneraon status, (iii)
examine the threat operang on the species, and (iv) to
suggest measures for its conservaon.


Extensive eld surveys were carried out in dierent
parts of the West Khasi Hills from January 2013–2015 to
locate the species with the help of available herbarium
informaon and local people. In addion to the
Mawnai Sacred grove (25034.51’N & 91035.56’E, altude
1741m), the species could be collected from three
addional sites viz., Mawnai Village forest (25034.79’N
& 91035.35’E, 1800m) Kynshi Village forest (25028.38’N
& 91018.32’E, 1620m) and Rngisawlia Village Reserve
forest (25026.66’N & 91028.09’E, 1592m). Hereaer,
these sites have been abbreviated as site I (Mawnai
sacred grove), site II (adjacent to Mawnai Village forest),
site III (Kynshi village forest) and site IV (Rngisawlia
village reserve forest) respecvely.

Magnolia lanuginosa (= Michelia lanuginosa) is a
medium-sized tree that grows in subtropical broadleaved
forests (Champion & Seth 1968). It was however
observed that the species also grows along with Pine
Pinus kesiya. It has an averageheight of 15m but there
were some individuals that had aained a height of
25m. The tree has a broad crown. It oen formed the
canopy layer in site-I and site-IV. It aains a girth of
180cm. Young parts very hairy. The leaves measure 12–
21 by 2–5 cm and are densely hairy tomentose beneath.
Flowering buds are iniated in late July and it aains
peak owering in August. Fruing starts from August
and the fruit matures during the months of September–
October. The fruit is made up of 12–20 follicles which
contain 2–4 seeds covered by a pale orange fragrant
aril during the early stages of growth which turns deep
orange at maturaon (Image 1).

The forests where the species was present in the
West Khasi Hills were thoroughly surveyed and a plot
of 20 × 20 m was laid to enumerate the species and
its associates. The species occurred in 12, 4, 6 and
15 plots at site -I, -II, -III and -IV respecvely. The
populaon structure and regeneraon status of the
species were studied by classifying the species into: (1)
adult individuals (≥5cm diameter at breast height (dbh)
measured at 1.37m from the ground level), and (2)
regenerang individuals that include saplings (<5cm dbh
and >1m height) and seedlings (<1m height). The adult
individuals of Magnolia lanuginosa were assigned to ve
dbh classes (5–15, 16–25, 26–35, 36–45 and >45 cm)
to analyze the populaon structure. The regeneraon
status of the species was assessed following Sukumar et
al. (1992) as: (a) ‘good’, if seedling > sapling > adult; (b)
‘fair’, if seedling > sapling ≤ adult; (c) ‘poor, if a species
survives only at the sapling stage, but not as seedlings
(though saplings may be less, more or equal to adults)
(d) ‘none’, if the species is absent both at the sapling
and seedling stages, but present as adults and (e) ‘new’,
if the species has no adults, but only saplings and/or
seedlings.
The disturbance index for each site was computed
following Uola & Kouki (2005), Tang et al. (2010, 2011)
with a slight modicaon. A score of ve was assigned to
each of the human disturbance factors, viz., logging for
mber, fuel wood harvesng, NTFP’s collecon, clearing
forest land for agriculture, grazing, building roads and
re. Any site with all these disturbances would have a
total score of 35.


The Mawnai sacred grove (site-I) was the least
disturbed site and represents the subtropical broad-
leaved forest. The dominant tree species in the forest
include Citrus lapes, Castanopsis purpullera, Casearia
glomerulata, Litsea salicifolia and Macropanax
dispermus. Adjacent to the sacred grove was a
village forest (site-II), which is a severely degraded
mixed-pine forest, with a dominance of Pinus kesiya,
Lithocarpus elegans and Castanopsis tribuloides. In
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 January 2016 | 8(1): 8398–8402ϴϰϬϬ
ZĞͲĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶŽĨMagnolia lanuginosaĨƌŽŵtĞƐƚ<ŚĂƐŝ,ŝůůƐ DŝƌĞƚĂů͘
site-III, Pinus kesiya was the dominant tree species
followed by Rhododendron arboreum and Lithocarpus
dealbatus whereas in site-IV, the associated species
includes Schima wallichii, S. khasiana, Pinus kesiya and
Castanopsis tribuloides. All the sites were exposed to
anthropogenic disturbances, of which site-II and site-III
were highly disturbed (Table 1).
WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ
dŚĞ ƚŽƚĂů ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ Magnolia lanuginosa
including seedling, sapling and adult individuals varied
ƐŝŐŶŝĮĐĂŶƚůLJĂŵŽŶŐƚŚĞĨŽƵƌƐŝƚĞƐ͘^ŝƚĞͲ/ŚĂĚƚŚĞŚŝŐŚĞƐƚ
number of total individuals (123), followed by site –IV (80
individuals), site-II (39 individuals) and site-III, which had
only 11 individuals. The highest number of individuals
ŝŶƐŝƚĞͲ/ŵĂLJďĞĂƩƌŝďƵƚĞĚƚŽůĞĂƐƚĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞ
related favorable habitat as compared to other sites.
Of all the sites, site-IV had the highest number of adult
individuals (54), followed by site-I (36), site-II (18) and
ƐŝƚĞͲ///;ϲͿ͘ŚŝŐŚƉƌŽƉŽƌƟŽŶ;ϲϳйͿŽĨ ĐƵƚŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐŽĨ
the species were observed in site-III (Table 1).
dŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ĂĚƵůƚ ƚƌĞĞƐ ;шϱĐŵ
dbh) of Magnolia lanuginosa depicted through a
ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ LJŝĞůĚĞĚ Ă ĚŝƐĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐ
ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ ŽĨ ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ͘  džĐĞƉƚ ƐŝƚĞͲ/͕ ƚŚĞƌĞ ǁĞƌĞ
no individuals in the highest (>45 cm) dbh class (Fig.
ϭͿ͘  dŚĞ ůŽǁ ĚĞŶƐŝƚLJ ĂŶĚ ĚŝƐĐŽŶƟŶƵŽƵƐ ĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶ
ŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ ŝŶ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ ĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌ ĐůĂƐƐĞƐ ŝŶ Ăůů ƚŚĞ
ƐŝƚĞƐĐŽƵůĚďĞĂƩƌŝďƵƚĞĚƚŽƐĞůĞĐƟǀĞ ĨĞůůŝŶŐĂŶĚ ŚƵŵĂŶ
ĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞ͘ƐŝŵŝůĂƌŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶŚĂƐďĞĞŶŵĂĚĞǁŝƚŚ
Grewia pandaica, a rare and endemic species of the
Western Ghats (Parthasarathy & Karthikeyan 1997) and
/ŵĂŐĞϭ͘&ůŽǁĞƌŝŶŐƚǁŝŐ;Ϳ͕ŇŽǁĞƌ;Ϳ͕ĨƌƵŝƚŝŶŝƟĂƟŽŶ;ͿĂŶĚŵĂƚƵƌĞĨƌƵŝƚƐǁŝƚŚƐĞĞĚƐ;ͿŽĨDĂŐŶŽůŝĂůĂŶƵŐŝŶŽƐĂ
A
B
D
ΞsŝŚĞŶŽ/ƌĂůƵ
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 January 2016 | 8(1): 8398–8402 ϴϰϬϭ
ZĞͲĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶŽĨMagnolia lanuginosaĨƌŽŵtĞƐƚ<ŚĂƐŝ,ŝůůƐ DŝƌĞƚĂů͘
Alphonsea sclerocarpa, an endemic tree species from
the Eastern Ghats (Kadaval & Parthasarathy 2001).
ZĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶƐƚĂƚƵƐ
dŚĞ ŽǀĞƌĂůů ĂŐĞ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐŽĨ ƚŚĞ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ďĂƐĞĚ
on the density of seedling, sapling and adult individuals
varied among the four sites. The highest seedling
density (50 individuals) was recorded at site-I, followed
by 21 individuals in site-II, 5 individuals insite -IV, and
only 1 individual in site-III. Similarly, the sapling density
was highest in site-I (37 individuals) followed by site-IV
(21), site-III (4) and site-II, which had no seedlings (Table
1). Based on the number of seedlings, saplings and adult
ƚƌĞĞƐ͕ƚŚĞƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶƐƚĂƚƵƐ ǁĂƐ ŐŽŽĚ ŽŶůLJ ŝŶƐŝƚĞ Ͳ/͕
while in all other forests sites it was poor (Fig. 2).
dŚƌĞĂƚƐƚĂƚƵƐ
The threat to the species is mainly anthropogenic
ĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞƐ͕ ǁŚŝĐŚ ŚĂĚ Ă ŶĞŐĂƟǀĞ ŝŵƉĂĐƚ ŽŶ ŝƚƐ
ƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞ͘ dŚŝƐ ŝƐ ĞǀŝĚĞŶƚ ďLJ Ă ŶĞŐĂƟǀĞ ĐŽƌƌĞůĂƟŽŶ
(Y = 212.2 - 5.67429X, R = 0.99, p = 0.008, n=4) between
ƚŚĞƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐŝnjĞŽĨƚŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĞƐĂŶĚĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞ͘^ƵĐŚ
Ă ĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞͲůŝŶŬĞĚ ĚĞĐůŝŶĞ ŝŶ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƐŝnjĞ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ
species has also been observed in Alphonsea sclerocarpa
from the Eastern Ghats (Kadaval & Parthasarathy 2001)
and Ilex khasiana from northeastern India (Upadhaya et
Ăů͘ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞ ŝŶƚŚĞĨŽƌŵŽĨƟŵďĞƌĞdžƚƌĂĐƟŽŶ
ĚƌĂƐƟĐĂůůLJ ƌĞĚƵĐĞƐ ƚŚĞ ĚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐ ŽĨ ŶĂƚƵƌĂůůLJ ŽĐĐƵƌƌŝŶŐ
plants. Except site-I, all the sites were exposed to high
ĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞƐ͘   ĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚ ĞīĞĐƚ ŽĨ Ăůů ƚŚĞƐĞ ĨĂĐƚŽƌƐ
(Table 1) might have contributed to the very low
ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ͘
Except the sacred grove, the low seedling and sapling
density of the species in all the sites could be due to its
ĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ƉŝŶĞ͘  WŝŶĞͲŽƌ ƉŝŶĞͲŵŝdžĞĚ ĨŽƌĞƐƚƐ ĂƌĞ
ĞdžƉŽƐĞĚƚŽĮƌĞĞǀĞƌLJLJĞĂƌůĞĂĚŝŶŐƚŽŚŝŐŚŵŽƌƚĂůŝƚLJŽĨƚŚĞ
LJŽƵŶŐŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ͘dƌĞĞĨĞůůŝŶŐĨŽƌƵƐĞĂƐƉŽůĞƐĂŶĚƟŵďĞƌ
was another threat responsible for the species decline.
dŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ ŝƐ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚŐŽŽĚƟŵďĞƌ ĂŶĚŝƐƉƌĞĨĞƌƌĞĚ
to make furniture, building houses and the wood is
highly priced. This could be the reason for its absence in
>45cm dbh class in highly disturbed patches. Moreover,
ĨŽƌĞƐƚĐůĞĂƌŝŶŐĨŽƌĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶŽĨƌŽĂĚƐ
ŝƐůĞĂĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞŚĂďŝƚĂƚĚĞƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ͘
,ĂďŝƚĂƚ ĚĞƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞĚ ĂƐ ŽŶĞ ŽĨ
ƚŚĞŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŚƌĞĂƚƐƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞĨŽƌƐƉĞĐŝĞƐĞdžƟŶĐƟŽŶ͕
^ŝƚĞ &ŽƌĞƐƚƚLJƉĞ
EƵŵďĞƌŽĨ/ŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐŽĨD͘ůĂŶƵŐŝŶŽƐĂ
KƚŚĞƌĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ ƵƌƌĞŶƚĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞƐ
^ĞĞĚůŝŶŐ ^ĂƉůŝŶŐ ĚƵůƚ EŽ͘ŽĨĐƵƚ
ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ
Site-I Broad leaved
forest 50 37 36 1
ŝƚƌƵƐůĂƟƉĞƐ͕ĂƐƚĂŶŽƉƐŝƐ
purpullera, Casearia
glomerulata, Litsea salicifolia
and Macropanax dispermus
&ƵĞůǁŽŽĚŚĂƌǀĞƐƟŶŐ͕Ed&W͛Ɛ
ĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶĂŶĚŐƌĂnjŝŶŐ
Site-II Mixed pine forest 21 0 18 4
Pinus kesiya, Lithocarpus
elegans, Schima wallichii and
Castanopsis tribuloides
>ŽŐŐŝŶŐĨŽƌƟŵďĞƌ͕ĨƵĞůǁŽŽĚ
ŚĂƌǀĞƐƟŶŐ͕Ed&W͛ƐĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͕
clearing forest land for
ĂŐƌŝĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ŐƌĂnjŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚĮƌĞ
Site-III Mixed pine forest 1 4 6 4
Pinus kesiya, Rhododendron
arboreum and Lithocarpus
dealbatus
>ŽŐŐŝŶŐĨŽƌƟŵďĞƌ͕ĨƵĞůǁŽŽĚ
ŚĂƌǀĞƐƟŶŐ͕Ed&W͛ƐĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͕
clearing forest land for
agriculture, grazing, building
ƌŽĂĚƐĂŶĚĮƌĞ
Site-IV Mixed pine forest 5 21 54 6
Schima wallichii, Schima
khasiana, Pinus kesiya, Myrica
esculenta and Castanopsis
tribuloides
>ŽŐŐŝŶŐĨŽƌƟŵďĞƌ͕ĨƵĞůǁŽŽĚ
ŚĂƌǀĞƐƟŶŐ͕Ed&W͛ƐĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͕
ŐƌĂnjŝŶŐĂŶĚĮƌĞ
dĂďůĞϭ͘^ŝƚĞĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐĂŶĚƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨDĂŐŶŽůŝĂůĂŶƵŐŝŶŽƐĂŝŶĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƐŝƚĞƐŽĨtĞƐƚ<ŚĂƐŝ,ŝůůƐŝŶDĞŐŚĂůĂLJĂ
5–15 16–25 26–35
ŝĂŵĞƚĞƌĐůĂƐƐ;ĐŵͿ
36–45 >45
EƵŵďĞƌŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ
20
16
12
8
4
18
14
10
6
2
0
Site-I
Site-II
Site-III
Site-IV
&ŝŐƵƌĞϭ͘ĞŶƐŝƚLJͲĚŝĂŵĞƚĞƌĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶŽĨĂĚƵůƚŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ;шϱĐŵ
ĚďŚͿŽĨDĂŐŶŽůŝĂůĂŶƵŐŝŶŽƐĂŝŶĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƐŝƚĞƐŽĨtĞƐƚ<ŚĂƐŝ,ŝůůƐŝŶ
DĞŐŚĂůĂLJĂ
Journal of Threatened Taxa | www.threatenedtaxa.org | 26 January 2016 | 8(1): 8398–8402ϴϰϬϮ
ZĞͲĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶŽĨMagnolia lanuginosaĨƌŽŵtĞƐƚ<ŚĂƐŝ,ŝůůƐ DŝƌĞƚĂů͘
ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ ďLJ ĮƌĞ͕ ŚĞŶĐĞ ŚŝŶĚĞƌŝŶŐ ƚŚĞ ƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ
ƉƌŽĐĞƐƐ͘  ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĨĂĐƚŽƌ ĨŽƌ ůŽǁ ƌĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ
ƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ ĐĂŶ ďĞ ĂƩƌŝďƵƚĞĚ ƚŽƚŚĞ ĨĂĐƚ ƚŚĂƚ ŵĂŶLJ ŽĨ ƚŚĞ
fruits fall from the tree before they mature. The heavy
fruits are vulnerable to gushes of wind and tend to fall
ĞĂƐŝůLJ͘  dŚĞ ĨƌƵŝƚƐ ĂƌĞ ĂůƐŽ ƉƌĞĚĂƚĞĚ ďLJ ƐƋƵŝƌƌĞůƐ ĂŶĚ
ŝŶƐĞĐƚƐ ŽŶ ƚŚĞ ĨŽƌĞƐƚ ŇŽŽƌ͘  ŶŽƚŚĞƌ ĨĂĐƚŽƌ ĨŽƌ ŝƚƐ ůŽǁ
density especially in disturbed sites could be that the
species germinates during February–March and is soon
ĞdžƉŽƐĞĚ ƚŽ ĮƌĞ ĨŽůůŽǁĞĚ ďLJ ĐŽŵƉĞƟƟŽŶ ǁŝƚŚ ŽƚŚĞƌ
species in the rainy season (April–October). Recently,
Ă ƐŝŵŝůĂƌ ŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ ŚĂƐ ďĞĞŶ ŵĂĚĞ ďLJ /ƌĂůƵ ĂŶĚ
Upadhaya (2015) with another species of Magnolia (M.
punduana).
ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶŝŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ
dŚĞƐƚƵĚLJƌĞǀĞĂůƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞƐƉĞĐŝĞƐ
is very low and there is an urgent need for taking up
ĞīĞĐƟǀĞ ĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐ͕ ƐŽ ĂƐ ƚŽ ƐĂǀĞ ŝƚ ĨƌŽŵ
ĞdžƟŶĐƟŽŶŝŶ ƚŚĞƐƚĂƚĞ͘ dŚƵƐƚŚĞĨŽƌĞƐƚƉĂƚĐŚĞƐ͕ǁŚĞƌĞ
the species occurs need to be protected. The local people
should be encouraged to grow the species in their home
gardens and agroforestry. This will reduce the pressure
ŽŶƚŚĞ ƐƉĞĐŝĞƐŝŶƚŚĞǁŝůĚ͘ &ŽƌĞƐƚĮƌĞŝƐĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ ŵĂũŽƌ
threat to the species and needs to be checked. The
ƐƉĞĐŝĞƐŝƐƌĞƋƵŝƌĞĚƚŽďĞƌĂŝƐĞĚďŽƚŚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƐĞĞĚƐĂŶĚ
ƟƐƐƵĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĚŝŶƚƌŽĚƵĐĞĚŝŶƐƵŝƚĂďůĞŚĂďŝƚĂƚƐĂƐǁĞůů
as in botanical gardens.
Z¥ÙÄÝ
ŚĂŵƉŝŽŶ͕,͘'͘Θ ^͘<͘^ĞƚŚ ;ϭϵϲϴͿ͘
A Revised Survey of the Forest
Types of India,
DĂŶĂŐĞƌ ŽĨ WƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕'ŽǀĞƌŶŵĞŶƚ ŽĨ /ŶĚŝĂ͕
Delhi.
ŚĞƩƌŝ͕E͕͘ ͘ ^ŚĂŬLJĂΘ ͘ ^ŚĂƌŵĂ;ϮϬϬϴͿ͘ ŝŽĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ
in Kangchenjunga Landscape. /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů ĞŶƚƌĞ ĨŽƌ/ŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚ
Mountain Development.
,ĂƌŝĚĂƐĂŶ͕ <͘ Θ Z͘Z͘ ZĂŽ ;ϭϵϴϱͿ͘ Forest Flora of Meghalaya - Vol I.
Bishen Singh and Mahendrapal Singh, Dehra Dun.
/ƌĂůƵ͕s͘Θ <͘ hƉĂĚŚĂLJĂ;ϮϬϭϱͿ͘ Notes on Magnolia punduana Hk. f.
& Th. (Magnoliopsida: Magnoliales: Magnoliaceae): an endemic
and threatened tree species of northeastern India. Journal of
Threatened Taxa 7(9): 7573–7576; ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĚdž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϭϲϬϵͬ
JoTT.o4238.7573-6
<ĂĚĂǀĂů͕ <͘ Θ E͘ WĂƌƚŚĂƐĂƌĂƚŚLJ ;ϮϬϬϭͿ͘ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĂůLJƐŝƐ ŽĨ
Alphonsea sclerocarpa Thw. (Annonaceae) in the Kalyaran Hills
of Eastern Ghats India. /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů :ŽƵƌŶĂů ŽĨ ĐŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ
Environmental Science Ϯϳ͗ϱϭоϱϰ͘
<ĂŶũŝůĂů͕h͘E͘ΘE͘>͘Žƌ;ϭϵϰϬͿ͘Flora of Assam. KŵƐŽŶƐWƵďůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ͕
New Delhi, India, 22pp.
<ƵŵĂƌ͕s͘^͘;ϮϬϭϰͿ͘ Magnoliaceae of Indian Region An – Apprisal, pp.
53–74. In: Panda, S. & C. Ghosh (eds.). ŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJĂŶĚ ŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ
ŽĨ WůĂŶƚƐ ĂŶĚ dƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂů <ŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal
Singh, Dehra Dun.
DĂďďĞƌůĞLJ͕͘:͘;ϮϬϬϴͿ͘DĂďďĞƌůĞLJ͛ƐWůĂŶƚͲŬ͗WŽƌƚĂďůĞŝĐƟŽŶĂƌLJ
ŽĨ ƚŚĞ sĂƐĐƵůĂƌ WůĂŶƚƐ͗ dŚĞŝƌ ůĂƐƐŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚ hƐĞƐ͗ hƟůŝnjŝŶŐ
<ƵďŝƚnjŬŝ͛Ɛ dŚĞ &ĂŵŝůŝĞƐ ĂŶĚ 'ĞŶĞƌĂ ŽĨ sĂƐĐƵůĂƌ WůĂŶƚƐ ;ϭϵϵϬͿ͘ 3rd
ZĞǀŝƐĞĚĚŝƟŽŶ͘ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJWƌĞƐƐ͕ĂŵďƌŝĚŐĞ͘
WĂƌƚŚĂƐĂƌĂƚŚLJ͕ E͘ Θ Z͘ <ĂƌƚŚŝŬĞLJĂŶ;ϭϵϵϳͿ͘ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ
Grewia pandaica- a rare and endemic tree species of southwest
India. /ŶƚĞƌŶĂƟŽŶĂů :ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨĐŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂů ^ĐŝĞŶĐĞƐ
23: 85–90.
^ƵŬƵŵĂƌ͕ Z͕͘ ,͘^͘ ĂƩĂƌĂũĂ͕ ,͘^͘ ^ƵƌĞƐŚ͕ :͘ ZĂĚŚĂŬƌŝƐŚŶĂŶ͕ Z͘
sĂƐƵĚĞǀĂ͕^͘EŝƌŵĂůĂΘE͘s͘:ŽƐŚŝ;ϭϵϵϮͿ. Long-term monitoring of
ǀĞŐĞƚĂƟŽŶŝŶ Ă ƚƌŽƉŝĐĂů ĚĞĐŝĚƵŽƵƐ ĨŽƌĞƐƚ ŝŶ DƵĚƵŵĂůĂŝ͕ ^ŽƵƚŚĞƌŶ
India. Current ScienceϲϮ;ϵͿ͗ϲϬϴоϲϭϲ͘
dĂŶŐ͕ ͘Y͕͘ z͘ >ŝ Θ ͘z͘ ŚĂŶŐ ;ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ ^ƉĞĐŝĞƐ ĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ ƉĂƩĞƌŶƐ ŽĨ
ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ƐĞĐŽŶĚĂƌLJ ƉůĂŶƚ ĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ ĂŶĚ ŵĂŶͲŵĂĚĞ ĨŽƌĞƐƚƐ ŝŶ Ă
subtropical mountainous karst area, Yunnan, SW China. Mountain
Research and Development 30(3): 244–251; ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĚdž͘ĚŽŝ͘
ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϲϱϵͬDZͲ:KhZE>ͲͲϭϬͲϬϬϬϮϭ͘ϭ
dĂŶŐ͕͘Y͕͘ z͘ zĂŶŐ͕ D͘ KŚƐĂǁĂ͕ ͘ DŽŵŽŚĂƌĂ͕ D͘ ,ĂƌĂ͕ ^͘ ŚĞŶŐ
Θ ^͘ &ĂŶ ;ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ŽĨ ƌĞůŝĐƚ Metasequoia
glyptostroboidesĂŶĚ ŝƚƐ ŚĂďŝƚĂƚĨƌĂŐŵĞŶƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚĚĞŐƌĂĚĂƟŽŶ ŝŶ
south-central China. ŝŽůŽŐŝĐĂůŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ 144: 279–289; ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬ
Ědž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϬϭϲͬũ͘ďŝŽĐŽŶ͘ϮϬϭϬ͘Ϭϵ͘ϬϬϯ
hŽƟůĂ͕͘Θ:͘<ŽƵŬŝ;ϮϬϬϱͿ͘hŶĚĞƌƐƚŽƌLJǀĞŐĞƚĂƟŽŶŝŶƐƉƌƵĐĞͲĚŽŵŝŶĂƚĞĚ
ĨŽƌĞƐƚƐŝŶĞĂƐƚĞƌŶ&ŝŶůĂŶĚĂŶĚ ZƵƐƐŝĂŶ<ĂƌĞůŝĂ͗ƐƵĐĐĞƐƐŝŽŶĂůƉĂƩĞƌŶ
ĂŌĞƌ ĂŶƚŚƌŽƉŽŐĞŶŝĐĂŶĚ ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ĚŝƐƚƵƌďĂŶĐĞƐ͘ Forest Ecology and
Management 215(1–3): 113–137; ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĚdž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϬϭϲͬũ͘
foreco.2005.05.008
hƉĂĚŚĂLJĂ͕ <͕͘ ^͘<͘ ĂƌŝŬ͕ ͘ ĚŚŝŬĂƌŝ͕ Z͘ ĂŝƐŚLJĂ Θ E͘:͘ >ĂŬĂĚŽŶŐ
;ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ZĞŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶĞĐŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶ ƐƚĂƚƵƐŽĨ Ă ƌŝƟĐĂůůLJ
Endangered and endemic tree species (Ilex khasiana Purk.) in north-
eastern India. Journal of Forestry Research 20: 223–228; ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬ
Ědž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϭϬϬϳͬƐϭϭϲϳϲͲϬϬϵͲϬϬϰϭͲnj
tŚĞĞůĞƌ͕ >͘ Θ D͘͘ ZŝǀĞƌƐ ;ϮϬϭϰͿ͘ Magnolia lanuginosa. The IUCN
Red List of Threatened Species 2014: e.T15114022A15114029.
Downloaded on 09 January 2016; ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬĚdž͘ĚŽŝ͘ŽƌŐͬϭϬ͘ϮϯϬϱͬ/hE͘
UK.2014-3.RLTS.T15114022A15114029.en
Site-I Site-II Site-III
^ŝƚĞƐ
Site-IV
WĞƌĐĞŶƚĂŐĞŽĨŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂůƐ
70
50
30
10
60
40
20
0
Seedling
Sapling
Adult
&ŝŐƵƌĞϮ͘WŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨDĂŐŶŽůŝĂůĂŶƵŐŝŶŽƐĂŝŶĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚ
ƐŝƚĞƐŽĨtĞƐƚ<ŚĂƐŝ,ŝůůƐŝŶDĞŐŚĂůĂLJĂ
dŚƌĞĂƚĞŶĞĚdĂdžĂ
All articles published in the Journal of Threatened Taxa are registered under Cre-
ative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License unless otherwise mentioned.
JoTT allows unrestricted use of articles in any medium, reproduction and distribution
by providing adequate credit to the authors and the source of publication.
January 2016 | Vol. 8 | No. 1 | Pages: 8309–8420
Date of Publicaon: 26 January 2016 (Online & Print)
DOI: 10.11609/jo.2016.8.1.8309-8420
www.threatenedtaxa.org
ISSN 0974-7907 (Online); ISSN 0974-7893 (Print)
OPEN ACCESS
Threatened Taxa
Arcle
Habitat quanty of Red-cockaded Woodpecker Picoides
borealis (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae) in its former historic
landscape near the Big Thicket Naonal Preserve, Texas, USA
-- Vivek Thapa & Miguel F. Acevedo, Pp. 8309–8322
Communicaons
The conservaon status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus
viverrinus Benne, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae) In Koshi Tappu
Wildlife Reserve, Nepal
-- Iain Rothie Taylor, Hem Sagar Baral, Prava Pandey & Prava
Kaspal, Pp. 8323–8332
Avifauna of Chamba District, Himachal Pradesh, India with
emphasis on Kalatop-Khajjiar Wildlife Sanctuary and its
surroundings
-- Tariq Ahmed Shah, Vishal Ahuja, Marna Anandam &
Chelmala Srinivasulu, Pp. 8333–8357
Status and populaon of vultures in Moyar Valley, southern
India
-- R. Venkitachalam & S. Senthilnathan, Pp. 8358–8364
Short Communicaons
First record of Scotophilus kuhlii Leach, 1821 (Chiroptera:
Vesperlionidae) from Nepal
-- Dibya Dahal, Sanjan Thapa & Khadga Basnet, Pp. 8365–8368
Avifaunal diversity in Assam University Campus, Silchar,
India
-- Biswajit Chakdar, Parthankar Choudhury & Hilloljyo Singha,
Pp. 8369–8378
New locality record of the Travancore Bush Frog Raorchestes
travancoricus Boulenger, 1891 (Amphibia: Anura:
Rhacophoridae) from Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India
-- K.P. Rajkumar, T.S. Prasad, Sandeep Das, R. Sreehari, P.S.
Easa & K.A. Sreejith, Pp. 8379–8382
Descripons of four new species of Dicopomorpha Ogloblin
(Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae) from India with a
key to Indian species
-- A. Rameshkumar & S. Manickavasagam, Pp. 8383–8388
Taxonomic studies on Acridinae (Orthoptera: Acridoidea:
Acrididae) from the northeastern states of India
-- Mohammed Imran Khan & Mohammed Kamil Usmani,
Pp. 8389–8397
Magnolia lanuginosa (Wall.) Figlar & Noot. in West Khasi
Hills of Meghalaya, northeastern India: re-collecon and
implicaons for conservaon
-- Aabid Hussain Mir, Viheno Iralu, Ngakhainii Trune Pao,
Gunjana Chaudhury, Clarence G. Khonglah, K.L. Chaudhary,
B.K. Tiwari & Krishna Upadhaya, Pp. 8398–8402
Three species of Phallus (Basidiomycota: Agaricomycetes:
Phallaceae) from Jammu & Kashmir, India
-- Harpreet Kour, Rigzin Yangdol, Sanjeev Kumar & Yash Pal
Sharma, Pp. 8403–8409
Notes
Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus (Aves: Passeriformes:
Sylviidae) in Sanjay Gandhi Naonal Park, Maharashtra -
a rare record for peninsular India
-- Parvish Pandya, Vikrant Choursiya & Jyo James, Pp. 8410–
8411
Oberonia mucronata (D. Don) Ormerod & Seidenf.
(Orchidaceae), new addion to the ora of Gujarat, India
-- Mital R. Bha & Padamnabhi S. Nagar, Pp. 8412–8414
Response & Reply
Comments on the list of marine mammals from Kerala
-- R.P. Kumarran, Pp. 8415–8416
Checklist of Marine Mammals of Kerala - a reply to
Kumarran (2016) and the updated Checklist of Marine
Mammals of Kerala
-- P.O. Nameer, Pp. 8417–8420
... Figlar & Noot. is one of the rare and threatened taxon of northeast India. The species is also found in Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, Tibet and southwestern China (Yunnan) [11]. The species has been assessed as 'regionally extinct' in China [12] and is classified as "Data deficient" (DD) by the IUCN [12]. ...
... The species has been assessed as 'regionally extinct' in China [12] and is classified as "Data deficient" (DD) by the IUCN [12]. The species was considered as extinct from the state of Meghalaya, northeast India [13] until 2016 when it was recollected from West Khasi Hills of Meghalaya after a lapse of almost 100 years [11]. M. lanuginosa produces a number of sesquiterpene lactones of germacrane type, including lanuginolide and dihydroparthenolide [14]. ...
... These phytoconstituents possess anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic property and are highly used in medicine [16]. The species is a valued timber and is used in house construction and making furniture [11]. The current threats to the taxa are its small population, habitat destruction, low natural regeneration, over harvesting for timber and medicinal uses [11,17]. ...
Article
The population of Magnolia lanuginosa a rare tree species of northeastern India has declined drastically owing to habitat destruction, low natural regeneration and over harvesting for its multipurpose uses. The present study was carried out to understand the type of dormancy and analyse the effect of storage on viability and germination behaviour of M. lanuginosa under various physical and chemical treatments. Seeds subjected to physical treatments such as water (cold, hot, and boiling), acid (H2SO4) and manual scarification failed in breaking dormancy. Seeds treated with growth regulators (GA3) had a significant effect on germination. It reduced the germination time and the shortest T50 was observed in seeds treated with 2000 mg/l of GA3 (non-scarified seeds) and 1000 mg/l of GA3 (scarified seeds). The use of KNO3 did not have any significant effect in breaking dormancy. However, the use of KNO3 along with GA3, increased the germination percentage. Seeds cold stratified (CS) for 60 days at 5 ◦C was effective in breaking dormancy and resulted in 84.26% germination. This indicates the prevalence of Type-1 Non deep physiological dormancy in M. lanuginosa seeds that requires a crucial CS period for proper embryo growth and development. The seeds stored in moist sand at 5 ◦C remained viable even after 120 days with 48.88% viability. The study would be helpful in devising seed germination protocols for mass production and reintroduction of the species into the wild.
... For example, in some Asian cuisines, petals of M. grandiflora are pickled and used as a spicy condiment and the buds are pickled and used to flavor rice and scent tea (Cornucopia 1990). In Japan, the young leaves and flower buds of M. hypoleuca are boiled and eaten as a vegetable, and older leaves are made into a powder and used as flavor (McMinn and Maino 1981). In Arunachal Pradesh, M. campbellii and M. dolstopa flower buds are grinded, mixed with locally prepared food and eaten. ...
... M. cathcartii wood is used for planking and for joinery works. M. lanuginosa and M. punduana is a valued timber plant and is used in house construction and making furniture (Mir et al. 2016;Iralu and Upadhaya 2015). M. oblonga wood is employed for planking, rough furniture, cabinet work, and canoes and for tea chests (Sarker and Maruyama 2002). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The current paper discusses the diversity, distribution and commercial importance of Indian magnolias. Globally, these species are found in tropical, subtropical and temperate forests of southeastern Asia and tropical America. In India, there are a total of 25 species of Magnolia and most of them are distributed in Northeast India, with highest number in Assam. Of all the species, two (Magnolia gustavii and M. pleiocarpa) are Critically Endangered, one (M. pealiana) Endangered, two (M.manii and M. nilagirica) Vulnerable, nine Least Concern and ten Data Deficient at global level. The highly threatened nature of most of the magnolias species calls for their immediate conservation and protection measures. Members of this genus are known to be rich in a wide variety of biologically active compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, neolignans and terpenoids. Many of the species have been found to possess potent procognitive activity, antioxidative, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, diuretic, anti-ulcer, analgesic, anti-helmintholytic, and anticancer activities. The species have huge economic potential and are used for a number of purposes including ornamental, medicinal, culinary, timber and joinery works.
... M. cathcartii wood is used for planking and for joinery works. M. lanuginosa and M. punduana is a valued timber plant and is used in house construction and making furniture (Mir et al. 2016, Iralu andUpadhaya 2015). M. oblonga wood is employed for planking, rough furniture, cabinet work, and canoes and for tea chests (Sarker and Maruyama 2002). ...
... ). In Japan, the young leaves and flower buds of M. hypoleuca are boiled and eaten as a vegetable, and the old leaves are made into a powder and used as flavor(McMinn and Maino 1981). In Arunachal Pradesh, M. campbellii and M. dolstopa flower buds are grinded, mixed with locally prepared food and eaten. ...
Chapter
The current paper discusses the diversity, distribution and commercial importance of Indian Magnolias. Globally, these species are found in tropical, subtropical and temperate forests of southeastern Asia and tropical America. In India, there are 25 species of Magnolias and most of them are distributed in Northeast India, with highest number in Assam. Of all the species, two (Magnolia gustavii and M. pleiocarpa) are critically endangered, one (M. pealiana) endangered, two (M. manii and M. nilagirica) vulnerable, nine least concern and ten data deficient at global level. The highly threatened nature of most of the magnolias species calls for their immediate conservation and protection measures. Members of this genus are known to be rich in a wide variety of biologically active compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, neolignans and terpenoids. Many of the species have been found to possess potent procognitive activity, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, diuretic, anti-ulcer, analgesic, anti-helmintholytic, and anti-cancer activities. The species have huge economic potential andare used for a number of purposes including ornamental, medicinal, culinary, timber and joinery works.
... Of all the processes, climatic factors are mostly responsible for determining the success of species establishment. It was observed that in M. rabaniana and M. lanuginosa, a majority of the fruits fall before reaching the maturation stage (Mir et al., 2016a(Mir et al., , 2017b. At many times, constant rains soften the pedicle and make the heavy fruits susceptible to gusty winds. ...
Chapter
Northeast India, being a center of plant endemism supports a huge diversity of plant species and provides refuge to a large number of imperiled taxa. Despite its unique floristic richness, the region has now become the victim of human-generated disturbances. Shifting cultivation, habitat destruction and over-exploitation of the plant species has led to a severe decline in the population of various species. The population of many species has declined to such an extent that they could not be recorded in the last several decades despite many floristic explorations. Therefore, the current work was conducted to report and assemble a database for the plant species missing for decades and rediscovered recently. Along with the habitat status and ecology, the conservation implications of the species are also provided. The study would be much helpful in framing effective conservation strategies for such species.
... In order to assess the site characteristics, the disturbance index adopted by Tang et al. (2010aTang et al. ( , b, 2011 and Mir et al. (2015) was followed. Based on the number of human disturbance factors (viz. ...
Article
Full-text available
The population structure and regeneration status of Magnolia punduana Hk. f. & Th., an endemic tree species of northeast India were investigated in fragmented forests in the Jarain Hills and in adjoining areas of Meghalaya state. The population structure was discontinuous in all the fragments with the absence of individuals in higher diameter classes. The number of individuals increased with the size of the fragment patches (p < 0.004). The density of mature trees (≥ 5 cm dbh) was high (24–30 individuals ha⁻¹) in the largest fragment (> 105 ha). The number of seedlings and saplings were also higher in the larger fragments. Human-related disturbances had a negative impact on the species population (p < 0.002). Variation in the population density in different forest patches has been attributed to fragment size, site characteristics and ongoing human disturbances. The restricted distribution of the species coupled with exploitation and habitat destruction underlines the need for its conservation.
... The species was observed to fruit during the month of September and the seeds were soon exposed to dry environmental conditions (October-February). Moisture stress has been identified as one of the important environmental conditions that hampers the natural regeneration and keeps the population of plant species low as also observed in some endemic and threatened species of the region ( Mir et al., 2016;Upadhaya et al., 2017). Moreover, the seeds as well as the seedlings are exposed to forest fire which is quite common during the months of February-March in the area. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aquilaria khasiana Hallier f. is found only in Meghalaya in India and was thought to be eliminated from the state. It has been recollected after a gap of 74 years from Mawsynram area of Meghalaya, northeast India. Detailed description, photographs, notes on distribution and ecology are provided here. Conservation measures for this endemic and rare species are also proposed based on the field observation.
... The disturbance index for each site was assessed following Mir et al. (2016). A score of 0 to 10 was assigned to each anthropogenic factor viz., extraction of -timber, -fuel wood, encroachment upon forest land for settlement, agriculture, mining and quarrying; road construction, NTFP's collection, construction of ponds, grazing and fire. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pao – Upadhaya: Effect of fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbances on floristic composition and structure of subtropical broad leaved humid forest in Meghalaya, northeast India-385-APPLIED ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH 15(4):385-407. Abstract. The subtropical broadleaved humid forest of Meghalaya, northeast India are characterised by small remnant patches. The major threats to the existing patches are anthropogenic activities such as encroachment of forest area, mining, extraction of forest resources, grazing and forest fire. The present study was carried out at Jarain and adjoining areas of Jaintia Hills in Meghalaya, northeast India to identify the current human disturbances and assess the floristic composition and structure of subtropical broad leaved forest along a fragment size gradient. Floristic sampling was carried out by laying 24 plots (20mx100m) across 10 forest fragments covering a sampled area of 4.8 ha. A total of 160 woody species (≥5cm dbh) belonging to 105 genera and 54 families were enumerated from all the studied fragments. The species richness was 69 in Small, 75 in Medium, 76 in Very Large (VL) and 77 in Large (L) fragment classes. In this study, Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to analyse the relationship between area, disturbance and phytosociological attributes. The results showed that the stand density increased (r = 0.71, p=0.01), while basal area decreased with disturbance (r =-0.74, p= 0.01). The density was high in 5-15cm dbh class that gradually declined with the increase in diameter. The basal area was high in >66cm dbh class in Very Large fragments whereas in small patches, the values were higher in 16-25cm dbh classes. The forests fragments under study also have a number of rare, endemic and threatened species. Therefore, it is suggested that the entire landscape be brought under the protected area network due to high species diversity.
Article
Full-text available
In this era of rapid biodiversity decline, creating a checklist of threatened taxa is a prerequisite as it apprises the conservationists about the current status of species, thereby enabling the enforcement of necessary measures to prevent them from extinction. The present study was carried out to develop a comprehensive list of threatened species of Meghalaya using both the global and regional lists viz., International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, Red Data Book of Indian Plants (RDB) and Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP). The analysis revealed the presence of 385 plant taxa belonging to 274 genera and 108 families in the state under various threatened categories. The dominant life form consisted of trees (40.26%), followed by herbs (35.84%), shrubs (13.25%), climbers (5.45%), epiphytes (4.94%), and parasite (0.26%). Fabaceae with 34 species was the largest family and Magnolia with 14 species was the dominant genera. The distribution of the threatened species showed that 24 species are exclusively endemic to Meghalaya and 70 species were restricted to Northeastern India, Indo-Burma or the Eastern Himalaya region. The present study has enabled the compilation of data on threatened plants of Meghalaya spread across literature with an update on their distributional area.
Article
In the state Meghalaya, northeast India, >80% of the forest lands are owned by local communities and managed by traditional institutions. These forests are under severe threats due to a number of human disturbances. The present study was conducted to assess the plant diversity and identify the community forests for priority conservation in Khasi Hills of Meghalaya. Floristic explorations carried out in the 87 forests reveals the presence of 1300 plant species of which 400 are either rare, endemic or threatened. Of the different forest categories, reserve forests had the highest number of species (1190), followed by sacred forests (987 species) and village forests (786 species). Majority of the forests (56) had high-species richness, irreplaceability level (42 forests) and vulnerability level (54). In terms of area, 13.8% (1666.8 ha) fall under low risk while 1855 ha under high risk zone. High risk zone was mostly represented by village forests. An area of 7661.56 ha of community forests falls under high priority category and hence calls for immediate conservation actions. The conservation priority map generated in the present study will help to concentrate the protection strategy to the demarcated and adjoining areas and help conservationists and planners to evolve effective strategies for conservation of the community forests.
Article
Full-text available
In Meghalaya, northeast India, the local people have the tradition of managing forest resources since early ages. The management practice varies and there are forests with high degree of protection, where no extraction (sacred forests) is allowed. There are also forests with moderate- level of protection and -extraction (reserved forests) as well as forests with low level of protection and open extraction (village forests). The present study was conducted to understand the impact of this traditional management system on the level of human disturbance, and on community composition and structure of the forests in Khasi hills of Meghalaya. The result revealed that disturbance index was low, whereas species richness, density and basal cover were significantly high in forests with high degree of protection (sacred forest) than those with low protection (reserved and village forest). Majority of endemic and threatened plant species were restricted to sacred forests as compared to the other forest types. Though these practices have ensured the sustainable use of forest resources by the local people but due to increased human- pressure and -disturbances, more effective conservation strategies need to be undertaken. Therefore, providing alternatives for fuel Received: 28 July 2016 Revised: 1 October 2016 Accepted: 15 December 2016 wood to local people, environmental education, encouraging afforestation and developmental activities involving local communities are recommended.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.