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Abstract

Phthalates are important endocrine disrupting chemicals that have been linked to various adverse human health effects. Phthalates are ubiquitously present in indoor environment and could enter humans. Vinyl or PVC floorings have been recognized as one of important sources of phthalate release to indoor environment including house dust. In the present study, we estimated the migration of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) from the flooring materials into the dust under different heating conditions. For this purpose, a small chamber specifically designed for the present study and a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) were used, and four major types of PVC flooring samples including two UV curing paint coated, an uncoated residential, and a wax-coated commercial type were tested. Migration of DEHP was observed for an uncoated residential type and a wax-coated commercial type flooring. After 14 days of incubation, the levels of DEHP in the dust sample was determined at room temperature on average (standard deviation) at 384 ± 19 and 481 ± 53 μg/g, respectively. In contrast, migration of DINP was not observed. The migration of DEHP was strongly influenced by surface characteristics such as UV curing coating. In the residential flooring coated with UV curing paint, migration of DEHP was not observed at room temperature. But under the heated condition, the release of DEHP was observed in the dust in the FLEC. Migration of DEHP from flooring materials increased when the flooring was heated (50 °C). In Korea, heated flooring system, or ‘ondol’, is very common mode of heating in residential setting, therefore the contribution of PVC flooring to the total indoor DEHP exposure among general population is expected to be greater especially during winter season when the floor is heated.

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... They have been identified in personal care products, food packaging materials, household products, and pharmaceuticals [5][6][7]. High-molecular weight phthalates, such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), and diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP), are commonly used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other rigid polymers used in flexible vinyl products, electronic cables and building materials indoors, including some flooring and wallpapers [8,9]. Exposure to phthalates varies according to the compound, but includes ingestion (e.g., from food packaging), direct exposure from the use of phthalate-containing personal care products, inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal uptake. ...
... We found that the contributions of DEHP and BzBP were inversely related with DiNP and DnOP (Spearman's rank correlation, p < 0.05), reflecting the presence of a mix of DEHP-and BzBP-containing older and DiNP-and DnOP-containing newer PVC building materials [9,51,55]. The prevalence of DEHP and BzBP that have had some use restrictions since 2011 is an example of the long lag time between the enactment of regulatory controls (i.e., limits in use of these phthalates in new children's products) and the elimination of exposure, as also observed for other restricted SVOCs in homes [38,70]. ...
Article
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Background Canadian children are widely exposed to phthalates and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from indoor sources. Both sets of compounds have been implicated in allergic symptoms in children. Objective We characterize concentrations of eight phthalates and 12 PAHs in floor dust from the bedrooms of 79 children enrolled in the Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort (KABC). Method Floor dust was collected from the bedrooms of 79 children who underwent skin prick testing for common allergens after their first birthday. Data were collected on activities, household, and building characteristics via questionnaire. Results Diisononyl phthalate (DiNP) and phenanthrene were the dominant phthalate and PAH with median concentrations of 561 µg/g and 341 ng/g, respectively. Benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP) and chrysene had the highest variations among all tested homes, ranging from 1–95% to 1–99%, respectively. Significance Some phthalates were significantly associated with product and material use such as diethyl phthalate (DEP) with fragranced products and DiNP and DiDP with vinyl materials. Some PAHs were significantly associated with household characteristics, such as benzo[a]pyrene with smoking, and phenanthrene and fluoranthene with the presence of an attached garage. Socioeconomic status (SES) had positive and negative relationships with some concentrations and some explanatory factors. No significant increases in risk of atopy (positive skin prick test) was found as a function of phthalate or PAH dust concentrations.
... This compound is found in plastics used in a wide range of products, including coatings, vinyl flooring and wall covering, toys, kitchen accessories, rain gear, medical devices, blood storage bags, entericcoatings of solid oral drug products, personal care/household products and mother vehicle parts (Earls et al., 2003;Koniecki et al., 2011; National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, NIH/NLM, 2017; Tickner et al., 2001). DEHP is not stable bound to plastics, thus it can migrate into the atmosphere, dust, food, water, or any other product in contact with the container (Jeon et al., 2016;Ventrice et al., 2013). ...
... Humans are constantly exposed to DEHP through dermal contact due to personal care and household products, parenteral exposure due to many medications, drinking and eating food contained in plastic bottles, envelopes and cans covered with epoxy resins; and environmental exposures including dust in the air (Buckley et al., 2019;Jeon et al., 2016;Koniecki et al., 2011; National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine, NIH/NLM, 2017). People in hospitals receiving blood transfusions or intravenous pharmacological treatment are exposed to significant concentrations of DEHP because many of the medical devices are made of PVC plastics (Sampson & de Korte, 2011). ...
Article
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Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a chemical widely distributed in the environment as is extensively used in the plastic industry. DEHP is considered an endocrine disruptor chemical (EDC) and humans are inevitably and unintentionally exposed to this EDC through several sources including food, beverages, cosmetics, medical devices, among others. DEHP exposure has been associated and may be involved in the development of various pathologies; importantly, pregnant women are a particular risk group considering that endocrine alterations during gestation may impact fetal programming leading to the development of several chronic diseases in adulthood. Recent studies have indicated that exposure to DEHP and its metabolite Mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) may impair placental development and function, which in turn would have a negative impact on fetal growth. Studies performed in several trophoblastic and placental models have shown the negative impact of DEHP and MEHP in key processes related to placental development such as implantation, differentiation, invasion and angiogenesis. In addition, many alterations in placental functions like hormone signaling, metabolism, transfer of nutrients, immunomodulation and oxidative stress response have been reported. Moreover, clinical-epidemiological evidence supports the association between DEHP exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes and pathologies. In this review, we aim to summarize for the first time current knowledge about the impact of DEHP and MEHP exposure on placental development and pathophysiology, as well as the mechanisms involved. We also remark the importance of exploring DEHP and MEHP effects in different trophoblast cell populations and discuss new perspectives regarding this topic.
... The pyrogram registered also the decrease in hexanedioic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (DEHA); the hypothesis is that molecules of the plasticiser migrated to the surface, where they were washed away by rain action. Plasticisers migration is, indeed, a known phenomenon occurring in modern paint films [55,56]. These chemical modifications supported the colour variation, induced also by a probable yellowing of the binder. ...
... At the same time, a decrease in plasticisers (DEP, DBP, and DIBP) was observed. It is known that in polymeric films, phthalates can migrate from bulk to the surface [55,56], so even in this case, they could have been progressively washed away during the ageing steps. As a consequence of the plasticisers loss/reduction, the mechanical performance of the paint layer was reduced, and the layer itself became thinner. ...
Article
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Urban art as a shared expression of street art between artists, citizenship and municipalities has always had an important role in the social life and appearance of modern cities. However, the durability of urban and street artworks is susceptible to the degradation processes that the employed commercial paint formulations undergo once outdoors. These are complex mixtures of compounds, differently sensitive to environmental agents according to their chemical nature. Starting from the colorimetric analysis of murals created in 2010, 2011 and 2018 in Reggio Emilia, Italy, documenting their degradation already after a few months, this study aimed at understanding the stability of the most unstable paints used by the artists in these artworks. A multi-analytical approach evaluated the commercial products under the chemical point of view, after natural and accelerated ageing. Additionally, two manufactured anti-UV varnishes were evaluated for their possible use as coatings. The results pinpointed the weaknesses of the selected paints and highlighted how the application of an anti-UV coating might slightly affect the visual aspect of the artwork, though ensuring a greater resistance to the outdoor conditions due to their minor chemical sensitivity to environmental agents.
... One possible explanation for this finding was that phthalates concentrations in settled dust are closely associated with the types of surfaces. Whether the dust is on surfaces with direct contact with pollution sources has an important effect on the phthalates concentrations, which are significantly higher in dust on the surfaces with direct contact with sources [62,63]. And another important difference between Surface 1 and Surface 4 was the loading of the settled dust on the surface. ...
... The settled dust on Surface 4 might have been more favorable for reflecting the influence of temperature because the dusts were "protected" on these surfaces. The DBP and DEHP concentrations in dust increased with increasing temperature, which was similar to the results of other studies [54,63]. The phthalate concentrations in dust were associated with the gas-phase concentrations and K oa values [72]. ...
Article
Phthalate esters (PAEs) are widely used as household and industrial products in residential apartments. Sixteen PAEs in the settled dust from five surfaces in 17 residential apartments in Xi'an, China were investigated from February 2019 to August 2019. A hairbrush and vacuum cleaner were used to collect the dust samples. Four PAEs, namely dimethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), were detected in the dust. DEHP was the most predominant compound in the settled dust (median value of 965.1 μg/g). The total PAEs concentrations in the settled dust on the five different indoor surfaces were significantly different. The highest concentration was found for dust samples on equipment surfaces where dust can easily deposit (median value of 3442.5 μg/g), which was nearly 3 times higher than that from infrequently swept surfaces (median value of 1297.0 μg/g). The PAE concentration in dust from the frequently swept surfaces (median value of 2299.8 μg/g) was significantly higher than that from the infrequently swept surfaces. The composition profile of PAEs in dust from the five surfaces was completely different. Therefore, settled dust on different surfaces should be distinguished when conducting field investigations. In addition, increased concentrations with increasing temperature were found for dust from the infrequently swept surfaces, thereby suggesting that temperature may influence the phthalate concentrations in dust.
... Phthalate esters have been the most widely used plasticizers in numerous commercial and consumer products, such as food packaging materials, medicines, clothing, personal care products, toys, and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring (Guo et al. 2014;Gong et al. 2016;Jia et al. 2017;Jeon et al. 2016;Kim et al. 2020;Wang et al. 2021). Since phthalates are added directly (through non-covalent bonds) to products, they are easily released into the environment and can enter human body via inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral ingestion (Guo et al. 2014;Jia et al. 2017;Kademoglou et al. 2018). ...
... Wang et al. (2015) determined phthalate metabolites in urine from Chinese children and found a positive correlation among MMP, MnBP, MiBP, and MEP with coefficients of 0.53, 0.65, and 0.59, respectively. These studies implied that the Chinese population are simultaneously exposed to certain phthalates via a similar pathway, such as foodstuff, personal care products, dust ingestion and so on (Guo et al. 2014;Jeon et al. 2016;Wang et al. 2021). There was no significant relationship between the levels of phthalates in nails and participant's age, height, and weight, which was most possibly due to the small sample size of this study (n = 50). ...
Article
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Human biomonitoring provides a scientific approach that systematically reveals exposure to phthalates through all possible routes. In this pilot study, fingernail was chosen as a non-destructive biospecimen to assess human exposure to nine phthalates. Concentrations of total phthalates ranged from 17.8 to 176 µg/g (median: 65.4 µg/g). Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di-isobutyl phthalate were the major compounds found in fingernails, accounting for 64.3%, 19.4%, and 12.9% of the total phthalates, respectively. No significant difference in phthalates concentrations was found among genders and age-related distribution (p > 0.05). The concentration of DBP was positively correlated with participant’s body mass index (r = 0.83). Our results suggested that fingernail can be used as a non-invasive biospecimen for the biomonitoring of human exposure to phthalates. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between phthalates or their metabolites in fingernail and other biological samples, such as urine and blood.
... The occurrence and fate of phthalates in the indoor environment depends on several factors including usage, leachability, the volume of indoor air, the exchange rate of air (Fromme et al., 2004), moisture content (Hsu et al., 2017), interior surface/material composition (Jeon et al., 2016), and indoor temperature (Bi et al., 2015;Jeon et al., 2016). For example, the absorbed phthalate concentration in cotton and polyester clothes was found~3 fold higher at 30 C than at 21 C in a test house in Austin, TX (Bi et al., 2015). ...
... The occurrence and fate of phthalates in the indoor environment depends on several factors including usage, leachability, the volume of indoor air, the exchange rate of air (Fromme et al., 2004), moisture content (Hsu et al., 2017), interior surface/material composition (Jeon et al., 2016), and indoor temperature (Bi et al., 2015;Jeon et al., 2016). For example, the absorbed phthalate concentration in cotton and polyester clothes was found~3 fold higher at 30 C than at 21 C in a test house in Austin, TX (Bi et al., 2015). ...
... The occurrence and fate of phthalates in the indoor environment depends on several factors including usage, leachability, the volume of indoor air, the exchange rate of air (Fromme et al., 2004), moisture content (Hsu et al., 2017), interior surface/material composition (Jeon et al., 2016), and indoor temperature (Bi et al., 2015;Jeon et al., 2016). For example, the absorbed phthalate concentration in cotton and polyester clothes was found~3 fold higher at 30 C than at 21 C in a test house in Austin, TX (Bi et al., 2015). ...
... The occurrence and fate of phthalates in the indoor environment depends on several factors including usage, leachability, the volume of indoor air, the exchange rate of air (Fromme et al., 2004), moisture content (Hsu et al., 2017), interior surface/material composition (Jeon et al., 2016), and indoor temperature (Bi et al., 2015;Jeon et al., 2016). For example, the absorbed phthalate concentration in cotton and polyester clothes was found~3 fold higher at 30 C than at 21 C in a test house in Austin, TX (Bi et al., 2015). ...
Conference Paper
The quality of indoor environment has received considerable attention owing to the declining outdoor human activities and the assocd. public health issues. The prolonged exposure of children in childcare facilities or the occupational exposure of adults to indoor environmental triggers can be a culprit of the pathophysiol. of several commonly obsd. idiopathic syndromes. In this study, concns. of potentially toxic plasticizers (phthalates as well as non- phthalates) were investigated in 28 dust samples collected from three different indoor environments across the USA. The mean concns. of non- phthalate plasticizers [acetyl tri- Bu citrate (ATBC) , di- (2- ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) , and di- iso- Bu adipate (DIBA) ] were found at 0.51 to 880 μg /g for the first time in indoor dust samples from childcare facilities, homes, and salons across the USA. The obsd. concns. of these replacement non- phthalate plasticizers were as high as di- (2- ethylhexyl) phthalate, the most frequently detected phthalate plasticizer at highest concn. worldwide, in most of the indoor dust samples. The estd. daily intakes of total phthalates (n=7) by children and toddlers through indoor dust in childcare facilities were 1.6 times higher than the non- phthalate plasticizers (n=3) , whereas estd. daily intake of total non- phthalates for all age groups at homes were 1.9 times higher than the phthalate plasticizers. This study reveals, for the first time, a more elevated (∼3 folds) occupational intake of phthalate and non- phthalate plasticizers through the indoor dust at salons (214 and 285 ng /kg.bw /day, resp.) than at homes in the USA.
... Phthalate plasticizers are widely used to enhance the elasticity and durability of numerous plastic products [1,2]. With increasing volumes of plastic products being produced, the amount of phthalate plasticizers being used is increasing as well [3]. ...
... The exposure through the ingestion of product debris and dermal absorption was estimated with algorithms provided by CEM [23]. Daily dose by ingestion (Daily dose ingestion ) and dermal absorption (Daily dose dermal ) was expressed as Equations (1) and (2), and parameters used in those equations were estimated using Equations (3)-(7). ...
Article
Full-text available
Plasticizers are added to diverse consumer products including children’s products. Owing to their potential for endocrine disruption, the use of phthalate plasticizers is restricted in many children’s products. In this study, exposure to five phthalate esters (dibutylphthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate, and diisononyl phthalate (DINP)) and an alternative (di-ethylhexyl adipate) was assessed by the use of children’s products based on chemical analysis of 3345 products purchased during 2017 and 2019 in Korea. Plasticizers were found above the detection limits in 387 products, and DEHP and DINP were the two most predominantly detected plasticizers. Deterministic and probabilistic estimation of the margin of exposure at a screening level revealed that the use of children’s products might be an important risk factor. However, it is also highly likely that the exposure could be overestimated, because the migration rate was estimated based solely on the content of plasticizers in children’s products. Chemical migration is a key process determining the absorption of plasticizers from products; thus, further refinements in experimental determination or model estimation of the migration rate are required.
... In previous laboratory studies, the dust amount according to the source area was 0.3 mg/cm 2 , 8.9-9.9 mg/cm 2 (Jeon et al., 2016); and 3.5-28 mg/cm 2 (Qian et al., 2019); while the dust amount on the floor according to the area of the actual indoor environment was 0.18 mg/cm2 (Yamazato et al., 1986) and 0.066 ± 0.15 mg/cm 2 (Kawakami et al., 2016). A dust amount per PVC area of 0.3 mg/cm 2 is the most realistic condition in this study. ...
... The DEHP transfer amounts from source to dust determined by previous studies are 0.14 and 2.1 lg/mg (in dust containing 18% of organic carbon) for 4 mol% and 17 mol% DEHP containing polymer at 14 days (Schripp et al., 2010) and 0.38-0.48 lg/mg (8.9-9.9 mg/ cm 2 -PVC of dust; 30% of wood powder) for 22 wt% of DEHP containing PVC at 14 days (Jeon et al., 2016). These values are one and two orders of magnitude lower than those determined in this study. ...
Article
Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) emission to air and transfer to house dust from a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheet were quantified for periods of 1, 3, 7, and 14 days using a passive flux sampler (PFS). Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) test powders class 15 was used as the test house dust in settled weights of 0.3, 1, 3, and 12 mg/cm2. DEHP concentrations in the surface air on the PVC sheet were estimated as 2.6-3.3 μg/m3 according to an emission test without dust. Although DEHP transfer rates from the PVC sheet to the house dust decreased over time, the adsorption did not reach an equilibrium state within 14 days. The transfer rates per dust weight increased with decreasing dust weight on the PVC sheet. The transfer rates per PVC sheet area increased nonlinearly with increasing dust weight on the PVC sheet. DEHP emission from a PVC sheet to air was one to three orders of magnitude lower than DEHP transfer from a PVC sheet to dust. In the case of 0.3 mg/cm2 of settled house dust for 7 days, the emission rates to air were 35, 15, 9.1, 6.4, and 3.8 μg/m2/h for a diffusion distance of 0.90, 1.85, 2.75, 3.80, and 5.75 mm, respectively, and the transfer rate to dust was 5.3 × 102 μg/m2/h (no difference among the five diffusion distances). Compared to residents who clean the floor every day, exposure to DEHP in house dust could be 10 times higher for residents who clean the floor once every two weeks based on the time-weighted average concentrations in house dust.
... The media most relevant to human health are outdoor and indoor air, indoor dust, numerous food items (e.g., dairy, fish, vegetables), articles and consumer products. Further details of key exposure states for DEHP and DnBP can be found in the supplemental materials (Aragon et al., 2012;Bu et al., 2016;Jeon et al., 2016;Ji et al., 2014;Kim et al., 2013;Pei et al., 2013;Rakkestad et al., 2007;Wang et al., 2015b;Xie et al., 2006;Xie et al., 2007;Zhu et al., 2012). ...
Article
Advancements in measurement and modeling capabilities are providing unprecedented access to estimates of chemical exposure and bioactivity. With this influx of new data, there is a need for frameworks that help organize and disseminate information on chemical hazard and exposure in a manner that is accessible and transparent. A case study approach was used to demonstrate integration of the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) and Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) frameworks to support cumulative risk assessment of co-exposure to two phthalate esters that are ubiquitous in the environment and that are associated with disruption of male sexual development in the rat: di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP). A putative AOP was developed to guide selection of an in vitro assay for derivation of bioactivity values for DEHP and DnBP and their metabolites. AEPs for DEHP and DnBP were used to extract key exposure data as inputs for a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict internal metabolite concentrations. These metabolite concentrations were then combined using in vitro-based relative potency factors for comparison with an internal dose metric, resulting in an estimated margin of safety of ~13,000. This case study provides an adaptable workflow for integrating exposure and toxicity data by coupling AEP and AOP frameworks and using in vitro and in silico methodologies for cumulative risk assessment.
... However, adding a screed layer between the concrete slab and glue/flooring interface will act as a buffer and prevent this rise of pH 27,28 . Temperature also affects emissions, for example when room temperature increases or the presence of an in-floor heating system 16,29,30 . This article is protected by copyright. ...
Article
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Degrading 2‐ethylhexyl‐containing PVC floorings (e.g. DEHP‐PVC floorings) and adhesives emit 2‐ethylhexanol (2‐EH) in the indoor air. The danger of floorings degradation comes from exposing occupants to harmful phthalates plasticisers (e.g. DEHP), but not from 2‐EH as such. Since the EU banned the use of phthalates in sensitive applications, the market is shifting to use DEHP‐free and alternative types of plasticisers in PVC products. However, data on emissions from DEHP‐free PVC floorings is scarce. This study aimed at assessing the surface and bulk emissions of two DEHP‐free PVC floorings over three years. The floorings were glued on the screed layer of concrete casts at 75, 85 and 95% RH. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were actively sampled using FLEC (surface emissions) and micro‐chamber/thermal extractor (μ‐CTE, bulk emissions) onto Tenax TA adsorbents and analysed with TD‐GC‐MS. 2‐EH, C9‐alcohols and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) emissions are reported. Emissions at 75 and 85% RH were similar. As expected, the highest emissions occurred at 95% RH. 2‐EH emissions originated from the adhesive. Because the two DEHP‐free floorings tested emitted C9‐alcohols at all tested RH, it makes the detection of flooring degradation harder, particularly if the adhesive used does not emit 2‐EH. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... There exist many other in vivo or in vitro measurements of transdermal uptake reported in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical literature that can be used to test models of uptake from environmental media. This may be especially valuable for exposure to substances present at relatively high concentrations, such as chemicals in paint, 112 PVC flooring, 113,114 or from occupational exposures. 115 Our results also support the use of fugacity instead of fixed absorption dose in transdermal uptake risk assessment. ...
Article
Transdermal uptake models compliment in vitro and in vivo experiments in assessing risk of environmental exposures to semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs). A key parameter for mechanistic models is a chemical driving force for mass transfer from environmental media to human skin. In this research, we measure this driving force in the form of fugacity for chemicals in cosmetic cream and use it to model uptake from cosmetics as a surrogate for condensed environmental media. A simple cosmetic cream, containing no target analytes, was mixed with diethylphthalate (DEP), di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP), and butyl paraben (BP) and diluted to make creams with concentrations ranging from 0.025% to 6%. The fugacity, relative to the pure compound, was measured using solid-phase micro extraction (SPME). We found that the relationship between the concentration and fugacity is highly non-linear. The relative fugacity of the chemicals for a 2% w/w formulation was used in a diffusion-based model to predict transdermal uptake of each chemical and compared with excretion data from a prior human subject study with the same formulation. Dynamic simulations of excretion are generally consistent with the results of the human subject experiment but sensitive to the input parameters, especially the time between cream application and showering.
... Some studies in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait (Albar et al. 2017), Sweden (Bergh et al. 2011;Luongo and Östman 2016), the USA (Subedi et al. 2017), and China (Bu et al. 2016;Guo and Kannan 2011;Kang et al. 2012;Wang et al. 2017;Wang et al. 2014;Zhang et al. 2013) have reported phthalate levels in residences. The occurrence and levels of phthalates in indoor environments depend on several factors, such as usage, indoor temperature (Bi et al. 2015;Jeon et al. 2016), humidity levels (Hsu et al. 2017), and the exchange rate of air (Fromme et al. 2004). So, it is necessary to investigate the levels of phthalates in different indoor environments. ...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the risks associated with phthalate exposure, there are few studies emphasizing preschool children’s exposure to phthalates in residences in Northwest China. In this study, seven phthalates from indoor dust samples were measured in 50 residences in Shihezi, China. Preschool children’s exposure doses via non-dietary intake were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. Risk assessment was conducted by comparing the simulated exposure dose with benchmarks for reproductive toxicity and cancer specified in Proposition 65 of California. The detection frequencies for all selected phthalates were more than 75%, with the exception of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP). Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most principal compound in the dust samples (median = 455 μg/g and 462 μg/g in the bedroom and living room, respectively). The simulation displayed that the median DBP daily intake was 1.5–1.9 μg/day/kg for preschool children in Shihezi, which was considered a high level compared with similar studies around the world. The risk assessment indicated that almost all preschool children face potential reproductive risk due to dibutyl phthalate (DBP) exposure, with medians of hazard index (HI) from 9.6 to 12.4 for all age groups. Therefore, from a children’s health perspective, attention should be paid to reducing indoor phthalate pollution and exposure in this area.
... In Korea, most residential settings have underfloor heating systems, which increase the DEHP emissions from PVC flooring materials. For this reason, DEHP exposure levels in Korea may be higher than those in most other countries that do not use underfloor heating [18]. Moreover, the inhabitants of countries such as Korea with a high consumption of delivered food may consume more food contaminated by DEHP and MnBP, which are often used in plastic food packaging, compared to countries that do not [19]. ...
Article
Background: Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are synthetic chemicals widely used in daily life. This study investigated urinary phthalate and BPA levels in Korean children and their associations with obesity. Methods: A total of 2,351 children aged 3 to 17 years who participated in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2015 to 2017 were included. Urinary dilution was corrected using covariate-adjusted standardization (CAS). We examined the geometric mean (GM) concentrations of urinary phthalate metabolites, including di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) metabolites (mono [2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl] phthalate, mono [2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl] phthalate, and mono [2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl] phthalate [MECPP]), mono-benzyl-phthalate (MBzP), mono (carboxyoctyl) phthalate (MCOP), mono (carboxy-isononyl) phthalate (MCNP), mono (3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, and mono-n-butyl-phthalate (MnBP), and BPA. We also analyzed the odds ratio (OR) for obesity according to the quartiles of each analyte. Results: The urinary GM levels of DEHP metabolites and MnBP were notably higher among Korean children than among American, Canadian, and German children. The CAS-applied GM concentrations of most analytes, except for MBzP, MCOP, and MCNP, were higher in children aged 3 to 5 years than in those aged 6 to 17 years. The OR for obesity in the highest quartile of MECPP was significantly higher than in the lowest quartile after adjusting for covariates. However, the other phthalate metabolites and BPA were not significantly associated with obesity. Conclusion: The concentrations of urinary DEHP metabolites and MnBP were higher in Korean children than in children in Western countries. Urinary MECPP exposure, but not other phthalates or BPA, showed a positive association with obesity in Korean children. Further studies are required to elucidate the causal relationships.
... Like DEHP, they are not covalently bonded to the PVC to which they are mixed. As a result, they are released from the products throughout their life cycle (Bernard et al., 2015;Jeon et al., 2016). Because they are a mixture of isomers, their metabolites are also isomeric mixtures (Silva et al., 2013). ...
Article
Background: Phthalic acid esters are widely used to improve the plasticity of PVC in medical devices (MD). The most famous plasticizer is DEHP, whose use in medical devices has been contested by the European authorities since 2008. Several alternative plasticizers are being considered to replace DEHP, such as DEHT, TOTM, DINP or DINCH, but they are also released from the PVC throughout their life cycle and are metabolized in the same way as DEHP. Objectives: Our study focuses on the in vitro cytotoxicity of two alternative plasticizers (DINCH and DINP) contained in certain medical devices. They are likely to migrate and be transformed in vivo into the primary and secondary metabolites by a metabolism similar to that of DEHP. This preliminary study is the first to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of oxidized metabolites of DINCH and DINP based on the EN ISO 10-993-5 standards documents. Methods: We have studied the complete multi-step organic synthesis of secondary metabolites of DINP and DINCH and have performed cytotoxicity tests on L929 murine cells according to the EN ISO 10993-5 standard design for the biocompatibility of a MD. The tested concentrations of obtained metabolites (0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 mg/mL) covered the range likely to be found for DEHP (total metabolism) in biological fluids coming into direct contact with the MD. The concentrations tested in our study were chosen based on a complete transformation of the plasticizers released after direct contact between a MD and the patient's blood. Results: Only 7-oxo-MMeOCH is cytotoxic at the highest concentration (0.1 mg/mL) after 7 days of exposure, just like 5-oxo-MEHP for the same concentration. By contrast, 7-OH-MMeOP, 7-cx-MMeOP, 7-oxo-MMeOP, 7-OH-MMeOCH and 7-cx-MMeOCH were not found to be cytotoxic. Conclusion: The known concentrations of these secondary metabolites in urinary samples are in the μg/L range, i.e. about 100-1000 times lower than the concentrations tested in this study. Cytotoxicity is known to be dose-dependent but it is not always the case for endocrine perturbations and the secondary metabolites could induce endocrine perturbations at very low doses.
... For phthalates accumulated in settled dust, a linear partitioning behavior between the dust-and the gas-phase was considered. Recent studies have illustrated that a considerable percentage of phthalates could transfer from the source to dust if the dust is directly settled on the source surfaces [59][60][61], e.g., the PVC 9 of 12 flooring and floor mats in our measurements. Given that oral ingestion contributed a large portion of children's DEHP exposure indoors, the ignorance of direct transfer from source to dust could lead to considerable underestimation of exposure estimates. ...
Article
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Phthalates are typical chemical pollutants in kindergarten classrooms since numerous artificial products (e.g., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floorings, soft polymers and plastic toys) that might contain phthalates are widely distributed in kindergarten classrooms. Although Chinese preschool children spend a considerable amount of their waking hours (>8 h/day) in kindergartens, phthalate exposure in such indoor environment has not been given much attention. In this study, the mass fractions of six phthalates in twenty-six artificial products (fifteen flat decoration materials and eleven plastic toys) commonly found in Chinese kindergarten classrooms were measured. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the most predominant compound in all materials. The emission characteristics of the DEHP from these materials were further investigated. The measured emission characteristics were used for predicting multi-phase DEHP concentrations in kindergarten classrooms by applying a mass transfer model. The modeled concentrations were comparable with those measured in the real environment, indicating that these products might be the major sources of DEHP in Chinese kindergarten classrooms. Preschool children’s exposure to DEHP was found to be 0.42 μg/kg/day in kindergartens under baseline conditions, accounting for 18% of the total exposure to DEHP in Chinese indoor environments.
... The SVOCs and dust interaction have received considerable attention as well. Most of the research has been focused on phthalate and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (Clausen et al., 2004;Schripp et al., 2010;Rauert et al., 2014Rauert et al., , 2016Jeon et al., 2016;Qian et al., 2019;Kuribara et al., 2019;Shinohara and Uchino, 2020). Liagkouridis et al. (2017) and Tokumura et al. (2019) have examined the kinetics of TCPP and TDCPP migration from different sources to dust. ...
Article
Dust serves as a strong sink for indoor pollutants, such as organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). OPFRs are semivolatile chemicals that are slow in emissions but have long-term effects in indoor environments. This research studied the emission, sorption, and migration of OPFRs tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, from different sources to settled dust on OPFR source surfaces and OPFR-free surfaces. Four sink effect tests and six dust-source migration tests, including direct contact and sorption tests were conducted in 53L stainless steel small chambers at 23°C and 50% relative humidity. OPFR emission concentrations, and sorption and migration rates were determined. The dust-air and dust-material partition coefficients were estimated based on the experimental data and compared with those from the literature obtained by empirical equations. They are in the range of 1.4×10⁷ to 2.6×10⁸ (dimensionless) for the dust-air equilibrium partition coefficients and 2.38×10⁻³ to 0.8 (dimensionless) for the dust-material equilibrium partition coefficients. It was observed that the dust with less organic content and smaller size tended to absorb more OPFRs, but different dust did not significantly affect OPFRs emission from the same source to the chamber air. The dust-air partition favored the less volatile OPFRs in the house dust, whereas the emission from the source favored the volatile chemicals. Volatility of the chemicals had much less effect on dust-source partitioning than on dust-air partitioning. The results from this work improve our understating of the fate and mass transfer mechanisms between OPFRs sources, indoor air, surface, and dust.
... A large number of studies have investigated PAEs in indoor dust (Bornehag et al., 2005;Hwang et al., 2008;Orecchio et al., 2013;Zhang et al., 2013;Ait Bamai et al., 2014;Jeon et al., 2016;Albar et al., 2017;Larsson et al., 2017;Subedi et al., 2017), and human incidences of PAEs from indoor contamination have been reported (Pei et al., 2013;Tran et al., 2016;Albar et al., 2017). However, while indoor contamination can be controlled or managed by inhabitants, PAE street dust exposure is less easily controlled (Lan et al., 2012;Skrbic et al., 2016). ...
Article
Exposure to phthalate esters (PAEs) poses health risks to humans. Much research has been performed evaluating PAE levels in foodstuffs, river sediment and drinking water, but little attention has been paid to their presence in urban outdoor environments where human activities are highly intense. Here we evaluated PAE presence and distribution in street dust in Kaohsiung, the most industrialized city in Taiwan. Our results showed that PAEs were ubiquitous in fifty-two street-dust samples (levels of total PAEs 5.4-989.2 mg kg-1). Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the most abundant congener observed and made up 85.0%, 79.7%, and 97.2% of the total PAEs found in industrial, residential and commercial areas, respectively. PAE levels in street dust in commercial areas (night markets) were significantly higher, suggesting a higher risk of contamination on people present in these areas (H value > χU2). In residential and commercial areas, the higher the intensity of human activity, the higher the PAE content observed. PAE content decreased progressively from the center to the outskirts of the Houjing night market, suggesting that the increased human and consumer activities inside this commercial hotspot were the main PAE source in street dust. Children had higher estimated daily intakes (DIs) than adults and dermal absorption contributed more to these levels than oral ingestion. Although all calculated DIs were below referenced danger thresholds, street dust PAEs in the area should remain an environmental concern especially since night markets play an important role in Taiwanese/Asian culture and economy. Contrary to other studies, PAEs in this study were found less related to industrial manufacturing activities but highly linked to commercial activities. These findings are relevant for future pollution prevention efforts dedicated to mitigating public exposure to PAEs. Main findings: PAE levels in street dust are related to commercial activities. Night markets, an important commercial activity in Taiwan, were found to contribute considerably to PAE contamination in street dust.
... Hence, indoor dust can be a source of indoor environmental pollutants, such as phthalates (Butte and Heinzow 2002). The phthalates incidence as well as their fate in indoor space are associated with many factors, like application, leachability, the indoor air volume, the air-exchange rate of humidity, interior surface/material content, and indoor temperature (Bi et al. 2015;Jeon et al. 2016;Hsu et al. 2017;Subedi et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Individuals spend a lot of time indoors; thus they are generally exposed to phthalates used in consumer products. Therefore, those exposed to phthalates as indoor contaminants are at high risks. The present study was conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic hazard of phthalate esters (PAEs), like dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, di(nbutyl) phthalate, butyl benzyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in the dust obtained from 21 schools in Tehran, in 2019. A total of 63 indoor dust specimens were obtained by a vacuum cleaner. After transferring dust samples to the laboratory, 100 mg of each sample was centrifuged and mixed with 20 ml acetone and kept through a night and ultrasonicated within 30 min. Eventually, PAEs’ contents were measured via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Based on the findings, median concentrations of DMP, DEP, DnBP, BBP, DEHP, and DnOP were 0.90, 0.10, 6.0, 0.20, 118.30, and 4.10 mg kg−1 respectively. Moreover, the overall average daily exposure doses (ADD) of phthalate esters via dust ingestion, skin contact, and inhalation were 1.56E-03, 1.70E-06, and 1.56E-07 mg kg−1 day−1, respectively, and the lifetime average daily exposure doses (LADD) were 1.83E-04, 2.34E-08, and 2.46E-08 mg kg−1 day−1, respectively; thus ingestion of dust particles was found to be the main pathway of exposure to phthalate for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks. Although based on the results, the studied samples were below the US Environmental Protection Agency threshold of 1.00E-06, due to the disadvantages of phthalates in human safety, these kinds of investigations are helpful in understanding the main ways of exposure to PAEs and providing a science-based framework for the future attempts for mitigating the PAEs indoor emissions.
... Although the kinds and concentrations of PAEs in dust differed house by house, they were found to be related to home characteristics and use of customer products. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) flooring, found to be associated with PAEs in dust (Bi et al. 2015;Bornehag et al. 2005;Carlstedt et al. 2013;Just et al. 2015), has been considered a significant contributor of PAEs, which was evidenced by a finding that the surface temperature could influence the migration of PAEs into dust (Jeon et al. 2016). Other than bare flooring, carpeting was also found to be associated with PAEs in dust (Bi et al. 2018), indicating the extensive use of PAEs in flooring materials. ...
Article
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Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) commonly used as plasticizers are distributed ubiquitously in the living environment. We conducted a field study to examine the associations between PAE residue in dust and home characteristics/living habits in 47 rural homes in Taiwan. A questionnaire regarding home characteristics/living habits and composite sampling of house dust were conducted in each participating home. Five PAEs were selected for analysis on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with the limits of quantification being 0.5 ng/g or lower. Uni- and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed for examining the associations. The five PAEs were prevalently detected from the samples, and the concentrations were below 1000 ng/g; di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was the most frequently detected PAE (85%), whereas di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) appeared to the most abundant congener with the maximum concentration of 807.65 ng/g. Floor cleaning frequency and use of detergents for floor cleaning were significantly associated with DEHP in dust (P < 0.05), suggesting additives of plasticizers in detergent products. The factors of plastic wraps in storage and use of disposable cups were both significantly related to DiBP (P < 0.01), which could be extensively used in food packaging products. We confirmed that several home characteristics/living habits were related to certain PAE residue in dust.
... It is reported that PVC flooring is one of major sources of phthalates in indoor dust [49]. In Korea, PVC flooring is common in most residential or commercial buildings [50]. ...
Article
We examined the levels of brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) including polybrominateddiphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and phthalates in indoor dusts in residential houses in Korea, and their distribution patterns depending on building characteristics. Mean concentrations of phthalate esters (1,825 μg g⁻¹) were significantly higher than that of BFRs (PBDE: 1,332 ng g⁻¹, HBCDs: 459 ng g⁻¹, and TBBPA: 213 ng g⁻¹), indicating more frequent use of phthalate-containing products such as PVC flooring in the Korean houses. PVC flooring house was associated with higher concentrations of DEHP (p = 0.001) and BBP (p = 0.012), indicating that exposure to phthalate was higher in the PVC flooring house. Building age was significantly related with levels of PBDEs especially BDE-47 (p = 0.062), BDE-203 (p = 0.007), DEHP (p = 0.004), and BBP (p = 0.070), respectively, indicating that older buildings can produce higher amounts of PBDEs and phthalates. Our study can provide important information on the sources of BFRs and phthalates in residential houses in Korea.
... The temperature dependence of the SVOC concentration in settled dust varied in different measurements. Jeon and colleagues measured the 3-day concentration of SVOCs in settled dust in contact with the source material in a Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC) (Jeon et al., 2016). The concentration of DEHP in settled dust increased by a factor of 40 as the temperature increased from 25 to 50 C. ...
Article
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in indoor environments can partition among the gas phase, airborne particles, settled dust, and available surfaces. The mass transfer parameters of SVOCs, such as the mass transfer coefficient and the partition coefficient, are influenced by indoor environmental factors. Subsequently, indoor SVOC concentrations and thus occupant exposure can vary depending on environmental factors. In this review, the influence of six environmental factors, i.e., indoor temperature, humidity, ventilation, airborne particle concentration, source loading factor, and reactive chemistry, on the mass transfer parameters and indoor concentrations of SVOCs was analyzed and tentatively quantified. The results show that all mass transfer parameters vary depending on environmental factors. These variations are mostly characterized by empirical equations, particularly for humidity. Theoretical calculations of these parameters based on mass transfer mechanisms are available only for the emission of SVOCs from source surfaces when airborne particles are not present. All mass transfer parameters depend on the temperature. Humidity influences the partition of SVOCs among different phases and is associated with phthalate hydrolysis. Ventilation has a combined effect with the airborne particle concentration on SVOC emission and their mass transfer among different phases. Indoor chemical reactions can produce or eliminate SVOCs slowly. To better model the dynamic SVOC concentration indoors, the present review suggests studying the combined effect of environmental factors in real indoor environments. Moreover, interactions between indoor environmental factors and human activities and their influence on SVOC mass transfer processes should be considered.
... 2,3 High molecular weight phthalates, most notably di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), have been extensively used in many applications such as flooring and food packaging. 4,5 Due to their widespread use in huge amounts, phthalates have been detected in various environmental samples and biological specimens worldwide. 6−8 Moreover, several phthalates such as DEHP and DnBP have been demonstrated for toxicological potentials in numerous experimental studies. ...
Article
A mechanistic model that considers particle dynamics and their effects on surface emissions and sorptions was developed to predict the fate and transport of phthalates in indoor environments. A controlled case study was conducted in a test house to evaluate the model. The model‐predicted evolving concentrations of benzyl butyl phthalate in indoor air and settled dust and on interior surfaces are in good agreement with measurements. Sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter uncertainties on model predictions. The model was then applied to a typical residential environment to investigate the fate of di‐2‐ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) and the factors that affect its transport. The predicted steady‐state DEHP concentrations were 0.14 μg/m3 in indoor air and ranged from 80–46000 μg/g in settled dust on various surfaces, which are generally consistent with the measurements of previous studies in homes in different countries. An increase in the mass concentration of indoor particles may significantly enhance DEHP emission and its concentrations in air and on surfaces, whereas increasing ventilation has only a limited effect in reducing DEHP in indoor air. The influence of cleaning activities on reducing DEHP concentration in indoor air and on interior surfaces was quantified, and the results showed that DEHP exposure can be reduced by frequent and effective cleaning activities and the removal of existing sources, although it may take a relatively long period of time for the levels to drop significantly. Finally, the model was adjusted to identify the relative contribution of gaseous sorption and particulate‐bound deposition to the overall uptake of semi‐volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) by indoor surfaces as functions of time and the octanol–air partition coefficients (Koa) of the chemical. Overall, the model clarifies the mechanisms that govern the emission of phthalates and the subsequent interactions among air, suspended particles, settled dust, and interior surfaces. This model can be easily extended to incorporate additional indoor source materials/products, sorption surfaces, particle sources, and room spaces. It can also be modified to predict the fate and transport of other SVOCs, such as phthalate‐alternative plasticizers, flame retardants, and biocides, and serves to improve our understanding of human exposure to SVOCs in indoor environments.
Article
The gas-phase concentration at the material surface (y0) is pointed out in the literature as a key parameter to describe semivolatile organic compound (SVOC) emissions from materials. This is an important input data in predictive models of SVOC behavior indoors and risk exposure assessment. However, most of the existing measurement methods consist of determining emission rates and not y0 and none allow on-site sampling. Hence, a new passive sampler was developed. It consists of a glass cell that is simply placed on the material surface until reaching equilibrium between material and air; y0 is then determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling and GC-MS analysis. The limits of detection are at the μg/m3 level and relative standard deviations (RSD) below 10%. A variation of 11% between two sets of experiments involving different cell volumes confirmed the y0 measurement. In addition, due to the ability of SVOCs to be sorbed on surfaces, the cell wall/air partition was assessed by determining the inner cell surface concentration of SVOCs, which is the concentration of SVOCs adsorbed on the glass, and the cell surface/air partition coefficient (Kglass). The recovery yields of the SVOCs sorbed on the cell walls are strongly compound-dependent and comprise between 2 and 93%. The Kglass coefficients are found to be lower than the stainless steel/air partition coefficient (Kss), showing that glass is suitable for the SVOC sampling. This innovative tool opens up promising perspectives in terms of identification of SVOC sources and quantification of their emissions indoors, and would significantly contribute to human exposure assessment. Open image in new windowGraphical AbstractPassive sampling for the determination of SVOCs concentration at the material/air interface
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While the production and new use of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) mostly ceased after being listed as a persistent organic pollutant under the Stockholm Convention in 2013, its emission from treated products in use to indoor environments still deserves attention. To examine the transfer of HBCD diastereomers to dust on the surface of flame-retarded curtains and to better characterize the potential of treated fabrics to be sources of HBCD in dust, we carried out a series of 196-day experiments using two types of curtains and attached dusts. Concurrently, the physicochemical properties (vapor pressure, water solubility, and octanol-water partition coefficient) of the HBCD diastereomers were measured. HBCD diastereomers migrated from curtains to dust with half-saturation times of about 20-50 days. By day 196, mean HBCD concentrations in dust had reached 13-290 μg/g, depending on the types of curtains and dusts. The composition of HBCD, dominated by γ-HBCD in the curtains, was dominated by α-HBCD in the post-experiment dusts, probably because of the higher vapor pressure of α-HBCD compared to γ-HBCD. The initial HBCD contents of the two curtains were comparable, but the concentrations and profiles of HBCD diastereomers in the post-experiment dusts differed markedly, probably because differences between the texture and/or surface finishing of the treated fabrics affected HBCD transfer to the attached dust.
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Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals is suggested to be responsible for the development or progression of uterine fibroids. However, little is known about risks related to emerging chemicals, such as organophosphate esters (OPEs) and alternative plasticizers (APs). A case-control study was conducted to investigate whether exposures to OPEs, APs, and phthalates, were associated with uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age. For this purpose, the cases (n = 32) and the matching controls (n = 79) were chosen based on the results of gynecologic ultrasonography among premenopausal adult women in Korea and measured for metabolites of several OPEs, APs, and major phthalates. Logistic regression models were employed to assess the associations between chemical exposure and disease status. Factor analysis was conducted for multiple chemical exposure assessments as a secondary analysis. Among OPE metabolites, diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), 2-ethylhexyl phenyl phosphate (EHPHP), and 1-hydroxy-2-propyl bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCIPHIPP) were detected in >80% of the subjects. Among APs, metabolites of di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) and di(2-propylheptyl) phthalate (DPrHpP) were detected in >75% of the urine samples. The odds ratios (ORs) of uterine fibroids were significantly higher among the women with higher exposures to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), di(2-ethylhexyl) terephthalate (DEHTP), DPrHpP, and di-(iso-nonyl)-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylate (DINCH). In addition, urinary concentrations of mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), a sum of five di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites (∑5DEHP), and mono(4-methyl-7-hydroxyoctyl) phthalate (OH-MINP) were significantly higher in the cases. In factor analysis, a factor heavily loaded with DPrHpP and DEHP was significantly associated with uterine fibroids, supporting the observation from the single chemical regression model. We found for the first time that several metabolites of OPEs and APs are associated with increased risks of uterine fibroids among pre-menopausal women. Further epidemiological and mechanistic studies are warranted to validate the associations observed in the present study.
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Lubrication is one of the most important parameters in unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) processing apart from the PVC resin and processing equipment. Lubricants are used in specific ratios to ensure effective fusion of PVC particles. The exact mechanism on how these lubricants interact is not yet fully understood. A widely accepted theory is the interaction mechanism proposed by Rabinovic et al. where lubricants are said to act as surfactants and slip agents. In this study a method for tracking lubricants, by simulating the extrusion process within a single screw extruder, was proposed. A three stage fusion simulation consisted of the feeding zone (stage 1), the compression zone (stage 2) and the metering zone (stage 3). The association interactions between the individual components of a typical uPVC formulation were followed throughout the three stages. External polar and nonpolar lubricants in combination with an internal lubricant was studied. Lubricants were successfully tracked using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). In conclusion it was found that the use of an internal lubricant promotes dispersion of external lubrication towards PVC. It was also found that there is a competition between the internal lubricant and polar external lubricant.
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Phthalates are known endocrine disruptors (EDs) and are associated with potential diseases, such as obesity and diabetes. In 2002, the plasticizer 1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester (DINCH) was introduced as an alternative to phthalates in the European market. The objective of this study was to evaluate the total exposure to phthalate and DINCH metabolites from EXHES Tarragona, Spain cohort of pregnant women. On the one hand, the analytical determination of phthalate and DINCH metabolites in urine was carried out. On the other hand, the reconstructed exposure was calculated for phthalates and DINCH using their metabolites concentration measured in the urine. Thirteen different phthalate metabolites and two metabolites of DINCH were measured and detected in almost all pregnant women's urine samples (n = 60). There were significant correlations between metabolites of the same parent compounds, and also between DEHP and MBzP metabolites, DiNP and BBZP metabolites, and DEHP and DiNP metabolites respectively. The exposure of pregnant women to phthalate and DINCH parent compounds were also back calculated using the levels of each metabolite found in pregnant women urine (reconstructed exposure). Besides, to demonstrate the utility of this approach, the physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to predict the cumulative amount of MEHP (a principal metabolite of DEHP in urine). To proceed with that, DEHP reconstructed exposure and estimated exposure from the same cohort (previously studied by the same authors) were simulated using the PBPK model. Results showed that the reconstructed-PBPK simulation was closer to the 24 h biomonitoring data than the estimated PBPK-simulation., This clearly shows that the combination of reconstructed exposure with the PBPK model is a good tool to predict chemicals exposure. However, some discrepancies between simulated and biomonitored values were found. This can be associated with other sources that contribute to the total exposure and emphasises the need to consider multi-routes exposure for the widely distributed chemicals like phthalates and DINCH.
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As a kind of polymer material additive, phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are widely used in food industry. However, PAEs are environmental endocrine disruptors with reproductive toxicity and teratogenic carcinogenicity, which are difficult to be degraded in the natural environment. In this paper, gas chromatography‐mass spectrometer (GC‐MS) methods for PAEs in polyethylene wrap film were optimized. For diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) that were mainly detected, the method had a good linearity in 1 to 500 ng/g. Then, we confirmed that the migration of DIBP and DBP from polyethylene wrap film increased with time and temperature. It is found that the migration law in different food simulations well followed the migration dynamics first‐level model. The rate constant K 1 and initial release rate V 0 are inversely proportional to the polarity of the simulated liquid. We hope that this study can serve as a valuable reference for further research on the migration of food packing materials. Practical Application In this paper, we present a simple example of applying migration model to evaluate the migration behaviors of PAEs in food packaging materials along with their hazardous properties. It can serve as a valuable reference for further research on the migration of food packing materials.
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Phthalate and alternative plasticizers are semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and among the most abundant indoor pollutants. Although ingestion of dust is one of the major exposure pathways to them, migration knowledge from source products to indoor dust is still limited. Systematic chamber measurements were conducted to investigate the direct transfer of these SVOCs between source products and dust in contact with the source. Substantial direct source-to-dust transfer of SVOCs was observed for all tests. The concentration of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in dust was 12 times higher than the pre-experimental level after only two days of source-dust contact. A mechanistic model was developed to predict the direct transfer process, and a reasonable agreement between model predictions and measurements was achieved. The octanol/air partition coefficient (Koa) of SVOCs, the emission parameter of the source product (y0), and the characteristics of the dust layer (i.e., porosity and thickness) control the transfer, affecting the SVOC concentration in dust, the kinetics of direct transfer, or both. Dust mass loading has a significant influence on the transfer, while relative humidity only has a limited effect. The findings suggest that minimizing the use of SVOC-containing products and house vacuuming are effective intervention strategies to reduce young children's exposure to SVOCs.
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Healthy and comfortable indoor environment has attracted attentions by researchers as people spend majority of time inside enclosed spaces. Details regarding hazardous chemicals emanated from those are not systemically investigated and managed despite the significance of building materials that consists in indoor space. Furthermore, it is well known that specific materials are believed to have lessen or have negative health effect. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the health impact caused by building material and relative hazardous chemicals. In this study, analysis of literature and standards on hazardous chemicals within the field of indoor environment and related health outcomes that focuses on building materials was conducted. Moreover, preliminary in vivo test on small scale animals follows thereafter in order to prove the existence of link between biomarker and building materials e.g. dermatology. It was found that building materials had an impact on Atopic Dermatitis (AD) where 10% and 20% of diatomite board showed a positive impact compared to gypsum board, which showed a negative impact. The results were developed as a framework for networking building materials, relevant chemical elements and potential biomarker indicating positive or negative biological impact. Accumulated data on biomarker based on epidemiological surveillance and in vivo tests will contribute to building a repository to guide potential harmfulness and healing impact of building materials.
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Proper placental development and function relies on hormone receptors and signaling pathways that make the placenta susceptible to disruption by endocrine disrupting chemicals, such as phthalates. Here, we review relevant research on the associations between phthalate exposures and dysfunctions of the development and function of the placenta, including morphology, physiology, and genetic and epigenetic effects. This review covers in vitro studies, in vivo studies in mammals, and studies in humans. We also discuss important gaps in the literature. Overall, the evidence indicates that toxicity to the placental and maternal-fetal interface is associated with exposure to phthalates. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the mechanisms through which phthalates act in the placenta as well as additional human studies that assess placental disruption through pregnancy with larger sample sizes.
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Phthalates (PAEs) are pervasive in indoor environments. In this study, two migration pathways of di-n-octyl phthalate (DNOP) from a source to dust were investigated using microchambers in a thermostatic incubator: (1) mass transfer through direct contact with source surfaces; (2) mass transfer through air. A 20-day emission experiment with settled dust was performed at 30 °C. Significantly higher concentrations were observed in dust that was in direct contact than in dust that was not, which indicated that direct contact enhanced the sorption of the dust on DNOP. The direct contact accounted for 38% of the migration of the DNOP in the dust. In addition, the temperature and dust loading and diffusion distance were considered. The results suggested that the temperature did not considerably influence the difference between source and non-source surface; however, the difference increased with an increase in dust loading. These results can help understand the mass transfer mechanism of PAEs to implement effective control measures and reduce the human exposure to PAEs in indoor environments.
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Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is an environmental endocrine disruptor that accumulates in organisms in various ways and induces male reproductive system disorders. In this study, we established a testicular injury model by gavage with different concentrations of DEHP. The testes were then collected for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), and the results were analyzed by bioinformatics and verified by experiments. Our research results show that different concentrations of DEHP interfere with testicular development differently. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) generated sixteen modules and identified the turquoise module as key. Then, estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), filamin A (Flna) and Furin were identified as hub genes. qPCR and immunohistochemistry results revealed that all three hub genes were upregulated. We detected the locations of these genes by immunohistochemistry. ESR1 was mainly located in Leydig cells; Flna immunostaining is observed in the Leydig and some germ cells and Furin staining was seen in almost all types of testicular cells. Furthermore, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses showed enrichment mainly in MAPK signaling pathways, p53 signaling pathways, HIF-1 signaling pathways, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, apoptosis, the cell cycle, RNA degradation, etc. This is the first study using WGCNA to investigate the mechanism of DEHP-induced injury in the prepubertal testis, providing new research angles to further understand the mechanism of DEHP-induced injury in the prepubertal testis.
Thesis
En chirurgie cardiaque, de nombreux dispositifs médicaux (DM) plastifiés en polychlorure de vinyle (PVC) sont utilisés chaque jour. Pendant de nombreuses années, le DEHP a été le plastifiant le plus utilisé dans les DM. N’étant pas lié de manière covalente à la matrice de PVC, il est susceptible de migrer au contact des médicaments perfusés, du sang ou autres fluides biologiques et expose le patient. Une fois dans l’organisme, le DEHP s’hydrolyse en métabolite primaire, puis il est oxydé en métabolites secondaires. Ces composés se sont révélés toxiques au travers de nombreuses études menées chez l’animal et chez l’homme. Le risque du DEHP pour la santé humaine a été clairement établi, d’où son classement CMR1B. Dans le domaine des DM, son usage est restreint par le règlement européen 2017/745 qui limite son utilisation à des teneurs maximales de 0,1% (masse de plastifiant/masse de matière plastifiée) à moins d’en justifier l’intérêt et d’en mentionner la présence sur l’étiquetage du DM. La restriction d’utilisation du DEHP dans les DM a nécessité le développement d’alternatives comme le DINP, le DINCH, le TOTM, le DEHT, le DEHA et l’ATBC dont le risque lié à l’exposition via les DM a été peu étudié avant leur introduction dans l’industrie biomédicale. Le projet ARMED® s’est inscrit dans une démarche de sécurisation de l’utilisation des DM en évaluant le risque lié à l’exposition des patients à ces plastifiants alternatifs au DEHP (DEHA, DEHT, DINCH, DINP et TOTM) et à celle de leurs métabolites. Notre travail a contribué à cette démarche à deux niveaux : ➢En réalisant la synthèse des métabolites primaires et secondaires des plastifiants alternatifs au DEHP et en évaluant leur cytotoxicité sur des cellules murines L929 selon la norme EN 10993-5 préconisée pour étudier la biocompatibilité des DM. ➢En évaluant le niveau d’exposition des patients hospitalisés en chirurgie cardiaque aux plastifiants relargués par les DM. La synthèse des métabolites primaires du DEHT, du DEHA, du DINP, du DINCH et du TOTM notamment le MEHT, MEHA, MINP, MMeOP, MINCH, MeOCH et MOTM a été réalisée. Le DINP, le DINCH et le DEHP sont cytotoxiques (à 0,1 mg/mL pendant les 7 jours de contact), tandis que leurs métabolites primaires MINCH, MeOCH et MINP sont plus cytotoxiques à la même concentration. Seul le MMeOP n’a pas démontré de cytotoxicité aux concentrations étudiées. Le TOTM et un de ses métabolites primaires, le MEHTM, ne sont pas cytotoxiques à ces concentrations. Le DEHA et le DEHT ne démontrent pas de cytotoxicité alors que leur métabolite primaire, le MEHA et le MEHT sont cytotoxiques à 0,05 mg/mL. Cette étude de toxicité nécessitera toutefois complétée par des études sur des lignées cellulaires spécifiques d’organes. Nous avons également entrepris la synthèse des métabolites secondaires du DINCH et du DINP, et la synthèse des métabolites secondaires du DEHP. Parmi les 9 métabolites secondaires synthétisées, seul le 5-oxo-MEHP, métabolite du DEHP et le 7-oxo-MMeOCH, métabolite du DINCH sont cytotoxiques à 0,1 mg/mL. Ces résultats sont rassurants vis-à-vis de l’utilisation de DM de perfusion ou de nutrition plastifiés avec du DINCH ou du DINP. Dans le cas d’une d’utilisation en circulation extracorporelle (CEC), le risque est différent car les concentrations en métabolites primaires retrouvées dans le sang des patients au contact direct des lignes de CEC peuvent atteindre les valeurs cytotoxiques. Dans le cadre d’un essai clinique, les doses d’exposition (ou apport journalier, AJ, en mg / j) à ces différents plastifiants ont été estimées pour chaque patient avec un modèle mathématique établi d’après la loi de Fick. L’AJ en DEHP via les DM, est particulièrement élevé lors du premier jour de suivi des patients. Ceci est lié à l’exposition via les DM de CEC, acte médical réalisé chez plus de 90% des patients opérés le premier jour. (...)
Article
Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), classified as a reproductive toxicant, is a ubiquitous pollutant in foodstuffs, dust, and commercial products. In this study, to provide a useful cross-check on the accuracy of the exposure assessment, the estimated daily intake of DEHP was compared using reverse dosimetry with a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model and a scenario-based probabilistic estimation model for six subpopulations in Korea. For reverse dosimetry analysis, the concentrations of urinary DEHP metabolites, namely mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), from three human biomonitoring program datasets were used. For the scenario-based model, we evaluated the various exposure sources of DEHP, including diet, air, indoor dust, soil, and personal care products (PCPs), and also determined its levels based on the literature review and measurements of indoor dust. The DEHP exposure doses using both exposure assessment approaches were similar in all cases, except for the 95th percentile exposure doses in toddlers (1–2 years) and young children (3–6 years). The PBPK-reverse dosimetry estimated daily intakes at the 95th percentile ranged between 22.53 and 29.90 μg/kg/day for toddlers and young children. These exceeded the reference dose (RfD) of 20 μg/kg bw/day of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the increased relative liver weight. Although, food was considered the primary source of DEHP, contributing to a total exposure of 50.8–75.1%, the effect of exposure to indoor dust should not be overlooked. The occurrence of high levels of DEHP in indoor dust collected from Korean homes suggests the use of a wide variety of consumer products containing DEHP. Furthermore, more attention should be paid to the high exposure levels of DEHP, especially in young children. Therefore, it is necessary to perform continuous monitoring of the indoor dust, consumer products, and the body burden of children.
Article
Water damage and moisture in buildings may become more prevalent due to the increasing frequency of extreme precipitation and flooding events resulting from climate change. However, the effects of moisture levels on phthalate emissions from building materials are still underreported. This study aims to evaluate the effect of moisture content (MC) on the level of di-(2ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) emitted from plastic wallpaper (0.22 wt% DEHP) within 15 days in a closed chamber. A scenario of short-term exposure to DEHP in buildings suffering from water damage was simulated. Experiments, controlled at 100% relative humidity (RH) of air and 28 °C, were conducted under the following three conditions: (I) without wallpaper (control chamber), (II) dry wallpaper (MC at 3.57%) and (III) damp wallpaper (MC at 52.31%). Air and dust samples were collected at the elapsed time of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 13 and 15 days, and the wipe sample was collected on the last day. Higher DEHP concentrations were found to be emitted into the air and adsorbed on the dust for wallpapers with higher MC%. DEHP levels in the air exhibited an increasing trend with the length of the experiment. Overall, it was found that approximately 35.31% more total DEHP mass was released into the air, dust and wipe samples from damp wallpapers compared to dry wallpapers. It is concluded that DEHP emissions from plastic materials are affected by the inner moisture percentage.
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Background Potential associations between oral health and respiratory disease, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), have been suggested in several studies. Among the indicators reflecting oral health, the number of natural teeth is an integrated and simple index to assess in the clinic. In this study, we examined the relationship between the number of natural teeth and airflow obstruction, which is a central feature of COPD. Methods A total of 3,089 participants over 40 years, who underwent reliable spirometry and oral health assessments were selected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012, a cross-sectional and nationally representative survey. Spirometry results were classified as normal, restrictive, or obstructive pattern. Total number and pairs of natural teeth were counted after excluding third molars. Results After adjusting for other variables, such as age, body mass index, socioeconomic factors, and oral health factors, the group with airflow obstruction showed significantly fewer natural teeth than the other groups in males (P=0.014 and 0.008 for total number and total pairs of natural teeth, respectively). Compared with participants with full dentition, the adjusted odds ratio for airflow obstruction in males with fewer than 20 natural teeth was 4.18 (95% confidence interval: 2.06–8.49) and with fewer than 10 pairs of natural teeth was 4.74 (95% confidence interval: 2.34–9.62). However, there was no significant association between the total number or pairs of natural teeth and airflow obstruction after adjustment in females. Conclusions Loss of natural teeth was significantly associated with the presence of airflow obstruction in males. Our finding suggests that the number of natural teeth could be one of the available indices for obstructive lung diseases, including COPD.
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Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw) and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw). For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDIcum), which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDIcum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.
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This study assessed the health risks for children exposed to phthalate through several pathways including house dust, surface wipes and hand wipes in child facilities and indoor playgrounds. The indoor samples were collected from various children's facilities (40 playrooms, 42 daycare centers, 44 kindergartens, and 42 indoor-playgrounds) in both summer (Jul-Sep, 2007) and winter (Jan-Feb, 2008). Hazard index (HI) was estimated for the non-carcinogens and the examined phthalates were diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP). The present study examined these four kinds of samples, i.e., indoor dust, surface wipes of product and hand wipes. Among the phthalates, the detection rates of DEHP were 98% in dust samples, 100% in surface wipe samples, and 95% in hand wipe samples. In this study, phthalate levels obtained from floor dust, product surface and children's hand wipe samples were similar to or slightly less compared to previous studies. The 50(th) and 95(th) percentile value of child-sensitive materials did not exceed 1 (HI) for all subjects in all facilities. For DEHP, DnBP and BBzP their detection rates through multi-routes were high and their risk based on health risk assessment was also observed to be acceptable. This study suggested that ingestion and dermal exposure could be the most important pathway of phthalates besides digestion through food.
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Concern over phthalates has emerged because of their potential toxicity to humans. We investigated the relationship between the urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and children's intellectual functioning. This study enrolled 667 children at nine elementary schools in five South Korean cities. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate concentrations was performed, and scores on neuropsychological tests were obtained from both the children and their mothers. We measured mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), both metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), a metabolite of dibutyl phthalate (DBP), in urine samples. The geometric mean (ln) concentrations of MEHP, MEOHP, and MBP were 21.3 microg/L [geometric SD (GSD) = 2.2 microg/L; range, 0.5-445.4], 18.0 microg/L (GSD = 2.4; range, 0.07-291.1), and 48.9 microg/L (GSD = 2.2; range, 2.1-1645.5), respectively. After adjusting for demographic and developmental covariates, the Full Scale IQ and Verbal IQ scores were negatively associated with DEHP metabolites but not with DBP metabolites. We also found a significant negative relationship between the urine concentrations of the metabolites of DEHP and DBP and children's vocabulary subscores. After controlling for maternal IQ, a significant inverse relationship between DEHP metabolites and vocabulary subscale score remained. Among boys, we found a negative association between increasing MEHP phthalate concentrations and the sum of DEHP metabolite concentrations and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children vocabulary score; however, among girls, we found no significant association between these variables. Controlling for maternal IQ and other covariates, the results show an inverse relationship between phthalate metabolites and IQ scores; however, given the limitations in cross-sectional epidemiology, prospective studies are needed to fully explore these associations.
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Unlabelled: In this study, the occurrence of persistent environmental contaminants room air samples from 59 apartments and 74 kindergartens in Berlin were tested in 2000 and 2001 for the presence of phthalates and musk fragrances (polycyclic musks in particular). These substances were also measured in household dust from 30 apartments. The aim of the study was to measure exposure levels in typical central borough apartments, kindergartens and estimate their effects on health. Of phthalates, dibutyl phthalate had the highest concentrations in room air, with median values of 1083 ng/m(3) in apartments and 1188 ng/m(3) in kindergartens. With around 80% of all values, the main phthalate in house dust was diethylhexyl phthalate, with median values of 703 mg/kg (range: 231-1763 mg/kg). No statistically significant correlation could be found between air and dust concentration. Musk compounds were detected in the indoor air of kindergartens with median values of 101 ng/m(3) [1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8- hexamethylcyclopenta-(g) 2-benzopyrane (HHCB)] and 44 ng/m(3) [7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetraline (AHTN)] and maximum concentrations of up to 299 and 107 ng/m(3) respectively. In household dust HHCB and AHTN were detected in 63 and 83% of the samples with median values of 0.7 and 0.9 mg/kg (Maximum: 11.4 and 3.1 mg/kg) each. On comparing the above phthalate concentrations with presently acceptable tolerable daily intake values (TDI), we are talking about only a small average intake [di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and diethyl phthalate less than 1 and 8% of the TDI] by indoor air for children. The dominant intake path was the ingestion of foodstuffs. For certain subsets of the population, notably premature infants (through migration from soft polyvinyl chloride products), children and other patients undergoing medical treatment like dialysis, exchange transfusion, an important additional intake of phthalates must taken into account. Practical implications: The phthalate and musk compounds load in a sample of apartments and kindergartens were low with a typical distribution pattern in air and household dust, but without a significant correlation between air and dust concentration. The largest source of general population exposure to phthalates is dietary. For certain subsets of the general population non-dietary ingestion (medical and occupational) is important.
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Global phthalate ester production has increased from very low levels at the end of World War II to approximately 3.5 million metric tons/year. The aim of the present study was to investigate potential associations between persistent allergic symptoms in children, which have increased markedly in developed countries over the past three decades, and the concentration of phthalates in dust collected from their homes. This investigation is a case-control study nested within a cohort of 10,852 children. From the cohort, we selected 198 cases with persistent allergic symptoms and 202 controls without allergic symptoms. A clinical and a technical team investigated each child and her or his environment. We found higher median concentrations of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) in dust among cases than among controls (0.15 vs. 0.12 mg/g dust). Analyzing the case group by symptoms showed that BBzP was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.001) and eczema (p = 0.001), whereas di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was associated with asthma (p = 0.022). Furthermore, dose-response relationships for these associations are supported by trend analyses. This study shows that phthalates, within the range of what is normally found in indoor environments, are associated with allergic symptoms in children. We believe that the different associations of symptoms for the three major phthalates-BBzP, DEHP, and di-n-butyl phthalate-can be explained by a combination of chemical physical properties and toxicologic potential. Given the phthalate exposures of children worldwide, the results from this study of Swedish children have global implications.
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In a recent study of 198 Swedish children with persistent allergic symptoms and 202 controls without such symptoms, we reported associations between the symptoms and the concentrations of n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in dust taken from the childrens' bedrooms. In the present study we examined associations between the concentrations of different phthalate esters in the dust from these bedrooms and various characteristics of the home. The study focused on BBzP and DEHP because these were the phthalates associated with health complaints. Associations have been examined using parametric and nonparametric tests as well as multiple logistic regression. For both BBzP and DEHP, we found associations between their dust concentrations and the amount of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) used as flooring and wall material in the home. Furthermore, high concentrations of BBzP (above median) were associated with self-reported water leakage in the home, and high concentrations of DEHP were associated with buildings constructed before 1960. Other associations, as well as absence of associations, are reported. Both BBzP and DEHP were found in buildings with neither PVC flooring nor wall covering, consistent with the numerous additional plasticized materials that are anticipated to be present in a typical home. The building characteristics examined in this study cannot serve as complete proxies for these quite varied sources. However, the associations reported here can help identify homes where phthalate concentrations are likely to be elevated and can aid in developing mitigation strategies.
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Recent studies have identified associations between the concentration of phthalates in indoor dust and allergic symptoms in the airways, nose, and skin. Our goal was to investigate the associations between allergic symptoms in children and the concentration of phthalate esters in settled dust collected from children's homes in Sofia and Burgas, Bulgaria. Dust samples from the child's bedroom were collected. A total of 102 children (2-7 years of age) had symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and/or eczema in preceding 12 months (cases), and 82 were nonsymptomatic (controls). The dust samples were analyzed for their content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP). A higher concentration of DEHP was found in homes of case children than in those of controls (1.24 vs. 0.86 mg/g dust). The concentration of DEHP was significantly associated with wheezing in the preceding 12 months (p = 0.035) as reported by parents. We found a dose-response relationship between DEHP concentration and case status and between DEHP concentration and wheezing in the preceding 12 months. This study shows an association between concentration of DEHP in indoor dust and wheezing among preschool children in Bulgaria.
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A case study in a test house was conducted to investigate the fate and transport of benzyl butyl phthalate (BBzP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in residential indoor environments and the influence of temperature. Total airborne concentrations of phthalates were sensitive to indoor temperatures, and their steady-state concentration levels increased by a factor of three with an increase in temperature from 21 to 30 ºC. Strong sorption of phthalates was observed on interior surfaces, including dust, dish plates, windows, mirrors, fabric cloth, and wood. Equilibrium partitioning coefficients for phthalates adsorbed to these surfaces were determined, and their values decreased with increasing temperature. For impervious surfaces, dimensionless partitioning coefficients were calculated and found to be comparable to reported values of the octanol-air partition coefficients of phthalates, Koa, suggesting that an organic film may develop on these surfaces. In addition, sorption kinetics was studied experimentally, and the equilibration time scale for impervious surfaces was found to be faster than that of fabric cloth. Finally, using an indoor fate model to interpret the measurement results, there was good agreement between model predictions and the observed indoor air concentrations of BBzP in the test house.
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This study investigated the influences of surface sorption and air flow rate on the emission of phthalates from building materials. Controlled tests were conducted in specially designed stainless steel and wood chambers, and the steady-state concentration in the stainless steel chamber was about 2–3 times higher than that in the wood chamber for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisononyl phthalate (DINP). The emission rate of phthalates increased in the wood chamber due to the diffusion mass flow through the chamber wall (i.e., surface absorption). The adsorption isotherm of phthalates on the stainless steel surface and the absorption parameters (i.e., diffusion and partition coefficients) of phthalates on the wood surface were determined experimentally, and the values were comparable to those in the literature. The equilibration time scale for phthalates absorbed to the sink reservoir in actual indoor environments was estimated and can be substantial (approximately 80 years), indicating that surface absorption may continuously drive phthalates from their indoor sources to various sinks and thus significantly increase the emission rate of phthalates. The gas-phase concentration of DEHP was measured in two stainless steel chambers operated at flow rates of 300 mL/min and 3000 mL/min, respectively, which were both adjusted to 1000 mL/min after steady state was reached. The gas-phase concentration of DEHP in the chamber was very sensitive to the chamber air flow rate, and higher air flow rates resulted in lower concentration levels. However, the increased emission rate compensated for the dilution in the gas phase and made the DEHP concentration not drop substantially with an increase in the air flow rate. Independently measured or calculated parameters were used to validate a semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) emission model that included absorptive surfaces and for a range of air flow rates, with excellent agreement between the model predictions and the observed chamber concentrations of phthalates.
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Emissions of phthalates and phthalate alternatives from vinyl flooring and crib mattress covers were measured in a specially-designed chamber. The gas-phase concentrations versus time were measured at four different temperatures, i.e., 25, 36, 45, and 55 ºC. The key parameter that controls the emissions (y0, gas-phase concentration in equilibrium with the material phase) was determined, and the emissions were found to increase significantly with increasing temperature. Both the material-phase concentration (C0) and the chemical vapor pressure (Vp) were found to have great influence on the value of y0. The measured ratios of C0 to y0 were exponentially proportional to the reciprocal of temperature, in agreement with the van't Hoff equation. A emission model was validated at different temperatures, with excellent agreement between model predictions and chamber observations. In residential homes, an increase in the temperature from 25 to 35 ºC can elevate the gas-phase concentration of phthalates by more than a factor of 10, but the total airborne concentration may not increase that much for less volatile compounds. In infant sleep microenvironments, an increase in the temperature of mattress can cause a significant increase in emission of phthalates from the mattress cover and make the concentration in breathing zone about four times higher than that in the room, resulting in potentially high exposure.
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The aim of the study was to assess the levels in typical central borough of phthalate exposure by monitoring children's facilities (19 kindergartens and 21 elementary schools) and households (17 old apartments and 22 new apartments) via sampling indoor floor dust. A vacuum cleaner specifically prepared for sampling dust was attached to a filter of a vacuum cleaner dust collecting container. During the sample preparation process, containers made of glass were used and analysis was performed using GC-MSD. The mean concentration of DEHP was , DnBP was , and BBzP was dust. The indoor characteristics including floor, wall materials, years after construction, water leakage history for the past three years, and ventilation were also examined to categorize phthalate esters from the dust samples. From the flooring and wallpaper materials of kindergartens and elementary schools, DEHP in the dust sample appeared at a statistically significant level (p
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Phthalate emission from vinyl floorings was measured in specially-designed stainless steel chambers. Phthalate concentrations increased and reached steady state after 2 to 5 days for all experiments. By having a high ratio of emission surface to sorption surface, avoiding mass loss of phthalates onto sampling pathways, and improving air mixing inside the chamber, the time to reach steady state was significantly reduced, compared to previous studies (1 to 5 months). An innovative approach was developed to determine y0, the gas-phase concentration of phthalates in equilibrium with the material phase, which is the key parameter controlling phthalate emissions. Target phthalate material-phase concentration (C0) and vapor pressure were explicitly measured and found to have great influences on the y0 value. For low phthalate concentrations in materials, a simple partitioning mechanism may linearly relate y0 and C0, but cannot be evoked for high-weight phthalate percentages. In addition, the sorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm of phthalates on stainless steel chamber surfaces were determined experimentally. Independently measured or calculated parameters were used to validate a semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) emission model, with excellent agreement between model predictions and the observed chamber concentrations in gas and stainless steel phases. With the knowledge of y0 and emission mechanisms, human exposure to phthalates from tested floorings was assessed; the levels were comparable to previous studies. This paper developed a rapid, novel method to measure phthalate emissions; emission measurement results can be connected to exposure assessment and help health professionals estimate screening-level exposures associated with SVOCs and conduct risk-based prioritization for SVOC chemicals of concern.
Article
Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOCs) are ubiquitous contaminants in indoor environments, emanating from different sources and partitioning among several compartments including the gas phase, airborne particles and settled dust. Nevertheless simultaneous measurements in the three compartments are rarely reported. In this study, we investigated indoor concentrations of a wide range of SVOCs in 30 French dwellings. In settled dust, 40 out of 57 target compounds were detected. The highest median concentrations were measured for phthalates, and to a lesser extent for bisphenol A, synthetic musks, some pesticides and PAHs. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were the most abundant compounds. A total of 34 target compounds were detected both in the gas phase and airborne particles. The highest concentrations were measured for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and synthetic musks in the gas phase and for DEHP, DiBP, DBP and DINP in the airborne particles. This is the first study on the indoor concentrations of a wide range of SVOCs in settled dust, gas phase and airborne particles collected simultaneously in each dwelling.
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Urine samples (n = 207) of 47 infants between 1- and 5-month of age were quantitated for 12 metabolites of 7 phthalates and compared with samples collected from the mothers of the infants at different time points. Median and 95-percentile were lower for all metabolites in urine samples of infants compared to mothers. For di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) the 95-percentile daily intake was 23.3 μg/kg b.w. for mothers and 5.4 μg/kg b.w. for infants and for di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) 10.1 μg/kg b.w. and 8.5 μg/kg b.w. Some values exceeded the corresponding tolerable daily intake (TDI) for DiBP for infants and mothers and for DEHP and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) only for mothers. Both, infants and mothers are able to efficiently form phase II metabolites but infants with a slightly lower degree. Therefore, a distinguished risk assessment with respect to the formed toxic metabolites of phthalates would be necessary in combination with a reduction of the most toxic phthalates.
Article
Phthalate esters, which are known endocrine disruptors, are ubiquitously present throughout indoor environments. Leaching from building materials may be a major source of phthalate esters. In this study, we evaluated phthalate ester concentrations in dust samples from 64 classrooms located in 50 nursery schools and explored the critical factors affecting phthalate concentrations, especially with regard to building materials. Dust was sampled by a modified vacuuming method, and building materials were assessed using a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to determine whether they contained polyvinyl chloride. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and di-isononyl phthalate (DINP) were the most frequently detected phthalates. Of these, DEHP was the most abundant phthalate, with a geometric mean of 3,170 µg/g dust, and concentrations were significantly correlated with the area of polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-verified flooring. DINP, which has not been well-reported in other studies, was the second-most abundant phthalate, with a geometric mean of 688 µg/g dust, and showed a critical relationship with the number of children in the institution and the agency operating the nursery school. This is the first study to verify the sources of phthalates with an XRF analyzer and to evaluate the relationship between phthalate concentrations and PVC-verified materials.
Article
For a number of phthalates and especially for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), surprisingly high house dust concentrations are reported in the literature. Therefore, the uptake of the most prominent compounds DEHP and di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) from plasticized indoor materials into house dust samples of different organic content has been experimentally determined. The experiments have been performed within 45 days which is sufficient for the more volatile phthalate (DnBP) to reach equilibrium conditions. DnBP reaches considerably higher concentrations in the chamber air compared to real room measurements and, thus, also elevated dust concentrations. In contrast, the mass transfer of DEHP in the dust via the gas phase was significantly lower. However, small chamber experiments showed elevated mass transfer of DEHP in case of direct contact between emission source and sink. This aspect is experimentally determined using an plasticized PVC polymer with and without direct contact to house dust. A transfer into the dust could be observed in dependence of the initial concentration in the material. However, the results do not allow the differentiation between the two uptake mechanisms via capillary forces and contact to the material’s boundary layer. The results illustrate that the reasons for elevated DEHP concentrations in dust indoors can be traced back to direct contact of source and sink, abrasion from the source, and transport via airborne particles.
Article
The emission of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring (VF) was measured in specially-designed stainless steel chambers. In duplicate chamber studies, the gas-phase concentration in the chamber increased slowly and reached a steady state level of 0.8~0.9 µg/m3 after about 40 days. By increasing the area of vinyl flooring and decreasing that of the stainless steel surface within the chamber, the time to reach steady state was significantly reduced, compared to a previous study (1 month versus 5 months). The adsorption isotherm of DEHP on the stainless steel chamber surfaces was explicitly measured using solvent extraction and thermal desorption. The strong partitioning of DEHP onto the stainless steel surface was found to follow a simple linear relationship. Thermal desorption resulted in higher recovery than solvent extraction. Investigation of sorption kinetics showed that it takes several weeks for the sorption of DEHP onto the stainless steel surface to reach equilibrium. The content of DEHP in VF was measured at about 15% (w/w) using pressurized liquid extraction. The independently measured or calculated parameters were used to validate an SVOC emission model, with excellent agreement between model predictions and the observed gas-phase DEHP chamber concentrations.
Article
Phthalate esters are used as plasticizer in many plastics, and several studies have shown their toxicity. Phthalate esters are gradually emitted over time, and so it is conceivable that they pose a significant health risk. This study aims to investigate the temperature dependence of the emissions of various phthalate esters and to estimate the health risks of these emissions at various temperatures. A passive-type sampler was developed to measure the flux of phthalate esters from the surface of plastic materials. With this sampler, we examined three widely used plastic materials: synthetic leather, wallpaper and vinyl flooring. The observed maximum emissions of diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from these materials at 20°C were 0.89, 0.77, and 14 μg m−2 h−1, respectively. Emissions at 80°C were 2.8, 4.5×102, and 1.5×103 μg m−2 h−1, respectively. The results showed this temperature dependence is determined primarily by the type of phthalate ester and less so by the type of material. The estimation from the results of temperature dependence indicated the concentration of DEHP in a vehicle left out in the sunshine during the day can exceed the recommended levels of Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
Article
Phthalate esters are chemical compounds with a broad range of applications. Recently, we have shown that significantly higher dust concentration of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) was found in Bulgarian homes of children with asthma or allergies compared to healthy children. The concentration of DEHP was found to be significantly associated with wheezing in the last 12 months as reported by parents. The objective of the current study was to examine the associations between concentrations of phthalates in settled dust collected in Bulgarian homes and building characteristics and cleaning habits. Dust samples from the child's bedroom were collected in 177 homes and analysed for the content of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and DEHP. Information on building characteristics and family habits were collected from parental reports in questionnaires and from inspectors' observations in the homes. Significantly higher concentrations of BBzP, DEHP and DnOP in indoor dust were found in homes where polishing agents were used, compared to homes where such products were not used. The highest concentrations of DEHP, BBzP and DnOP were found in homes with the combination of a low frequency of dusting and the use of polish. There was no difference in phthalate concentrations between inspector-observed balatum flooring (PVC or linoleum) and wood flooring as well as between PVC, as determined by Raman spectra, and wood flooring. However, in a sub-group of homes with no use of polish, the concentration of DEHP was higher in homes with inspector-observed balatum compared with wood flooring but the difference was not significant may be due to a too small sample size.
Article
Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000–160.000 CFU g−1 microorganisms and 71.000–90.000 CFU g−1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65–123 CFU 30 g−1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06–7.24 EU g−1 (1.45 ng g−1 to 1.01 ng g−1). Allergens (ng g−1) were from 147–159 (Mite), 395–746 (dog) and 103–330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8–9.8 mg g−1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml−1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5–5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2–1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176–319 μg g−1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001–1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m−3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26–0.75 mg m−3 in average contained 300–170 CFU m−3. The organic fraction was from 55–70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is estimated to be relatively low. The storage of the bulk dust during the experiment had little effect on the specific biological and chemical composition.
Article
The emission of di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from one type of vinyl flooring with ∼15% (w/w) DEHP as plasticizer was measured at 22 °C in five FLECs + one blank FLEC (Field and Laboratory Emission Cell). Initially, the flow through all FLECs was 450 ml min−1. After 689 days the flows were changed to 1000 ml min−1, 1600 ml min−1, 2300 ml min−1, and 3000 ml min−1, respectively, in four FLECs, and kept at 450 ml min−1 in one FLEC. Air samples were collected from the effluent air at regular intervals. After 1190 days the experiments were terminated and the interior surfaces of all six FLECs were rinsed with methanol to estimate the internal surface concentrations of DEHP. The DEHP air concentration and specific emission rate (SER) at steady state was estimated for the five different flow rates. The steady-state concentrations decreased slightly with increasing air flow with only the two highest flow rates resulting in significantly lower concentrations. In contrast, the SERs increased significantly. Despite large variation, the internal surface concentrations appeared to decrease slightly with increasing FLEC flow. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations suggest that the interior gas and surface concentrations were roughly uniform for the low flow case (450 ml min−1), under which, the partitioning between the FLEC internal surface and chamber air was examined. Although paired t-tests showed no difference between CFD and experimental results for DEHP air concentrations and SERs at steady-state conditions, CFD indicated that the experimental DEHP surface concentrations in the FLECs were underestimated. In conclusion, the experiments showed that the emission of DEHP from vinyl flooring is subject to “external” control and that the SER is strongly and positively dependent on the air exchange rate. However, the increased SER almost compensates for the decrease in gas-phase concentration caused by the increased air exchange.
Article
Emissions of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) from one type of polyvinylchloride (PVC) flooring with approximately 13% (w/w) DEHP as plasticizer were measured in the Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). The gas-phase concentrations of DEHP versus time were measured at air flow rate of 450 mL·min(-1) and five different temperatures: 23 °C, 35 °C, 47 °C, 55 °C, and 61 °C. The experiments were terminated two weeks to three months after steady-state was reached and the interior surface of the FLECs was rinsed with methanol to determine the surface concentration of DEHP. The most important findings are (1) DEHP steady-state concentrations increased greatly with increasing temperature (0.9 ± 0.1 μg·m(-3), 10 ± 1 μg·m(-3), 38 ± 1 μg·m(-3), 91 ± 4 μg·m(-3), and 198 ± 5 μg·m(-3), respectively), (2) adsorption to the chamber walls decreased greatly with increasing temperature (measured partition coefficient between FLEC air and interior surface are: 640 ± 146 m, 97 ± 20 m, 21 ± 5 m, 11 ± 2 m, and 2 ± 1 m, respectively), (3) gas-phase DEHP concentration in equilibrium with the vinyl flooring surface is close to the vapor pressure of pure DEHP, and (4) with an increase of temperature in a home from 23 to 35 °C, the amount of DEHP in the gas- and particle-phase combined is predicted to increase almost 10-fold. The amount in the gas-phase increases by a factor of 24 with a corresponding decrease in the amount on the airborne particles.
Phthalates are a family of industrial chemicals that have been used for a variety of purposes. As the potential consequences of human exposure to phthalates have raised concerns in the general population, they have been studied in susceptible subjects such as pregnant women, infants and children. This article aims at evaluating the impact of exposure to phthalates on reproductive outcomes and children health by reviewing most recent published literature. Epidemiological studies focusing on exposure to phthalates and pregnancy outcome, genital development, semen quality, precocious puberty, thyroid function, respiratory symptoms and neurodevelopment in children for the last ten years were identified by a search of the PubMed, Medline, Ebsco, Agricola and Toxnet literature bases. The results from the presented studies suggest that there are strong and rather consistent indications that phthalates increase the risk of allergy and asthma and have an adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment reflected by quality of alertness among girls, decreased (less masculine) composite score in boys and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Results of few studies demonstrate negative associations between phthalate levels commonly experienced by the public and impaired sperm quality (concentration, morphology, motility). Phthalates negatively impact also on gestational age and head circumference; however, the results of the studies were not consistent. In all the reviewed studies, exposure to phthalates adversely affected the level of reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, free testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin), anogenital distance and thyroid function. The urinary levels of phthalates were significantly higher in the pubertal gynecomastia group, in serum in girls with premature thelarche and in girls with precocious puberty. Epidemiological studies, in spite of their limitations, suggest that phthalates may affect reproductive outcome and children health. Considering the suggested health effects, more epidemiologic data is urgently needed and, in the meantime, precautionary policies must be implemented.
Article
Because of volatilization and leaching from their application in consumer and personal care products, phthalate esters are ubiquitous contaminants in the indoor environment. In this study, we measured concentrations and profiles of 9 phthalate esters in indoor dust samples collected from six cities in China (n = 75). For comparison, we also analyzed samples collected from Albany, New York, USA (n = 33). The results indicated that concentrations, except for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and profiles of phthalate esters varied significantly between the two countries. Concentrations of diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DNHP), and benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP) were 5 to 10 times higher in dust samples collected from Albany than those from the Chinese cities. In contrast, concentrations of di-iso-butyl phthalate (DIBP) in dust samples from Albany were 5 times lower than those from the Chinese cities. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of phthalate esters through the routes of dust ingestion and dermal dust absorption. The extent of contribution of indoor dust to human exposures varied, depending on the type of phthalate esters. The contribution of dust to DEHP exposure was 2-5% and 10-58% of the estimated total DIs in China and the USA, respectively. On the basis of the estimates of total DIs of phthalates, extrapolated from urinary metabolite concentrations, the contributions of inhalation, dermal absorption, and dietary intake to total DIs were estimated. The results indicated that dietary intake is the main source of exposure to DEHP (especially in China), whereas dermal exposure was a major source for DEP. This is the first study to elucidate sources of human exposure to phthalates among the general population in China.
Article
The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthalates are highest in children and decrease with age. At present, DEHP exposures in the general population appear to be close to the tolerable daily intake (TDI), suggesting that at least some individuals exceed the TDI. In addition, specific high-risk groups exist with internal levels that are several orders of magnitude above average. Urinary metabolites used as biomarkers for the internal levels provide additional means to determine more specifically phthalate exposure levels in both general and high-risk populations. However, exposure data are not consistent and there are indications that secondary metabolites may be more accurate indicators of the internal exposure compared to primary metabolites. The present human toxicity data are not sufficient for evaluating the occurrence of reproductive effects following phthalate exposure in humans, based on existing relevant animal data. This is especially the case for data on female reproductive toxicity, which are scarce. Therefore, future research needs to focus on developmental and reproductive endpoints in humans. It should be noted that phthalates occur in mixtures but most toxicological information is based on single compounds. Thus, it is concluded that it is important to improve the knowledge of toxic interactions among the different chemicals and to develop measures for combined exposure to various groups of phthalates.
Article
A two-room model is developed to estimate the emission rate of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring and the evolving gas-phase and adsorbed surface concentrations in a realistic indoor environment. Because the DEHP emission rate measured in a test chamber may be quite different from the emission rate from the same material in the indoor environment the model provides a convenient means to predict emissions and transport in a more realistic setting. Adsorption isotherms for phthalates and plasticizers on interior surfaces, such as carpet, wood, dust, and human skin, are derived from previous field and laboratory studies. Log-linear relationships between equilibrium parameters and chemical vapor pressure are obtained. The predicted indoor air DEHP concentration at steady state is 0.15 microg/m3. Room 1 reaches steady state within about one year, while the adjacent room reaches steady state about three months later. Ventilation rate has a strong influence on DEHP emission rate while total suspended particle concentration has a substantial impact on gas-phase concentration. Exposure to DEHP via inhalation, dermal absorption, and oral ingestion of dust is evaluated. The model clarifies the mechanisms that govern the release of DEHP from vinyl flooring and the subsequent interactions with interior surfaces, airborne particles, dust, and human skin. Although further model development, parameter identification, and model validation are needed, our preliminary model provides a mechanistic framework that elucidates exposure pathways for phthalate plasticizers, and can most likely be adapted to predict emissions and transport of other semivolatile organic compounds, such as brominated flame retardants and biocides, in a residential environment.
Article
The main objective of this study was to generate a fast analytical method to determine the five phthalates benzylbutylphthalate (BBP), dibutylphthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), di-isodecylphthalate (DIDP), and di-isononylphthalate (DINP) in house dust. To achieve this liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) was used for measurement. The risk of lab- and cross-contamination was nearly eliminated completely as a very short and fast sample preparation including a sieving step and an ultrasonic extraction for the analytes from the dust samples was used. Quantification through internal standard calibration resulted in low limits of determination (DEHP 4 mg kg(-1) to DBP 14 mg kg(-1)). A potential interaction between the analytes DIDP and DINP during chromatographic measurement could be excluded while performing a two level factorial design. Furthermore it was examined to what extend carpet and plastic materials respectively have influence on the total amount of phthalates in dust. It could be shown that apartments in which a minimum of both of these sources appeared revealed the lowest total amount of sum of phthalates in dust (median 362 mg kg(-1)).
Article
The emission of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from a PVC flooring was studied for up to 472 days in both the FLEC (Field and Laboratory Emission Cell) and the CLIMPAQ (Chamberfor Laboratory Investigations of Materials, Pollution, and Air Quality). The loading of the CLIMPAQs was varied but was constant in the FLECs. The sorption properties of FLEC and CLIMPAQ were investigated using different methods. In addition, the uptake of DEHP by office floor dust on the PVC flooring was studied in CLIMPAQ experiments. The concentration versus time curves in both FLECs and CLIMPAQs increased slowly over about 150 days and reached a quasi-static equilibrium at 1 microg m(-3). The main conclusions were that (i) the emission rate of DEHP was limited by gas-phase mass transport and (ii) the dust layer increased the emission rate by increasing the external concentration gradient above the surface of the PVC. These conclusions were based on the facts that the specific emission rate was inversely proportional to the loading and that the dust had sorbed about four times as much DEHP over a 68-day period as emitted in the gas-phase experiments. About one-half of the emitted DEHP was deposited on the internal surfaces of both the FLEC and the CLIMPAQ.
Article
Static extraction, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and Soxhlet extraction were compared for simultaneous extraction of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and nonionic surfactants from house dust. Homogenized office floor dust from a vacuum cleaner dust bag ("standard dust") was used for the evaluation. One portion of the extracts was used for analysis of nonionic surfactants with LC-MS and another portion was used for DEHP analysis with GC-MS. The extraction yield of DEHP was comparable for all the methods whereas SFE and PLE were the most efficient extraction techniques for the nonionic surfactants. The PLE extraction was found most suitable as a routine method for simultaneous extraction of both types of compounds and was used in a field study of floor dust from 15 Danish schools. The mean concentration of DEHP in the school dust samples was approximately 4 times higher than observed in other studies of dust from homes in different countries. The concentrations of nonionic surfactants were one order of magnitude lower than soap and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates measured in other studies of floor dust from offices and other public buildings. However, for the first time nonionic surfactants have been identified in house dust.
Article
The main objective of this study was to generate quantitative and qualitative emission data on phthalates from different materials. To achieve this the existing (Chamber for Laboratory Investigations of Materials, Pollution and Air Quality) Climpaq-based procedure for simplified measurements of emissions of plasticizer from PVC and other plasticized materials was modified. It was applied to a range of products. Some of them were suspected of contributing to the indoor concentration of plasticizers. The emissions from PVC flooring, polyolefine flooring, a refrigerator list, two electric cables, PVC skirting and floor wax were studied in separate Climpaqs. The emission from the PVC flooring in the Climpaq was compared with results from the ultra-small chamber Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (FLEC). Sampling and analysis methods were optimized to measure plasticizers. Samples were taken in exhaust air from the chambers after 6, 35, 62, 105, and 150 days from the start of the experiment. PVC flooring was tested for an additional 100 days. Polyolefine covered with wax resulted in an air concentration of 22 microg/m3 of dibutylphthalate (DBP), which is two orders of magnitude larger than any other materials, but did not emit di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). The other materials resulted in max concentration of approximately 1 microg/m3 of DEHP and low emissions of DBP. The concentration of DEHP in each chamber increased slowly to a rather stable level which was reached after 150 days. DBP concentrations in the chambers with PVC skirting, PVC flooring, polyolefine and floor wax reached their quasi-static equilibrium after 60 days. The modified method did not create sufficient data for the calculation of emission rates. Adsorption of emission on chamber surfaces made it impossible to use the first part of the experiment for emission rate calculation. When the concentration had stabilized, it was found to be almost identical and independent of chamber and ventilation rate. Emission rates were reduced at high concentrations probably because the concentration in the material was near equilibrium with the concentration in the chamber air.
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