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Job creep: A reactance theory perspective on organizational citizenship behavior as over-fulfillment of obligations

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... Although good organizational citizenship is generally considered to consist of voluntary behaviors, with job creep, actions that were once voluntary become an integral part of the job and no longer discretionary. 9 Employees who cannot do more than what is in the job description, perhaps for personal or health reasons, may be seen as not doing even the minimum. Perhaps worse for the employee, management may come to believe that workers are not committed to the organization if they don't do extra tasks. ...
... However, some studies (Bolino et al., 2004;Bolino and Turnley, 2005;Bolino et al., 2013;Rauf, 2016) state that OCB can lead to some negative consequences such as work overload, interpersonal tension, reduced sense of job security & satisfaction, role ambiguity, job stress, work-leisure conflict, burnout, and turnover intentions. According to reactance theory, Van Dyne and Ellis (2004) argued that extra-role behaviors might lead to a negative emotional state on coworkers linked with negative self-evaluation and self-esteem. In line with this theory, Fisher et al. (1982) have stated that OCB makes individuals compare themselves negatively with OCB Performers and judge their competence, leading to a strong resentment towards them. ...
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The study aims to discover the probable roles of cultural characteristics in the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and workplace ostracism which is a critical phenomenon among employees. It was designed in a causal model claiming that there are moderating effects of collectivism and belief in collective emotions in the relationship between OCB and workplace ostracism. 309 employees were included randomly in Turkey, and correlation and regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis. Unlike similar studies and the expected relationship in our hypotheses, OCB and workplace ostracism were found negatively correlated. Moreover, neither organizational collectivism nor employees’ belief in collective emotions had a moderating role in this relationship. The study showed that the dark side of the OCB does not work for the Turkish culture, although its collectivist features. It is evident that globalization makes the collectivist organizations’ strict norms and rules more flexible and loosens the employees’ collectivist beliefs. Regardless of the cultural characteristics, the study also underlines that workplace ostracism should be prevented with appropriate management strategies like encouraging employees to be engaged in citizenship behaviors.
... Although a growing body of research recognizes that employees are often externally compelled to engage in OCB, the negative consequences of excessive engagement in OCB have not been well explored. Indeed, OCB requires individuals to invest cognitive, emotional, and physical resources in activities that go beyond the demands of their job duties [16], and when these resources are scarce, the burden of participating in OCB can create an internal tension that depletes an individual's internal resources and leads to fatigue [10,15,[17][18][19][20][21]. A few scholars have theorized that citizenship fatigue occurs when employees must engage in OCB [16,[22][23][24]-suggesting the potential drawbacks of OCB for health. ...
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Previous research has mainly focused on the positive effects of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This study questions the positive impact of OCB, arguing that there is a health cost of OCB. Based on the conservation of resource theory, this study expects that OCB triggers citizenship fatigue, which, in turn, negatively affects employees’ health and results in health complaints. This study also seeks to find a moderator (health-promoting leadership) that could mitigate the negative effects of citizenship fatigue (caused by engaging in OCB) on health complaints. To test our predictions, we collected three-wave data from 207 leader–subordinate dyads. The results of regression analyses show that OCB is positively related to employees’ health complaints, which is mediated by citizenship fatigue. Health-promoting leadership weakens the positive relationship between citizenship fatigue and health complaints, thus negatively moderating the indirect relationship between OCB and health complaints via citizenship fatigue. This study provides theoretical and practical implications for future research directions.
... In this sense, role stress not only emerges from managerial practices, but also from the expectations that employees, often unintentionally, signal towards their peers. This can even lead to an organizational culture in which employee performance is 'never enough', and organizational citizenship becomes more of an obligation (Van Dyne & Ellis, 2004). Employees are particularly vulnerable to such "job creep" and role expansion when they have great relationships with their managers (Sias & Duncan, 2019). ...
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Several scholars have pointed out the importance of employees' strategic communication behaviors for organizational performance and employee wellbeing. Employees contribute to organizations by acting as brand ambassadors , boundary spanners and crisis communicators. Employees play such roles on top of assigned job tasks, which can lead to role overload, role conflicts and job stress. The analysis of employees' communication role enactment is hampered by the lack of a framework describing the complete range of active communication roles that employees are expected to play in the workplace. This article introduces the Active Employee Communication Roles Framework (AECR Framework), develops the conceptualization of eight communication roles, and discusses implications for strategic communication. The first four roles-the embodier, promotor, defender, and relationship builder role-describe ambassador roles. In addition, employees play the roles of scout, sensemaker, innovator, and critic to contribute to organizational development. The AECR framework provides a new lens which aids our understanding of the relationship between communication, and employee performance and wellbeing, and provides employees and employers a tool to analyze and calibrate mutual expectations regarding communication behaviors. The framework can also help employees to more strategically allocate resources when executing the various communication roles. This may help to alleviate employee role stress, and create healthier workplaces.
Article
In this research, we explore how employees’ self-reflections following a failed attempt to help a coworker shape future helping intentions and behaviors. Specifically, we propose a dual-process model of parallel affective and cognitive pathways to delineate how, and why, reflecting on an interpersonal helping failure with self-compassion would result in countervailing effects on future helping. Whereas self-compassion reduces employees’ future helping via the alleviation of guilt (affective mechanism), it also increases employees’ future helping via the facilitation of helping self-efficacy (cognitive mechanism). We further draw on theories of attribution to propose that these effects depend on who was at fault for the helping failure, such that the effects are strengthened when coworker blame attribution is low. Results across four studies improve our understanding of the phenomenon of interpersonal helping failures, and the role of employee self-reflection in shaping the impact of these failures on future intentions and behavior.
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Employees frequently engage in job crafting to better match their jobs with their personal abilities and skills. Compared with its benefits, the potential detrimental consequences of job crafting have received less attention from researchers. Drawing on relative deprivation theory, we examined employees’ potential negative reactions to coworkers’ job crafting. We proposed that coworkers’ job crafting is positively related to employees’ feelings of relative deprivation, thus reducing prosocial behaviors and giving rise to social undermining. We further argued that employees’ zero-sum mindset moderates the relationship between coworkers’ job crafting and employees’ feelings of relative deprivation, such that the relationship is more positive when the zero-sum mindset is high rather than low. Our hypotheses were generally supported by timelagged data collected from a sample of 313 employees and their leaders from 85 teams. Our findings advance the understanding of the unintended consequences of job crafting in organizations.
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This study examined the relationship between employee’s retention strategies and employee citizenship behavior (ECB) in public service organizations. Fringe benefits and pay benefits were adopted as dimensions of Employee Retention Strategies whereas; ECB is operationalized with Altruism and Civic-virtue. Sample size of 187 was determined using Taro Yemen’s formula. The hypotheses were tested utilizing Spearman’s Rank Order Correlation Co-efficient statistical tool. Outcome showed that fringe benefits have positive and significant relationship with altruism but shows a weak significant relationship with civic virtue while pay benefits shows a weak significant relationship with altruism but a strong relationship with civic- virtue. The study recommends that firms must be deliberate in imploring attractive fringe benefits and pay benefits packages to encourage employees develop ECB which is a sense of affective commitment to the organization thereby making them stay.
Thesis
En moins de quarante ans, la société chinoise a complètement transformé sa législation sociale pour répondre aux impératifs du passage à une économie de marché. Avec la loi sur le travail adoptée en 1994, puis la loi sur le contrat de travail en 2007, la Chine semble avoir introduit, en très peu de temps, de profondes modifications dans le rapport employeur-employé. L’introduction du contrat formel dans le monde du travail s’oppose, en effet, à la forme plus ancienne du contrat implicite encore présente dans la Chine contemporaine. Sur un plan culturel, une des caractéristiques de la société chinoise est l’existence d’un contrat relationnel qui caractérise le jeu des relations interpersonnelles et la réciprocité entre les subordonnés et leurs supérieurs. Sur le plan théorique, cette forme de contrat est à rapprocher du contrat psychologique qui est une perception subjective des promesses que nous faisons et de celles qui nous sont faites, déterminant le contenu et la force de nos obligations mutuelles (Rousseau, 1995). En Chine, les relations entre employés et employeurs reposent principalement sur des contrats psychologiques relationnels, et le contrat de travail est dès lors perçu comme moins souple. Quels impacts ces transformations économiques et juridiques ont-elles aujourd’hui sur la relation d’emploi ? Notre étude qualitative porte sur les perceptions de ce contrat de travail formel par les jeunes Chinois nés post 1980. En tenant compte du contexte sociétal, nous proposons dès lors un apport original en sciences de gestion en articulant les différents contrats : contrat psychologique, contrat social et contrat de travail.
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