Book

Dying to be Men: Youth, Masculinity and Social Exclusion

Authors:

Abstract

One of the first comparative reflections of its kind, this book examines the challenges that young men face when trying to grow up in societies where violence is the norm. Barker, who has worked directly with low-income youth and witnessed first hand the violence he describes, provides a compelling account of the young men's struggles. He discusses the problems these men face in other areas of their lives, including the difficulty of staying in school, the multiple challenges of coming of age as men in the face of social exclusion, including finding meaningful employment, and their interactions with young women, including sexual behaviour and the implications of this for HIV/AIDS prevention. The book presents examples of evaluated programs that have been able to aid young men in rethinking what it means to be a man and ultimately focuses on 'voices of resistance' - young men who find ways to stay out of violence and to show respect and equality in their relationships, even in settings where male violence and rigid attitudes about manhood are prevalent.
... Men are not only the vast majority of perpetrators of violence, they are also more likely than women to be victims of men's violence (Polk 1994;Barker 2005;Fleming et al. 2015;Heilman and Barker 2018). This applies to homicide and lethal violence, as Polk (1994) demonstrated over twenty-five years ago, and which continues to be the case (Flynn et al. 2016;Heilman and Barker 2018). ...
... While some commentators have made the case for the gendered character of men's subjection to violence (Barker 2005;Flood 2007b;Dolan 2014), little consideration has been given to the gendered nature of men's perpetration of violence against other men. Thus, the focus is on men as victims of such violence rather than the gendered nature of men's perpetration of violence against other men. ...
... Men use violence in policing other men (Whitehead 2005). Barker (2005), for example, notes that young men and boys in Africa are socialised into forms of masculinity that involve violence and abuse of other men. Men's violence against other men is connected to the importance among many men of maintaining status within all male groups and as a vehicle for proving one's masculinity. ...
Book
This book presents new conceptual and theoretical approaches to violence studies. As the first research anthology to examine violating interpersonal, institutional and ideological practices as both gendered and affective processes, it raises novel questions and offers insights for understanding and resolving social and cultural problems related to violence and its prevention. The book offers multidisciplinary perspectives on various forms and intersections of different types of violence. The research ranges from the early modern era to the present day in Europe, US, Africa and Australia, representing disciplines such as gender studies, history, literature, linguistics, media and cultural studies, psychology, social psychology, social work, social policy, sociology and environmental humanities. With its integrative approach, the book proposes new ideas and tools for academics and practitioners to improve their theoretical and practical understandings of these phenomena as a source of multidimensional inequality in a globalized world. Marita Husso is Associate Professor of Social Policy at Tampere University, Finland. Sanna Karkulehto is Professor of Literature at the University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Tuija Saresma is Senior Researcher at the Research Centre for Contemporary Culture, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Jari Eilola is Senior Researcher at the Department of History and Ethnology, University of the Jyväskylä, Finland. Aarno Laitila is Senior Lecturer at the Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. Heli Siltala is University Teacher at the Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
... Among Tables Table 1. Summary Daiute and Fine 2003, p.2) Young men are the main perpetrators and the main victims of many forms of violence (Burton 1997;Phyllis L. and Saner 1998;Spierenburg 1998;Barker 2000;Briceno-Leon and Zubillaga 2002;Reilly, Muldoon et al. 2004;DeKeseredy and Schwartz 2005;Barker 2005a;Pringle 2007), with the notable exception of domestic violence and sexual assault (Hollander 2001) where women are the main victims. Studie perspective tend to focus upon men as perpetrators and women as victims. ...
... (Barker and Ricardo 2005b, p.2) Studies and scholars exploring the relationship between masculinities and health, for example, suggest that men engage in more health-risk behaviours and use health services less (Courtenay 2000;White 2002;Sabo 2005; de Visser and Smith 2006;Gough and Robertson 2010). Studies of violence and men have shown that violent behaviour is also related to the construction of masculinities (Spierenburg 1998;Hatty 2000;DeKeseredy and Schwartz 2005;Barker 2005a; Barker and Ricardo 2005b). Characteristics such as ethnicity and socioeconomic status seem to play an important role as well (Moser 2004), with identified or reported physical violence frequently enacted and inflicted upon marginalised young men from ethnic minorities (Barker 2000;Hall 2002;Totten 2003). ...
... When looking into the contexts of youth and violence we find that generally speaking, young people living in highly deprived urban settings frequently correlated with high levels of crime are more likely to engage in violent behaviours (Hall 2002;Beale Spencer, Dupree et al. 2003;Bolland 2003;Barker 2005a;Andres-Hyman, Forrester et al. 2007). The WHO (World Health Organization and Krug 2002, p.25) and that this is particularly the case in countries with developing economies. ...
Thesis
Men are the main perpetrators and victims of violence worldwide. Previous studies show that violent behaviour is related –to ideas of masculinity. However research on “gender-based violence” typically focuses on violence between men and women, paying less attention to acts of violence between men. To address this research gap I conducted a cross-sectional, ethnographic study in an urban-deprived area of Lima, Peru. The study aims to understand the interrelationships between interpersonal violence and the construction of masculinities among young men living in a context of structural and symbolic violence, stigma and exclusion. I examine the interaction of structural and individual-level factors in the reproduction of violence by placing the “construction of masculinities” approach at the centre of the analysis. In this thesis I propose that violence between men is a form of gender-based violence that offers young men a short cut to achieving masculinity mandates prevalent in their milieu, in a context that limits their potential to “become men” in non-violent ways. The relationship between men’s violence and masculinity is not a direct one. Violence does not equal masculinity, instead it allows these young men to gain status within the community, to earn a living, to protect their alliances and women, to demonstrate power and exert control over others: all characteristics associated with masculinity. Men in this setting choose violence, and violence is one of the strategies that they use to perpetuate masculine hegemony. This study highlights the importance of the social setting in which masculinities are performed, the homosocial nature of these performances and the relevance of the male body in the enactment of the social practices through which masculinities are constructed. In the final part of the thesis, I provide recommendations for interventions in the field of young men’s violence, and make suggestions for future research.
... The literature on street gangs in Latin America, mostly based on ethnographic research in poor neighbourhoods in this region, has highlighted the relationship between street gangs and violence (Arzate et al., 2010;Bourgois, 2003;Baird, 2012;Guzmán-Facundo et al., 2011;Jones et al., 2007;Jones, 2013;Oehmichen-Bazán, 2013;Jones and Rodgers, 2011;Rodgers and Baird, 2016;Rodgers, 2006;Quintero and Estrada, 1998;Barker, 2005;Reguillo, 2005;Reguillo, 2012). Such attention is not surprising considering that Latin America is one of the most violent regions in the world. ...
... Indeed, Jones and Rodgers (2011) go so far as to claim that street gangs are the major threat to democracy in Latin America following the end of the Cold War. In a similar line of thought, Barker (2005) warns of the importance of studying street gangs because "data on violence suggest young men in the Americas…are more likely to kill other men, and to be killed, than in the rest of the world" (2005: 58). Based on this data, scholars have focused their research on identifying the distinctive cultural elements of the Latin American culture that allow, or even encourage, this violent behaviour. ...
... The link between drugs, gang violence and crime in Latin America has been widely studied by scholarship addressing gang violence in this region (Guzmán-Facundo et al., 2011;Baird, 2012;Jones, 2006;Rodgers, 2006;Reyes-Zaga, 2014;Barker, 2005). What is surprising, and rather paradoxical, is that there is little attention to drug addictions in scholarship addressing the war on drugs or DTV in general (Bergman, 2012;Oehmichen-Bazán, 2013;Azaola, 2012). ...
Data
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Dominant scholarly approaches to drug trafficking violence(DTV) in Mexico generally explain its onset and escalation by focusing on one of four issues: a) the democratisation process in the 1990s and 2000s; b) the systemic corruption of the judicial and legislative institutions; c) a weak rule of law across the country; and d) the ‘war on drugs’ launched by former president Felipe Calderón (2006-2012). These approaches, however, fail to account for the discursive conditions that enable the perpetrators to engage in DTV. This thesis, therefore, proposes a new critical approach to our understanding of DTV by examining the life stories of thirty-three former narcos collected in Mexico between October 2014 and January 2015. Using a discourse analytical approach, I identify a set of meaning production regularities, uncovered through detailed interviews, which I conceptualise as narco discourse. In this discourse, informed by a neoliberal ethos, poverty is understood as a fixed condition, ‘poor people have no future’ and have ‘nothing to lose’. Under this logic, the ‘only’ way for them to enjoy life is to engage in illegal activities conceived as ‘la vida fácil’[the easy life] which guarantee them ‘dinero fácil’ [easy money]. The narco discourse also produces the idea that ‘un hombre de verdad’[a true man] embodies the normative characteristics of machismo. This masculinity, in turn, justifies male violence as ‘necessary’ in order to ‘survive’ in contexts of poverty. These three intertwined discourses of poverty, masculinity and violence enable the construction of DTV in instrumental terms, e.g. as ‘un negocio’[a business’], assomething ‘exciting’ and even as asource of empowerment. In this way, I demonstratehow DTV is discursively made possible by and for former narcos. This is a starting point for rethinking DTV not only as the result of corruption, or failed policies, but also as the product of the interplay between pre-existing social conditions and discourses produced and reproduced by perpetrators of DTV.
... The literature on street gangs in Latin America, mostly based on ethnographic research in poor neighbourhoods in this region, has highlighted the relationship between street gangs and violence (Arzate et al., 2010;Bourgois, 2003;Baird, 2012;Guzmán-Facundo et al., 2011;Jones et al., 2007;Jones, 2013;Oehmichen-Bazán, 2013;Jones and Rodgers, 2011;Rodgers and Baird, 2016;Rodgers, 2006;Quintero and Estrada, 1998;Barker, 2005;Reguillo, 2005;Reguillo, 2012). Such attention is not surprising considering that Latin America is one of the most violent regions in the world. ...
... Indeed, Jones and Rodgers (2011) go so far as to claim that street gangs are the major threat to democracy in Latin America following the end of the Cold War. In a similar line of thought, Barker (2005) warns of the importance of studying street gangs because "data on violence suggest young men in the Americas…are more likely to kill other men, and to be killed, than in the rest of the world" (2005: 58). Based on this data, scholars have focused their research on identifying the distinctive cultural elements of the Latin American culture that allow, or even encourage, this violent behaviour. ...
... The link between drugs, gang violence and crime in Latin America has been widely studied by scholarship addressing gang violence in this region (Guzmán-Facundo et al., 2011;Baird, 2012;Jones, 2006;Rodgers, 2006;Reyes-Zaga, 2014;Barker, 2005). What is surprising, and rather paradoxical, is that there is little attention to drug addictions in scholarship addressing the war on drugs or DTV in general (Bergman, 2012;Oehmichen-Bazán, 2013;Azaola, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
11/20/19-Justice in Mexico, a research-based program at the University of San Diego, released a working paper entitled, “Violence within: Understanding the Use of Violent Practices Among Mexican Drug Traffickers” by Dr. Karina García. This paper provides first-hand data regarding the perpetrators’ perspectives about their engagement in practices of drug trafficking-related violence in Mexico such as murder, kidnapping, and torture. Drawing on the life stories of thirty-three former participants in the Mexican drug trade—often self-described as “narcos”— collected in the North of Mexico between October 2014 and January 2015, this paper shows how violent practices serve different purposes, which indicates the need for different strategies to tackle them.
... Grounded in robust research on resistance and accommodation to dehumanizing ideologies during childhood and adolescence, development has been revealed to be not simply a process of learning and accommodating to cultural expectations and practices, but also resisting those expectations that distort human needs, desires, and capacities (Gilligan, 2011;Rogers & Way, 2018;Turiel, 2002). Resistance recognizes that humans have a natural capacity and propensity to resist, unconsciously and consciously, ideologies that hurt and, in some cases, kill us (Barker, 2005;Way et al., 2018). Decades of research show that children resist cultural norms that tell them, for example, to act tough or be quiet, not to cry or be vulnerable (Brown & Gilligan, 1993;Chu, 2014;Turiel, 2002). ...
... The research underscores that resistance is a natural and necessary capacity that drives development not only a competency acquired as a result of it (Gilligan, 2011;Turiel, 2002). Related studies with adults that have focused on sexuality and nonbinary identities extend this review (Barker, 2005;Bradford & Syed, 2019;Hammack et al., 2021;McLean et al., 2018). Anyon (1984), in her study of working-, middle-, and upper-class boys and girls (9-10 years old), was one of the first researchers of human development to reveal the patterns of resistance and accommodation to patriarchy among children. ...
... For example, when girls devalue their emotionality, a feminine stereotype, it restricts the expression of their full humanity (Rogers et al., 2019). Although resistance has been studied mostly from the perspective of those who experience marginalization in society (hooks, 1990), it also recognizes the perils of privilege that constrain humanity (Freire, 1970) and reveals the necessity for those assigned positions of privilege (e.g., white, rich, males) to resist, too (Barker, 2005), disentangling their identities from the power hierarchies that dehumanize themselves and others (Helms, 2020). There is much to study about resistance from the lens of privilege and power, as well as how young people negotiate these intersections as they develop (Spencer, 2017). ...
Article
Every aspect of child development—from cognition to relationships—is shaped by macrolevel ideologies (e.g., white supremacy, patriarchy) that reflect the social hierarchies and embedded power structures of society. While ecological theories have long underscored the impact of macrosystems and cultures on humans, the field of child development has tended to overemphasize microsystems and often overlooks how ideologies of power shape developmental processes. In this article, we situate child development within and in response to the ideological context, which directs the field’s attention away from “fixing” individuals and microsystems and toward disrupting the macro‐ideologies that shape them. We ground this article in research on resistance and accommodation to such ideologies, revealing that humans have a natural capacity to resist what gets in the way of their ability to survive and thrive. We discuss questions that are necessary to address when integrating resistance and accommodation in the study of child development.
... Growing evidence indicating the value of incorporating formalized ROPPs within schools to address this apparent cultural shortfall and to facilitate positive identity development (Blumenkrantz and Gavazzi 1993;Bosch and Oswald 2010;Jennings 2011;Lines and Gallasch 2009;Smith 2012) has led to a limited number of ROPPs being trialed in schools (Bosch and Oswald 2010;Lines and Gallasch 2009). Although ROPPs are offered to both male and female youth, much of the recent literature highlights adolescent males as the predominant concern, hence the emphasis within this article on boys and young men (Barker 2005;Connell 2014;Eate et al. 2017;Ericsson et al. 2014;Garas and Godinho 2009;Kimmel 2008;Sadowski 2010;Scholes 2017). ...
... Three main categories relevant to the implementation of the ROPPs are examined: rationale, design, and impact. Research outcomes are discussed, comprising reports of enhanced community engagement, development of responsible citizenship, and improved self-perception through the fostering of positive identity, including the negotiation of masculine identities (Barker 2005;Kato-Wallace et al. 2016). ...
... Despite varying discourses surrounding the notion of "masculinity crisis," a significant body of research suggests that contemporary masculinity exists within a critical period of flux, the stress of which is negatively affecting adolescent males' identity formation (Barker 2005;Claussen 2017;Eisler 2018;Jeffries 2019;Kessler 1999;Pedersen 1994;Ward 2016). The problem does not lie inherently with masculinity itself, but with the culture in which masculinity operates. ...
Article
Formal rites of passage (ROP) processes are largely lacking within Western culture. This scarcity is seen to be detrimental to adolescent boys’ masculine identity formation. With schools bearing increased responsibility for the well-being of students, and as a way of addressing the apparent cultural deficiency, interest in school-based ROP programs has expanded. This scoping review adopted a systematic methodology to refine an initial accumulation of 708 articles. Nine key articles investigating the impact of school-based ROP programs for adolescent boys were examined. The ROP programs were analyzed according to rationale, design, and impact, with each program focusing on three major domains of impact—community, responsibility, and identity. The review found that adolescent boys’ participation in ROP programs may enhance community engagement, build responsible citizenship, and improve self-perception through the development of positive masculine identity.
... Respect is intangible but has significant repercussions for young men's identities, so it must be contested and guarded (Barker, 2005;Irwin-Rogers, 2019). Knife-carrying thus has dual benefits: as a tool for respect and status not afforded by society, and, as an outlet for violent frustrations (ibid). ...
... However, as Elijah Anderson (1999) and others (e.g., Barker, 2005;Bourgois, 1996) argue, this respect is, and always will be, out of reach for those like Maxwell's young men. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This qualitative study explores how the masculine performances of young black men inform their knife-carrying on an inner-city London estate. Young men’s narratives describe how their spaces, which contain violent ‘street codes’, shape the idealised, hegemonic, and complicit masculinities of the street, leading some to justify their knife-carrying. The study also examines the role that formal (e.g., youth workers, police) and informal (parents, peers, social media) agents play in young men’s vulnerability and masculine idealisations. My research uses an interactionist approach within an urban ethnography design. It intersects the fields of gender, criminology and youth studies. Fieldwork took place between February and December 2019. It involved informal conversations and street observations, focus groups, formal interviews, photo projects and community mapping with black males aged between 18-23. During fieldwork, five street-based youth workers also participated in recorded and informal conversations. Using thematic analyses, findings indicate the presence of two localised masculine hegemonies: one, more established and violent, and one emergent, and more inclusive. The thesis highlights how urban ethnography can enhance understandings of young black men’s masculine performances in inner-city spaces and explores various methodologically creative approaches to engaging ‘marginalised’ participants, including the use of youth workers as gatekeepers. The research has implications for street-based youth work practise: firstly, the findings highlight several risk factors in young men’s lives, requiring mitigation; secondly, they emphasise the importance of street-based youth workers in modelling less violent and more inclusive patterns of masculinity.
... Masculinity is an ideology that is everywhere around us, especially in the United States, a society that primarily operates through patriarchal norms and expectations. According to Gary Barker (2005): ...
... Institutionalized racism makes it difficult for people of color to attain opportunities or succeed in a society that was not built for them. Barker (2005) states that, "both Black and Latino men experience the same 141 high rates of incarceration, marginalization in the workplace, and struggle to 'prove' themselves in an economy where they simply cannot be breadwinners." In a study conducted by Ramaswamy (2010), she found that the men she interviewed pointed to male figures as a source of learning manhood. ...
... Masculinity is an ideology that is everywhere around us, especially in the United States, a society that primarily operates through patriarchal norms and expectations. According to Gary Barker (2005): ...
... Institutionalized racism makes it difficult for people of color to attain opportunities or succeed in a society that was not built for them. 38 Barker (2005) states that, "both Black and Latino men experience the same high rates of incarceration, marginalization in the workplace, and struggle to 'prove' themselves in an economy where they simply cannot be breadwinners." In a study conducted by Ramaswamy (2010), she found that the men she interviewed pointed to male figures as a source of learning manhood. ...
... En estos contextos, ciertas investigaciones subrayan la existencia de subculturas que justifican la agresión interpersonal como causa de estos hechos 15,16 . Existen investigaciones que especifican que la agresividad es un recurso expresivo destinado a producir identidades masculinas en contextos de vulnerabilidad social [17][18][19][20][21] . ...
... Finalmente, un último aspecto se relaciona con los modos en los que este tipo de sociabilidades participan de la construcción de la masculinidad. Existen estudios que subrayan que la agresión puede ser una expresión paroxística de los modos en los que se produce la identidad masculinidad en jóvenes de sectores populares [17][18][19][20]54 . Desde esta perspectiva, los jóvenes buscan mediante el ejercicio de la agresión un reconocimiento por sus pares en un contexto de exclusión penetrante: se agrede para ser valorado como un varón protector, proveedor, o autosuficiente 20 . ...
Article
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Resumen Este trabajo se propone comprender por qué las agresiones interpersonales que conducen a homicidios en jóvenes pueden ser toleradas reclamadas o aclamadas en los contextos de sociabilidad en las que se suceden. La metodología desarrollada fue cualitativa, es decir que procuró documentar y analizar los significados y experiencias de los actores desde sus perspectivas. El trabajo de campo se realizó con jóvenes varones de sectores populares que habitan seis municipios del conurbano bonaerense entre 2014 y 2017. Entre los resultados sostenemos que la habilitación a las agresiones letales se vincula con una reducción de la sociabilidad juvenil a grupos de pares con fuertes anclajes territoriales. Esta reducción se expresa como una consecuencia de la debilidad de los vínculos familiares, laborales e institucionales en la conformación de la experiencia social de los jóvenes. En los grupos de pares las repuestas a las afrentas pueden ser valoradas no sólo como forma de intervenir en los conflictos, sino como fuente de pertenencia y reconocimiento social. Concluimos que estas sociabilidades reducidas expresan desigualdades sociopolíticas que contribuyen a que el homicidio sea un acontecimiento excepcional de espacios de interacción recurrentes.
... The welter of research on masculinities among economically disadvantaged men has celebrated the simplistic narrative that marginality and poverty damage their senses of selves and promote damage-doing among them (Lomas et al. 2012;Silberschmidt 2005Silberschmidt , 2001. In contexts where masculinity is proven through economic self-sufficiency and capacity to provide, poverty and low-income may intensify men's feelings of exclusion from the dominant gender status and category of 'real' men (Cha and Th ebaud 2009, Strier 2005Barker 2005). In support of Baxandall (2004) and Crompton (1999), Strier et al. (2014) argue that low-income and financial instability challenge men's feelings of self-importance and economic self-sufficiency, which is usually performed by means of keeping a decent job. ...
... Young people frequently endorse and espouse gender inequitable norms learned from adults (Barker andRicardo 2006, Sideris 2004). However, they also often challenge them. ...
Article
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Building on recent calls for more focus on street-level optimism about life and the world, we address the question of 'aspirational masculinities' among poor urban young men in Kenya. Our data and material come from ethnographic work with young men in two slum communities in the country's capital city, Nairobi. While acknowledging that, in their neighborhoods, 'proper' masculinity is constituted in traditional terms of marriage, hardiness, provisioning, breadwinning and self-reliance, youth in our study aspired to masculinities characterized by 'abler' breadwinnerhood, caring, positive emotions, relationality, and the rejection of violence. The masculinity aspirations of poor Nairobi youth are complex; fashioned at the crossroads of structural constraints and agentive projects for a good life, and simultaneously supportive and resistive of traditional hegemonic manliness ideals. These aspirations are limited by and reflect an objective condition of everyday and enduring inequality while also signifying a deep unmet yearning for positive social and livelihood changes. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Morrell (2001) also examined masculinity norms and how these norms have been changing among men in Southern Africa, while Luyt and Foster (2001) have examined how hegemonic masculine conceptualization is inherent in gang culture. Furthermore, Barker (2005) addresses how young men engage in dangerous ventures to both meet masculine ideals and avoid social exclusion, while Adomako Ampofo and Boateng (2007) address the multiple meanings of manhood among boys in Ghana. More recently, Ratele (2017) explores the situated psychologies of boys and men in relation to masculinities in Africa, while Mfecane (2018) focuses on understanding and theorizing masculinities in ways that are African-centered. ...
... This argument strongly emphasizes critical analysis of the broader micro-and macro structures, processes, and systems within which young men always need to position themselves, both individually and collectively, in relation to dominant notions of manhood (Chant, 2000;Silberschmidt, 1999). Although violence may not be constitutive of dominant masculinity, it may be used by young men as a "shortcut" to reaffirm masculine power, control, and dominance in a context where the main routes to credible masculinity is unattainable (Barker, 2005;Barker & Ricardo, 2005;Ratele, 2008;Ratele, Smith, van Niekerk, & Seedat, 2011). Violence thus functions as an important communicative mechanism to validate and valorize specific models of masculinity within a specific space and time. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article focuses broadly on how young men construct, negotiate, and express masculine identities in northwestern Ghana. Situated within discourses of ruling masculinity, and drawing on qualitative interviews, this article provides locally grounded insights about how young men articulate and make themselves visible by negotiating and renegotiating the interplay of complex struggles and realities to maintain dominance over peers. Findings suggest that dominant norms on the meanings of being a young Dagaaba man entail ambivalences, status insecurity, contradictory desires, and an investment to always act in satisfaction of the observer's gaze. The danger of being looked down on emerges as an important organizing framework that shapes participants' engagement in discursive and exaggerated behaviors and violence. Consequently, young men engage in dramatic performances and public displays to further authenticate their manhood, which provokes and authorizes young men to mask their feelings of vulnerability. The implications of these findings are discussed.
... In order to earn a masculine seal of approval, men are willing to conform to a masculinity that has been shown to be detrimental to men's physical, emotional, and psychological health (Addis 2008;Connell and Messerschmidt 2005;Courtenay 2011;Kilmartin 2010;Kimmel 2010;Land et al. 2011;Lindley and Schwartz 2006;Lomas et al. 2012;O'Neil 2008O'Neil , 2013O'Neil , 2014Smiler 2013;Way 2013). Avoidance of showing and sharing emotions, so crucial for those taking the High Road, is taught to men early on under the rules of hegemonic masculinity (see Barker 2005;Burn and Ward 2005;Emslie et al. 2006;Grossman and Wood 1993;Parkins 2012;Sinclair and Taylor 2004;Wong and Rochlen 2008). ...
Article
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Divorcing couples in western societies are strongly encouraged to “take the High Road,” which is accomplished by not “involving the children.” The stoicism demanded of a father in the wake of a divorce is doubly imperative, dictated by both the High Road and masculinity codes. A “real man” takes the High Road even if he suspects that this is critically damaging his relationship with his children. This article is part of a study consisting of qualitative, semi-structured interviews of 50 men in Israel and the United States who were left by the women they loved. The research was conducted from a gendered and narrative perspective, and the analysis relied strongly on Gilligan’s “Listening Guide.” The article explores six tolls of the High Road from the specific perspective of these men: (1) Not telling the true story of the divorce is often perceived by children and the men themselves as telling a lie. (2) A fear of inappropriately burdening children stifles communication between parents and children. (3) In never blaming Mom, a man often becomes emotionally unknowable to his children. (4) A narrative of the divorce will emerge for the children, but without the father’s perspective it will be a distorted narrative. (5) Not speaking truthfully with the kids when they are young severely limits subsequent discussions of the divorce when they are adults. (6) Living in fear of “losing the kids” is not a helpful guide toward a meaningful relationship with one’s children. The article concludes by suggesting that it is possible for a divorced man to find a sensitive and age-appropriate way to share his pain with his children.
... Much of the existing literature relies exclusively on community narratives or young women's accounts (Strebel et al. 2013;Jewkes, Dartnall, et al. 2012;Shefer and Strebel 2012), disregarding the relational quality of transactional sex and failing to incorporate men's perspectives (Jewkes, Dartnall, et al. 2012). It likewise ignores the existence of multiple masculinities, the diversity of men's sexuality (Shefer and Strebel 2012;Barker 2005) and the intersection of masculinities with variables such as socio-economic status and age (Dworkin, Fleming, and Colvin 2015). Evaluation of efforts to reduce transactional sex in South Africa and Tanzania have shown little effectiveness (Kaufman et al. 2016;Van der Heijden and Swartz 2014;Kaufman et al. 2013;Brouard and Crewe 2012), which highlights the risks of both framing men as a homogenous group, and adopting shaming and punitive approaches to working with men and adolescent boys. ...
Article
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Men’s role in transactional sex is relatively unexplored, limiting initiatives to prevent exploitative transactional sex and its negative health implications for girls and women. We addressed this literature gap by conducting eight focus group discussions and twenty in-depth-interviews with boys and men aged 14�49 years in 2015 in Tanzania. We employed a novel combination of theoretical perspectives–gender and masculinities, and social norms–to understand how transactional sex participation contributes to perpetuating gendered hierarchies, and how reference groups influence men’s behaviour. Findings signal two gender norms that men display within transactional sex: the expectation of men’s provision in sexual relationships, and the expectation that men should exhibit heightened sexuality and sexual prowess. Adherence to these expectations in transactional sex relationships varied between older and younger men and created hierarchies among men and between men and women and girls. We found that approval of transactional sex was contested. Although young men were likely to object to transactional sex, they occupied a structurally weaker position than older men. Findings suggest that interventions should employ gender synchronised and gen-der transformative approaches and should prioritise the promotion of alternative positive norms over preventing the exchange of gifts or money in relationships.
... Researchers have identified several limitations to framing effects. Specifically, acceptance of frames may be conditioned by strong predispositions, which increase resistance to information that contradicts existing beliefs (Barker, 2005;Druckman, 2001;Goode & Ben-Yehuda, 1994). Those frames that reflect preexisting attitudes, tap into core beliefs or resonate with broader cultural values are most effective (Snow, Rochford Jr, Worden, & Benford, 1986;Taylor & Van Dyke, 2004). ...
Article
Prior work has reported mixed evidence for the gender gap in crime concern and crime responses, yet very few studies have considered the importance of the framing of a crime in explaining this gap. Crime frames are important because they can raise deep levels of concern that activate a criminal justice system response to the crime. This study draws on the literature on problem framing to examine gender differences in crime concern and crime responses in relation to human trafficking. Human trafficking is a type of crime that has raised public alarm in the U.S and is being framed by the government and the media as a crime to which women are at increased risk. Using data from a national probability sample of approximately 2000 Americans, the findings show that beliefs about the causes of human trafficking, specifically gender discrimination and transnational crime, are associated with gender differences in concern and activation of the criminal justice system. These findings can guide future research on gender differences in crime concern and crime responses and call for research and policies that are sensitive to gendered effects of framing on public opinion about crime and criminal justice issues.
... By questioning gender stereotypes, youth who already act as Bvoices of resistance^to rigid gender norms (Barker 2005) become further engaged and serve as role models for other youth. This can be seen through the manifestations of community change campaigns implemented as part of Program H|M. ...
Article
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Extensive practice-based evidence from international settings, as well as in-depth evaluations of programs promoting gender equity, have demonstrated effectiveness in reducing perpetration of violence against women and girls. Such “gender-transformative programs” encourage critical analysis of gender norms, challenge homophobia and gender-based harassment, build skills to question harmful masculine norms, interrupt harmful and disrespectful behaviors, and encourage more equitable behaviors. Here we describe the history of a gender-transformative program, “Program H,” first developed in Brazil and Mexico, the rationale for and evaluation of this original program, and the processes of adaptation for the US urban community-based setting, and highlight the risks as well as opportunities on the work with young men and boys in the future.
... The 'ganging process' (Baird, 2018a) has been conceptualised as a form of gendered socialisation that insulates boys and young men from the threat of emasculation in the urban margins, reflected in findings across the globe (e.g. Barker, 2005;Buller, 2015;Heinonen, 2011;Jensen, 2008). Most notably in sociology and anthropology, gangs have been considered socially generated epiphenomena of structural violence, and this frames the protest, resistant, rebellious and compensatory reactions by young men to societal expectations to achieve predominantly traditional, normative, and 'hegemonic' forms of masculinity. ...
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Belize has one of the highest homicide rates in the world; however, the gangs at the heart of this violence have rarely been studied. Using a masculinities lens and original empirical data, this article explores how Blood and Crip “gang transnationalism” from the United States of America flourished in Belize City. Gang transnationalism is understood as a “transnational masculinity” that makes cultural connections between local settings of urban exclusion. On one hand, social terrains in Belize City generated masculine vulnerabilities to the foreign gang as an identity package with the power to reconfigure positions of subordination; on the other, the establishment of male gang practices with a distinct hegemonic shape, galvanized violence and a patriarchy of the streets in already marginalized communities. This article adds a new body of work on gangs in Belize, and gang transnationalism, whilst contributing to theoretical discussions around the global to local dynamics of hegemonic masculinities discussed by Connell and Messerschmidt (2005) and Messerschmidt (2018).
... In so far, as all of the respondents in this study emanated from traditional lower working-class backgrounds and had pre-empted their transition into adult life at the expense of formal education, their life histories correlated strongly with the findings of those who have eloquently mapped the existence of 'disaffected' youth in compulsory educational settings (Messerschmidt, 1994;Willis, 1977). Likewise, these life histories manifested myriad connections between masculine identity and crime which have also been well documented (see Barker, 2005;Newburn and Stanko, 1994). The construction of such attitudes is complex and by no means uniform but collectively what many of these accounts highlight is that, as far as adolescent males are concerned, class-based narratives of educational dismissal may be closely linked with the development of a 'protest' masculine identity which militates against conventional notions of waged labour and which often rejects traditional forms of citizenship (see Connell, 1995Connell, , 2000Connell and Messerschmidt, 2005;Ilan, 2011Ilan, , 2013McDowell et al., 2014). ...
Article
Despite a fall in recorded crime in the UK in recent years, youth offending continues to present itself as a social problem in many communities and has become an issue of serious concern for practitioners, politicians, and policymakers alike. Where educational programmes have been utilised to address recidivism, a focus on developing aspects of personally responsible citizenship has dominated. This article presents the findings of one such programme, which was designed to deliver a residential care and support package to young males (aged 16–18) with the aim of reducing their likelihood of re-offending. More specifically, the article provides insight into some of the key elements of the ‘journey to citizenship’ that these young men undertook highlighting how the initiation of interpersonal relationships around notions of acceptance and recognition, provided the foundations upon which personally responsible citizenship might be constructed.
... 34 Mariano, Slegh, and Roque 3 Theories of masculinity commonly assume that men engage in certain social behaviours and practices in order to prove their masculinity to each other, to women, and to society at large. The purpose of this gendered web of practices and rules is to assure men that they are recognised as part of a group (Barker 2005 ). The way men and women conduct their gendered lives defi nes how they perceive themselves, and how they construct their gender identities; this affects their bodily experiences, their personality, and even their culture (Connell 2005 ). ...
... 34 Mariano, Slegh, and Roque 3 Theories of masculinity commonly assume that men engage in certain social behaviours and practices in order to prove their masculinity to each other, to women, and to society at large. The purpose of this gendered web of practices and rules is to assure men that they are recognised as part of a group (Barker 2005 ). The way men and women conduct their gendered lives defi nes how they perceive themselves, and how they construct their gender identities; this affects their bodily experiences, their personality, and even their culture (Connell 2005 ). ...
... Indeed, some brain research confirms that neocortex functions and other higher brain structures are involved in reducing aggression (Renfrew, 1997). This provides some neurological basis for confirming what has already been confirmed in psychology, namely that humans can control their aggressive tendencies through more complex levels of cognition (Barker, 2005b). Any biological propensity or predisposition towards violence or aggression is therefore mediated by the social context and individual factors. ...
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The chapter first reviews the principal theories on why young men are more likely to turn to armed violence than other demographic groups. It finds that traditional biological and demographic arguments do not sufficiently take into account the multiple factors that encourage and prevent young men from resorting to violence. It argues that gender ideologies—particularly those that associate masculinity with power—offer crucial insight into why many marginalized young men see violence as an attractive means of achieving manhood and respect. The second section argues that small arms can be an important part of this complex social equation. It examines how the functional and symbolic attributes of small arms make them attractive for young men wishing to achieve power through association with or participation in violence. The final section reviews opportunities to address the problem by controlling young men’s access to small arms and countering their espousal of a violent masculine ideology. available at https://www.smallarmssurvey.org/sites/default/files/resources/Small-Arms-Survey-2006-Chapter-12-EN.pdf
... Moreover, the equation of women and girls displaced with vulnerability has been used to mobilise support for humanitarian activity and refugee work (Johnson 2011). Recent studies (Krystalli, Hawkins and Wilson 2017) reiterate these findings, demonstrating that actors engaged in refugee assistance, states and humanitarian agencies alike, tend to equate vulnerability with 'womenandchildren' (Enloe 1990), thus failing to recognise the challenges that adult men and people outside the context of a heterosexual family unit face on the move, as well as neglecting them as priorities for protection and support, which, in turn, mirrors findings of broader research on masculinity and war (Sommers 2011;Myrtinnen, Khattab and Naujoks 2017) and peacetime (Connell 1995;Barker 2005). ...
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This article focuses on media representations of ‘the South in the North’ crosscutting the European mediascape in 2015 and the beginning of 2016. Assuming that both identities and perceptions of in/security are socially constructed, particularly by means of discourse, that security is gendered and gender constructions are in turn built on dynamics of in/security, and that gendered power relations and representations are always entangled with other structures of inequality and domination such as racism, this article argues that gendered categories of othering in the media’s representations have been critical to produce and justify 1) hegemonic narratives of securitisation that aim to protect an imagined European identity and 2) counter-narratives denouncing the racial and cultural discrimination tied to the ‘North’s’ hegemonic representations of refugees. Theoretically, the article proposes a dialogue among critical, feminist, and postcolonial peace and security studies. Methodologically, it analyses through discourse analysis three highly mediatised cases by examining the social representations of the refugees, namely their gendered components put forward by representative European media outlets based in the UK. It explores their implications in terms of the consolidation of stereotypes and hierarchies of suffering according to criteria of credibility/suspicion and vulnerability/threat, and identifies some examples of media counter-narratives on refugee flows through specific gendered and racialised representations.
... alguns estudos mostram que grupos de pares machistas, violentos e com atitudes sexistas favorecem estes tipos de comportamento por seus pares, inclusive na coerção e obtenção de relações sexuais. Da mesma forma, grupos de pares não violentos, com atitudes de respeito e consideração em relação às mulheres também engendram atitudes respeitosas entre seus pares (Souza, 2003;Barker, 2005). a experiência mostra que trabalhos em grupos que questionem padrões estereotipados de gênero e que conduzam a uma reflexão crítica sobre o que é ser homem e o que é ser mulher na atualidade podem alavancar processos de mudança de perspectiva por parte de homens e mulheres jovens (ricardo et al., 2010). ...
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Resultado de um Seminário com homens propondo novos caminhos para enfrentar a violência contra a mulher.
... del total de muertes en concordancia con los reportes que indican que en promedio los varones tienen el cuádruple de probabilidades de fallecer por lesiones por el tránsito, como ocurre en Canadá y Estados Unidos con 69.6 %, Caribe 82.9 %, Cono Sur 79.04% y Región Andina que incluye a Perú con 79.8%, en general la literatura indica una proporción de 3/1, cifra que podría incluir lo indicado por Barker por la mayor exposición al riesgo, así como por el hecho de tratar de probarlo. 19,20,21 La letalidad durante el período de estudio alcanzo 2.38 %, y anualmente se incrementó gradualmente de 1.33%, para el 2016, y 2.77 % y 3.29 % en los años sucesivos. ...
... Our fi rst interpretative hypothesis is that the intention of killing is seen more within the male population. The second hypothesis is that men, and especially young men, seek medical assistance less often than women (Barker 2005) when they suffer injuries. This is particularly rel- evant in the case of fi rearm-related injuries, which may be explained by the fact that they do not want to be stigmatised or seen as criminals. ...
... However, even in contexts where there are high levels of gender parity in education, behaviours relating to health and mortality can be highly gendered -for example, in a number of countries, men have been shown to be more at risk of poor mental health and suicide, violence and homicide (as both victims and perpetrators) -meaning that education must also address norms around masculinities, femininities and health (Barker, 2005;Hawkes and Buse, 2013). For example, in Brazil rates of violence and violent death are particularly high for young men, particularly in urban areas, where lack of education and employment opportunities may lead boys and young men to adopt risky lifestyles associated with gangs and work in the drugs trade (Imbusch et al, 2011). ...
Article
This paper was commissioned by the Global Education Monitoring Report as background information to assist in drafting the 2016 report. It has not been edited by the team. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the author(s) and should not be attributed to the Global Education Monitoring Report or to UNESCO. The papers can be cited with the following reference: “Paper commissioned for the Global Education Monitoring Report 2016, Education for people and planet: Creating sustainable futures for all”. For further information, please contact gemreport@unesco.org.
... Vyrų socialinės atskirties ir vyriškumo, kaip jos veiksnio, tyrimų gerokai mažiau. Tiek socialinės atskirties riziką patiriantys vyrai, tiek jų vyriškumas išlieka mokslinių tyrimų paribyje (Barker 2005;Tereškinas 2011;Frederiksen 2013) dėl vis dar nelygiavertės vyrų ir moterų padėties visuomenėje. Manoma, kad daugiau dėmesio skiriant socialiniams vyrų klausimams, primirštama moterų nelygybė ir jų problemos, o tai trukdo įgyvendinti lyčių lygybės siekinį (Modleski 1991;Thomas 2002). ...
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Unemployed, homeless and imprisoned men analysed in this study live their lives not only at risk of social exclusion but also in an impasse at the level of the imaginary: remaining attached to the normative fantasy of good life, they are also not sure about the ways of changing their situation, living different lives and choosing worthwhile ones. We attempted to demonstrate, in the book, to what extent desperate optimism as an effect of the incessant good life fantasy inspires this attachment. The notion of the economy of disappointment that manifests the distribution of this affect in both social and psychic fields made us reflect on the possibilities and limitations of men’s everyday lives. More information on the book is available here: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/handle/1/32087?show=full
... As far as bodily, interpersonal violence is concerned, numerous studies show that many men, especially younger men, actively or passively support the idea that to be successfully masculine one must be ready and able to employ violence against others, to defend and withstand violence against oneself, to be invulnerable (Andersson, 2008;Barker, 2005;Ratele, 2008). In other words, men may quell their fears and instead opt for violence ignoring emotional pain in order to prove their masculinity. ...
Article
Drawing a line from Black men dehumanized by racism to radical political love, I open up about my experience of racism-induced fear of White people. The fear of Whites is tied to having grown up in a racist society. This fear of Whites is read as a fear of Black death due to racism, a fear of bodily death as much as social nonexistence. The article is used to work out how we might extirpate the fear of White people deposited by racism inside of Black people, with a focus on Black men. It draws from the work of Steve Biko, a leader in the Black Consciousness Movement that flourished in South Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. Regarding Biko as an eminent psychopolitical activist, who followed in the tradition of politically conscious psychiatrist Frantz Fanon, it is contended that Black Conscious thought enables individuals to stamp out racism-induced fear.
... La sobremortalidad masculina por causas violentas ha llevado a afirmar que las formas de subjetivación masculina en la región son indisociables de las condiciones de marginalización, fragmentación social y violencia institucional (Cruz Sierra y Nateras Domínguez, 2019; Imbusch y Huhn, 2011;Ramos de Souza, 2005). Barker (2005) ha explorado la violencia letal en jóvenes varones de sectores marginalizados en América Latina. Este estudio, y otras publicaciones de PROMUNDO, enfatizan los aspectos estructurales que condicionan las trayectorias masculinas: retos para insertarse en el mercado de trabajo, la vinculación con instituciones de cuidado y educativas, etc. La prescripción por desarrollar una identidad masculina está atravesada por la definición negativa frente a la homosexualidad, la feminidad y la dependencia. ...
Book
¿Quiénes son los varones que cometen homicidios? ¿Cómo son sus vidas y qué eventos las marcan? ¿Qué sentido le dan a la muerte violenta? Y, ¿cómo experimentan el momento del crimen? Desde una perspectiva microsociológica y narrativa, este libro indaga sobre los relatos de vida de varones cisgénero que produjeron la muerte de otros varones en peleas y enfrentamientos en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. La propuesta teórica y empírica de este libro es tanto el resultado de una vacancia académica en comprender las vidas de perpetradores de violencia letal, como también una respuesta a la parcialización disciplinar en el campo de estudios de la violencia. Esta investigación surge del interés por integrar diferentes dimensiones que permitan complejizar este fenómeno. Las vidas previas al evento, la dinámica experiencial durante los enfrentamientos y las explicaciones del acto son, de este modo, tres modos de abordar, desmenuzar y estudiar qué ocurre en la vida de estos varones. Esta tesis doctoral explora y examina los sentidos con los que se gestiona el haber cometido un homicidio y, a su vez, da cuenta de la lectura estoica con la que los varones reconstruyen los enfrentamientos. El hecho de que el homicidio no siempre sea experimentado como un giro biográfico, que los conflictos entre varones seas vividos como inevitables y viscerales, y que los varones empleen diferentes historias para justificar, racionalizar, neutralizar y, en algunos casos, legitimar el matar son algunos de los resultados que esta tesis explora. Las preguntas y respuestas sobre el campo de la violencia que aquí se desprenden tienen como intención contribuir a las miradas que se han encargado de comprender las condiciones de posibilidad sociales y subjetivas de la violencia letal. Este libro se encuadra en la profunda convicción de hacer visibles los modos dominantes en que las identidades masculinas se vinculan, a la vez que producen y reproducen ciertos sentidos sobre la agresión física cómo práctica legítima, viable o “inevitable” para abordar conflictos interpersonales.
... Такие же императивы действуют и в других экосистемах, куда не может в достаточной мере проникнуть государство. люди, живущие в мире улиц, с их особым кодексом поведения, вынуждены бороться за «уважение», используя силу или угрозу ее применения (Katz 1988;Bourgois 1995;Anderson 1999;Barker 2005; lauger 2012). Они вовлекаются в убийственный кругооборот насилия, чтобы отстоять мужскую честь, с которой ассоциируют свой статус. ...
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Книга посвящена российским уличным преступным группировкам. Центральное место в ней занимают казанские группировки, их история, моральный кодекс ("пацанские понятия"), экономическая деятельность и трансформация этих организаций с конца 1970-х годов по 2000-е включительно. Помимо казанских группировок в книге анализируются имеющиеся данные по группировкам в других регионах России. Используя тексты углубленных интервью с участниками группировок, работниками правоохранительных органов и местными жителями, автор рассматривает практики насилия в группировках, взаимодействие между "реальными пацанами" и их родителями, учителями, соседями, работниками органов власти. Показано также влияние культуры группировок на массовую культуру и политический дискурс.
Article
Peacebuilding is more likely to succeed in countries with higher levels of gender equality, but few studies have examined the link between subnational gender relations and local peace and, more generally, peacebuilding after communal conflict. This article addresses this gap. I examine gender relations and (non)violence in ethno-religious conflict in the city of Jos in central Nigeria. Jos and its rural surroundings have repeatedly suffered communal clashes that have killed thousands, sometimes within only days. Drawing on qualitative data collected during fieldwork, I analyze the gender dimensions of violence, nonviolence, and postviolence prevention. I argue that civilian agency is gendered. Gender relations and distinct notions of masculinity can facilitate or constrain people’s mobilization for fighting. Hence, a nuanced understanding of the gender dimensions of (non)violence has important implications for conflict prevention and local peacebuilding.
Article
This paper discusses the factors affecting the development of young people and their reproductive and sexual health. It reviews literature on the behaviour of young people vis a vis their reproductive and sexual risk behaviours such as low knowledge of contraception, high infection rate, early sexual initiation, early child bearing, unsafe abortion and lack of Information on STIs and HIV/AIDS. The health belief model was used as a basis to examine whether young people consider their health as important in their daily decision in relation to the issue of sexual activity. The paper also examines the relevance of Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development which deals with how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self. The paper sums up documented studies on the poor health-seeking behaviours of young people which is the bases for their continuous risky behaviour. It finally argues that poor information seeking behaviour among young people could be based on cultural and traditional values that prevent information seeking on sexual issues. It then recommends that reliable information should be disseminated through public health campaigns, the media, and the educational system.
Article
Drawing on interviews conducted with young men residing in a hostel in a tertiary institution in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, in 2016, this article explores young black men’s construction of masculine sexuality, their approaches to romantic relationships, and responsibility within them. Through the use of semi-structured interviews conducted with young black men, the study investigated the relationship between the social construction of masculinities and the way in which these young men understood, talked about, and explained their views and actions regarding romance and sexuality. The study focuses on the voices of acceptance and resistance to traditional, patriarchal versions of manhood and the variations in men’s discourses and ways of being. It highlights through these voices that heterosexual masculinities are not inherently reckless, impassive, and uncaring, but are situationally and contextually constructed. The findings reveal that while the young men inhabited subject positions offered by traditional discourses of heterosexual masculinity, at the same time they also contested these dominant discourses in the complex and multifarious processes through which these young men constituted their identity.
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How has the male supremacy movement developed as a category of alt-right extremism to become a clear and present danger in the U.S.? Male supremacy is an ideology which advocates for the subjugation of women based on the representation of women as genetically inferior, manipulative, and reduced to sexual function. Male supremacists can generally be categorized in three ways: Involuntary celibates (Incels), Men’s Rights Activists (MRAs), and Pick Up Artists (PUAs). Connected by feelings of entitlement and hatred of both women and feminism, these groups gather on accessible and dissociative online platforms, where they grow and radicalize quickly. The Alternative Right is often defined as a set of far-right ideologies whose core belief is that their “white identity” is under attack by multicultural forces using “political correctness” and “social justice.” At the core of these ideologies is the aim to revert political systems to some imagined or perceived ideal past or “golden age,” and may be based in ideal scenarios where Christianity reigns, white people are dominant, or men have more power. By analyzing different types of male supremacist groups and as well as what connects and motivates them, I will examine the ways that the male supremacist movement contributes to alt-right violence in the U.S. Through the use of academic journals, news articles, and referencing cases of misogynist violence, I will discuss the increasing threat of alt-right violence from the male supremacist movement. Submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy.
Article
This article showcases how young men, from a high school in Aotearoa/New Zealand, made sense of the rules of homosociality, with specific reference to how boyfriends and girlfriends should act in their relationships with one another. Young men talked about the importance of being a ‘good’ homosocial mate, which led them to also talk about the importance of expelling femininity as a way for them to manage their masculine identities and avoid being shamed, and therefore feminized. This article will argue that these reactions to femininity were embedded in a homosocial habitus, influencing how young men made sense of the various overlapping fields of action. Young men’s talk, however, also presented a range of ambivalences that contradicted these endorsements of homosociality. These contradictions are meaningful because of the opportunities they present in disrupting the hegemonic sense-makings of homosociality and gendered roles in (hetero) romantic interactions.
Chapter
The opening chapter of the book describes how the publication—and the research on which is it predicated—emerged from the author’s own experiences of imprisonment. It then situates the study in global, national and regional contexts of economic change. In doing so, the author explorers how such shifts have impacted the men who exist at the margins at the local level. The chapter affords an overview of existing scholarship on the (interconnected) subjects of men, masculinity, education, employment, crime and imprisonment. This research has shaped the study’s primary aim: that of exploring the classed and gendered trajectories of male prisoners to determine the extent to which significant cultural and institutional spaces are complicit in the construction and reinforcement of versions of protest masculinities.
Chapter
Maguire, in this chapter, reviews the existing scholarship on the ways in which boys and men navigate post-industrial masculinities. Considering the debates that surround economic change in the UK, he explores its impact on gender relations and gendered identities at the national, regional and local levels. The rich plethora of research on working-class masculinity, schooling and attainment are unpicked. Maguire then discusses how the changing nature of school-to-work transitions impacts undereducated working-class boys most severely. Turning to focus on criminal masculinities, Maguire then shows how—in environments that offer few legitimate avenues to manhood—crime and violence afford the most accessible and potent resources for “doing masculinity”. Noting that most prison populations are 90–95% male, Maguire reflects on the dearth of research on prison masculinities
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When gender analyses are used in government violence prevention discourses, the focus is primarily upon women as victims, sometimes with an acknowledgement that most of the perpetrators are male. Many violence prevention advocates maintain that men’s violence against women is substantially different to men’s violence against men, on the basis that most violence against women occurs in the home, while most violence against men occurs in public settings. They also suggest that while the patterns and dynamics of men’s violence against women are gendered, men’s violence against men is not gendered. The main argument of this chapter is that men’s violence against women can best be understood in the context of men’s other violences, including men’s gendered violence against other men. The implication of the interrelatedness of different forms of men’s violence is that strategies to address one form of men’s violence need to address other forms of men’s violence. Consequently, we cannot eliminate men’s violence against women without also understanding and addressing the other violences of men in patriarchy.
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This book addresses different challenges that endanger the lives of children in South Africa from an ethical perspective. The text is meant to position itself as a resource for specialists (and practitioners) in ethics and childhood studies. The content is systematically and intersectionally presented, based on scholarly analyses, insights, reasoning, and expertise – originating in different disciplines and backgrounds. It endeavours to help especially those who study the sociocultural contexts of children and families in terms of challenges and opportunities, and for possible support.
Chapter
This book addresses different challenges that endanger the lives of children in South Africa from an ethical perspective. The text is meant to position itself as a resource for specialists (and practitioners) in ethics and childhood studies. The content is systematically and intersectionally presented, based on scholarly analyses, insights, reasoning, and expertise – originating in different disciplines and backgrounds. It endeavours to help especially those who study the sociocultural contexts of children and families in terms of challenges and opportunities, and for possible support.
Chapter
This book addresses different challenges that endanger the lives of children in South Africa from an ethical perspective. The text is meant to position itself as a resource for specialists (and practitioners) in ethics and childhood studies. The content is systematically and intersectionally presented, based on scholarly analyses, insights, reasoning, and expertise – originating in different disciplines and backgrounds. It endeavours to help especially those who study the sociocultural contexts of children and families in terms of challenges and opportunities, and for possible support.
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Gender dimensions of violence, and especially women’s experiences in settings of urban violence have been the subject of important feminist research, including those that highlight gender as essential for comprehensive analyses of security and urban violence, and for promoting solutions and positive change. A primary contribution of feminist research indeed has been to demonstrate that there are both visible and invisible aspects of urban violence. A gap in literature on these gender dimensions is that of men’s construction of masculinities – and how these constructions are challenged during times. An important set of invisible phenomena within urban spaces and their peripheries includes the positive and decolonial responses that occur, including non-violent and feminist cultural and artistic pathways and the factors that lead men to resist to dominant, violent, or ‘hyper’ versions of masculinities. While there is a predominate focus on men’s involvement in violence, far less attention has been placed on men’s non-violent pathways. Based on examples of cultural, artistic and activist practices from the peripheries, namely those emerging in Rio de Janeiro, this article aims to discuss how artivism can challenge gender inequalities and power relations.
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Contemporary research on fatherhood describes fatherhood as a multifaceted, dynamic social, and cultural construction, deeply affected by class, race, and gender inequalities. However, critics claim that dominant theories on fatherhood have been mostly elaborated based on middle‐class, Anglo‐centered, dominant, and mainstream fatherhood, whereas non‐hegemonic, marginalized father groups have remained undertheorized. This article echoes this shortfall and proposes to theorize non‐hegemonic fatherhood through a more inclusive theoretical framework capable of describing the social contexts that shape fathers' identities, behaviors, and cultures. Based on intersectional theories, the article argues for a theoretical revision of the ways in which these groups of non‐hegemonic fathers are represented in research. To illustrate this, we provide some examples of studies based on case studies of marginalized fathers in Israel. Israel is rich ground for such research since it is characterized by traditional models of fatherhood, expressed through hegemonic models of masculinity, as well as normative family models in the context of high levels of ethnic and class inequality.
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The murder rate in Port of Spain, Trinidad, rose dramatically around the turn of the millennium, driven overwhelmingly by young men in gangs in the city’s poor neighborhoods. The literature frequently suggests a causal relationship between gang violence and rising transnational drug flows through Trinidad during this period. However, this is only part of a complex picture and misses the crucial mediating effect of evolving male identities in contexts of pronounced exclusion. Using original data, this article argues that historically marginalized “social terrains” are particularly vulnerable to violence epidemics when exposed to the influence of transnational drug and gun trafficking. When combined with easily available weapons, contextually constructed male hegemonic orders that resonate with the past act as catalysts for contemporary gang violence within those milieus. The study contributes a new empirical body of work on urban violence in Trinidad and the first masculinities-specific analysis of this phenomenon. We argue that contemporary gang culture is a historically rooted, contextually legitimated, male hegemonic street project in the urban margins of Port of Spain.
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The devilish has long been integral to myths, legends, and folklore, firmly located in the relationships between good and evil, and selves and others. But how are ideas of evil constructed in current times and framed by contemporary social discourses? Modern Folk Devils builds on and works with Stanley Cohen’s theory on folk devils and moral panics to discuss the constructions of evil. The authors present an array of case-studies that illustrate how the notion of folk devils nowadays comes into play and animates ideas of otherness and evil throughout the world.Examining current fears and perceived threats, this volume investigates and analyzes how and why these devils are constructed. The chapters discuss how the devilish may take on many different forms: sometimes they exist only as a potential threat, other times they are a single individual or phenomenon or a visible group, such as refugees, technocrats, Roma, hipsters, LGBT groups, and rightwing politicians. Folk devils themselves are also given a voice to offer an essential complementary perspective on how panics become exaggerated, facts distorted, and problems acutely angled. Bringing together researchers from anthropology, sociology, political studies, ethnology, and criminology, the contributions examine cases from across the world spanning from Europe to Asia and Oceania.
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Con base en 40 entrevistas de historias de vida con miembros de las pandillas de Medellín, Colombia, la presente investigación argumenta que muchos jóvenes se unen a las pandillas con el fin de emular y reproducir identidades masculinas que se consideran localmente ‘exitosas’. La acumulación de ‘capital masculino’ por parte de las pandillas, con sus significantes materiales y simbólicos de hombría, acompañados de demostraciones y manifestaciones estilísticas, lleva a los jóvenes a percibirlas como espacios de éxito masculino, lo cual impulsa la reproducción social de las pandillas. Una vez vinculados a la pandilla, se vuelven cada vez más ‘malos’, haciendo uso de la violencia para defender los intereses de la pandilla a cambio de capital masculino. Los líderes de las pandillas, conocidos localmente como los duros, tienden a ser los más malos. El ‘proceso de empandillamiento’ no debe entenderse como un comportamiento juvenil aberrante, sino más bien como un comportamiento lógico y práctico, dado que se percibe a la pandilla como un espacio aspiracional de formación de identidad para jóvenes que llegan a la mayoría de edad en un momento en que las condiciones estructurales de exclusión conspiran contra ellos.
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