Faecal marking behaviour in Eurasian lynx, Lynx lynx
Deniz Mengüllüoğlu, Anne Berger, Daniel Förster, Heribert Hofer
IZW Berlin, Alfred –Kowalke-Str. 17 10315 Berlin,Germany.
This study presents the first findings on faecal marking behaviour in
• A density-dependent scraping behaviour (Fig.1) was frequently displayed
during pre-mating period to keep away the rivals from territories.
•Lynx used a highly aromatic plant, Juniperus oxycedrus, frequently as
•Faecal marking was mostly concentrated on the borders of neighbouring
Faecal marking was most frequent during mating whereas scraping was highly frequent in winter season (pre-mating) (Fig.5)
Among the five categories of marked objects (Fig.6);
A) Juniperus excelsa (aromatic, no spines)
B) Forestry logs
C) Juniperus oxycedrus (Fig.8, highly aromatic, spiny needles)
D) Pinus nigra
Juniperus oxycedrus was significantly more frequently marked (Fig.6/C, Fig.7)
(Mann-Whitney U pairswise p<0.05).
This study aims to reveal the faecal marking behaviour in the Eurasian lynx.
Materials and Methods
•Faeces (n = 100) were found with a scat detection dog (Fig.2) in Autumn 2013-Spring 2015 in Nallihan Mtn.s, Turkey
•The presence, place and season of marking and the markıng object was noted
•DNA swabs were taken from faeces and individuals were identified through microsatellites.
Fig. 1. Camera trap pictures of a a) scraping and b) defecating territorial male lynx.
winter mating summer autumn
Fig.5. Seasonal patterns
1)Avgan B. et al. (2014). Wildl. Biol.; 2) Breitenmoser, U. et al. (2005). ‘Balkan Lynx Field Book.’ (KORA and Cat S.G.); 3) MELLEN, J.D., 1993. Am. Zool.;
4) SMITH J.L.D. et al. (1989). Anim. Behav.
•As a novel insight to the existing research on lynx behaviour (2), this study revealed that faeces are also used for scent marking in the Eurasian lynx .
•The reason for scraping is thought to be the high lynx density in Anatolian lynx populations (1).
•The findings of this study are consistent with those on other felids (4; 3), which show the intensity of faecal marking increasing as the mating season
approaches and the marking locations concentrating on the borders of neighbouring territorial animals (Fig.8).
Fig.3. Presence of faecal marking (%)
Fig. 4. Presence of scraping in marked
Hasan Emir, Serdar Geredelioğlu, Gökhan Yıldızhan, Ömer Kıraç, Ali Onur Sayar, Tanja Noventa, Ivan Palmegiani.