Conference Paper

Increased Throughput DB-EBH Protocol in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors:
If you want to read the PDF, try requesting it from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... and leverage on a Distributed Antenna System (DAS) to get access to the terrestrial systems [1]. UWSNs are not only limited to the exploration purposes, but can also accomplish the demands of a multitude of underwater applications, which include collection of oceanographic data and natural disasters warning systems and support oil or mineral extraction, underwater pipelines or commercial fisheries. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater localization is used as a key element in most applications of underwater communications. Despite Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are usually employed in Terrestrial Wireless Sensor Networks, they cannot be exploited for underwater localization. In fact, GPS signals are highly attenuated by the water, and higher than a couple of meters and can not propagate underwater and especially through the salt water. In place of RF signals, acoustic signals is the most common mode of communication, and the so-called Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks attracted a significant interest due to their great impact on ocean monitoring and exploration. Hydroacoustics, as the study and application of sound in water, is the foundation of underwater localization, but the existing available methods, classified in range-based vs. range-free techniques are affected by several open problems and research challenges. Therefore, an accurate range-based algorithm for localization needs to be developed, and the demand for expeditiously employing the energy of the sensor nodes is still remaining a distinct feature for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks. Because of these argues, an improved interpretation for underwater localization is presented, by first presenting a general localization algorithm, and afterwards deploying the ordinary, beacon nodes in order to find the error and accuracy of sensor localization. After that, we present two localization algorithms named as distance-based and angle-based algorithms. We consider a realistic case where sensor nodes are not time synchronized and the sound speed in water is unknown. Simulation results exhibit that our algorithms compensate for time synchronization, estimate the mean errors in localization and achieve a good localization accuracy.
Article
Full-text available
Designing an efficient deployment method to guarantee optimal monitoring quality is one of the key topics in underwater sensor networks. At present, a realistic approach of deployment involves adjusting the depths of nodes in water. One of the typical algorithms used in such process is the self-deployment depth adjustment algorithm (SDDA). This algorithm mainly focuses on maximizing network coverage by constantly adjusting node depths to reduce coverage overlaps between two neighboring nodes, and thus, achieves good performance. However, the connectivity performance of SDDA is irresolute. In this paper, we propose a depth adjustment algorithm based on connected tree (CTDA). In CTDA, the sink node is used as the first root node to start building a connected tree. Finally, the network can be organized as a forest to maintain network connectivity. Coverage overlaps between the parent node and the child node are then reduced within each sub-tree to optimize coverage. The hierarchical strategy is used to adjust the distance between the parent node and the child node to reduce node movement. Furthermore, the silent mode is adopted to reduce communication cost. Simulations show that compared with SDDA, CTDA can achieve high connectivity with various communication ranges and different numbers of nodes. Moreover, it can realize coverage as high as that of SDDA with various sensing ranges and numbers of nodes but with less energy consumption. Simulations under sparse environments show that the connectivity and energy consumption performances of CTDA are considerably better than those of SDDA. Meanwhile, the connectivity and coverage performances of CTDA are close to those depth adjustment algorithms base on connected dominating set (CDA), which is an algorithm similar to CTDA. However, the energy consumption of CTDA is less than that of CDA, particularly in sparse underwater environments.
Article
Full-text available
With the rapid development of underwater acoustic modem technology, underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) have more applications in long-term monitoring of the deployment area. In the underwater environment, the sensors are costly with limited energy. And acoustic communication medium poses new challenges, including high path loss, low bandwidth, and high energy consumption. Therefore, designing transmission mechanism to decrease energy consumption and to optimize the lifetime of UWASN becomes a significant task. This paper proposes a balance transmission mechanism, and divides the data transmission process into two phases. In the routing set-up phase, an efficient routing algorithm based on the optimum transmission distance is present to optimize the energy consumption of the UWASN. And then, a data balance transmission algorithm is introduced in the stable data transmission phase. The algorithm determines one-hop or multihop data transmission of the node to underwater sink according to the current energy level of adjacent nodes. Furthermore, detailed theoretical analysis evaluates the optimum energy levels in the UWASNs with different scales. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the BTM.
Article
Full-text available
Appropriate network design is very significant for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). Application-oriented UWSNs are planned to achieve certain objectives. Therefore, there is always a demand for efficient data routing schemes, which can fulfill certain requirements of application-oriented UWSNs. These networks can be of any shape, i.e., rectangular, cylindrical or square. In this paper, we propose chain-based routing schemes for application-oriented cylindrical networks and also formulate mathematical models to find a global optimum path for data transmission. In the first scheme, we devise four interconnected chains of sensor nodes to perform data communication. In the second scheme, we propose routing scheme in which two chains of sensor nodes are interconnected, whereas in third scheme single-chain based routing is done in cylindrical networks. After finding local optimum paths in separate chains, we find global optimum paths through their interconnection. Moreover, we develop a computational model for the analysis of end-to-end delay. We compare the performance of the above three proposed schemes with that of Power Efficient Gathering System in Sensor Information Systems (PEGASIS) and Congestion adjusted PEGASIS (C-PEGASIS). Simulation results show that our proposed 4-chain based scheme performs better than the other selected schemes in terms of network lifetime, end-to-end delay, path loss, transmission loss, and packet sending rate.
Article
Full-text available
Energy efficiency and mobility robustness are two of the main performance metrics to be addressed when designing any rout-ing protocol for underwater sensor network (UWSN). Energy efficiency leads to a prolonged network life time, while mobility robustness ensures high and stable delivery ratio. Most of the routing strategies designed for UWSN require a full knowledge of the three dimensional location of nodes. In this paper, we introduce an energy efficient routing schema that does not require any location information, and achieves high packet delivery ratio for both static and mobile scenarios in sparse or dense networks. In our routing strategy, nodes assign themselves to concen-tric layers. A node to layer assignment is determined by signal power of a received interest packet broadcast by sink nodes. Routing paths are determined on the fly, and a forwarder is chosen based on its layer num-ber and residual energy. Nodes are assumed to be able to adjust their transmission power to a finite set of values. Low power level is most likely selected by nodes when the network is dense, whereas a higher power level is selected when the network is sparse or when nodes at lay-ers closer to the sink has more residual energy. Simulation results shows that our routing protocol achieves a high delivery ratio and a low energy consumption while reducing the delay when compared with other routing strategies for both sparse and dense networks.
Article
Full-text available
In many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications such as warning systems or healthcare services it is necessary to update the captured data with location information. A promising solution for statically deployed sensors is to benefit from mobile beacon assisted localization. The main challenge is to design and develop an optimum path planning mechanism for a mobile beacon to decrease the required time for determining location, increase the accuracy of the estimated position and increase the coverage. In this paper, we propose a novel superior path planning mechanism called Z-curve. Our proposed trajectory can successfully localize all deployed sensors with high precision and the shortest required time for localization. We also introduce critical metrics including the ineffective position rate for further evaluation of mobile beacon trajectories. In addition, we consider an accurate and reliable channel model which helps to provide more realistic evaluation. Z-curve is compared with five existing path planning schemes based on three different localization techniques such as Weighted Centroid Localization and trilateration with time priority and accuracy priority. Furthermore, the performance of the Z-curve is evaluated at the presence of obstacles and Z-curve obstacle-handling trajectory is proposed to mitigate the obstacle problem on localization. Simulation results show the advantages of our proposed path planning scheme over the existing schemes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a cooperative transmission scheme for underwater acoustic sensor networks to enhance the network performance. Relay nodes are exploited as virtual antennas to achieve diversity gains. Based on the distinct characteristics of the underwater channel such as high transmission loss, propagation delay, and ambient noises, the paper presents a distributed cooperative scheme including networking protocols and cooperative transmissions at the physical layer in order to enhance the reliability by providing diversity gains through intermediate relay nodes. Destinations and potential relays are selected from a set of neighbor nodes that utilize distance cost and local measurement of the channel conditions into calculation. The simulation and numerical results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the traditional direct transmission schemes in terms of average energy consumption, packet delivery ratio, and end-to-end delay.
Article
Full-text available
As an important part of industrial application (IA), the wireless sensor network (WSN) has been an active research area over the past few years. Due to the limited energy and communication ability of sensor nodes, it seems especially important to design a routing protocol for WSNs so that sensing data can be transmitted to the receiver effectively. An energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor (FAF-EBRM) is proposed in this paper. In FAF-EBRM, the next-hop node is selected according to the awareness of link weight and forward energy density. Furthermore, a spontaneous reconstruction mechanism for local topology is designed additionally. In the experiments, FAF-EBRM is compared with LEACH and EEUC, experimental results show that FAF-EBRM outperforms LEACH and EEUC, which balances the energy consumption, prolongs the function lifetime and guarantees high QoS of WSN.
Article
Full-text available
Energy optimized Path Unaware Layered Routing Protocol (E-PULRP) for dense 3D Underwater Sensor Network (UWSN) is proposed and analysed in this paper. In the proposed E-PULRP, sensor nodes report events to a stationary sink node using on the fly routing. E-PULRP consists of a layering phase and communication phase. In the layering phase, a layering structure is presented wherein nodes occupy different layers in the form of concentric shells, around a sink node. The layer widths and transmission energy of nodes in each layer are chosen taking into consideration the probability of successful packet transmission and minimization of overall energy expenditure in packet transmission. During the communication phase, we propose a method to select intermediate relay nodes on the fly, for delivering packets from the source node to sink node. We develop a mathematical framework to analyse the energy optimization achieved by E-PULRP. We further obtain expressions for throughput, delay and derive performance bounds for node densities and packet forwarding probabilities, for given traffic conditions. A comparison is made between the results obtained based on simulations and analytical expressions. The energy efficiency is also demonstrated in comparison with existing routing protocol for underwater sensor networks.
Article
Full-text available
Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWA-SNs) are envisioned to perform monitoring tasks over the large portion of the world covered by oceans. Due to economics and the large area of the ocean, UWA-SNs are mainly sparsely deployed networks nowadays. The limited battery resources is a big challenge for the deployment of such long-term sensor networks. Unbalanced battery energy consumption will lead to early energy depletion of nodes, which partitions the whole networks and impairs the integrity of the monitoring datasets or even results in the collapse of the entire networks. On the contrary, balanced energy dissipation of nodes can prolong the lifetime of such networks. In this paper, we focus on the energy balance dissipation problem of two types of sparsely deployed UWA-SNs: underwater moored monitoring systems and sparsely deployed two-dimensional UWA-SNs. We first analyze the reasons of unbalanced energy consumption in such networks, then we propose two energy balanced strategies to maximize the lifetime of networks both in shallow and deep water. Finally, we evaluate our methods by simulations and the results show that the two strategies can achieve balanced energy consumption per node while at the same time prolong the networks lifetime.
Article
Full-text available
Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved.
Conference Paper
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are meant to be deployed at the areas that need to be monitored continuously without the human assistance. Therefore, these networks are expected to stay operational for a longer period of time. However, sensor nodes in these networks are equipped with limited energy (e.g., battery) resources. Moreover, uneven energy consumption is one of the biggest challenges in UWSN because it leads to creation of energy holes and ultimately shorten network lifetime. This invites UWSN designers to introduce protocols that can minimize and balance energy consumption of nodes. This paper presents DB-EBH, a Depth-Based Energy-Balanced Hybrid routing protocol for UWSNs. Like EBH, DB-EBH is a hybrid approach which is based on direct and multihop communication. However, DB-EBH considers linear random deployment of nodes. It selects a priority neighbor node for data forwarding on the basis of its depth from the sink. Simulation results validate the performance of DB-EBH in terms of energy efficiency, network lifetime and throughput.
Article
A number of routing protocols have been proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). However, most of their routing protocols do not take into account the environmental information like water depth since the shallow and deep water have different characteristics. In this article, we present an environment-aware routing protocol (named ERP) for UWSNs. ERP performs different routing operations according to the water depth in UWSNs. Using the NS-2 simulator, ERP is compared against a well-known routing protocol (i.e., DBR) and a localisation-free routing protocol (i.e., H2-DAB). Simulations results prove that ERP shows increased performance improvements over DBR and H2-DAB.
Article
Providing an efficient communication for the underwater wireless sensor networks is a significant problem due to the unique characteristics of such environments. Radio signal cannot propagate well in deep water, and we have to replace this with the acoustic channel. This replacement results in many issues like high latency due to less propagation speeds, low bandwidths and high error probability. In addition, new features like node mobility with water currents and 3-dimensional space brings additional challenges to the underwater sensor network (UWSN) protocol design. Many routing protocols have been proposed for such environments but most of them considered that the complete dimensional location of all the sensor nodes is already known through a localization process, which itself is a challenging task in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol, called Hop-by-Hop Dynamic Addressing Based (H2-DAB), in order to provide scalable and time efficient routing. Our routing protocol will take advantage of the multiple-sink architecture of the underwater wireless sensor networks. The novelty of H2-DAB is that, it does not require any dimensional location information, or any extra specialized hardware compared to many other routing protocols in the same area. Our results show that H2-DAB effectively achieves the goals of higher data deliveries with optimal delays and energy consumptions.
Article
Underwater sensor networks find applications in oceanographic data collection, pollution monitoring, offshore exploration, disaster prevention, assisted navigation, and tactical surveillance. In this paper, deployment strategies for two-dimensional and three-dimensional communication architectures for underwater acoustic sensor networks are proposed, and a mathematical deployment analysis for both architectures is provided. The objective is to determine the minimum number of sensors to be deployed to achieve optimal sensing and communication coverage, which are dictated by application requirements; provide guidelines on how to choose the optimal deployment surface area, given a target body of water; study the robustness of the sensor network to node failures, and provide an estimate of the number of redundant sensor nodes to be deployed to compensate for potential failures.
Conference Paper
Providing scalable and ecient routing services in underwater sensor net- works (UWSNs) is very challenging due to the unique characteristics of UWSNs. Firstly, UWSNs often employ acoustic channels for communications because radio signals do not work well in water. Compared with radio-frequency channels, acous- tic channels feature much lower bandwidths and several orders of magnitudes longer propagation delays. Secondly, UWSNs usually have very dynamic topology as sen- sors move passively with water currents. Some routing protocols have been proposed to address the challenging problem in UWSNs. However, most of them assume that the full-dimensional location information of all sensor nodes in a network is known in prior through a localization process, which is yet another challenging issue to be solved in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a depth-based routing (DBR) protocol. DBR does not require full-dimensional location information of sensor nodes. Instead, it needs only local depth information, which can be easily obtained with an inex- pensive depth sensor that can be equipped in every underwater sensor node. A key advantage of our protocol is that it can handle network dynamics eciently with- out the assistance of a localization service. Moreover, our routing protocol can take advantage of a multiple-sink underwater sensor network architecture without intro- ducing extra cost. We conduct extensive simulations. The results show that DBR can achieve very high packet delivery ratios (at least 95%) for dense networks with only small communication cost.
Article
Energy is an extremely critical resource for battery-powered wireless sensor networks (WSN), thus making energy-efficient protocol design a key challenging problem. Most of the existing energy-efficient routing protocols always forward packets along the minimum energy path to the sink to merely minimize energy consumption, which causes an unbalanced distribution of residual energy among sensor nodes, and eventually results in a network partition. In this paper, with the help of the concept of potential in physics, we design an Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol (EBRP) by constructing a mixed virtual potential field in terms of depth, energy density, and residual energy. The goal of this basic approach is to force packets to move toward the sink through the dense energy area so as to protect the nodes with relatively low residual energy. To address the routing loop problem emerging in this basic algorithm, enhanced mechanisms are proposed to detect and eliminate loops. The basic algorithm and loop elimination mechanism are first validated through extensive simulation experiments. Finally, the integrated performance of the full potential-based energy-balanced routing algorithm is evaluated through numerous simulations in a random deployed network running event-driven applications, the impact of the parameters on the performance is examined and guidelines for parameter settings are summarized. Our experimental results show that there are significant improvements in energy balance, network lifetime, coverage ratio, and throughput as compared to the commonly used energy-efficient routing algorithm.
Lifetime Prolonging Algorithm for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network
  • I Snigdh
  • R Khichar
  • N Gupta
I. Snigdh, R. Khichar and N. Gupta, "Lifetime Prolonging Algorithm for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network, Middle-East Journal if Scientific Research", pp. 818-822, 2013
An adaptive power controlled routing protocol for underwater sensor network
  • Al-Bzoor
  • Manal
Al-Bzoor, Manal, et al. An adaptive power controlled routing protocol for underwater sensor network. International Journal of Sensor Networks 18.3-4 (2015): 238-249.
AURP: An AUV-aided underwater routing Fig. 8. Energy Consumption Comparison Fig. 9. Burden Faced By Nodes Per Round protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks
  • Seokhoon Yoon
Yoon, Seokhoon, et al. AURP: An AUV-aided underwater routing Fig. 8. Energy Consumption Comparison Fig. 9. Burden Faced By Nodes Per Round protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks. Sensors 12.2 (2012): 1827-1845.
Pulrp: Path unaware layered routing protocol for underwater sensor networks
  • Gopi
  • Sarath
Gopi, Sarath, et al. Pulrp: Path unaware layered routing protocol for underwater sensor networks. Communications, 2008. ICC08. IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2008.
Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet" Networking 2008 Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks
  • Hai Yan
  • Jerry Zhijie
  • Jun-Hong Shi
  • Cui
Hai Yan, Zhijie, Jerry Shi and Jun-Hong Cui, "DBR: Depth-Based Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks," Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet" Networking 2008 Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, pp. 72-86, Volume 4982, 2008.
Hop-by-Hop Dynamic Adrressing Based (H 2 -DAB) Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks
  • Muhammad Ayaz
  • Azween Abdullah
Muhammad Ayaz, Azween Abdullah, "Hop-by-Hop Dynamic Adrressing Based (H 2 -DAB) Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks," International Conference on Information and Multimedia Technology, pp. 436-441, 2009.