Conference Paper

An Energy Efficient Hybrid Clustering Routing Protocol for Underwater WSNs

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Underwater acoustic communications are a hastily growing field of research and engineering, which once were exclusively for military applications are now extending into commercial fields. Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) appeal the research community, facing challenges as sensor nodes have energy constraint and radio signals are not suitable for underwater wireless communication. This paper explores an Energy Efficient Hybrid Clustering routing protocol (EEHC) for UWSNs, depicted from Depth-Based Energy-Balanced Hybrid (DB-EBH) routing protocol with integrated clustering technique.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... M. Ejaz et al. [60] explored an energy-efficient hybridclustering protocol (EEHC) for UASNs, which depicted from depth-based energy-balanced hybrid (DB-EBH) [61] protocol with integrated clustering algorithm. CHs were selected based on the residual energy of CMs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) are important technical means to explore the ocean realm. Clustering is a crucial strategy which determines the performance and the lifetime of UASNs obviously. As a technological innovation, software defined networking (SDN) separates the data plane from the control plane to build a programmable network infrastructure. This paper presents a clustering mechanism based on SDN. Firstly, we introduce the architecture of software-defined UASN named SD-UASN. Secondly, we investigate models of the underwater node and the surface controller. Thirdly, we define the communication procedure of SD-UASN, and implement the clustering mechanism. Finally, we perform simulations to verify the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism. The results reveal that a tradeoff of multiple constraints achieved, and the performance of the clustering mechanism can be enhanced greatly. This work provides essential theoretical and technical support for software-defined UASNs.
Article
Full-text available
Designing an efficient deployment method to guarantee optimal monitoring quality is one of the key topics in underwater sensor networks. At present, a realistic approach of deployment involves adjusting the depths of nodes in water. One of the typical algorithms used in such process is the self-deployment depth adjustment algorithm (SDDA). This algorithm mainly focuses on maximizing network coverage by constantly adjusting node depths to reduce coverage overlaps between two neighboring nodes, and thus, achieves good performance. However, the connectivity performance of SDDA is irresolute. In this paper, we propose a depth adjustment algorithm based on connected tree (CTDA). In CTDA, the sink node is used as the first root node to start building a connected tree. Finally, the network can be organized as a forest to maintain network connectivity. Coverage overlaps between the parent node and the child node are then reduced within each sub-tree to optimize coverage. The hierarchical strategy is used to adjust the distance between the parent node and the child node to reduce node movement. Furthermore, the silent mode is adopted to reduce communication cost. Simulations show that compared with SDDA, CTDA can achieve high connectivity with various communication ranges and different numbers of nodes. Moreover, it can realize coverage as high as that of SDDA with various sensing ranges and numbers of nodes but with less energy consumption. Simulations under sparse environments show that the connectivity and energy consumption performances of CTDA are considerably better than those of SDDA. Meanwhile, the connectivity and coverage performances of CTDA are close to those depth adjustment algorithms base on connected dominating set (CDA), which is an algorithm similar to CTDA. However, the energy consumption of CTDA is less than that of CDA, particularly in sparse underwater environments.
Article
Full-text available
With the rapid development of underwater acoustic modem technology, underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) have more applications in long-term monitoring of the deployment area. In the underwater environment, the sensors are costly with limited energy. And acoustic communication medium poses new challenges, including high path loss, low bandwidth, and high energy consumption. Therefore, designing transmission mechanism to decrease energy consumption and to optimize the lifetime of UWASN becomes a significant task. This paper proposes a balance transmission mechanism, and divides the data transmission process into two phases. In the routing set-up phase, an efficient routing algorithm based on the optimum transmission distance is present to optimize the energy consumption of the UWASN. And then, a data balance transmission algorithm is introduced in the stable data transmission phase. The algorithm determines one-hop or multihop data transmission of the node to underwater sink according to the current energy level of adjacent nodes. Furthermore, detailed theoretical analysis evaluates the optimum energy levels in the UWASNs with different scales. The simulation results prove the efficiency of the BTM.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a cooperative transmission scheme for multihop underwater (UW) acoustic sensor networks to enhance network performance. Relay nodes are employed as virtual antennas to achieve diversity gains. Based on the distinct characteristics of the UW channel, such as high transmission loss, propagation delay, and ambient noises, this paper presents a distributed cooperative scheme, including networking protocol and cooperative transmission at the physical layer, to enhance reliability by providing diversity gains through intermediate relay nodes. The destinations and potential relays are selected from a set of neighbor nodes that consider the distance cost and local measurement of the channel conditions into calculation. The simulation and numerical results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the traditional direct transmission schemes in terms of average energy consumption, packet delivery ratio, and end-to-end delay.
Article
Full-text available
Energy efficiency and mobility robustness are two of the main performance metrics to be addressed when designing any rout-ing protocol for underwater sensor network (UWSN). Energy efficiency leads to a prolonged network life time, while mobility robustness ensures high and stable delivery ratio. Most of the routing strategies designed for UWSN require a full knowledge of the three dimensional location of nodes. In this paper, we introduce an energy efficient routing schema that does not require any location information, and achieves high packet delivery ratio for both static and mobile scenarios in sparse or dense networks. In our routing strategy, nodes assign themselves to concen-tric layers. A node to layer assignment is determined by signal power of a received interest packet broadcast by sink nodes. Routing paths are determined on the fly, and a forwarder is chosen based on its layer num-ber and residual energy. Nodes are assumed to be able to adjust their transmission power to a finite set of values. Low power level is most likely selected by nodes when the network is dense, whereas a higher power level is selected when the network is sparse or when nodes at lay-ers closer to the sink has more residual energy. Simulation results shows that our routing protocol achieves a high delivery ratio and a low energy consumption while reducing the delay when compared with other routing strategies for both sparse and dense networks.
Article
Full-text available
In many Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications such as warning systems or healthcare services it is necessary to update the captured data with location information. A promising solution for statically deployed sensors is to benefit from mobile beacon assisted localization. The main challenge is to design and develop an optimum path planning mechanism for a mobile beacon to decrease the required time for determining location, increase the accuracy of the estimated position and increase the coverage. In this paper, we propose a novel superior path planning mechanism called Z-curve. Our proposed trajectory can successfully localize all deployed sensors with high precision and the shortest required time for localization. We also introduce critical metrics including the ineffective position rate for further evaluation of mobile beacon trajectories. In addition, we consider an accurate and reliable channel model which helps to provide more realistic evaluation. Z-curve is compared with five existing path planning schemes based on three different localization techniques such as Weighted Centroid Localization and trilateration with time priority and accuracy priority. Furthermore, the performance of the Z-curve is evaluated at the presence of obstacles and Z-curve obstacle-handling trajectory is proposed to mitigate the obstacle problem on localization. Simulation results show the advantages of our proposed path planning scheme over the existing schemes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a cooperative transmission scheme for underwater acoustic sensor networks to enhance the network performance. Relay nodes are exploited as virtual antennas to achieve diversity gains. Based on the distinct characteristics of the underwater channel such as high transmission loss, propagation delay, and ambient noises, the paper presents a distributed cooperative scheme including networking protocols and cooperative transmissions at the physical layer in order to enhance the reliability by providing diversity gains through intermediate relay nodes. Destinations and potential relays are selected from a set of neighbor nodes that utilize distance cost and local measurement of the channel conditions into calculation. The simulation and numerical results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the traditional direct transmission schemes in terms of average energy consumption, packet delivery ratio, and end-to-end delay.
Article
Full-text available
As an important part of industrial application (IA), the wireless sensor network (WSN) has been an active research area over the past few years. Due to the limited energy and communication ability of sensor nodes, it seems especially important to design a routing protocol for WSNs so that sensing data can be transmitted to the receiver effectively. An energy-balanced routing method based on forward-aware factor (FAF-EBRM) is proposed in this paper. In FAF-EBRM, the next-hop node is selected according to the awareness of link weight and forward energy density. Furthermore, a spontaneous reconstruction mechanism for local topology is designed additionally. In the experiments, FAF-EBRM is compared with LEACH and EEUC, experimental results show that FAF-EBRM outperforms LEACH and EEUC, which balances the energy consumption, prolongs the function lifetime and guarantees high QoS of WSN.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a reliable and energy-efficient routing algorithm for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). We first use a sphere energy depletion model to analyze the energy consumption of nodes in UWSNs. We then extend the model by considering the node mobility in UWSNs. Our analysis is in accordance with the common view that although water flows might cause the underwater environment more dynamic, this instability can actually improve energy-efficiency. However, the nodes closer to the sink still tend to die early, causing network partition around the sink. Accordingly, we propose a Reliable and Energy BAlanced Routing algorithm (REBAR). We explore the tradeoff between packet delivery ratio and energy efficiency. We design an adaptive scheme for setting data propagation range in order to balance the energy consumption throughout the network. Multi-path routing is used to provide redundancy. We further extend REBAR to deal with possible routing voids in the network which could be common in UWSNs. Simulation results show that our protocol outperforms existing VBF-based approaches in terms of reliability and network lifetime.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose a path unaware layered routing protocol (PULRP) for dense underwater 3D sensor networks. An uplink transmission is considered, where a set of underwater sensor nodes report events to the sink node. PURLP algorithm consists of two phases. In the first phase (layering phase), a layering structure is presented which is a set of concentric spheres, around a sink node. The radius of the concentric spheres is chosen based on probability of successful packet forwarding as well as packet delivery latency. In the second phase (communication phase), we propose a method to choose the intermediate relay nodes and an on the fly routing algorithm for packet delivery from source node to sink node across the chosen relay nodes. The proposed algorithm, PULRP finds the routing path on the fly and hence it does not require any fixed routing table, localization or time synchronization processes. Our findings show that the proposed algorithm has a considerably better successful packet delivery rate compared to the under water diffusion (UWD) algorithm proposed in the paper by Lee et al. (2007) and Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm. In addition the delay involved in PULRP is comparable with that of UWD.
Article
Full-text available
Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWA-SNs) are envisioned to perform monitoring tasks over the large portion of the world covered by oceans. Due to economics and the large area of the ocean, UWA-SNs are mainly sparsely deployed networks nowadays. The limited battery resources is a big challenge for the deployment of such long-term sensor networks. Unbalanced battery energy consumption will lead to early energy depletion of nodes, which partitions the whole networks and impairs the integrity of the monitoring datasets or even results in the collapse of the entire networks. On the contrary, balanced energy dissipation of nodes can prolong the lifetime of such networks. In this paper, we focus on the energy balance dissipation problem of two types of sparsely deployed UWA-SNs: underwater moored monitoring systems and sparsely deployed two-dimensional UWA-SNs. We first analyze the reasons of unbalanced energy consumption in such networks, then we propose two energy balanced strategies to maximize the lifetime of networks both in shallow and deep water. Finally, we evaluate our methods by simulations and the results show that the two strategies can achieve balanced energy consumption per node while at the same time prolong the networks lifetime.
Article
Full-text available
Deploying a multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor network (UASN) in a large area brings about new challenges in reliable data transmissions and survivability of network due to the limited underwater communication range/bandwidth and the limited energy of underwater sensor nodes. In order to address those challenges and achieve the objectives of maximization of data delivery ratio and minimization of energy consumption of underwater sensor nodes, this paper proposes a new underwater routing scheme, namely AURP (AUV-aided underwater routing protocol), which uses not only heterogeneous acoustic communication channels but also controlled mobility of multiple autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In AURP, the total data transmissions are minimized by using AUVs as relay nodes, which collect sensed data from gateway nodes and then forward to the sink. Moreover, controlled mobility of AUVs makes it possible to apply a short-range high data rate underwater channel for transmissions of a large amount of data. To the best to our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to employ multiple AUVs as relay nodes in a multi-hop UASN to improve the network performance in terms of data delivery ratio and energy consumption. Simulations, which are incorporated with a realistic underwater acoustic communication channel model, are carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme, and the results indicate that a high delivery ratio and low energy consumption can be achieved.
Conference Paper
Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UASNs) are deemed to facilitate monitoring tasks in aquatic environment. However, battery resource limitation of sensor nodes leads to shorter network lifetime. Also, unbalanced energy consumption which contributes to limited network lifetime needs to be addressed. Therefore, data transmission technique should be designed to overcome energy dissipation and to optimize network lifetime. This paper presents an Efficient and Balanced Energy consumption Technique (EBET) for UASNs. EBET provision solution for the problems of direct transmission energy consumption over long distance. EBET initially establishes communication links between nodes on the basis of optimal distance threshold. The initial energy of sensor nodes is divided into Energy Level Numbers (ELNs) for balanced energy consumption. Then in data transmission phase, appropriate transmission mechanism is chosen on the basis of specified energy level numbers of sensor nodes. The sensor nodes choose data relay type in accordance to the difference in energy level numbers. Long distance direct data transmission is avoided by selecting high ELN node within transmission range. The effectiveness of EBET is validated through simulations.
Conference Paper
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) are meant to be deployed at the areas that need to be monitored continuously without the human assistance. Therefore, these networks are expected to stay operational for a longer period of time. However, sensor nodes in these networks are equipped with limited energy (e.g., battery) resources. Moreover, uneven energy consumption is one of the biggest challenges in UWSN because it leads to creation of energy holes and ultimately shorten network lifetime. This invites UWSN designers to introduce protocols that can minimize and balance energy consumption of nodes. This paper presents DB-EBH, a Depth-Based Energy-Balanced Hybrid routing protocol for UWSNs. Like EBH, DB-EBH is a hybrid approach which is based on direct and multihop communication. However, DB-EBH considers linear random deployment of nodes. It selects a priority neighbor node for data forwarding on the basis of its depth from the sink. Simulation results validate the performance of DB-EBH in terms of energy efficiency, network lifetime and throughput.
Article
A number of routing protocols have been proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). However, most of their routing protocols do not take into account the environmental information like water depth since the shallow and deep water have different characteristics. In this article, we present an environment-aware routing protocol (named ERP) for UWSNs. ERP performs different routing operations according to the water depth in UWSNs. Using the NS-2 simulator, ERP is compared against a well-known routing protocol (i.e., DBR) and a localisation-free routing protocol (i.e., H2-DAB). Simulations results prove that ERP shows increased performance improvements over DBR and H2-DAB.
Conference Paper
Lifetime prolonging is one significant research issue in underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs). First this paper analyzes the relationship between the receiving energy consumption and the transmission energy consumption in the acoustic communication of UASNs. The routing tree is built up on the factor of optimal transmission range. Then a hybrid data transmission mechanism based on energy level is proposed to balance energy consumption. The mechanism combines one-hop and multi-hop data transmission to underwater sink considering the current energy level of adjacent nodes. An optimal classification number of energy level has been evaluated through theoretical analysis. Our design will help prolong the lifetime of whole UASN. The simulation results of UASN's lifetime and the energy consumption of sensor nodes have proved the efficiency of the Energy-Level-based hybrid Transmission (ELT) mechanism.
Article
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been recently used in many civilian application areas such as environmental monitoring and emergency services. WSNs are considered to be energy constrained. In this paper, we propose a novel clustering algorithm called Limiting member node Clustering (LmC) algorithm to limit the number of member nodes for each cluster head by using a threshold value. The proposed clustering approach selects a cluster head based on a new cost function which considers the residual battery level, energy consumption and distance to the base station. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently achieve high number of successfully delivered packets as well as the longest network lifetime while give the shortest delay time when compared with different existing algorithms.
Article
Providing an efficient communication for the underwater wireless sensor networks is a significant problem due to the unique characteristics of such environments. Radio signal cannot propagate well in deep water, and we have to replace this with the acoustic channel. This replacement results in many issues like high latency due to less propagation speeds, low bandwidths and high error probability. In addition, new features like node mobility with water currents and 3-dimensional space brings additional challenges to the underwater sensor network (UWSN) protocol design. Many routing protocols have been proposed for such environments but most of them considered that the complete dimensional location of all the sensor nodes is already known through a localization process, which itself is a challenging task in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol, called Hop-by-Hop Dynamic Addressing Based (H2-DAB), in order to provide scalable and time efficient routing. Our routing protocol will take advantage of the multiple-sink architecture of the underwater wireless sensor networks. The novelty of H2-DAB is that, it does not require any dimensional location information, or any extra specialized hardware compared to many other routing protocols in the same area. Our results show that H2-DAB effectively achieves the goals of higher data deliveries with optimal delays and energy consumptions.
Chapter
Recently, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have attracted much research attention from both academia and industry, in order to explore the vast underwater environment. However, designing network protocols is challenging in UWSNs since UWSNs have peculiar characteristics of large propagation delay, high error rate, low bandwidth and limited energy. In UWSNs, improving the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues since the replacement of the batteries of such nodes is very expensive due to harsh underwater environment. Hence, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient routing protocol, named EEDBR (Energy-Efficient Depth Based Routing protocol) for UWSNs. Our proposed protocol utilizes the depth of the sensor nodes for forwarding the data packets. Furthermore, the residual energy of the sensor nodes is also taken into account in order to improve the network life-time. Based on the comprehensive simulation using NS2, we observe that our proposed routing protocol contributes to the performance improvements in terms of the network lifetime, energy consumption and end-to-end delay. KeywordsUnderwater wireless sensor networks–routing–network life-time–residual energy
Conference Paper
Providing scalable and ecient routing services in underwater sensor net- works (UWSNs) is very challenging due to the unique characteristics of UWSNs. Firstly, UWSNs often employ acoustic channels for communications because radio signals do not work well in water. Compared with radio-frequency channels, acous- tic channels feature much lower bandwidths and several orders of magnitudes longer propagation delays. Secondly, UWSNs usually have very dynamic topology as sen- sors move passively with water currents. Some routing protocols have been proposed to address the challenging problem in UWSNs. However, most of them assume that the full-dimensional location information of all sensor nodes in a network is known in prior through a localization process, which is yet another challenging issue to be solved in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a depth-based routing (DBR) protocol. DBR does not require full-dimensional location information of sensor nodes. Instead, it needs only local depth information, which can be easily obtained with an inex- pensive depth sensor that can be equipped in every underwater sensor node. A key advantage of our protocol is that it can handle network dynamics eciently with- out the assistance of a localization service. Moreover, our routing protocol can take advantage of a multiple-sink underwater sensor network architecture without intro- ducing extra cost. We conduct extensive simulations. The results show that DBR can achieve very high packet delivery ratios (at least 95%) for dense networks with only small communication cost.
Article
Energy is an extremely critical resource for battery-powered wireless sensor networks (WSN), thus making energy-efficient protocol design a key challenging problem. Most of the existing energy-efficient routing protocols always forward packets along the minimum energy path to the sink to merely minimize energy consumption, which causes an unbalanced distribution of residual energy among sensor nodes, and eventually results in a network partition. In this paper, with the help of the concept of potential in physics, we design an Energy-Balanced Routing Protocol (EBRP) by constructing a mixed virtual potential field in terms of depth, energy density, and residual energy. The goal of this basic approach is to force packets to move toward the sink through the dense energy area so as to protect the nodes with relatively low residual energy. To address the routing loop problem emerging in this basic algorithm, enhanced mechanisms are proposed to detect and eliminate loops. The basic algorithm and loop elimination mechanism are first validated through extensive simulation experiments. Finally, the integrated performance of the full potential-based energy-balanced routing algorithm is evaluated through numerous simulations in a random deployed network running event-driven applications, the impact of the parameters on the performance is examined and guidelines for parameter settings are summarized. Our experimental results show that there are significant improvements in energy balance, network lifetime, coverage ratio, and throughput as compared to the commonly used energy-efficient routing algorithm.
Article
Reliable delivery of sensory data to a sink node in large scale sensor networks is a challenging problem. We tackle this problem by assuming dense deployment of sensors, which allows us to exploit diversity in choosing intermediate nodes for reliability and energy-efficiency. The proposed reliable and Energy-Efficient Routing (REER) protocol is based on the geographic routing approach. The central idea of REER is the notion of Reference Nodes (RNs), which means the nodes closest to the ideal locations between the source and to the sink. The multiple Cooperative Nodes (CNs) around RNs will contend to relay data packets; thus, there is no overhead of route discovery and REER is resilient to node failures and transmission errors. By adjusting the distances between RNs, we can control the trade-off between reliability and energy-efficiency, which is validated by both analysis and simulation.
Pulrp: Path unaware layered routing protocol for underwater sensor networks
  • Gopi
  • Sarath
Gopi, Sarath, et al. " Pulrp: Path unaware layered routing protocol for underwater sensor networks. " Communications, 2008. ICC'08. IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2008.
An adaptive power controlled routing protocol for underwater sensor network
  • Al-Bzoor
  • Manal
Al-Bzoor, Manal, et al. "An adaptive power controlled routing protocol for underwater sensor network." International Journal of Sensor Networks 18.3-4 (2015): 238-249.
Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet
  • Hai Yan
  • Zhijie Jerry Shi
  • Jun-Hong Cui
Yan, Hai, Zhijie Jerry Shi, and Jun-Hong Cui."DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks". NETWORKING 2008 Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008. 72-86.