Conference Paper

Colors and Trust: The Influence of User Interface Design on Trust and Reciprocity

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Abstract

Interpersonal trust and reciprocation are crucial factors in peer-to-peer online interactions. In order to shed more light on the association of user interface (UI) design and trusting as well as reciprocating behavior, we consider a computerized trust game with different interface background colors, red and blue, namely. We locate our work within recent NeuroIS theory, linking UI background color to user behavior via perceived warmth of UIs and color appeal. The results of a laboratory experiment indicate an enhancing effect of red interfaces on reciprocation behavior, fully mediated by perceived warmth. We suggest to further investigate this phenomenon by applying NeuroIS methodology.

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... Layout Early perception. One of the most influential factors in early perception; users first focus on hedonic qualities (graphical and visual elements), and only then practical [45][46][47] Engagement. The appeal of the elements (colour, light, and texture information) and geometry of the elements (posture, shape, and movement) are important as they influence the aesthetics, that was further connected to trustworthiness, performance, and evaluation of content. ...
... It also dictates further engagement and positive involvement if the content is found to be aesthetically pleasing. The engagement of users was also found to be influenced by warmth of the background [45][46][47][48] Design Elements Curvature typeface. Round typefaces are associated with smooth and soft, thus it can create a comfortable feeling and trustworthiness (Fig. 3) Colour. ...
... red is happiness for east Asian countries, while for western countries it signifies alertness. Readability of the content was also found to depend on cultural background, among the experience, motivation, and the optical properties of the eye [46,[76][77][78] Culture and interaction ...
Chapter
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Dating applications and dating sites are designed interventions that can change behaviour and influence user wellbeing. However, research from the design perspective around relation-making interventions is still scarce. This paper presents findings of a scoping review that aimed to collect current published knowledge on the influence of online communication on user behaviour, to understand its implications for relation-making. The study gathered findings from across disciplines to provide a holistic understanding of the various influences that online environment and interactions can have on user behaviour. Keyword combinations were run through five databases with a priori criteria and produced 1651 results published from the date range of 2016 to 2020. From the results, 717 abstracts were screened, and 82 papers were selected for full screening, out of which 46 were included for thematic analysis. The findings of the review show how interaction design and the online environment can influence user behaviour and thus impact how users form relationships. This scoping review is an initial study to provide an overview in a currently under-researched area. Its contribution is in presenting the needs and opportunities for future research and summarises the practical implications for interaction design that nurtures relationships.
... Researchers have suggested that gender, age preference and emotion factors have to be included in the technology that addresses user's feelings, process and behaviour [37]. Moreover, embedded culture in UID affects product development [38], [39]. Thus, the influence in designing the users' interface and understanding attraction depends on how the users use the technology. ...
... To provide a good user experience, the bot may also need to support rich interactions such as audio, pictures, and maps. Suggestion criteria in designing chatbot followed by user preference, gender, age and culture preferences include typefaces [37], colour [38], emoticon [1], avatar [5], tone [5] and voice [5]. ...
... Most studies agree that blue is perceived as a cold colour, while red is perceived as a warm colour. The author in [38] believes that the warmth of the user interface has a positive effect on trusting behaviour. However, pleasant colours and a joyful atmosphere in a chatbot should be surrounded by cheerful and lively design settings for a more positive effect. ...
Article
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The advancement of technology has led to the development of an artificial intelligence-based healthcare-related application that can be easily accessed and used to assist people in lifestyle intervention for preventing the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Previous research suggested that users are demanding a more emotional evocative user interface design. However, most of the time, it has been ignored due to lack of a model that could be referred in developing emotional evocative user interface design. This creates a gap in the user interface design that could lead to the ineffectiveness of content delivery in the NCD domain. This paper aims to investigate emotion traits and their relationship with user interface design for lifestyle intervention. Kansei Engineering method was applied to determine the dimensions for constructing emotional evocative user interface design. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistic tool and the result showed the emotional concepts that are significant and impactful towards user interface design for lifestyle intervention in NCD domain. The outcome of this research shall create new research fields that incorporate multi research domain including user interface design and emotions.
... Many researchers have also conducted studies on the relationship between interface color and sense of trust, because in an e-commerce environment, users' consumption behavior depends on their initial sense of trust in unfamiliar webpage interfaces and this sense of trust is often affected by the interface color [29]. In an early piece of research, it was proposed that the dominant tone of an online bank interface should be cold rather than warm. ...
... This conclusion is consistent with people's general preference for blue over red. In the research of Hawlitschek et al. [29], an analysis was made of the role of red and blue as dominant tones in a game interface. As a result, red was regarded as warm, while blue was cold. ...
Article
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In this research, the positive role of interface visual design in digital safety education was verified taking COVID-19 prevention and control knowledge as the content of public health safety education, where interface emotion (positive, negative, and neutral) and interface layout (waterfall typed and juxtaposition typed) were regarded as independent variables, and readers’ understanding, course evaluation and system usability score were dependent variables. As revealed in the results of a 3 × 2 two-factor experiment in which 252 college students participated: first, different interface emotion can cause significantly different understanding, where negative emotion has the best learning transfer effect; second, due to the difference in interface emotion, participants may give certain courses significantly different evaluation scores, while positive emotional interface contributes to the obviously high scores of three course-evaluation items, “appeal of the lesson”, “enjoyment of the lesson” and “interface quality”; third, significantly different system usability can be caused by different interface layout, where waterfall-type layout enjoys higher appraisal from users; fourth, interface emotion and interface layout have a similar interactive effects in terms of “effort of the lesson” and “interface quality”, where waterfall-type layout is favored in terms of positive emotional interface, and juxtaposition-type layout is more advantageous in terms of negative emotional interface. These results are of vital significance for interface design and safety education. Further, the visual design method for interface emotion and interface layout were analyzed to determine the most suitable design principles so as to improve the effect of digital public health safety education and provide constructive ideas for fighting against COVID-19 at the educational level.
... The tutorial is organized along six stages of conducting a human lab experiment, conceptualized in a generic experimental session framework, providing a practical guide for how each of the steps can be implemented in Brownie. We illustrate our tutorial with a frequently researched topic in IS: antecedents of trust in online transactions (Du et al., 2013;Riedl et al. 2014;Hawlitschek et al., 2016). It is couched along the standardized reference frame from experimental economics for modelling trust in exchanges: the widely-used Trust Game (Berg et al., 1995;Riedl & Javor, 2012). ...
... The second player (trustee) then decides which portion Z of the now-tripled amount they want to transfer back to the first player. The trust game has been played in many experiments across disciplines, most frequently in experimental economics and psychology, and recently in IS in the context of online trust (Du et al., 2013;Riedl et al., 2014;Hawlitschek et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Purpose Human lab experiments have become an established method in information systems research for investigating user behavior, perception and even neurophysiology. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate experimental research by providing a practical guide on how to implement and conduct lab experiments in the freely available experimental platform Brownie. Design/methodology/approach Laying the groundwork of the tutorial, the paper first provides a brief overview of common design considerations for lab experiments and a generic session framework. Building on the use case of the widely used trust game, the paper then covers the different stages involved in running an experimental session and maps the conceptual elements of the study design to the implementation of the experimental software. Findings The paper generates findings on how computerized lab experiments can be designed and implemented. Furthermore, it maps out the design considerations an experimenter may take into account when implementing an experiment and organizing it along a session structure (e.g. participant instructions, individual and group interaction, state and trait questionnaires). Originality/value The paper reduces barriers for researchers to engage in experiment implementation and replication by providing a step-by-step tutorial for the design and implementation of human lab experiments.
... Among the many visual design elements, color serves as a specific visual stimulus that shapes a visitor's perception of the ambient temperature [65]. Such perceived cool or warmth on temperature elicits varying degrees of social proximity, language concreteness, and relational focus, and exerts an effect on individual behavior through the mechanism of insula [66]. Williams and Bargh [67] showed that the warmth sensed by the body can influence interpersonal judgments and prosocial behavior. ...
... Previous studies have documented that perceived warmth is associated with interpersonal intimacy; that is, perceived warmth creates feelings of interpersonal closeness [73], and promotes interpersonal trust, cooperation, and friendship [74]. Specifically, warm colors are more evocative of warmth than cool colors [66] and provide consumers with a sense that their surroundings are more socially dense [75]. In this manner, a warm-toned interface of a medical crowdfunding website will bring warm psychological perceptions and positive attitudes to donors, making them feel less distant from the medical crowdfunding platform and other help-seekers, and thus more likely to evoke their emotional trust toward the platform and project. ...
Article
Background: As a type of donation-based crowdfunding, medical crowdfunding has gradually become an important way for patients who have difficulty paying medical bills to seek help from the public. However, many people still have limited confidence in donating money to medical crowdfunding projects. Objective: Given that the features of a medical crowdfunding website may be important to gain users’ trust, this study draws upon two-factor and trust theories to explore how different design features of medical crowdfunding websites affect potential donors’ cognition-based trust and affect-based trust, and how these types of trust affect the intention to donate. Methods: A 2 (informativeness: high vs low) × 2 (visual cues: cool color vs warm color) × 2 (social cues: with vs without) between-subject laboratory experiment was performed to validate our research model. A total of 320 undergraduate students recruited from a university in China participated in the controlled laboratory experiment. Results: Cognition-based trust (β=.528, P<.001) and affect-based trust (β=.344, P<.001) exerted significant effects on the intention to donate of potential donors of medical crowdfunding. Informativeness as a hygiene factor positively influenced potential donors’ cognition-based trust (F1,311=49.764, P<.001) and affect-based trust (F1,311=16.093, P<.001), whereas social cues as a motivating factor significantly influenced potential donors’cognition-based trust (F1,311=38.160, P<.001) and affect-based trust (F1,311=23.265, P<.001). However, the color of the webpages affected the two dimensions of trust differently. Specifically, medical crowdfunding webpages with warm colors were more likely to induce affect-based trust than those with cool colors (F1,311=17.120, P<.001), whereas no significant difference was found between the effects of cool and warm colors on cognition-based trust (F1,311=1.707, P=.19). Conclusions: This study deepens our understanding of the relationships among the design features of medical crowdfunding websites, trust, and intention to donate, and provides guidelines for managers of medical crowdfunding platforms to enhance potential donors’ trust-building by improving the website design features.
... Among the many visual design elements, color serves as a specific visual stimulus that shapes a visitor's perception of the ambient temperature [65]. Such perceived cool or warmth on temperature elicits varying degrees of social proximity, language concreteness, and relational focus, and exerts an effect on individual behavior through the mechanism of insula [66]. Williams and Bargh [67] showed that the warmth sensed by the body can influence interpersonal judgments and prosocial behavior. ...
... Previous studies have documented that perceived warmth is associated with interpersonal intimacy; that is, perceived warmth creates feelings of interpersonal closeness [73], and promotes interpersonal trust, cooperation, and friendship [74]. Specifically, warm colors are more evocative of warmth than cool colors [66] and provide consumers with a sense that their surroundings are more socially dense [75]. In this manner, a warm-toned interface of a medical crowdfunding website will bring warm psychological perceptions and positive attitudes to donors, making them feel less distant from the medical crowdfunding platform and other help-seekers, and thus more likely to evoke their emotional trust toward the platform and project. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background As a type of donation-based crowdfunding, medical crowdfunding has gradually become an important way for patients who have difficulty paying medical bills to seek help from the public. However, many people still have limited confidence in donating money to medical crowdfunding projects. Objective Given that the features of a medical crowdfunding website may be important to gain users’ trust, this study draws upon two-factor and trust theories to explore how different design features of medical crowdfunding websites affect potential donors’ cognition-based trust and affect-based trust, and how these types of trust affect the intention to donate. MethodsA 2 (informativeness: high vs low) × 2 (visual cues: cool color vs warm color) × 2 (social cues: with vs without) between-subject laboratory experiment was performed to validate our research model. A total of 320 undergraduate students recruited from a university in China participated in the controlled laboratory experiment. ResultsCognition-based trust (β=.528, P
... One may consider an experiment in which a user querying one of these search engines while using the same query in Rivendell to compare the results. This kind of experiment does not provide a valid comparison of the search engines performance [13,15], as a result of the different user interface, experiment flow, and the data presented for each result. Such kind of experiment Table 2: Mean percentage of query's precision. ...
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Finding relevant research literature in online databases is a familiar challenge to all researchers. General search approaches trying to tackle this challenge fall into two groups: one-time search and life-time search. We observe that both approaches ignore unique attributes of the research domain and are affected by concept drift. We posit that in searching for research papers, a combination of a life-time search engine with an explicitly-provided context (project) provides a solution to the concept drift problem. We developed and deployed a project-based meta-search engine for research papers called Rivendell. Using Rivendell, we conducted experiments with 199 subjects, comparing project-based search performance to one-time and life-time search engines, revealing an improvement of up to 12.8 percent in project-based search compared to life-time search.
... Predominantly, related work in this area is focused on the perception and effects of chromatic colors and their affective impact. For example, Hawlitschek, Jansen, Lux, Teubner and Weinhardt linked UI background color to reciprocation behavior via perceived warmth and color appeal [24]. In electronic commerce, manipulation of the affective state of mind is a potent tool in guiding reciprocity behavior and commercial purchasing power. ...
Conference Paper
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The discussion of color in HCI often remains restricted to issues of legibility, aesthetics or color preferences. Little attention has been given to the emotional and semantic effects of color on digital content. At the example of black and white, this paper reviews previous studies in psychology and reports an experiment that investigates the influence of black, white and gray user interface backgrounds on the perception of sentiment in chat messages on a social media platform (Twitch.tv). Of sixty-seven participants, those who rated the messages against a black background perceived them more negatively than those who worked against a white background. The results suggest that user sentiment perception can be influenced by interface color, especially for ambiguous textual content laced with irony and sarcasm. We claim that this knowledge can be applied in persuasive interaction and user experience design across the entirety of the digital landscape.
... Moreover, dynamic funding processes enable a subtle form of social interaction among participants, offering a mode of communicating with other participants via investment-based signals. Social interactions were found to be a potent driver of hedonistic arousal within applications such as social network sites (Gosling and Mason 2015) and sharing platforms (Hawlitschek et al. 2016). This dynamic nature offers a way to express intentions and strategies, "game" the process, or try to lure others into funding one's own preferred project. ...
Article
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Public institutions as well as corporations seek to engage their constituents and employees in participatory processes to enhance engagement in decision-making. This paper proposes a group decision method of fusing crowdfunding and participatory budget allocation. In this approach, a central institution lets their members decide over budget allocation by endowing members with individual budgets. Participants are free to allocate their budgets to projects. A project is realized if its respective cost threshold is surpassed. We evaluate different design parameters of such mechanisms for group decisions and, based on this, the allocation of institutional budgets within a controlled laboratory experiment. The first design parameter is feedback on funding status, which can either be static (a one-shot decision, simultaneous funding) or dynamic (sequential decisions, repeated funding with continuous feedback). The second variable refers to the fraction of budget that may be kept privately by individuals and is not forfeit if not assigned to projects. Building on threshold public goods literature, we investigate how these parameters affect participants’ investment behaviour, their excitement, and overall welfare. We find that mechanisms including feedback net higher welfare gains as well as higher levels of arousal. Higher personal budget shares drive excitement but lead to lower welfare gains.
... Emotional salience and management have been considered a vitalizing and conflict-moderating aspect in digital participation platforms (Lux et al. 2015a, Peukert et al. 2018b) or a driver of small group performances and interaction satisfaction (Knierim et al. 2017a). Trust on the other hand has been identified as a central driver of readiness for economic transactions (Hawlitschek et al. 2016, Peukert et al. 2018b, and trust-facilitating systems have shown a clear competitive advantage for companies operating in the so-called sharing economy . The research group Electronic Markets and User Behaviour (EMUB) dedicates its work to improving the understanding and design of digital systems that improve individual and social experiences in everyday life. ...
Chapter
Information systems (IS) are nowadays at the core of many personal and institutional activities and influence daily life more than ever before. To understand, evaluate and envision the forms of how we interact with IS, interdisciplinary and multifaceted research efforts are required. At the Information and Market Engineering chair at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, this task is taken head-on via research that stretches from user experiences to system design. In this review, the present research foci at the department are outlined, together with a brief description of its origins and the global developments that underly the necessity of conducting these particular IS studies.
... Beyond such artifacts, there exist other relevant levers that platform operators employ to promote trust building, including the design (and size) of text input areas (Gebbia 2016) and even the choice of colors (Hawlitschek et al. 2016a). Note that truthful platform design and marketing claims are of particular importance to avoid perceptions of "sharewashing," which may backfire and undermine the platform's trustworthiness in the eyes of current and future consumers (Hawlitschek et al. 2018b). ...
Chapter
Online user representation (UR) is a cornerstone of platform-mediated interactions within the sharing economy. While the general usefulness of UR artifacts for facilitating online and offline interactions is widely acknowledged and understood, the underlying mechanisms and operating principles often require a more detailed analysis. In this chapter, we thus introduce a systematic framework grounded in signaling and social presence theory for analyzing UR artifacts for online platforms in general—and the sharing economy in particular. We apply our framework as a structural lens in a case study on user profiles on Airbnb, unveiling structural similarities and differences between the opposing market sides. We discuss our findings against the backdrop of emerging information systems research directions and suggest paths for future work on the sharing economy.
... Hassanein and Head 2005), or the dynamic nature and colour of graphics (e.g. Hawlitschek et al. 2016;Kim and Moon 1998), amongst a variety of antecedents (for a review focused on e-commerce see Beldad, De Jong, and Steehouder 2010). Until now, however, trust has neither been considered in light of potential environmental cues which may be missing in the digital space, nor of biophilia effects (Rendell et al. 2019). ...
Article
User interfaces often utilise imagery of pristine natural environments, even if the system’s purpose and context are unrelated to nature. In this paper, we build on evolutionary psychology to develop a theoretical model for the influence of nature imagery on user perceptions of trust, visual aesthetics, and purchase intentions in a corporate sales setting. We evaluate our model by means of an online experiment (n = 408) using a website with different configurations of nature imagery. The results provide support for our theoretical model and hence confirm a positive influence of nature presence, that is, the extent to which the website allows a user to experience the natural environment as being present, on trust, visual aesthetics, and purchase intentions. Thereby, user perceptions of nature presence are specifically linked to nature imagery depicting water as well as vegetation. This study furthers our understanding of how the environmental context of on-site imagery can have subtle information processing benefits for users. For practitioners this study offers insight to the types of imagery that could be utilised more effectively in corporate interface designs.
... Hawlitschek et al. [13] thematize the influence of colors on the trustworthiness of user interfaces. They analyzed the moods and meanings associated to different colors via an experiment. ...
Conference Paper
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Humans are able to recognize a wide range of colors and interpret them in many different ways. Besides obvious effects like highlight and beautification, these colors can influence the emotional state of humans in a significant way. While this is no new information and color psychology is a heavily discussed topic in the psychological area, few research has been conducted in the human computer interaction area of this topic. Heavily relying on color in user interfaces of any kind the emotional aspect is often ignored and unwritten rules are applied. The gaming field provides many examples for such rules with red explosives and blue mana. Breaking with this trend, we present a novel mood adaptive display coloring approach. Utilizing psychological studies and state of the art machine learning technologies an intelligent coloring system is implemented. It is able to directly influence the emotion of human users, combating negative emotions and supporting positive feelings. Further a completely functional prototype is implemented. While fully working, there is much work left to refine and improve the project in this heavily neglected area.
... Our approach is grounded in literature on trust in the sharing economy and is based on the renowned trust game (Berg et al. 1995), which represents one of the most frequently applied economic standard experiments (e.g., Ananthakrishnan et al. 2015;Hawlitschek et al. 2016a;Riedl et al. 2014). In this section, we thus briefly review the literature on trust in the sharing economy and on the trust game itself. ...
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Peer-to-peer platforms in the realm of the sharing economy, such as Airbnb or BlaBlaCar, have heavily rattled the electronic commerce landscape and are expected to further impact consumer behavior in the future. While trust between the parties involved is of utmost importance in such platform economies, experimental research on this aspect is scarce. In this conceptual paper, we first present an experimental framework for targeting trust in the sharing economy based on experimental economics and the trust game in particular. In doing so, we sketch out a path to complement existing Information Systems research on the sharing economy by experimental methods. Second, we apply the framework to a specific use case, by developing a research model and experimental design to explore the role of user representation for trust on sharing economy platforms. We therefore set the stage for controlled (laboratory) experiments to enrich research on trust in the sharing economy.
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This study aims to research the effect of the interface background color choice on the emotion of university students. The study group consisted of 929 Turkish students studying at the vocational colleges of technical and social sciences in Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Turkey. In this study, the descriptive method was used. A color effect form developed by the researcher was used. The validity of the tool was controlled by the faculty members in the Guidance and Psychological Counseling Department of Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The analysis of the findings showed that primary, secondary, and tertiary colors had positive impacts on the participants' perceptions except for gray color. In this negative perception, the boredom perception of the gray was affective. The colors having the most positive perceptions of the participants were white, blue, and red. In the positive perception of these colors, their perception of relaxing and encouraging was effective. In the colors' effect, there were significant differences according to the gender and academic education department. Red, black, white, gray, and purple colors' effect changed according to gender, while red, blue, and purple colors' effect changed according to the education department. As a result, this study, which is conducted with the participation of a large number and the usage of software, is expected to be a good reference on color perception and color design for software interface designers.
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End user satisfaction (EUS) is critical to successful information systems implementation. Many EUS studies in the past have attempted to identify the antecedents of EUS, yet most of the relationships found have been criticized for their lack of a strong theoretical underpinning. Today it is generally understood that IS failure is due to psychological and organizational issues rather than technological issues, hence individual differences must be addressed. This study proposes a new model with an objective to extend our understanding of the antecedents of EUS by incorporating three well-founded theories of motivation, namely expectation theory, needs theory, and equity theory. The uniqueness of the model not only recognizes the three different needs (i.e., work performance, relatedness, and self-development) that users may have with IS use, but also the corresponding inputs required from each individual to achieve those needs fulfillments, which have been ignored in most previous studies. This input/needs fulfillment ratio, referred to as equitable needs fulfillment, is likely to vary from one individual to another and satisfaction will only result in a user if the needs being fulfilled are perceived as "worthy" to obtain.The partial least squares (PLS) method of structural equation modeling was used to analyze 922 survey returns collected form the hotel and airline sectors. The results of the study show that IS end users do have different needs. Equitable work performance fulfillment and equitable relatedness fulfillment play a significant role in affecting the satisfaction of end users. The results also indicate that the impact of perceived IS performance expectations on EUS is not as significant as most previous studies have suggested. The conclusion is that merely focusing on the technical soundness of the IS and the way in which it benefits employees may not be sufficient. Rather, the input requirements of users for achieving the corresponding needs fulfillments also need to be examined.
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It is believed that a red or orange color is perceived to be warm and a blue or green color is perceived as cool. This phenomenon is explained by the hue-heat hypothesis. In contrast, environmental sounds might have similar effects as do thermal sensation. The purpose of this study is to make clear the psychological effects of environmental sounds on hue-heat phenomena. The subjects were 12 male students. Six kinds of environmental sound were used as presentation sounds. The walls of a chamber were covered with curtains, and the color stimulus was expressed by the color of these curtains. The illuminance was 1150 lx in light blue (2.5PB9/6) and 1200 lx in orange (2.5YR6/16). The temperature conditions were 20.5, 24.5, and 28.5°C (rh=50%). Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured using a 7-point scale. These scales were prepared to evaluate the thermal environment specifically. We prepared 23 SD scales to rate the impression of the whole room as a non-specific evaluation. The skin temperatures of each subject were measured by a four-point method using T-type thermocouples. The results showed that both temperature and color affect the impression of "warm-cool" significantly under all the presented sounds. Furthermore the subjects felt warmer at the lower temperature in the presence of the orange color, and cooler at the higher temperature in the presence of the light blue color significantly in regard to the presented sounds, in case of some of the environmental sounds. Therefore it is suggested that environmental sounds have a facilitory effect on hue-heat phenomena.
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This paper aims to provide an integrative review of the experiment-based literature on the antecedents of initial trust in a business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce setting. To that end, we present a framework that classifies trust-inducing website features according to three broad dimensions, namely visual design, social cue design and content design, because comparing studies with different empirical set-ups requires conceptual clarity. To synthesize the literature we use an advanced vote-count procedure combined with a sign test. We find that the literature provides sound empirical support for our general hypothesis that web design cues effectively enhance consumers’ initial trust towards unfamiliar online vendors. E-tailers should thus consider embedding human-like cues (i.e., facial photos, video streams) into their interfaces, as well as integrating assistive web applications (i.e., avatars, recommendation agents). Interestingly, we also find that internally provided e-assurance structures (such as privacy/security policies and vendor-specific guarantees) can be as effective as paid e-assurance mechanisms (such as third-party trust endorsements). Our overview also reveals that the effectiveness of certain trust-signalling features within the visual and social cue design dimensions is still under-researched. The support for the positive effect of such website atmospheric cues is therefore still weak.
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Based on initial research findings by Williams and Bargh (2008) and Kang, Williams, Clark, Gray and Bargh (2011) on the interaction between interpersonal and physical warmth, theoretical models such as cognitive scaffolding and the importance of evaluations of interpersonal warmth in trust-based decisions, this experiment investigated the effect of temperature priming on 30 pairs of British university students with hot and cold objects on frequency of cooperation in a game of iterated Prisoner's Dilemma. Participants were found to cooperate significantly more frequently when primed with hot objects than with cold objects, supporting the assertion that physical warmth sensation positively affects interpersonal trust evaluation. No support was found for the prediction that male-male pairs would cooperate less than female-female pairs. The implications of these findings to evolutionary and developmental theories of interpersonal warmth are discussed.
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This article aims to discuss the use of common neurophysiological tools, such as psychophysiological tools (e.g., EKG, eye tracking) and neuroimaging tools (e.g., fMRI, EEG) in Information Systems (IS) research. There is much interest in the social sciences in capturing objective data directly from the human body, and this interest has also been gaining momentum in IS research (termed NeuroIS). This article first introduces several commonly-used neurophysiological tools, and it then discusses several application areas and research questions where IS researchers can benefit from neurophysiological data toward developing a research agenda for NeuroIS. The proposed research areas are presented within four fundamental levels of analysis - individuals, groups, organizations, and markets - that are typically used to examine the use of IT.The article concludes with a set of recommendations on how to use neurophysiological tools in IS research along with practical suggestions for establishing NeuroIS as a viable sub-field in the IS literature.
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Online markets pose a difficulty for evaluating products, particularly experience goods, such as used cars, that cannot be easily described online. This exacerbates product uncertainty, the buyer’s difficulty in evaluating product characteristics and predicting how a product will perform in the future. However, the IS literature has focused on seller uncertainty and ignored product uncertainty. To address this void, this study conceptualizes product uncertainty and examines its effects and antecedents in online markets for used cars (eBay Motors). Extending the information asymmetry literature from the seller to the product, we first theorize the nature and dimensions – description and performance – of product uncertainty. Second, we propose product uncertainty to be distinct from, yet shaped by, seller uncertainty. Third, we conjecture product uncertainty to negatively affect price premiums in online markets beyond seller uncertainty. Fourth, based on the information signaling literature, we describe how information signals – diagnostic product descriptions and third-party product assurances – reduce product uncertainty. The structural model is validated by a unique dataset comprised of secondary transaction data from used cars on eBay Motors matched with primary data from 331 buyers who bid upon these used cars. The results distinguish between product and seller uncertainty, show that product uncertainty has a stronger effect on price premiums than seller uncertainty, and identify the most influential information signals that reduce product uncertainty. The study’s implications for the emerging role of product uncertainty in online markets are discussed.
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In this study, the impact of indoor color use, gender and age on mood and cognitive performance was examined. It was hypothesized that indoor color for decoration in stores is an effective source that may convey emotional meanings differentiated by gender, age, or both. In order to study this, a two-stage work was carried out in a café/restaurant, in which interior yellow walls were changed to violet. In both stages, furniture and decorations remained the same. Each appearance (yellow and violet) was tested by using visual attributes through the use of bipolar scales. Results from approximately 250 participants for each stage showed that violet interiors were more positively perceived when compared to yellow. Compared to females, male users evaluated the space more positively. In addition, young customers had a more positive tendency than older customers towards the perception of atmospheric attributes, including color of store interiors.
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Colour temperature and illumination level have affected the subjective impressions at an office setting. 2000 lx was preferred to 500 lx for impressions of comfort, spaciousness, brightness and saturation evaluation. A 4000 K colour temperature was preferred to 2700 K for impressions of ‘comfort and spaciousness’, while 2700 K was suggested for ‘relaxation’ and ‘saturation evaluation’. Test results indicate that, task–background contrast is more important and shall be studied for ‘perceived brightness’ evaluation. Participants liked the ‘mixed colour temperature mood’, the remote control and the flexibility in the lighting system and the majority offered to use it at offices.
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How do consumers react to various color, lighting, and price point combinations? The results described in this article depict varying consumer reactions with the three-way congruence between a store's environmental cues, consumers' cognitive categories representing known store types, and salient situational shopping motivations. For fashion-oriented stores, blue interiors are associated with more favorable evaluations, marginally greater excitement, higher store patronage intentions, and higher purchase intentions than are orange interiors. However, the results change substantially when the effect of lighting in combination with color is considered. The use of soft lights with an orange interior generally nullifies the ill effects of orange and produces the highest level of perceived price fairness while controlling for price. Additionally, the results suggest that the effects of environmental and price cues are mediated by consumers' cognitive and affective associations.
Conference Paper
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This paper introduces the idea of drawing upon the cognitive neuroscience literature to inform IS research (herein termed "NeuroIS"). Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience are uncovering the neural bases of cognitive, emotional, and social processes, and they offer new insights into the complex interplay between IT and information processing, decision making, and behavior among people, organizations, and markets. The paper reviews the emerging cognitive neuroscience literature to propose a set of seven opportunities that IS researchers can use to inform IS phenomena, namely (1) localizing the neural correlates of IS constructs, (2) capturing hidden mental processes, (3) complementing existing sources of IS data with brain data, (4) identifying antecedents of IS constructs, (5) testing consequences of IS constructs, (6) inferring the temporal ordering among IS constructs, and (7) challenging assumptions and enhancing IS theories. The paper proposes a framework for exploring the potential of cognitive neuroscience for IS research and offers examples of potentially fertile intersections of cognitive neuroscience and IS research in the domains of design science and human-computer interaction. This is followed by an example NeuroIS study in the context of e-commerce adoption using fMRI, which spawns interesting new insights. The challenges of using functional neuroimaging tools are also discussed. The paper concludes that there is considerable potential for using cognitive neuroscience theories and functional brain imaging tools in IS research to enhance IS theories.
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The six authors comment on various facets of NeuroIS that appear relevant and important for BISE in four contributions. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12599-010-0130-8/fulltext.html
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Despite rapidly increasing numbers of diverse online shoppers, the relationship of Web site design to trust, satisfaction, and loyalty has not previously been modeled across cultures. In the current investigation, three components of Web site design (information design, navigation design, and visual design) are considered for their impact on trust and satisfaction. In turn, relationships of trust and satisfaction to online loyalty are evaluated. Utilizing data collected from 571 participants in Canada, Germany, and China, various relationships in the research model are tested using partial least squares analysis for each country separately. In addition, the overall model is tested for all countries combined as a control and verification of earlier research findings, although this time with a mixed country sample. All paths in the overall model are confirmed. Differences are determined for separate country samples concerning whether navigation design, visual design, and information design result in trust, satisfaction, and ultimately loyalty-suggesting design characteristics should be a central consideration in Web site design across cultures.
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Determining whom to trust and whom to distrust is a major decision in impersonal IT-enabled exchanges. Despite the potential role of both trust and distrust in impersonal exchanges, the information systems literature has primarily focused on trust, alas paying relatively little attention to distrust. Given the importance of studying both trust and distrust, this study aims to shed light on the nature, dimensionality, distinction, and relationship, and relative effects of trust and distrust on economic outcomes in the context of impersonal IT-enabled exchanges between buyers and sellers in online marketplaces. This study uses functional neuroimaging (fMRI) tools to complement psychometric measures of trust and distrust by observing the location, timing, and level of brain activity that underlies trust and distrust and their underlying dimensions. The neural correlates of trust and distrust are identified when subjects interact with four experimentally manipulated seller profiles that differ on their level of trust and distrust. The results show that trust and distrust activate different brain areas and have different effects, helping explain why trust and distrust are distinct constructs associated with different neurological processes. Implications for the nature, distinction and relationship, dimensionality, and effects of trust and distrust are discussed.
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Purpose – With the rapid expansion of global online markets including India, researchers and practitioners are challenged to understand drivers of customer satisfaction, trust and loyalty towards web sites. The paper aims to focus on web site design, which is expected to influence whether customers revisit an online vendor. Design/methodology/approach – Participants in India evaluated a local and foreign web site of the same online vendor. Surveys and interviews were used to collect the data. Findings – The results indicate significant preference for the local web site in almost all design categories. Further, the local site instilled greater trust, satisfaction and loyalty. Data collected for this study are compared with parallel work conducted using the same procedures in four other countries. Research limitations/implications – The current investigation is relevant for researchers who aim to expand knowledge concerning the impact of web site design related to user trust, satisfaction and loyalty. The work also has implications for web designers or managers who seek to enhance the market attraction and retention of online web sites. Limitations of the study are that both the local and foreign web sites used were Samsung web sites and that only a single task (searching for a cell phone) was used. Originality/value – Few studies have examined web design in relation to user outcomes such as trust, satisfaction and loyalty in international markets.
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Classic and contemporary research on person perception has demonstrated the paramount importance of interpersonal warmth. Recent research on embodied cognition has shown that feelings of social warmth or coldness can be induced by experiences of physical warmth or coldness, and vice versa. Here we show that people tend to self-regulate their feelings of social warmth through applications of physical warmth, apparently without explicit awareness of doing so. In Study 1, higher scores on a measure of chronic loneliness (social coldness) were associated with an increased tendency to take warm baths or showers. In Study 2, a physical coldness manipulation significantly increased feelings of loneliness. In Study 3, needs for social affiliation and for emotion regulation, triggered by recall of a past rejection experience, were subsequently eliminated by an interpolated physical warmth experience. Study 4 provided evidence that people are not explicitly aware of the relationship between physical and social warmth (coldness), as they do not consider a target person who often bathes to be any lonelier than one who does not, with all else being equal. Together, these findings suggest that physical and social warmth are to some extent substitutable in daily life and that this substitution reflects an unconscious self-regulatory mechanism.
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Trust lies at the heart of person perception and interpersonal decision making. In two studies, we investigated physical temperature as one factor that can influence human trust behavior, and the insula as a possible neural substrate. Participants briefly touched either a cold or warm pack, and then played an economic trust game. Those primed with cold invested less with an anonymous partner, revealing lesser interpersonal trust, as compared to those who touched a warm pack. In Study 2, we examined neural activity during trust-related processes after a temperature manipulation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The left-anterior insular region activated more strongly than baseline only when the trust decision was preceded by touching a cold pack, and not a warm pack. In addition, greater activation within bilateral insula was identified during the decision phase followed by a cold manipulation, contrasted to warm. These results suggest that the insula may be a key shared neural substrate that mediates the influence of temperature on trust processes.
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Decisions about whom to trust are biased by stable facial traits such as attractiveness, similarity to kin, and perceived trustworthiness. Research addressing the validity of facial trustworthiness or its basis in facial features is scarce, and the results have been inconsistent. We measured male trustworthiness operationally in trust games in which participants had options to collaborate for mutual financial gain or to exploit for greater personal gain. We also measured facial (bizygomatic) width (scaled for face height) because this is a sexually dimorphic, testosterone-linked trait predictive of male aggression. We found that men with greater facial width were more likely to exploit the trust of others and that other players were less likely to trust male counterparts with wide rather than narrow faces (independent of their attractiveness). Moreover, manipulating this facial-width ratio with computer graphics controlled attributions of trustworthiness, particularly for subordinate female evaluators.
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Previous neuroimaging research suggests that although object shape is analyzed in the lateral occipital cortex, surface properties of objects, such as color and texture, are dealt with in more medial areas, close to the collateral sulcus (CoS). The present study sought to determine whether there is a single medial region concerned with surface properties in general or whether instead there are multiple foci independently extracting different surface properties. We used stimuli varying in their shape, texture, or color, and tested healthy participants and 2 object-agnosic patients, in both a discrimination task and a functional MR adaptation paradigm. We found a double dissociation between medial and lateral occipitotemporal cortices in processing surface (texture or color) versus geometric (shape) properties, respectively. In Experiment 2, we found that the medial occipitotemporal cortex houses separate foci for color (within anterior CoS and lingual gyrus) and texture (caudally within posterior CoS). In addition, we found that areas selective for shape, texture, and color individually were quite distinct from those that respond to all of these features together (shape and texture and color). These latter areas appear to correspond to those associated with the perception of complex stimuli such as faces and places.
Article
The genesis of the Neuro-Information Systems (NeuroIS) field took place in 2007. Since then, a considerable number of IS scholars and academics from related disciplines have started to use theories, methods, and tools from neuroscience and psychophysiology to better understand human cognition, emotion, and behavior in IS contexts, and to develop neuro-adaptive information systems (i.e., systems that recognize the physiological state of the user and that adapt, based on that information, in real-time). However, because the NeuroIS field is still in a nascent stage, IS scholars need to become familiar with the methods, tools, and measurements that are used in neuroscience and psychophysiology. Against the background of the increased importance of methodological discussions in the NeuroIS field, the Journal of the Association for Information Systems published a special issue call for papers entitled “Methods, tools, and measurement in NeuroIS research” in 2012. We, the special issue’s guest editors, accepted three papers after a stringent review process, which appear in this special issue. In addition to these three papers, we hope to intensify the discussion on NeuroIS research methodology, and to this end we present the current paper. Importantly, our observations during the review process (particularly with respect to methodology) and our own reading of the literature and the scientific discourse during conferences served as input for this paper. Specifically, we argue that six factors, among others that will become evident in future discussions, are critical for a rigorous NeuroIS research methodology; namely, reliability, validity, sensitivity, diagnosticity, objectivity, and intrusiveness of a measurement instrument. NeuroIS researchers—independent from whether their role is editor, reviewer, or author—should carefully give thought to these factors. We hope that the discussion in this paper instigates future contributions to a growing understanding towards a NeuroIS research methodology.
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This paper discusses aspects of recruiting subjects for economic laboratory experiments, and shows how the Online Recruitment System for Economic Experiments can help. The software package provides experimenters with a free, convenient, and very powerful tool to organize their experiments and sessions.
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This article investigates if and how the valence of color cues affects moral acceptability of (un)desirable consumer behaviors. Study 1 uses colors with definite differences in terms of valence, namely, red and green. Study 2 applies an evaluative conditioning paradigm to endow initially neutral colors with negative versus positive valences. We find an ironic color effect: undesirable behaviors become more acceptable when presented with negatively valenced colors. In general, respondents find (un)desirable behaviors more acceptable when a background color is of the same valence rather than neutral or opposite in valence. Implications for promotion and prevention campaigns are discussed.
Book
George Lakoff and Mark Johnson take on the daunting task of rebuilding Western philosophy in alignment with three fundamental lessons from cognitive science: The mind is inherently embodied, thought is mostly unconscious, and abstract concepts are largely metaphorical. Why so daunting? "Cognitive science--the empirical study of the mind--calls upon us to create a new, empirically responsible philosophy, a philosophy consistent with empirical discoveries about the nature of mind," they write. "A serious appreciation of cognitive science requires us to rethink philosophy from the beginning, in a way that would put it more in touch with the reality of how we think." In other words, no Platonic forms, no Cartesian mind-body duality, no Kantian pure logic. Even Noam Chomsky's generative linguistics is revealed under scrutiny to have substantial problems. Parts of Philosophy in the Flesh retrace the ground covered in the authors' earlier Metaphors We Live By , which revealed how we deal with abstract concepts through metaphor. (The previous sentence, for example, relies on the metaphors "Knowledge is a place" and "Knowing is seeing" to make its point.) Here they reveal the metaphorical underpinnings of basic philosophical concepts like time, causality--even morality--demonstrating how these metaphors are rooted in our embodied experiences. They repropose philosophy as an attempt to perfect such conceptual metaphors so that we can understand how our thought processes shape our experience; they even make a tentative effort toward rescuing spirituality from the heavy blows dealt by the disproving of the disembodied mind or "soul" by reimagining "transcendence" as "imaginative empathetic projection." Their source list is helpfully arranged by subject matter, making it easier to follow up on their citations. If you enjoyed the mental workout from Steven Pinker's How the Mind Works , Lakoff and Johnson will, to pursue the "Learning is exercise" metaphor, take you to the next level of training. --Ron Hogan Two leading thinkers offer a blueprint for a new philosophy. "Their ambition is massive, their argument important.…The authors engage in a sort of metaphorical genome project, attempting to delineate the genetic code of human thought." -The New York Times Book Review "This book will be an instant academic best-seller." -Mark Turner, University of Maryland This is philosophy as it has never been seen before. Lakoff and Johnson show that a philosophy responsible to the science of the mind offers a radically new and detailed understandings of what a person is. After first describing the philosophical stance that must follow from taking cognitive science seriously, they re-examine the basic concepts of the mind, time, causation, morality, and the self; then they rethink a host of philosophical traditions, from the classical Greeks through Kantian morality through modern analytical philosophy.
Article
Coloured light is one aspect of modern aircraft cabin design. It could be used intentionally to influence thermal sensations: Coloured light may convey the impression that the environmental temperature is warmer or cooler than it actually is while still providing thermal comfort. A study was conducted in a light laboratory to test these assumptions. Subjects were exposed to different lighting situations, which were evaluated in terms of light and comfort. It was found that room temperature was perceived as being different depending on the colour of the lighting: In yellow light, room temperature was felt to be warmer than in blue light. Conversely, air quality was perceived as being higher and subjects felt more alert in blue light. All the coloured lighting situations tested were comfortable.
Purpose – Online retailing has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to its great potential and significant implications for buyers and sellers. This study adopts the stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework to illustrate how store layout design and atmosphere influence consumers' shopping intention on the website. Design/methodology/approach – The sample for this study comprised 626 respondents from the internet users. A structural equation model was employed to identify the interrelationships of store layout design, atmosphere, emotional arousal, attitude toward the website, and purchase intention. Findings – The analytical results of this study indicate that store layout design has significant impacts on emotional arousal and attitude toward the website, and thus has a positive influence on purchase intention. In addition, atmosphere has a more influential effect on emotional arousal than store layout design. Originality/value – This study provides new insights into the influences of store layout design and atmosphere on consumer online shopping intentions.
Article
The authors investigate the effect of red backgrounds on willingness-to-pay in auctions and negotiations. Data from eBay auctions and the lab show that a red (vs. blue) background elicits higher bid jumps. By contrast, red (vs. blue) backgrounds decrease price offers in negotiations. An investigation of the underlying process reveals that red color induces aggression through arousal. In addition, the selling mechanism—auction or negotiation—alters the effect of color by focusing individuals on primarily competing against other bidders (in auctions) or against the seller (in negotiations). Specifically, aggression is higher with red (vs. blue or gray) color and, therefore, increases bid jumps in auctions but decreases offers in negotiations.
Article
Glass color may influence the evaluation of food and beverages as has been reported in a previous study where participants rated a cold beverage presented in a blue glass to be more thirst-quenching than the same beverage poured into a green, yellow, or red glass. Our experiment sought to test whether container color also can affect the perceived temperature of a warm beverage. One hundred and twenty undergraduates were given warm coffee served in cups of different colors (blue, green, yellow, and red) and were asked to indicate which beverage was the warmest. Statistically significant differences among colors were found. The red cup was evaluated as containing the warmest beverage (38.3%), followed by the yellow (28.3%), the green (20.0%), and the blue (13.3%) cups. Conventional associations between warm versus cool colors are used to explain these results. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Col Res Appl, 39, 79–81, 2014
Article
In this study 2,684 people evaluated the credibility of two live Web sites on a similar topic (such as health sites). We gathered the comments people wrote about each siteís credibility and analyzed the comments to find out what features of a Web site get noticed when people evaluate credibility. We found that the ìdesign lookî of the site was mentioned most frequently, being present in 46.1% of the comments. Next most common were comments about information structure and information focus. In this paper we share sample participant comments in the top 18 areas that people noticed when evaluating Web site credibility. We discuss reasons for the prominence of design look, point out how future studies can build on what we have learned in this new line of research, and outline six design implications for human-computer interaction professionals.
Article
Ss were 25 paid volunteers. Ss were unaware of the experimenter's interest in temperature judgment while exposed to varying color situations. A task that appeared plausible was used to call attention to lighting and to prevent boredom. "Subjects did not show any change in the levels of heat they would tolerate as a function of the colors of illumination… nevertheless [they] persisted in the conventional belief that green and blue are 'cool' colors." From Psyc Abstracts 36:04:4LG48B. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Sharing systems are increasingly challenging sole ownership as the dominant means of obtaining product benefits, making up a market estimated at over $100 B annually in 2010. Consumer options include cell phone minute sharing plans, frequent flyer mile pools, bike sharing programs, and automobile sharing systems, among many others. However, marketing research has yet to provide a framework for understanding and managing these emergent systems. The present paper conceptualizes commercial sharing systems within a typology of shared goods. Three studies then demonstrate that beyond cost-related benefits of sharing, the perceived risk of scarcity related to sharing is a central determinant of its attractiveness. Results suggest that managers can use perceptions of personal and sharing partners’ usage patterns to affect risk perceptions and subsequent propensity to participate in a commercial sharing system.
Article
Colour has the potential to elicit emotions or behaviors, yet there is little research in which colour treatments in website design are systematically tested. Little is known about how colour affects trust or satisfaction on the part of the viewer. Although the Internet is increasingly global, few systematic studies have been undertaken in which the impact of colour on culturally diverse viewers is investigated in website design. In this research three website colour treatments are tested across three culturally distinct viewer groups for their impact on user trust, satisfaction, and e-loyalty. To gather data, a rich multi-method approach is used including eye-tracking, a survey, and interviews. Results reveal that website colour appeal is a significant determinant for website trust and satisfaction with differences noted across cultures. The findings have practical value for web marketers and interface designers concerning effective colour use in website development.
Article
Freshness is important for food products, beverages personal care products and cleaning products. In the present study we used an experimental approach to investigate sensory dominance in the product experience of freshness. We created products (soft drinks, dishwashing liquids, and scented candles) using fresh and non-fresh stimuli (colours and smells) in four different combinations and asked respondents to evaluate the freshness and pleasantness of each product. The results demonstrated that smell dominated the judgments of freshness for soft drinks and dishwashing liquids. However, for scented candles smell and colour were equally important in determining freshness. This suggests that the dominant sensory modality for the product experience of freshness depends on the characteristics of the particular product.
Article
The stereotype content model (SCM) defines two fundamental dimensions of social perception, warmth and competence, predicted respectively by perceived competition and status. Combinations of warmth and competence generate distinct emotions of admiration, contempt, envy, and pity. From these intergroup emotions and stereotypes, the behavior from intergroup affect and stereotypes (BIAS) map predicts distinct behaviors: active and passive, facilitative and harmful. After defining warmth/communion and competence/agency, the chapter integrates converging work documenting the centrality of these dimensions in interpersonal as well as intergroup perception. Structural origins of warmth and competence perceptions result from competitors judged as not warm, and allies judged as warm; high status confers competence and low status incompetence. Warmth and competence judgments support systematic patterns of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions, including ambivalent prejudices. Past views of prejudice as a univalent antipathy have obscured the unique responses toward groups stereotyped as competent but not warm or warm but not competent. Finally, the chapter addresses unresolved issues and future research directions.
Article
Task type, poster presence, and workspace color were varied to determine their effects on mood, satisfaction, and performance. Students (n=112) performed either a low or high demand task in a blue or red workspace, without or with a scenic poster. Only hostility was significantly affected by task type. Satisfaction and performance were not significantly affected by posters or workspace color, although performance decreased for the high demand tasks and increased for the low demand tasks over time. Posters made the workplace more pleasant, but also increased perceived task demand. Perceived task demand was also marginally related to workplace color. Perceived task demand may moderate the effects of posters and workplace color on mood and other perceptions. Other data support the notion that cool colors are calming and warm colors are stimulating.
Article
Trust is emerging as a key element of success in the on-line environment. Although considerable research on trust in the offline world has been performed, to date empirical study of on-line trust has been limited. This paper examines on-line trust, specifically trust between people and informational or transactional websites. It begins by analysing the definitions of trust in previous offline and on-line research. The relevant dimensions of trust for an on-line context are identified, and a definition of trust between people and informational or transactional websites is presented. We then turn to an examination of the causes of on-line trust. Relevant findings in the human–computer interaction literature are identified. A model of on-line trust between users and websites is presented. The model identifies three perceptual factors that impact on-line trust: perception of credibility, ease of use and risk. The model is discussed in detail and suggestions for future applications of the model are presented.
Article
Several recent theories in behavioral game theory seek to explain the behavior of subjects in experimental bargaining games. These models can be partitioned into two classes: outcome-based and intention-based. Outcome-based models treat the intentions that players attribute to one another as unnecessary for predicting behavior. Intention-based approaches, and in particular the trust and reciprocity (TR) hypothesis, rely on this attribution of intentions in an essential way. We report laboratory data from simple two-person trust games which is inconsistent with outcome-based models, but predicted by the trust and reciprocity hypothesis.
Article
The proportion of money sent, which is typically assumed to reflect trust, decreased significantly as the stake size was increased in a trust game conducted in rural Bangladesh. Nevertheless, even with very large stakes, most senders and receivers sent substantial fractions.
Article
We designed an experiment to study trust and reciprocity in an investment setting. This design controls for alternative explanations of behavior including repeat game reputation effects, contractual precommitments, and punishment threats. Observed decisions suggest that reciprocity exists as a basic element of human behavior and that this is accounted for in the trust extended to an anonymous counterpart. A second treatment, social history, identifies conditions which strengthen the relationship between trust and reciprocity.
Article
In this research we investigate the possibility of designing a user interface for electronic commerce systems that will evoke target feelings in the customer. The focus is on the impact of visual design factors on the feeling of trustworthiness because of its significant effect upon the behavior of customers using electronic commerce systems. Four empirical studies were conducted in the domain of cyber-banking systems. The subjects were cyber-banking system developers, bank personnel and potential customers of cyber-banking systems in Korea ranging in age from late teens to early forties. The first study was directed at developing the self-report questionnaire that faithfully reflects the emotional factors related to cyber-banking systems. The resulting questionnaire consisted of the forty bipolar emotive differential scales representative of the emotions most important in interacting with cyber-banking systems, e.g. reliable-not reliable. The second study focused on determining the important visual design factors from the customer's perspective. Fourteen design factors identified from subjects' descriptions were classified into the four design categories of title, menu, main clipart and color. The third study investigated the correlations between the emotional factors and design factors. The design factors were found to have significant effects upon the extent of feelings related to symmetry, trustworthiness, awkwardness and elegance. In the final study, two interfaces were designed based on the results of the third study to differentiate the extent of trustworthiness evoked. The results indicate that it is possible to manipulate the visual design factors of the customer interface in order to induce a target emotion, such as trustworthiness. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of the empirical results on the design and implementation of customer interfaces to electronic commerce systems in general.
Article
We present an agenda for the future research that has the potential to extend the conceptual foundations of trust in online environments and to improve the practice in the domain. The agenda draws on the previous work on trust, the papers included in this Special Issue, and our perspective on the state of the literature. This agenda is structured into four components-nature and role of trust, moderators of trust, antecedents of trust, and empirical methods for examining trust.
Article
This study examines the impact of culture on trust determinants in computer-mediated commerce transactions. Adopting trust-building foundations from cross-culture literature and focusing on a set of well-established cultural constructs as groups of culture ...
Article
Online reputation - "feedback" - mechanisms aim to mitigate the moral hazard problem associated with spatially distant exchange among strangers by providing traders with the type of information available in small groups, where members are frequently involved in one another's dealings. We compare trading in a market with feedback to a market without, as well as to a market in which the same people interact with one another repeatedly (partners market). We find that, while the feedback mechanism induces quite a substantial improvement in transaction efficiency, it also exhibits a kind of public goods problem in that, unlike the partners market, the benefits of trust and trustworthy behavior go to the whole community and are not completely internalized. We discuss the implications of this perspective for improving these systems.