ArticlePDF Available

Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The beginning of the Neolithic way of life in The Balkans is widely accepted as a multi-faceted and complicated process, imported, triggered or influenced from more than one external source. The variety of aspects resulted in lively debates. This paper intends to contribute by presenting typological profile of the pottery assemblage of Grnčarica (a Neolithic settlement in Macedonia); a profile which does not match the obtained 14C dates. Possible explanations are given and further reconsideration of the chronological frame of the Balkan Neolithic (established half a century ago) is suggested.
Content may be subject to copyright.
PRÄHISTORISCHEARCHÄOLOGIE IN SÜDOSTEUROPA
BAND 28
THE NEOLITHIC AND ENEOLITHIC
IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE
NEW APPROACHES TO DATING AND CULTURAL
DYNAMICS IN THE 6TH TO 4TH MILLENNIUM BC
EDITED BY
WOLFRAM SCHIER
FLORIN DROVEAN
RAHDEN / WESTF. 2014
THE NEOLITHIC AND ENEOLITHIC IN
SOUTHEAST EUROPE
PAS
28
ISBN 978-3-89646-599-3
ISSN 0723-1725
AND
THE NEOLITHIC AND ENEOLITHIC
IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE
PRÄHISTORISCHE ARCHÄOLOGIE IN SÜDOSTEUROPA
BAND 28
Herausgegeben
von
BERNHARD HÄNSEL
und
Institut für Prähistorische Archäologie
der Freien Universität Berlin
VERLAG MARIE LEIDORF GMBH RAHDEN/WESTF. 2014
WOLFRAM SCHIER
PRÄHISTORISCHE ARCHÄOLOGIE IN SÜDOSTEUROPA
BAND 28
THE NEOLITHIC AND ENEOLITHIC
IN SOUTHEAST EUROPE
NEW APPROACHES TO DATING AND CULTURAL
DYNAMICS IN THE 6TH TO 4TH MILLENNIUM BC
Edited by
WOLFRAM SCHIER
and
FLORIN DRAŞOVEAN
Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH . Rahden/Westf.
2014
440 Seiten mit 313 Abbildungen
Published with financial support of the Timiş County Council
Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek
Schier, Wolfram / Draşovean, Florin (Hrsg.):
The Neolithic and Eneolithic in Southeast Europe ; New approaches
to dating and cultural Dynamics in the 6th to 4th Millennium BC /
hrsg. von Wolfram Schier… .
Rahden/Westf.: Leidorf 2014
(Prähistorische Archäologie in Südosteuropa ; Bd. 28)
ISBN 978-3-89646-599-3
Die Deutsche Bibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie.
Detaillierte bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar.
Alle Rechte vorbehalten
© 2014
Verlag Marie Leidorf GmbH
Geschäftsführer: Dr. Bert Wiegel
Stellerloh 65 · D-32369 Rahden/Westf.
Tel: +49/(0)5771/ 9510-74
Fax: +49/(0)5771/ 9510-75
E-Mail: info@vml.de
Internet: http://www.vml.de
ISBN 978-3-89646-599-3
ISSN 0723-1725
Kein Teil des Buches darf in irgendeiner Form (Druck, Fotokopie, CD-ROM, DVD, Intern e t oder einem
anderen Verfahren) ohne schriftliche Genehmigung des Verlages Marie Leidorf GmbH reproduziert werden
oder unter Verwendung elektronischer Systeme verarbeitet, vervielfältigt oder verbreitet werden.
PC-Texterfassung und Scans: DieAutoren
Redaktion: Wolfram Schier, Florin Draşovean
Satz, Layout und Bildnachbearbeitung: Morten Hegewisch
Druck und Produktion:
Gedruckt auf alterungsbeständigem Papier
The present volume assembles contributions presented at two international conferences dedicated to recent studies on
the Neolithic and Eneolithic of Southeast and Eastern Central Europe.
Twenty years after the publication of the last comprehensive and broad scale conference on the historical concept,
materiality and chronology of the Copper Age1 the International Conference “The Transition from the Neolithic to the

on 10–12 November 2011. Organised by the editors of this volume, 23 colleagues from seven countries gathered at

on regional overviews over the transition from the Neolithic to the Eneolithic. The meeting brought together new data


begun, the editors of the present volume organised the session A32 at the 19th meeting of the European Association of
-
 

session was focussed rather on approaches to adjust and revise traditional relative chronologies using new radiocar-

Only a part of the EAA session contributions, however, was submitted until spring 2014 – too few to be published

-
ogy (from Early Neolithic to Late Eneolithic) and geography (from Greece to Slovenia and Ukraine). The editors are
convinced that it represents quite an impressive cross section of ongoing research on the Neolithic and Eneolithic in
Southeast and Eastern Central Europe.
   

 

We hope that this volume will both stimulate discussions on our present knowledge and be an incentive for further
research. Only an improved chronological resolution will help us to better understand the dynamics of cultural pro-
cesses in prehistory.
    
1
Preface
Participants of the conference “The Transition from the Neolithic to the Eneolithic in Central and South-Eastern Europe in the



      
Georgeta El Susi.
Content
Preface .............................................................................................................................................................................

Republic of Macedonia ...................................................................................................................................................
Stratis Papadopoulos, Nerantzis Nerantzis, Eastern Macedonia during the 5th
Innovation ........................................................................................................................................................................
,  ..............................
Cornelia-Magda Lazarovici, The Late Neolithic and Copper Age in Eastern Romania .................................................

einer kupferzeitlichen Siedlung der Trypillia-Kultur. Aktuelle Prospektionen in Taljanky und Maydanetske

Gheorghe Lazarovici, Cornelia-Magda Lazarovici, Corelations and new observations regarding absolute and

, On the Late Neolithic and Early Eneolithic Relative and Absolute Chronology of the Eastern
 ..........................................................................................................................
Adam N. Crnobrnja, The (E)neolithic Settlement Crkvine at Stubline, Serbia ..............................................................

Research – ................................................................

technical interpretation ....................................................................................................................................................
oka copper hammer-
..................................................................................................................................................................................
Gheorghe Lazarovici, 
metallurgy ........................................................................................................................................................................
The Transition from the Late Neolithic to the Early


present state of research ..................................................................................................................................................

Neolithic and the Copper Age in Eastern Hungary .........................................................................................................

–5. Jt. v. Chr. ....................
14C calendar chronologies of the Neolithic-Eneolithic transition. Case studies
from Slovenia and Croatia ...............................................................................................................................................
Middle Eneolithic Lasinja and Retz-Gajary cultures in northern Croatia – development of chronology .....
, 
Chalcolithic of central and southeast Europe ..................................................................................................................
9
29
49

99
113
129
173
187
213
221
243
273
297
319
347

397
409
Nicolae Ursulescu, Neolithic – Eneolithic/Chalcolithic – Copper Age: a simple terminological problem? ..................
Wolfram Schier, The Copper Age in Southeast Europe – historical epoch or typo-chronological construct? ................
List of authors ..................................................................................................................................................................
413
419
437
Abstract

-

14

ago) is suggested.
Introduction
-




    

   


the end of the Early, or even well into the Middle Neolithic (57th–58th

younger than the previous sample. The debates that started among the Macedonian scholars ranged from complete
rejection of the 14C dates, to an almost revolutionary call for complete revision of the old chronology. This paper will
present the pottery, the details from the dating and will try to give the possible directions for future interpretation.
Provenance of the material

m2
one of the huts and a pottery kiln in the central area (Fig. 1). Some waste disposal areas were also recorded in what
would be the periphery of the settlement. The material that is subject to this paper is only the pottery artifacts that
-
Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of
Macedonia

For Trajanka Jovčevska (1959–2013)
Fig. 1. Ground plan of the central


lithic” and “Roman Period” groups (there is a Roman villa rustica nearby and some scattered pottery fragments can
be found on the Neolithic site), the material is not further divided chronologically. So, the whole Neolithic ceramic
material is treated as one group of artifacts, coming from a relatively small settlement, which lived relatively short


  
number. As said before, the material comes from a single cultural layer. The spits were simply marked without
giving at least the relative depth. Therefore we dismiss the spit number as an important information, for it will

the ceramic artifact density by trench for the Neolithic layer is represented. When looking at this representation,


   



pottery workshops, waste areas etc.).
-

Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 11

the groups give information for all the typology categories, but they all give contribution to at least one of them.
Techno-Typological approach

   
pathological features on the only discovered skeleton (as proposed by the anthropological analysis) support a local

applied for detailed technological analyses. Nevertheless, even if only through simple macroscopic observations and
basic archaeometry, an attempt can been made to comment the production process (raw material provenance, use

typologically group the artifacts on the basis of their technological traits.

-
or equal to –



Further observations can be made on the relationship between this and other technological traits of the pottery. For

only 10 

Another technical feature which can be observed is the use of temper in the clay. Through macroscopic observation
only, most of the artifacts permit differentiation of organic from mineral temper, or different size and quantities of
mineral temper and observation of the presence or absence of other types of tempers. The organic inclusions might
Tab. 1. Groups and quantity of considered ceramic artifacts.

it in almost all the potsherds. There are only around twenty fragments for which additional microscopic observation


-


The pottery is clustered in four groups, or four levels of surface smoothness: rough, roughly smoothed, smooth
 

the intentionally roughened or barbotine decorated pottery. The second level of smoothness means that mini-

equally on the whole surface. The third level is smooth, in places burnished surface. There is no doubt that a



  

polished.


many hues were present (red, orange brown, gray), the Early Neolithic is characterized by the domination of the red
varieties of slip. The red-slipped vessels with smooth or polished surface were the precondition for the appearance of
the white painted ornaments, which is the trademark of the Early Neolithic in Macedonia. The same hues are present
throughout the whole Neolithic, but the Middle phase is dominated by the brown and gray hues, and the Late Neo-
lithic by the dark-gray and black slip (Fidanoski 2009).

(there is only one piece with brown slip). The different tones of red and the position where the slip was applied vary.
    

     

results are presented in Tab. 2.
-

-

Chart 1. Piece count by wall thickness.
Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 13

and they were consciously choosing the right type of temper.







there are three pieces of dark-gray pottery which are probably parts of the same vessel, and their obvious difference with
the rest of the assemblage suggests that they might be imports from other site or culture.





either on a temperature lower than the optimal, or for a time shorter than necessary. The second probably is the case

the covering structure, the height of the internal space of the kiln was not too big either. Whatever fuel was used, it







Shape typology
-

-


-
et al.et al.
et al.et al.



Neolithic period in Macedonia (Naumov et al. 2009). Out of the 332 members of our assemblage, 189 give information
about the shape of the vessel they once belonged to. From the variety of the Neolithic pottery shapes from Macedonia and

Plates



rim diameter (Fidanoski 2009).

they are the dominant shape in the pottery vessel shape. Further observations bring out some internal differences



Fig. 4. Plate typology.
Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 15
of slip, shows no patterns. All levels of surface treatment and all variations of slip application are present. Presenting

and useful information, which can be used for further relative dating and synchronization with other assemblages. On

Hemispherical plates –
outnumbers the second type.

  
this presentation, we will leave them for some future direct comparative study of assemblages in the region.
Bowls
They are considered as open vessels. The rim diameter is smaller than their biggest diameter, but never less than


rest are recognized mostly from rim fragments (Fig. 5).

       
           


 
-



typological subdivision can be made on the basis of the form of the body of the bowls:




added that there is no carination dividing the two halves (Fig. 5b).



from this piece only we can tell that at least the upper half was cylindrical.
Jars



Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 17
   
characterizing the passage of the Early towards the Late Neolithic consists of a decrease and heigth and an increase

       


   
      




-






Lids




surface (Fig. 7a). Only few parallel lines from the supposed incised ornament are visible, but nevertheless it is enough to
make it more logical to conclude that it was once a conical lid. The potsherd belongs to the group of coarse pottery. There
are organic and some middle-sized mineral inclusions in the clay. The surface is roughly smoothed and has the natural post-

Flat-bases
         




(Fig. 7b). It is a shallow vessel with irregular shape and a lot of inclusions in the clay, both organic and mineral in all sizes.

-

bottom fragment from a vessel that apparently had rectangular shape. On its lower side basketry imprints are visible. The

Some of the pottery fragments do not carry information about the shape of the vessel they
belonged to, but they can be used to establish the different varieties of handles and bases of our pottery assemblage.

Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 19
Base typology
The base is the thickest and strongest part of the vessel. As a result they are usually the best preserved morphologi-


parts, isolated from the rest of the vessel. The best that can be done is base typology:


Flat cylinder foot (Fig. 8b) – here the belly starts from a slightly higher point, which gives the impression that the






Ring foot – even though this type is reported as dominant in sites not so far (chronologically and geographically)

Handle typology
Handles (like bases) are strong (thick) parts of the vessel which very often, especially in cases of strong fragmenta-





perforation can be horizontal, or more frequently vertical, but it is very often that the vertical lugs are slightly tilted

ropes that were strung through them.




cords or ropes for easier transportation and handling of the vessel.
Fig. 9. Handle typology.
Fig. 10. Different modes of decoration by impression.


Decoration typology
Potters from the Neolithic in Macedonia decorated their products using eight different techniques: barbotine,
      



all mentioned decoration techniques are represented. From those that are present, the different modes of impression
and the barbotine technique are the most frequent, leaving far behind the different application, incision, stabbing or

Impression


    
     
impressions, ‘o’ impressions, cord impressions and ‘grain’ impressions:



      






Barbotine
This is one of the positive decoration techniques. In order to perform the decoration, once the vessel is shaped (but


Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 21


Unorganized barbotine – the additional layer of clay was applied freely, maybe by sprinkling the mushy clay
-


 
 
    

Application
This is another positive decoration technique, where previously shaped clay mass is applied on the vessel surface


Small balls in tight rows – the applied balls are with 1,2 centimeters diameter and they are grouped in regular rows,

all there is, so there is no way of knowing on which part of the vessel, or which type of vessel they were applied on.

is grayish-brown coarse potsherd, probably from a bowl body.


Arched relief band – another unique small fragment from the assemblage has an arched clay band applied on it,
-
sherd is the only puzzle piece that was discovered.
Incision
Incision, as decoration technique in the Neolithic period, was performed with a sharp tool. In Macedonia is

one is the mentioned lid (Fig. 7a) and the other is a plate fragment, where the incisions are shallow and barely
visible.
Fig. 11. Decoration by stabbing and different barbotine modes.

Stabbing
There is only one plate fragment, decorated with stabbings by a pointed instrument (Fig. 11a). The decoration is

Paint

than what is preserved, and it was performed with white color on a polished red-slipped background (Fig. 13a). This is


Another body fragment, although questionable, should be mentioned here. It seems that the normal red slip in this case
was applied in order to create an ornament (Fig. 13b). This is not the usual way how paint was applied, even for the later
‘dark paint’ phase. It is possible to be the result of post-depositional alteration and uneven slip preservation.
General consideration about the Grnčarica pottery
-
         



shape, most of the information is limited to only one morphological part. In addition, the lack of previous interdisci-
plinary chemo-physical analyses of the clay fabric does not allow some very important technological characteristics
to be observed. However, from the presented observations some general conclusions about the Neolithic pottery as-


The organic and mineral inclusions in the clay are present in almost all potsherds.


 


intentional and according to the potters or customers aesthetic perceptions.
-

the intra-site variations are so many that on the basis on the color alone, sometimes even fragments of the same vessel


a type of cross-section is typical for two assemblages, that not necessarily makes them culturally and chronologically


inside that particular settlement.
Fig. 13. White-on-red and red-on-light painted pottery fragments.
Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 23
Fig. 14. Calibration plots of the two dated samples.
The shape and decoration typology is the best indicator for making inter-site analogies and it has been, and should
be used intensively when studying Neolithic cultures and their development.
Discussion



-
14



et al.  et al.et al.
-
et al.

the Neolithic started in the peninsula, the mode and directions of neolithisation and the appearance and distribution


development, preceding the ‘developed’ Neolithic with white painted pottery (Nikolova 2007). The opposing group

-



-
et al. 1983) . It
resembles strongly the material culture, and especially the architectural and outdoor activity features of Divostin and
Ohoden. This report has not received the proper attention and since then the established Neolithic system of Mace-
donia was not challenged seriously.
   
periphery. The life of the settlements, compared to the tell settlements, was short. The buildings were not renewed

adjustment and environmentally conditioned, as much as a cultural trait. When added to this the great similarity of
-
     
earliest phases of the Neolithic, settled in the wet Atlantic phases when the nearby Pelagonia valley was under water’
et al.

results (Fig. 14) disagree. Even though the two results do not match, both are far from the proposed chronology for
et al.
2009).

bottom of the stratigraphy, superimposed by two layers (II and III) containing pottery with white-painted decoration
et al. 2007). Thus, the relative chronology here seems clear. Radiocarbon dated samples from future



further support to the credibility to the radiocarbon results.



-


Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 25



Neolithic in Macedonia. The most characteristic features of the Middle Neolithic (dark-painted ornaments on pottery,

no single element in the entire material culture that would suggest Middle Neolithic. Even if we rely on a single white-



The generalized representation of facts in publications so far, prevents more subtle detection of individual traits and

    

is one of the eponym sites) the assemblage is distinguished by the abundance of coarse ware and impresso decoration.
-
tics. Another interesting question, which deserves a separate discussion, is weather this variety is a result of differ-


cultural features, but region in which individual small communities also tend to maintain their cultural differences.
This should not be seen as a reason for dividing the culture, but to enrich and unite even more the archeological record
of the small tribes, scattered around the plains and hill—sides of Central, Eastern and Northern Macedonia into single

Conclusion
What seemed to be a straightforward Monochrome phase Early Neolithic pottery assemblage was challenged by the
14C AMS dating,

Rejecting the Radiometric Dates
         
of Macedonia. This would be the earliest known so far Neolithic site from the contemporary borders, preceding the


Accepting the Radiometric Dates and Rejecting the Established Neolithic Relative Chronology

the accepted Middle Neolithic traits in the pottery assemblage, from where we stand today, can only be addressed
through few possible, theoretical interpretations.
The Transitional Stage of Cultural Development
 
       

transformation of the Early Neolithic pottery into the typical Middle Neolithic shapes, without representing either of

pottery traits to be lost, and the Middle Neolithic ones not to be crystallized yet. The obtained 14
perfectly for such a transitional phase between the Early and the Middle Neolithic. This is a view worthy for further

Bibliography
Angeleski 2011: S. Angeleski, Analythical review of the Macedonian Neolithic. Macedonia Acta Arch. 20, 2011,
91–125.
              

-

et al.-
       
World hunter-gatherers 3-4/2, 2002, 1–15.
Fidanoski 2009: L. Fidanoski, Pottery production. In: G. Naumov/L. Fidanoski/I. Tolevski/A. Ivkovska (eds) Neo-
lithic communities in The Republic of Macedonia (Skopje 2009) 109–155.






Heurtley 1939: W. A. Heurtley, Prehistoric Macedonia: An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Greek Macedonia,


Kotsakis 2001: K. Kotsakis, Mesolithic to Neolithic in Greece: Continuity, discontinuity or change of course? Doc.







      
Westf. 2011) 109–125.

-

Naumov et al. 2009: G. Naumov/L. Fidanoski/I. Tolevski/A. Ivkovska, Neolithic communities in the Republic of
Macedonia. Dante (Skopje 2009).


   



Perlès 2001: C. Perlès, The Early Neolithic in Greece. The First Farming Communities in Europe (Cambridge
2001).



      

          

            









Pottery typology and the monochrome Neolithic phase in the Republic of Macedonia 27
        

         
 Arch. 5, 1979, 9–29.


    



2007).

/M. Stefanovich/G. Ivanov (eds), In The Steps of James Harvey Gaul,
       



University


Hungary

Marta Arzarello

Sezione di Scienze Preistoriche e Antropologiche
Dipartimento di Studi Umanistici
Università degli Studi di Ferrara
C.so Ercole I d’Este 32
44100 Ferrara
Italy


Erste Direktorin


Palmengartenstr. 10–12
Germany


Institute for the Protection of



Serbia
E-mail: 

National Institute of Archeology with Museum
Saborna 2,


e-mail: 

Croatian Conservation Institute
Archaeological Heritage
Department for Land Archaeology


Croatia
List of authors
E-mail: 
Adam N. Crnobrnja



Serbia
E-mail: 
 Diaconescu


Romania
E-mail: goshu_d



Romania
E-mail: 
Roland Gauss
Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung ISC

Ressourcenstrategie IWKS


Germany
E-Mail: 
Attila Gyucha
Hungarian National Museum
Center of National Heritage Protection

Hungary





Hungary


Serbian Academy of Science and Arts
Knez Mihailova 35


Cornelia-Magda Lazarovici
Institute of Archaeology


Romania

Gheorghe Lazarovici

Facultatea de Istorie si Patrimoniu

Sibiu 550024
Romania


Hauptstr. 93

Germany

Tibor Marton
Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences
Úri u. 49

Hungary
E-mail: martonarcheo.mta.hu

Associate Professor
Institute for Archaeology and History
Faculty of Educational Sciences
Goce Delcev University, Stip
Republic of Macedonia
E-mail: 
Nerantzis Nerantzis
Archaeological Museum of Komotini
A. Syneonidi 4

Greece


Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences
Úri u. 49

Hungary
E-mail: orossarcheo.mta.hu

Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences
Úri u. 49

Hungary

Stratis Papadopoulos
Archaeological Museum of Kavala
Eryhtrou Stavrou 17

Greece


William A. Parkinson
Department of Anthropology
Field Museum of Natural History
Chicago, IL
USA

Daniel Peters

Fachbereich Geschichts- und Kulturwissenschaften



Germany




Mittelalters
Abteilung für Jüngere Urgeschichte und Frühgeschichte

72070 Tübingen
E-mail: joerg.petrasch

Institute of Archaeological Sciences



Hungary
E-mail: 
Knut Rassmann
Leiter Technische Abteilung


Palmengartenstr. 10–12
Germany

Wolfram Schier
List of authors 439

Fachbereich Geschichts- und Kulturwissenschaften



Germany



University


Hungary

Marko Sraka
Department of Archaeology
Faculty of Arts
University of Ljubljana
Slovenia

Darko Stojanovski

PhD student
Department of Geology



Portugal
E-mail: 
Nicolae Ursulescu

Faculty of History


Romania
E-mail: 

Institute of Archaeology NAS of Ukraine
12 Geroiv Stalingrada Ave
04210 Kyiv-210
Ukraine
E-mail: 

Department of Anthropology
Ohio State University
Columbus, OH
USA


Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences
Úri u. 49

Hungary
E-mail: 
... During this time, we also see a degree of coherence between areas that cross modern geographical boundaries in relation to the type and appearance of a range of material culture classes, including potential ritualistic objects such as cult tables and figurines, elements of lithic assemblages and technologies, and pottery. Traditionally, aspects of similarity, particularly in relation to ceramics, have been used to define chronological systems and cultural groups, which has created difficulties in correlating different areas (Nikolov 2002;Biagi et al. 2005;Nikolić 2005;Boyadzhiev 2009;Budja 2009) and debates the timing and relationship of different pottery styles (Stojanovski et al. 2014;Spataro 2019, 43 Fig. 1.7) In Serbia, Early-Middle Neolithic pottery is characterised as belonging to the Starčevo group, originally defined at the site of Starčevo Grad ( fig. 1). ...
... Покрај оние од Амзабегово, датумите од Горобинци, Вршник и Грнчарица (меѓу 5800 и 5500 год. пр.н.е.) даваат стабилна хронолошка низа за средниот неолит (Quitta and Kohl 1969;Gimbutas 1976;Stojаnovski et al. 2014). Материјалот од овие локалитети е мошне сличен на регионално ниво, меѓутоа значително се разликува од оној во Пелагонија, којшто останува речиси непроменет во средниот неолит. ...
... Примарните техно-типолошки аспекти на откриената керамика беа предмет на анализа во магистерски труд на еден од авторите (Дарко Стојановски), а подоцна претставени и објавени пред меѓународната стручна јавност (Stojanovski 2012;Stojanovski et al. 2014). За време на истражувањата не беше извршена проспекција на околината на Грнчарица, со цел да се откријат блиски извори на глина. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Neolithic settlement Grnčarica near Štip was discovered and partly explored eight years ago. Due to the circumstances, more detailed results of this research still have not been presented in Macedonian archaeology. It resulted in lack of information for this significant site in publications of Macedonian Neolithic. Therefore, herewith we present details of the research, the type and the character of the settlement and the material culture, as well as the implications these results have regarding the Neolithization process and further development of Neolithic cultures in Macedonia.
Article
Full-text available
This work investigates the technology of pottery production at the Chalcolithic site of Radovanu-La Muscalu (first half of the fifth millennium BCE), in southern Romania. The excavation of this settlement yielded a rich and well-contextualised archaeological assemblage that represents the last phases of development of Boian material culture, a Chalcolithic phenomenon that spread throughout the lower Danube area at the end of the sixth millennium BCE and the first half of fifth millennium BCE. To carry out this investigation, a total of forty-nine ceramic samples, representative of the different pottery types and chronological horizons attested at this site, together with geological samples collected around Radovanu, were selected. These were analysed using a multi-pronged scientific approach including ceramic petrography, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. This interdisciplinary study elucidates different aspects of the local pottery production and indicates that ceramics at Radovanu were manufactured according to a conservative tradition that consistently made use of grog tempering throughout all phases in which this settlement was inhabited. The results also show that at Radovanu, regional technological traits coexisted with elements that were widely applied in the Balkan region at that time, such as graphite-painted decoration. This investigation together with the identification of potential non-local productions well illustrates the complex interrelationships between the Boian phenomenon and the neighbouring material cultures in the Balkans.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The article addresses questions of chronological methodology and terminology related to the period of the Eneolithic or Copper Age. By relating absolute and relative chronology to ordinal and metric time scales and with reference to statistical scale theory some methodological consequences are briefly discussed and illustrated by selected chronological charts of the time period under consideration. Besides absolute and relative time scales further components of archaeological chronology are periodisation and (culture-historical) phaseology. In archaeological practice authors often decide to refer chronological charts either to culture sequences or to hierarchical period systems, whereas both are necessary. A critical review of the archaeological practice in comparative chronology demonstrates some sources of mismatching and discrepancies both within and between chronological systems. Here quantitative approaches relying on representative samples of stratigraphies are strongly recommended, instead of arguing with selected “import” sherds. The second part of the article deals with the concept of the Copper Age as a historical epoch, introduced into German-speaking archaeology by scholars as H. Müller-Karpe and J. Lichardus. A critical review of Lichardus’ criteria for a pan-European Copper Age in the light of the actual chronology and evidence challenges the notion of a homogenous historical epoch. Therefore it is suggested to abandon the idea of a historical Copper Age, to use the term “Eneolithic” merely as an element of chronological terminology and to analyse the cultural dynamics and regional diversity exclusively within a solid framework of absolute dates.
Article
Full-text available
A conspicuous gap in the radiocarbon record of the Iron Gates Mesolithic suggests that many riverbank sites were abandoned between c 8250 and 7900 cal BP. 1 This period of site abandonment is linked to increased flooding along the Danube, which can be correlated with a distinct global climatic oscillation. The implications of these environmental changes for the interpretation of Lepenski Vir and the timing of the Meso-Neolithic transition in the northern Balkans are examined. There is growing evidence of climatic instability during the Holocene and its effects on river systems. We suggest that climate-related flooding had a significant impact on human settlement and use of riverine environments in southeast Europe during the middle Holocene, and may even have been an important stimulus of culture change.
Article
The following date list covers certain samples dated by this laboratory from Nov 1975 through December 1977. All archaeological, all geological, and some of the geochemical samples measured during that period are included here. Measurements of tree-ring samples analyzed through Sept 1977 have been published previously (Suess, 1978); later measurements of wood samples will be included in the next list. Data and interpretation of 14 C in the CaCO 3 of annual coral growth have been published (Druffel & Linick, 1978) with further coral data to be published in the future.
Article
The beginnings of the Neolithic way of life in Europe and the role played by the Anatolian Peninsula in this process are much-debated issues that involve a number of distinct topics. In this debate, it should not be overlooked that distinct from Europe, at least a portion of the Anatolian plateau had been part of the “Neolithic world” for at least 4,000 years before the appearance of the earliest claimed Neolithic culture in Europe. Accordingly, in viewing the interaction between southeastern Europe and the Aegean with the Anatolian Peninsula, the core area of primary Neolithization has to be considered.
The technology of the ceramics Neolithic Macedonia as reflected by excavation at Anza, southeast Yugoslavia
  • E Gardner
  • Gardner
Gardner 1976: E. Gardner, The technology of the ceramics. In: M. Gimbutas (ed.), Neolithic Macedonia as reflected by excavation at Anza, southeast Yugoslavia. Inst. Arch., Univ. California (Los Angeles 1976) 159–176.
Prehistoric Macedonia: An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Greek Macedonia, West of the Struma, in the Neolithic, Bronze and Early Iron Ages
Heurtley 939: W. A. Heurtley, Prehistoric Macedonia: An Archaeological Reconnaissance of Greek Macedonia, West of the Struma, in the Neolithic, Bronze and Early Iron Ages (Cambridge 1939).
Mesolithic to Neolithic in Greece: Continuity, discontinuity or change of course?
Kotsakis 200: K. Kotsakis, Mesolithic to Neolithic in Greece: Continuity, discontinuity or change of course? Doc. Praehist. XXVIII, 2001, 63-73.
The Anza I–III (pre-Vincha) Ceramics Neolithic Macedonia as reflected by excavation at Anza, southeast Yugoslavia
  • R E Mock
Mock 1976: R. E. Mock, The Anza I–III (pre-Vincha) Ceramics. In: M. Gimbutas (ed.), Neolithic Macedonia as reflected by excavation at Anza, southeast Yugoslavia. Inst. Arch., Univ. California (Los Angeles 1976).
Die Lepenski Vir-Kultur und der Beginn der Jungsteinzeit an der Mittleren Donau
Srejović 1971: D. Srejović, Die Lepenski Vir-Kultur und der Beginn der Jungsteinzeit an der Mittleren Donau. In: H. Schwabedissen (ed), Die Anfänge des Neolithikums vom Orient bis Nordeuropa. Teil 2: Östliches Mitteleuropa. Fundamenta, Monogr. z. Urgesch. A3 (Köln 1971) 1–19.