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Student distress in web-based distance education

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... The majority of existing articles tend to minimize the difficulties of distance education while emphasizing its virtues (Hara & Kling, 2001). However, some researchers state that distance education is not problem-free (Hara & Kling, 2001, Can, 2020. ...
... The majority of existing articles tend to minimize the difficulties of distance education while emphasizing its virtues (Hara & Kling, 2001). However, some researchers state that distance education is not problem-free (Hara & Kling, 2001, Can, 2020. According to Nolan (1998), compared to traditional education, the cost of distance education is not relatively low rather high due to limitless demands for instructor's time and vastly expanded overhead requirements such as equipment, upgrades, maintenance, and technical support staff. ...
... This study intends to ensure a better understanding of the stages primary school teachers have gone through after finding out that they are expected to offer online courses due to the COVID-19 conditions. The majority of existing articles tend to emphasize the advantages of distance education while minimizing its difficulties (Hara & Kling, 2001). This study intends to arrive at a proper understanding of the phenomenon from the unique perspectives of practitioners. ...
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This study aims to ensure a better understanding of the stages ten primary school teachers have gone through after finding out that they are expected to offer online courses due to COVID-19 conditions. Contrary to the majority of articles that tend to emphasize the advantages of distance education while minimizing its difficulties, this study intends to arrive at a proper understanding of the phenomenon from the unique perspectives of practitioners. The phenomenological approach was particularly adopted to understand the experience of teachers, and the data obtained from the interviews were analyzed inductively. Study participants include 10 teachers who teach the first-grade students in a private primary school in Eskisehir, Turkey. The study results indicated four categories including "first reactions", "adaptation period", "ongoing process", and "suggestions for a better distance education". In line with the aim, the study also presents both negative and positive aspects of emergency distance education.
... al., 2005). Many studies supported the view that lack of direct communication might also cause a feeling of isolation and loneliness among learners using online learning platforms (Bullen, 1998;Hara and Kling, 2000;Zembylas et al., 2008). For students, the biggest advantage of online learning is convenience and flexibility while biggest disadvantage is lack of interaction (Cole, Shelley & Swartz, 2014). ...
... Instructors' accessibility, prompt feedback and clear instructions in terms of performance and learning expectations from students are found to be the key elements of learners' progress in online teaching and learning. (Hara & Kling, 2000). ...
... Few students (1%) mentioned other disadvantages such as technical problems and its being stressful. In studies (Bullen, 1998;Hara and Kling, 2000;Zembylas et al., 2008), it was discussed that lack of communication may cause isolation and loneliness among students using online learning platforms. It is suggested to destress students in this time of crisis through less work load, sense of community, proper counselling and regular interaction. ...
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Considering the sudden shift to online teaching due to COVID-19 pandemic, a qualitative survey was conducted on 408 students to uncover their perspectives on online teaching-learning. The data, collected by questionnaire, were analyzed, using percentage and frequency. Results indicated that students were enjoying online learning. Flexibility was found to be the most liked and poor network and connectivity, the most disliked elements of online learning. Adding to it, lack of interaction, distractions and one-sided learning were mentioned as its disadvantages. Online safety and security issues were not addressed and disabled students experienced teachers' negligence and lack of support.
... (Perry & Smart, 1997, p. 12) It is also considered an important predictor of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006) as well as academic motivation and performance (Perry, Hladkyj, Pekrun & Pelletier, 2001). Conversely, anxiety is one of the most frequent emotions reported as a result of e-learning (Hara, 2000;Hara & Kling, 2001;You, Kang & Pahng, 2013). The current study assessed anxiety using GAD-7, while anxiety in the previous studies was part of a comprehensive questionnaire involving other academic emotions related to e-learning. ...
... However, higher anxiety levels had already been reported by college students in general (Beiter et al., 2015). Moreover, several studies indicated that anxiety is one of the most frequent emotions reported due to e-learning (Hara & Kling, 2001). Additionally, concerns regarding the COVID-19 pandemic could be a contributing source to the overall anxiety reported by students (Cao et al., 2020;Liu, Liu & Zhong, 2020). ...
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This research aims to investigate the learning experiences and anxiety levels of students attending the College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences (CHRS) at Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University (PNU), Saudi Arabia, during the sudden shift to virtual learning in response to COVID-19. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among CHRS students (N = 254). Data was collected using an online questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationships between student perceptions of responsibility and independence in their learning during emergency remote teaching (ERT), the impact of ERT on learning goal achievement, and student anxiety levels. Results showed that 66.5% of participants scored moderate in their perceptions of independence and responsibility in their learning experiences. In addition, 54.3% of the students achieved their learning goals. Moreover, 20.9% of students reported that they had
... Although some learning platforms come with standard buttons such as home, grades, assignments, and discussions these buttons can also be changed and customized according to faculty preference. Hara and King [3,4] reported student stress may be linked to the inability to find information easily, missed due dates due to poor navigation paths through course material. ...
... Lack of prompt feedback [3,4] and poor communication [14] are listed as frustrations from students when learning in an online environment. Communication is an important aspect of the student faculty relationship and poor communication may result in student dissatisfaction with a course and program of study. ...
Article
The second article in a three-part series discusses how to deliver a distance education online course by i) assuring understanding of the learning platform, ii) developing a course model, iii) creating individual assignment rubrics for courses, iv) requiring active participation from both instructor and students, and v) setting-up quality communication. This paper is a continuation of the first paper whereby the history of distance learning, the positives and negatives of online learning, advantages and disadvantages of online learning, and the initial considerations for establishing online courses.
... Nevertheless, unlike the face-to-face training programs, the participants are in a remote distance from the trainer as well as the training implementer for online training programs. Hence, online training may confront challenges, such as less engagement, curiosity, focus, immersion as well as less seriousness in learning among the participants (Hara & Kling, 2001). ...
... In addition, they also could not engage with the participants as much as they expected to. Such experience is very much relevant to the literature, which has highlighted that less engagement and focus as part of the challenges in conducting an online training (Hara & Kling, 2001). This situation is indicated in the following shared statement by Miss I: "An inconsistent Internet connection also had led to several communication barriers. ...
... Evde ders işlemenin rahat ve heyecanlı olacağını düşünüp olumlu düşüncelere sahip olan öğrencilerin yanı sıra ev ortamının elverişsiz olduğunu söyleyen ve uzaktan eğitimin yüz yüze eğitimden farklı, zor, verimsiz, karmaşık ve sıkıcı olacağını düşünen ve yüz yüze eğitimi destekleyen öğrencilerin çokluğu, onların uzaktan eğitimi zorunlu bir tercih olarak görüp normal şartlarda geleneksel yüz yüze eğitimi tercih edeceklerini düşündürmektedir. Bu sonuçlar, eşzamanlı uzaktan eğitimde soru cevap eksikliği ve ders verimliliği problemlerinin çok yoğun olduğunu gösteren çalışmalarla (Akkuş ve Acar, 2017;Bilgiç ve Tüzün, 2015;Ilgaz, 2014;Yılmaz ve Güven, 2015); dersin verimli olmamasının öğrencinin derse karşı tutumunu olumsuz etkilediğini gösteren çalışmalarla (Falowo, 2007;Hara ve Kling, 2000) desteklenmektedir. ...
... Öğrencilerin eş zamanlı uzaktan eğitime yönelik özellikle olumsuz görüşlerini ifade ederken öğretim elemanlarından özel olarak hiç bahsetmemeleri, öğretim elemanlarının süreci iyi yönettikleri sonucunu ortaya çıkarmaktadır. Bununla birlikte, eş zamanlı uzaktan eğitim ortamlarında yaşanan teknik sorunların ve verimlilik ve etkileşim gibi ders süreciyle ilgili sorunların üstesinden gelebilmede öğretmen tutumlarının ve yeterliliklerinin de oldukça önemli olduğu çeşitli çalışmalarda ortaya konulmuştur (Akkuş ve Acar, 2017;Hara ve Kling, 2000;Hogan, McKnight ve Legier, 2006;Kapucu ve Adnan, 2018;Moore ve Kearsley, 2011;Rasheed, 2007). Bu nedenle öğretmen yetiştiren lisans programlarında uzaktan eğitime yönelik konuların dahil edilmesi ve şu anda görev yapan öğretmenlere uzaktan eğitimle ilgili hizmet içi eğitim seminerlerinin ilgili kurumlar tarafından düzenlenmesinin faydalı olacağı düşünülmektedir. ...
... Nevertheless, it cannot be ignored that synchronous and asynchronous communication technology contributes to the interaction between participants. Hara and Kling (2001) conducted a qualitative study of students' E-learning experience and found although the teachers were proficient, students frequently complained that the technical aspects of the course had not been well done. This contributed to a number of issues such as issues with feedback, uncertainty in communication among others, all of which contributed to a feeling of unease and low confidence. ...
... This supports the argument that poor performance of the technological systems could affect students' satisfaction and consequently affect the effectiveness of a course in an E-learning model. The result confirms previous studies that a substantial course effectiveness in E-learning models is as a result of student-system interaction (Gaythwaite, 2006;Hara & Kling, 2001). However, DeTure (2004) shares a contrary view on the predictive power of student-system interactivity on the success of students in e-learning environment. ...
Article
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The study is in response to abrupt movement from the direct traditionally-centered classroom instruction to E-learning instruction in Ghana owing to the Corona Virus (COVID-19) pandemic. The study aimed at exploring the effect of E-learning interactivity on the effectiveness of E-learning in the Ghanaian context and ways of improving interactivity in E-learning models. The positivist research approach was adopted with cross-sectional survey as the research design. Using a web-based survey, a sample of 2,115 students were randomly selected from 194 different tertiary institutions in Ghana. Correlation and regression analysis was used as the statistical tools to answer the research questions set for the study. The results indicated that all the categories on E-learning interactivity (student-teacher interactivity, student-content interactivity, student-system interactivity, and student-student interactivity) correlated with course effectiveness, students' independent learning skills and student learning behaviour respectively. However, the best predictor for course effectiveness was student-system interactivity, best predictor for students' independent learning skills was student-student interactivity while the best predictor of students' learning behaviour was student-teacher interactivity. The study reiterated that the relationship between different forms of E-learning interactivity have significant impact on course effectiveness, students' independent learning skills and students' learning behaviour. Practical implications and suggestions were made in order to enhance the levels of interactivity within E-learning models.
... A common concern in online courses includes confusion and frustration over lack of feedback from the professor (Carr 2000;Hara and Kling 2001;Rovai and Jordan 2004;Sikora and Carrol 2002). Unlike in a F2F setting, where the instructor can respond to a student's quizzical look by offering clarification, in online education this is more challenging. ...
... In this course everyone had perfect attendance and completed the course. These findings are inconsistent with those of Carr (2000), Sikora and Carrol (2002), Hara and Kling (2001), Rovai and Jordan (2004), who experienced attrition. Our students' persistence can be attributed to their small number, the intentional course design, and supportive teaching. ...
Article
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This study investigated whether the success of students in a Master of Arts in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (MA TESOL) assessment course was comparable regardless of their chosen mode of attendance (face-to-face, synchronously online, asynchronously online) in this "Triple Hybrid" (or "TriHy") class. In an interactive, convergent, mixed-methods design, a pragmatic, participant-focused framework guided the study. Data collection extended to pre-, while-, and post-surveys of the participants; tracking of mode of communication with the instructor; as well as proxies for students' success in the course, including the rate of course completion, weekly class attendance, completion of weekly assignments, grades on low-stakes individual assignments, grades on a high-stakes individual assignment, and a final course grade. The findings of the quantitative and qualitative analyses revealed that overall there was no statistically significant difference in the learning outcomes among the modalities even though one of the groups' pre-test scores did differ from the others' significantly. Although the students' success in the course did not differ, their perception of the factors that contributed to their success did. The findings suggest that with considerable institutional support, substantial investment of time and commitment from the instructor, and meaningful choices from the students, the quality of instruction even in a language-teacher-preparation course focused on skill building does not need to be compromised. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s43545-022-00434-4.
... (Perry & Smart, 1997, p. 12) It is also considered an important predictor of achievement emotions (Pekrun, 2006) as well as academic motivation and performance (Perry, Hladkyj, Pekrun & Pelletier, 2001). Conversely, anxiety is one of the most frequent emotions reported as a result of e-learning (Hara, 2000;Hara & Kling, 2001;You, Kang & Pahng, 2013). The current study assessed anxiety using GAD-7, while anxiety in the previous studies was part of a comprehensive questionnaire involving other academic emotions related to e-learning. ...
... However, higher anxiety levels had already been reported by college students in general (Beiter et al., 2015). Moreover, several studies indicated that anxiety is one of the most frequent emotions reported due to e-learning (Hara & Kling, 2001). Additionally, concerns regarding the COVID-19 pandemic could be a contributing source to the overall anxiety reported by students (Cao et al., 2020;Liu, Liu & Zhong, 2020). ...
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We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.
... The investigation of Hara and Kling (2001) recommends the significance of feedback given on course activities by the instructors. In their study, despite the fact that learners were taught by an experienced and a qualified teacher, they felt disappointed because of technical issues, absence of sufficient feedback, uncertain directions on the website of course and emails from the instructor. ...
... This study found a reasonably high level of learnertutor interaction. The investigation of Hara and Kling (2001) recommends the importance of timely feedback on course activities by the instructors. A few students showed dissatisfaction about the feedback given on assignments which are submitted online (Burnett, 2007). ...
Article
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This study aims to evaluate the relationship between the level of various forms of interaction among its key players and students' satisfaction in online setting. The level of interaction was measured following Moore's model of interaction between student and tutor, among students, and of students with content (1973). The quantitative descriptive survey was used to conduct this study using a self-tailored questionnaire. The population of the study comprised all male and female students enrolled in Bachelors' degree programs of the Department of Education in Spring 2018 and Fall 2018 at a virtual university in Pakistan (N=1049). All students enrolled in 4-years' B.Ed. Elementary, 1.5 years B.Ed. Secondary, 2.5 years B.Ed. Elementary and M. Ed. were included as sample of the study. The overall level of interaction was slightly above the midpoint on the scale. As expected, the learner-content interaction was the highest and interaction among learners was the lowest. Significant correlation was found between the level of interaction and satisfaction with the online learning mode. The findings suggest that the institutions should take necessary measures to enhance and expand the three types of interaction presented by Moore and investigated in this study.
... Hara and Kling's controversial study also found that the dif iculty and distress experienced by students online might not be adequately understood. Working alone at night caused many complexities and depressing experiences [31]. ...
... This outcome is in alignment with Sun and Rueda (2011) study, which suggested that online learning courses did not increase student's cognitive engagement rather increased students emotional engagement towards online learning programs. The result also implies that there is an urgent need to increase the degree of intuitiveness in an online learning environment so as to reduce the student's disorientation and cognitive burden (Kirsh, 2000;Hara and Kling, 2001;Lee, 2005). Although cognitive needs indicated strong correlation with high levels of cognitive ability and knowledge acquisition (Coutinho, 2006), it has been clearly reported by Cazan and Indreica (2014) that cognitive need is not associated to the student's academic performance. ...
Article
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The present study aims to interpret management student’s motivation to adopt m-learning and assesses the determinates impacting the behavioral intent of m-learning adoption. A comprehensive research archetype is proposed by integrating two prominent theoretical models, namely UTAUT and UGT. The research model is tested using multi-analytic structural equation modeling (SEM) and advanced neural network (ANN) approach. The quantitative data was gathered and measured from 220 management students. The study outcomes reported that affective need, performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence and facilitating conditions positively impacted the student’s intent to use m-learning, whereas cognitive need was found to be insignificant in predicting and explicating the m-learning adoption. The results of sensitivity analysis revealed that effort expectancy showed the highest normalized importance (100%) followed by performance expectancy (97.2%) in explicating the m-learning adoption. The research archetype was able to elucidate 66% of variance in student’s intent towards m-learning adoption. In addition to that, Cohen’s f-square statistic resulted in effect size as 0.771 indicating that the study findings were relevant and substantial with the empirical data collected. Conclusively, the theoretic and managerial implications are described for the proposed model.
... The real-time feedback on learners' participation and assignments keeps their excitement and satisfaction persistent and high (Smith & Dillon, 1999). In hybrid learning, planned synchronous interaction on regular basis maintains learners' interest and motivation (Mood, 1995) and prevents them from frustration (Hara & Kling, 2001;Wegerif, 1998). Mood (1995) highlights that at the beginning of the semester learners should be informed about course learning outcomes and objectives. ...
Article
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Since the transmission of knowledge has started, it solely relied on traditional teaching methods but ever since technology-mediated instructions have emerged, they potentially brought a revolution in how we teach, when we teach, from where we teach and what gadgets, modes and apps can better cater learners’ interest and motivation. In this context, hybrid learning is a novel approach in academic settings that embraces advantage of the retention of face-to-face component of traditional classes and e-learning environment. The present study aims at investigating Taif University’s male and female English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ satisfaction towards the onsite and online learning environments. An opinionnaire with 20 items was developed with closed ended questions by employing Likert’s five-point scale to collect the data from 200 male and female EFL participants of Taif University, represents quantitative dimensions of the study. The research tool is designed to measure learners’ satisfaction that is further categorized into five subscales. These include: (a) learners’ satisfaction with the instructor and their real-time feedback; (b) perceived ease of use of technology and internet; (c) effective course content and interactive and collaborative activities; (d) finally engaging nature of hybrid learning and its impacts on learners’ interest and motivation. The study finds no significant differences in male and female participants’ perceptions regarding effective delivery of hybrid instructions except meek variations in male and female learners’ preferences in perceived ease of use of technology. The statistics reveal that male participants and their female counterparts slightly differ in their satisfaction level towards the technical problems faced by them in recording their scores, flexibility in terms of time and space, and in smooth completion of online activities. Finally, the study provides few recommendations to fix certain issues and improve the quality of hybrid learning environment.
... At the same time, equal learning opportunities are created for all children, the variety of teaching methods and tools is increased, and students' responsibility and time management competence are promoted. Brazdeikis, 2020, Bakonis, 2020, Dyrud, 2000 It is emphasised in the scientific literature [16], [17], that the roles of students and teachers in the educational process changed during the pandemic. In this respect, three paradigms intertwineteaching, learning and self-directed learning, because education is synchronous and follows a strict schedule, the educational process is planned more by the pedagogue than by the student, who is more than ever responsible for his / her learning outcomes. ...
... Some researchers have concluded that the questionable quality of communication in the online environment impedes users from constructing intimate relationships by filtering out several of the social cues that exist in face-to-face interactions. Even though some researchers found that users construct close social relationships using computermediated technologies, learners have been reported to experience isolation or difficulties in constructing social relationships (Hara & Kling, 2000). For example, based on a pilot study they had completed, Muilenburg and Bergem (2005) conducted a survey of a smaller number of participants about barriers in online classroom environments. ...
... Οι Τεχνολογίες της Πληροφορίας και των Επικοινωνιών (ΤΠΕ) άλλαξαν το μοντέλο της εξΑΕ, διευκολύνοντας την αλληλεπίδραση φοιτητών -καθηγητών (Downes, 1998). Συγχρόνως, ορισμένες έρευνες έχουν αποδείξει πως τα αποκλειστικά διαδικτυακά περιβάλλοντα ενδέχεται να περιορίσουν την ικανότητα των μαθητών να εμπλακούν στη μάθηση (Hara & Kling, 2000) και τη δυνατότητα να αλληλεπιδρούν με συμφοιτητές και διδάσκοντες (Cheung & Kan, 2002). Έτσι, φοιτητές που παρακολουθούν προγράμματα εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευσης λόγω, μεταξύ άλλων, αδυναμίας αλληλεπίδρασης τους με άλλους φοιτητές και καθηγητές εγκαταλείπουν αρκετές φορές τις σπουδές τους (Khalil & Ebner, 2014). ...
Article
Σκοπός της παρούσας εργασίας είναι η διερεύνηση του ρόλου και των χαρακτηριστικών των Καθηγητών – Συμβούλων ως παράγοντες που συμβάλλουν στη διαμόρφωση της ικανοποίησης των φοιτητών που συμμετέχουν σε εξ αποστάσεως προγράμματα σπουδών. Ο σχεδιασμός, η διεξαγωγή και η ολοκλήρωση της ερευνητικής εργασίας ακολούθησε τις αρχές της ποιοτικής μεθοδολογικής προσέγγισης. Πραγματοποιηθήκαν συνεντεύξεις στις οποίες έλαβαν μέρος 14 μεταπτυχιακοί φοιτητές του Ε.Α.Π.. Ως τεχνική ανάλυσης δεδομένων εφαρμόσθηκε η ανάλυση περιεχομένου. Τα αποτελέσματα της παρούσας έρευνας έδειξαν πως η επιστημονική κατάρτιση του Καθηγητή – Συμβούλου, ο υποστηρικτικός του ρόλος και ο τρόπος που οργανώνει τις Ομαδικές Συμβουλευτικές Συναντήσεις συμβάλλουν στη διαμόρφωση της ικανοποίησης των φοιτητών, όταν καλύπτουν τις εκπαιδευτικές και συναισθηματικές ανάγκες τους. Οι φοιτητές ως κυριότερες εκπαιδευτικές ανάγκες ανέφεραν την κατανόηση και οργάνωση της ύλης του διδακτέου αντικειμένου, την καθοδήγησή τους στην ευρετική πορεία της μάθησης, την ολοκλήρωση και τον αναλυτικό σχολιασμό των γραπτών εργασιών τους, την ανάπτυξη διαλόγου μεταξύ αυτών και του καθηγητή και την ολοκλήρωση των σπουδών τους. Ως συναισθηματικές ανάγκες σημειώθηκαν από τους φοιτητές η παροχή κινήτρων μάθησης, συμμετοχής, ενεργοποίησης ενδιαφέροντος και συγκέντρωσης, η διαμόρφωση θετικής ψυχολογίας, ο ρόλος του καθηγητή ως πρότυπο εκπαιδευτικού και η αλληλεπίδραση. Η παρούσα εργασία θα μπορούσε να συμβάλλει στη βελτίωση των εξ αποστάσεως σπουδών, καθώς μπορεί να συμβάλλει στη βελτίωση των Καθηγητών – Συμβούλων οι οποίοι έχουν σημαντικό και πολύπλευρο ρόλο στην εξ αποστάσεως εκπαίδευση.
... L'eccessiva dipendenza dalle tecnologie, oltre a limitare i processi comunicativi, implicherebbe la non infrequente eventualità di incorrere in problemi tecnici, di funzionamento o di disponibilità di connessione e rete, così come la mancata compresenza di studenti e professori in un'unica aula istillerebbe vissuti di isolamento e sofferenza riconducibili al bisogno insoddisfatto di interazione sociale, fisica e verbale (Dyrud, 2000), a cui gli scambi tramite chat, email e videoconferenze non possono sopperire appieno. Le difficoltà e le angosce esperite dagli studenti non sono completamente comprensibili attraverso le sole interazioni online e spie di depressione riconducibili all'isolamento potrebbero non essere riconosciute per tempo (Hara & Kling, 2000). ...
Article
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Participation in online lessons, delivered on virtual platforms to replace traditional face-to-face activities, took on a significant role in the daily life of numerous university students during the quarantine imposed on a national scale in response to the pandemic emergency. A qualitative survey conducted on a sample of students enrolled in the School of Medicine and Surgery of the University of Bologna allowed to analyse the impact and the factors of positivity and negativity of online lessons, providing elements to reflect on possible developments, when this method will cease to be bound to the emergency, to become an opportunity to be integrated with traditional face-to-face learning.
... There are some aspects to take into consideration when designing activities so there are better learning outcomes. As discussed by Hara and Kling (2001), technological problems, design and miscommunication lead to confused and frustrated students. They mention that students may not be well prepared for the courses or the teacher may not be qualified. ...
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The purpose of this study was to know the initial and final perceptions on the use of an online platform as support for language learning. The platform used was Edmodo, which has an application for smartphones, as well as a website. This research was carried out on 15 EFL learners who were studying the first semester of high school in Mexico. The platform was used for two months and to collect data a mixed-methods approach was used. Questionnaires were administered before starting the implementation to all the students. Six interviews were conducted before and after the implementation using the maximum variation sample method. The results of this study indicated that initially the learners had a positive perception on the implementation of the platform. At the end of the implementation, the students expressed satisfaction, but suggested improvements in communication, as well as personalized activities. Some initial perceptions of the students changed, since they thought it would be difficult to use it, however, other internal and external factors caused the students to stop submitting their activities at the end of the implementation. Students mainly perceived the platform as a way to review the contents in class in a different way. The availability of the contents of the course was perceived also as an advantage, as well as flexibility. Some students were also able to find new ways to review the topics seen in class and learn vocabulary
... Nevertheless, there is a certain techno-centrist tendency in the implementation of these programs, because the technical quality is often perceived as the only tool that would enhance the educational features of the program (Navas, 2016), often denying the importance of the pedagogical adaptations needed for this educational electronic modality (Bartolomé and Aiello, 2006). Hence, some researchers have called for critical reflection that can address this gap and identify all the positive and the negative consequences of e-learning adaptation in systems of higher education (Hara and Kling, 2001). ...
Article
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Nowadays, it is essential for institutions of higher education to enhance the continuance commitment of users toward e-learning programs to promote and ensure the sustainability of those programs over time. The aim of this research is to identify the factors that might contribute to deepening user commitment toward e-learning systems from key agents’ perspectives (students and teachers). Information was collected from 146 students and 124 teachers participating in e-learning programs in higher education. The results showed that perceived organizational impact is the most important antecedent of continuance commitment. System quality had the highest impact on perceptions of organizational impact among both groups of users.The study showed the need for reconsideration of the role of instructor and system quality in the new educational paradigm, since both variables had no significant direct effect on the continuance commitment of users. This research shows managerial recommendations and directions for deepening commitment toward e-learning systems.
... The growth of online learning and blended learning in educational institutions may give the students feelings of distress, frustration and confusion [7], that makes them less satisfied with their virtual learning environment [8]. Consequently, the benefits of the technology cannot be transferred to the users (teachers and students). ...
Article
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The study aims to examine students’ adoption towards a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). Using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the theoretical framework, the study mainly focuses on the degree that perceived usefulness, and perceive ease of use has influence on students’ adoption towards Easy Class as the Virtual Learning Environment. The research used a quantitative approach. A questionnaire has been employed as an instrument to gather data from 2 classes in a private university in North Sumatera. The research found that perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use have a significant effect on the students’ adoption. At the end of the paper, the implications as well as the suggestion for future study are explained.
... Although distance learning/ teaching offers opportunities to save money on travel, clothing, educational materials, but at the same time it requires pedagogues and families to invest in information technology, various programs. One of the most significant disadvantages is the lack of social interaction (Dyrud, 2000;Hara & Kling, 2000) when working outside the educational institution. This can affect the psychological well-being of students, teachers, and parents, cause problems of self-realization, isolation, and burnout. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented challenges to the education system. Since Lithuania has declared the state-level emergency in February 2020, imposed by quarantine, the educational process was organized in a distance mode. Distance learning, namely, was a platform that pre-schools used to meet the learning needs of children. The aim of this article is to review pre-school teachers’ opinions about the challenges of distance learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. The article describes the situation in Lithuanian pre-schools using distance learning during the lockdown. The authors analyse the main problems that pedagogues have faced with - lack of competence in the use of IT, poor support from management, inadequate material base, lack of time and teachers’ self-confidence, the low involvement of families.
... Pavlidis, Islam, Mouratidis, and Kearney (2014) highlighted that the users may be dissatisfied with an information system due to ease of use. In addition, dissatisfaction resulted from technical difficulties and ambiguous instruction (Hara & Kling, 2001). Blocker and Tucker (2001) also emphasized that learners had difficulties with e-learning and blended learning. ...
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This research determined the level of performance of pupils using the Modular and Blended Learning Delivery Modalities as revealed in their Mean Percentage Scores (MPS) and grade in the Filipino subject. As an innovation, intervention, and strategy of this study, the researcher spearheaded the development and validation of Learning Activity Sheets (LAS) in Filipino using the Visual, Audio, Reading/Writing, and Kinesthetic (VARK) Learning Cycle Model. These instructional materials will strategically supplement the delivery of learning modalities. This study was conducted in Pagadian City Pilot School, Division of Pagadian City which adopted the two learning delivery modalities. The purposive sampling technique selected the sixty (60) pupils, each under the two modalities. The level of academic performance of the pupils on the use of Modular Learning Delivery Modality revealed to be closely approximating mastery with very satisfactory performance in terms of their grade in the Filipino subject. Similar levels were observed for learners under the Blended Learning Delivery Modality. However, the testing of the difference between the level of performance of pupils on the two Learning Delivery Modalities revealed that there is a significant difference in pupils' performance in learning Filipino in favor of the Modular Learning Delivery Modality. These outcomes signify that the level of academic performance of the pupils could still be improved. Thus, intervention and strategic plan can be developed to navigate further the successful implementation of these modalities.
... Even asynchronous and synchronous strategies have been thoroughly researched for different learning environments, such as distance learning, virtual learning and e-learning; the COVID-19 pandemic highlighted that stress is a very important factor in distance learning. Commonly, stress of learners is caused by frustration, lack of feedback and poor motivation [21], [23], [24], however, this pandemic has increased stress factors generated by lack of socialization and by educational, economic, environmental, psychological, and socioeconomic situations that are affecting the well-being of students [25]. Furthermore, students were forced to change from physical classrooms to virtual lessons, causing their anxiety and burnout to increase, decreasing engagement of the students. ...
Conference Paper
During 2020, COVID-19 dramatically changed the way in which students receive and analyze information from their teachers, classes have moved from face-to-face sessions into synchronous virtual meetings and asynchronous homework, increasing stress levels in students. This Evidence-based Practice paper explores Guided Learning Sequences as a content delivery strategy which allows the student to receive information, think about its meaning, put it into practice, and receive instantaneous feedback in order to reinforce their learning process. Empirical evidence from 108 students in a Business Mathematics course shows a statistically significant decrease of students' stress level when exposed to the proposed methodology. As well, a pre-test post-test analysis of a sample of 45 of those students shows evidence of positive impact in student's performance.
... Secondly, untimely feedback and responses from instructors are also one popular reported barrier to online learning settings as compared to face-to-face class discussions. Hara and Kling's [12] research reported that the students feel frustrated because they are not able to receive immediate responses from their teacher. Eom, Wen, and Ashill [13] reported similar results when examining students' satisfaction in university online courses. ...
... In line with these findings, other studies (Smyth et al., 2012) report that having difficulties with more sophisticated technologies represents a challenge to successful implementation of blended learning. In particular, reference is made to students' having slow internet connections (Smyth et al., 2012) which prevents students from engaging in online discussion (King, 2002) and causes frustration (Hara, 2000;Hara and Kling, 1999). Considering these pre-requisites and the barrier for students to engage effectively in discussions on account of the complexity of the platform and social dynamics of larger groups, the nature of the technology and its functions have to be taken into consideration. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic forced universities to look at teaching provision. As a result, new technologies, an increasing usage of existing online platforms and alternative ways to engage with learners in the classroom, have together become 'the new normal'. This research aims to answer the questions: how do higher education learners perceive the new role of technology in the classroom? Is technology overload counteracting the potential benefits that blended delivery can offer? In-depth semi-structured interviews with eight students from two seminar groups reveal their positive perception of and continuous interest in the use of technology in the physical and virtual classroom. The study provides examples and recommendations, enabling the effective deployment of technology focusing on three areas: the learner, the facilitator and the technology. Finally, this study makes important contributions to constructivism in the context of technology usage and current and post-pandemic pedagogic practice.
... Anxiety is one of achievement emotions mentioned in the CVT. It is the emotion experienced most often in reference to taking exam, as well as studying in class, at home (Pekrun, 2002) and online (Hara and Kling, 2000). Its negative effect on sustained attention has been reported by empirical studies (Mueller, 1992). ...
Article
Background Sustained attention is a key variable affecting nursing students' academic performance during online learning process. However, factors contributing to sustained attention remain to be determined. Aims To analyze the path relationships among the influencing factors for nursing students' sustained attention in online learning using a structural equation model. Design A cross-sectional survey was administered. Methods Nursing students from 35 nursing schools in China were invited to participate in this survey study. Once participating in nursing programs and receiving online learning, they were eligible for the study. The data were collected online via the Questionnaire Star platform from March 29 to April 19, 2020. A structural equation modelling (SEM) approach was utilized to analyze the relationships between sustained attention and influencing factors (situational interest, anxiety, cognitive load, technology efficacy and professional identity). Furthermore, multi-group SEM analysis was conducted to examine whether the model equally fitted nursing students in different levels of programs. Results A total of 1089 nursing students completed the questionnaires. The majority (77.3%) were female and the mean age (SD) was 21.9 (4.4) years. A half (50.3%) were enrolled in the undergraduate programs. Results suggested that situational interest (β = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.24) and anxiety (β = −0.70, 95% CI: −0.76, −0.64) directly affected sustained attention. Both technology efficacy (β = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.28) and professional identity (β = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.26) had conferred indirect effects on sustained attention through academic emotions (i.e., situational interest and anxiety). The cognitive load directly affected sustained attention (β = −0.15, 95% CI: −0.20, −0.09) and indirectly affected sustained attention through anxiety (β = −0.32, 95% CI: −0.37, −0.26). There was no significant difference in the model fit among nursing students in various programs, including diplomatic, associate and bachelor's degree and above programs (∆χ2 = 27.228, p = 0.611). Conclusions Technology efficacy, professional identity, situational interest, anxiety and cognitive load are identified as the main elements affecting nursing students' sustained attention. This model is equally suitable for nursing students in different levels of nursing programs. During the process of online learning, students' attributes, emotions and cognition should be considered to help students achieve learning goals in nursing education.
... It is a central argument that when teachers support students' needs and concerns, also care for students in a distance learning, they stimulate students' motivation (Noddings, 2015;Fryer & Bovee, 2016;Umarji et al., 2021) and alleviate their difficulties (Pozzoli, Gini, & Scrimin, 2021). If there is a communication and engagement gap between the parties, distance learners may face feelings of loneliness, dissatisfaction, and anxiety (Hara & Kling, 2001). When possible, teachers should encourage all types of interactions in their online courses: learner-content, learner-learner, and learner-instructor interactions. ...
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Online education has become mandatory in all countries since the Covid-19 pandemic. In order to provide practical inspiration for schools to improve online learning and teaching efficacy, and satisfaction, we explored the distance learning experience of 427 upper secondary school students in Italy. Rather than focusing on the relevance of digital tools and abilities, as most e-learning studies do, we focused on the function and influence of the teacher-student relationship and how online learning affects that connection. The study’s findings revealed that even if the technology was the central focus of upgrading the educational system, the satisfaction for the Distal Learning education is heavily based on teachers’ ability to maintain a high-quality relationship. Indeed, the quality of the relationship is a far better predictor of student satisfaction, with online education satisfaction having substantially higher coefficients than technology satisfaction, even controlling for both teachers’ and students’ technological knowledge. We also found a significant moderating effect in the interaction between quality of the relationship and technology satisfaction, implying that when students are satisfied with the technology used in online education, a high-quality relationship with teachers can boost satisfaction.
... According to Lehman and Conceição (2010), interaction based on the teacher's assistance with the subject matter helps improve students' meta-cognitive thinking. Hara and Kling (2001) interviewed students who reported feeling confused, anxious, and frustrated when their instructor did not provide quick, clear feedback and when the instructions they received were obscure. Quick responses to students' questions about the learning material improved students' self-confidence (Cole et al., 2017), motivation (Gelbart, 2000), and self-efficacy (Harlen, 2006). ...
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Aim/Purpose: The goal of this study was to examine which of the types of teacher-student interactions found in previous studies by Kang (2009) and Kang and Im (2013) during distance learning in routine situations, were also found in times of emergency, specifically during the COVID-19 pandemic, and whether these interactions differed between students with regard to the extent and nature of each type of interaction. Background: Teacher-student interactions during learning in general and particularly in distance learning has an impact on students’ satisfaction, motivation, and ability to contend with learning assignments. As learning in times of emergency poses additional, unique challenges, teacher-student interactions may be affected as well. Methodology: The participants in the study were 591 undergraduate students from different departments in a teaching college, who answered an opinion survey after completing a semester of distance learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative textual content analysis was performed on students’ answers to open-ended questions about the nature of their interaction with their teachers. The students’ answers were divided and analyzed according to the answers they gave on a separate questionnaire on self-regulation in learning. Contribution: The findings of this study can offer a theoretical contribution to understanding the different types of teacher-student interactions in distance learning in emergency situations, their frequency, and how they are connected to students’ self-regulation. From the practical perspective, the study highlights the importance of this interaction, especially in times of emergency, and offers practical insights for teachers in academia and in general. Findings: The study’s findings reflect students’ critical need for interaction with their teachers in emergency distance learning. The students reported different types of interaction with their teachers during the COVID-19 period. The most common form of interaction was instructional communication (Q&A), which mainly took place via email, though students would have preferred WhatsApp. The least common form of interaction was social intimacy. Students with a high level of self-regulation were more likely to report on interaction with the teacher, and to take more responsibility for whether or not interaction occurred. Recommendations for Practitioners: Considering the findings of this study, colleges and universities should invest in training and encouraging teachers to engage in different types of interaction with their students. It is important for teachers to be aware of the need for these types of interaction. Encouraging teacher-student interaction in teachers’ training colleges (where this study was carried out) is also important, as it may affect the teaching methods used by the students when they become teachers in the future and, consequently, influence the entire education system. Recommendation for Researchers: Research of teacher-student interaction in distance learning should take into account the unique characteristics and challenges posed by this type of learn-ing in times of emergency, as found in this study. Additional technological and pedagogic tools should be developed to improve teacher-student interaction so that it meets the students’ expectations during routine and emergency times alike. Impact on Society: Studies have found that teacher-student interaction is one of the greatest contributors to students’ motivation and satisfaction and to their ability to cope with learning assignments. As distance learning has become widespread and inevitable in times of emergency or crisis, which may occur again in the future, improving interaction during distance learning in an emergency is very important. This may improve the learners’ ability to maintain their regular learning routine despite the emergency situation. Future Research: It is recommended to expand the research method and examine the data using in-depth interviews and questionnaires. It is also worth comparing the findings of this study with findings of similar studies among students in colleges and universities other than teachers’ training colleges, graduate students, and students of different ages.
... Northrup (2002) also reported that it is extremely important for students to organize their own learning and to receive timely feedback from the instructor. In a qualitative study with graduate students who took a web-based distance education course, Hara and Kling (2000) determined that the students were uncomfortable mostly with communication and technical problems. In the study with 285 participants who attended in two different distance education programs: "Management Science" and "Education", Tricker et al. (2001) determined three reasons for students' participation in the course, which were "course content", "personal development", and "professional development". ...
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Thailand is a developing country where farmers have potential to expand the agricultural output. Social media provide a powerful source of information. Thus, social media literacy influences the development of farmer literacy regarding agricultural technology and productivity. The research aims to study: 1) demographic factors and economic factors; 2) social media behavior; 3) media literacy practice; and 4) factors affecting the social media literacy practice of farmers in Thailand. A questionnaire was used to collect data from the sample of 385 farmers in Thailand. Statistical analysis was based on frequency, percentage, mean, maximum, minimum, t-test and F-test. The research results indicated that most of the farmers were female with an average age of 45.42 years and had attained a bachelor's degree or higher with an average annual income of THB 138,992 and average annual expenses of THB 127,518. All the sampled farmers had a smartphone and used it to connect to social media for searching and seeking information on agriculture. The farmers had a moderate level of media literacy. Hypothesis testing showed that gender, age and knowledge were factors affecting the social media literacy of farmers in Thailand.
... However, some articles investigate the difficulties surrounding distance education. These difficulties include lack of technical support and poor feedback from lecturers which can lead to frustration and anxiety amongst students [10]. Also, it was observed that in online classes, students learned more than in face-to-face lectures but ended up less satisfied with the program [11]. ...
Conference Paper
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Open distance learning (ODL) education has been developing rapidly in South Africa. The main reason behind the growth is the demand for online studies created due to the corona pandemic. The ODL system involves study that is not limited by geographical boundaries and extends to many knowledge areas electronically. In practice the study tends to extend to knowledge areas beyond those offered by the standard contact or traditional universities. At the University of South Africa (UNISA), the adoption of the ODL framework to theoretical subjects has been successful by making use of the Sakai virtual learning environment (VLE). The practical subjects or practical knowledge areas on the other hand have previously been taught face-to-face. Therefore, the practical modules have not been effectively taught online particularly in the electrical engineering curriculum. This issue can contribute to graduates who are unskilled in the practical component of a knowledge area, which can lead to unemployment. Virtual learning environments (VLE’s) play a vital role when it comes to teaching and learning online. In this paper, the impact of VLE’s on the practical skills of students and practical knowledge is investigated. This is done by analyzing the change in pass rates of students in a practical subject such as Electrical Engineering when taught face-to-face as compared to when taught through a VLE such as Sakai online. Two groups termed as emerging centered learner (ECL) and a developed centered learner (DCL) are investigated. The method evaluates students who study electrical engineering practical module part-time. In this paper the Sakai platform was used as a VLE to teach and then evaluate students in the electrical engineering practical module. The practical guide with the full set of experiments was uploaded on Sakai under additional resources. The students were given the necessary guidelines and tasks via Sakai online, examined and then the pass rates achieved were analyzed at the end of the program and compared to the pass rates achieved using previous face-to-face teaching method used for the same practical’s. It was determined that a VLE can be used to improve the pass rates of a practical module such as electrical engineering taught online in ODL.
... Besides, the significance of the educational environment for student learning has been increasingly acknowledged in recent years (Parry et al., 2002, Miles andLeinster, 2007). Regardlesss, some findings reveal that the distance in the online learning environment can also lead to isolation, frustration, boredom, overload, and low course completion rates (Berge 1999;Hara and Kling, 2000;Northrup, 2002). ...
Thesis
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Web tabanlı öğretimin uzaktan eğitim türü olarak geliştiği günümüzde her alanda çeşitli web tabanlı eğitim uygulamalarının tasarlanıp uygulandığı görülmektedir. Ülkemizde de bu tür çalışmaların üniversiteler ve Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı tarafından yaygınlaştırılması gerekmektedir. Dolayısıyla, meslek liselerinin elektrik-elektronik alanında okuyan öğrencilere yönelik olarak web tabanlı öğretim ortamı tüm bilimsel ve pedagojik ilkeler esas alınarak geliştirilmeye çalışılmıştır. Uzaktan eğitim ve web tabanlı öğretim konularıyla ilgili olarak ulusal ve uluslar arası literatür taranarak, web tabanlı öğretimin farklı türlerini içeren araştırmalara ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Çalışmada modüler öğretim ilkelerinden yola çıkılarak iki ayrı modül hazırlanması hedeflenmiş ve bu ortamın işlerliği toplam 139 alan öğretmenine uygulanan ölçme aracıyla ve onlardan alınan görüşler doğrultusunda belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Web ortamının hazırlanması sürecinde moodle (Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Learning Environment) diye adlandırılan ve ücretsiz olarak açık kaynak kod ilkesine göre dağıtılan yazılımdan yararlanılmıştır. Moodle yardımıyla tamamen çevrimiçi eğitim ortamının hazırlanması söz konusudur. Bu yazılım yardımıyla çevrimiçi sınavlar, çevrimiçi öğrenci izlemesi, eşzamanlı sohbet ve duyuru panoları yardımıyla mesajlaşma, istenilen biçimde web tasarımı yapma olanağı bulunmaktadır. Eğitim dersi olarak Temel Elektronik dersi seçilmiş ve ders "Pasif Devre Elemanları" ve "Temel Yarıiletken Devre Elemanları" olarak iki ayrı modül şeklinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda, ulaşılan alan yazın ve elde edilen bulgulardan da yararlanılarak web tabanlı öğretimin ve materyallerinin geliştirilmesine yönelik öneriler oluşturularak ilgililere sunulmuştur. Nowadays, web based learning has been developing as a kind of distance education and it is being seen that various web based learning applications have been developing and carrying out. These kinds of applications must also become widespread in our country at the level of universities and National Education. For this reason, we have tried to develop a web based learning course for students of electric-electronics field at vocational high schools. At the same time we have taken into consideration scientific and pedagogical principles. National and international literature searching has been carried out about distance education and web based learning applications so we have attained many studies which include various web based learning applications. At the study, two kinds of module have been designed in the light of modular learning principles, and the structure of that learning environment was determined by survey tool which was applied to 139 field teacher and the comments of that teacher group. We took advantage of MOODLE (Modular Object Oriented Dynamic Laerning Environment) to design web environment. This software is an open source code and cost free dynamic LMS (Learning Management System). Full online courses can be designed by using MOODLE. Online quizes, online student observing, synchronous chat, messaging by forums and designing web as desired are possible. Fundamentals of Electronic course was selected to educate, and this course was separated into two modules "Passive Circuit Components" and "Basic Semiconductor Circuit Components". The end of the study, some suggestions have been offered to instruction specialists in the light of attained field literature and findings.
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Band I des vierteiligen Werkes „Profilbildung und Wertefragen in der Hochschulentwicklung I-IV“ macht Vielfalt und Offenheit als tragende Elemente einer wertbezogenen Hochschuldidaktik zum Thema. Aufgezeigt wird eine theorie- und praxisgeleitete Diskussion mit Blick auf grundlegende Zusammenhänge von Didaktik, Vielfalt und Offenheit für eine Hochschulbildung in Bewegung. Ein wertschätzender Umgang mit Vielfalt und Offenheit ist im Hochschulkontext zwar keineswegs auf die Hochschuldidaktik begrenzt; sie ist ein Akteur unter mehreren. Doch der Blick in hochschuldidaktische Theorie- und Praxisbestände weist eine besondere Dynamik und Dichte auf. Die Zusammenschau der Beiträge macht deutlich, dass die diskursiv gestaltete Auseinandersetzung und Weiterentwicklung einer wertbezogenen Hochschuldidaktik unter dem Dach von Offenheit und Vielfalt voraussetzungsvoll ist und bei weitem nicht on the go ausgehandelt werden kann. Die Bände „Profilbildung und Wertefragen in der Hochschulentwicklung I-IV“ beschäftigen sich mit aktuellen hochschuldidaktischen Forschungsansätzen, -ergebnissen und -planungen, die darauf abzielen, den Beitrag der Hochschuldidaktik zu Profilbildung und Wertefragen im Rahmen von Hochschulentwicklungsprozessen zu identifizieren, zu fundieren und zu reflektieren.
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This chapter reviews research linking the importance of community in an increasing engagement in online courses from an interdisciplinary perspective. Additionally, we identify applicable teaching strategies that focus on the important elements of community building, namely teaching, social, and cognitive presence.
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Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a temática: A disciplina curricular educação física adaptada (EFA) nos registros da Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Atividade Motora Adaptada entre 1996 e 2007. Utilizouse como metodologia a análise documental, tendo como técnica de pesquisa o Repertório Analítico de Caspard- Karydis. Dos 67 artigos, quatro textos foram identificados sob a temática deste estudo. Um artigo de 1996 sobre a estruturação da disciplina EFA nos cursos de EF; dois artigos do ano 2000, valorizando a infusão da disciplina no currículo de EF e a inclusão no processo formativo em EF, e um de 2005 analisando a relação entre a disciplina e a atuação de professores de EF em instituições para deficientes. Como conclusão cabe assinalar que, a presença da disciplina curricular EFA no currículo é resultado de mobilizações políticas dos especialistas e da produção de conhecimentos na área.
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Organizations today are looking beyond the automation of traditional training models to new approaches to knowledge transfer and performance support that are better aligned with business goals and deliver measurable results. By focusing on the specific business objective, blended learning techniques were used to deliver learning programs. This rethinking also allows us to break free from the concept of a "course" and consider approaches that provide a continuous learning process with active participation by the entire organization in sharing, teaching and mentoring mission-critical knowledge. Blended training is one of the leading trends in the training industry today. The term blended learning is used to describe a solution that combines several different delivery methods, such as collaboration software, Web-based courses, EPSS, and knowledge management practices. It is also used to describe learning that mixes various event-based activities, including face-to-face classrooms, live e-learning, and self-paced learning. This article explains the three different models of blended learning in order to improve the learner's skills.
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The European Higher Education Area and today's society, demand people trained at a cognitive, affective and emotional level, with extensive knowledge of Information and Communication Technologies that allow their comprehensive training to be able to adequately develop new tasks demanded by public and private institutions. In the same way, the educational curriculum and the European Institutions seek greater knowledge on the part of the teaching staff, to carry out their teaching work, but the time and space disabilities often limit the possibility of being able to train. Therefore, online training is considered an appropriate option for teachers to be trained through an educational model that encourages their autonomy and allows them to decide where, when and how to learn. However, it must be understood that all people are different and this training must be adapted to the needs of each of the participants. Many Universities in Spain develop their training offer through this model. The University of Extremadura is adapting to this training modality by proposing a variety of postgraduate studies, such as the University Master's Degree in Research in Teacher Training and ICT, which has evolved from being offered in a blended way to being carried out online. Faced with this situation, the research problem was raised: "Does a change occur in the attitude, knowledge and use of ICT resources, emotions, learning styles and the structure of knowledge acquired in the development of a Master in a modality? distance? ”, whose answer will allow the general research objective to be fulfilled: Observe if there is an evolution in the attitude, knowledge and use of ICT resources, the emotions in front of the elements of the virtual platform, of the emotions in front of the performance of the tasks offered by the teaching staff, the specific emotions in front of the tasks of the platform and the fundamental contents of the Master according to the gender, age and learning styles of the students. The thesis has been developed in two phases: In the first, a pilot study was carried out that allowed us to approach the behavior of the variables and the reality of the Master. In the second phase, the definitive study was carried out, which gave an answer to the question and the research objectives. A mixed concurrent triangulation design was used, in which a single-group pretest and posttest design was used for the quantitative design and the content analysis technique was used for the qualitative design, supported by the Theory of Nuclear Concepts. and the Pathfinder Associative Networks. Both designs are executed in parallel to carry out a methodological triangulation in the conclusions stage, contrasting and complementing the results obtained in both designs. The sample used was the Master's degree students, the class of 2017/2018 for the pilot study and 2018/2019 for the definitive study. Among the main conclusions obtained, it is highlighted that there is no significant change in attitude, knowledge, use of ICT resources and emotions in students with the development of the Master. However, a significant improvement in knowledge of ICT resources has been observed in the pragmatic learning style with the development of the Master. On the other hand, a positive and significant correlation has been obtained between knowledge and the use of ICT resources, both at the beginning and at the end of the Master, and a positive and significant correlation between emotions versus the elements of the virtual platform and emotion specific to the activities of the platform, both in the pilot study and in the pretest and posttest of the definitive study. No statistically significant differences have been observed in these aspects based on gender and age, which helps to verify that the digital and emotional gap is being mitigated in the variables analyzed. The students have developed their learning towards research, preferably carrying out collaborative activities and have used ICT preferably to search for information, improving their knowledge in databases with the development of the Master. They have also used them for communication, since they consider that they are an indispensable piece for the development of the Master. A regression was observed in the initial consideration that a fundamental activity to develop in the Master to improve the critical sense of the students was the holding of debates. At the beginning, the greatest difficulties of students when preparing a scientific report are presented in the design and methodology part, observing an increase at the end of the Master in the consideration that data analysis and obtaining results are also parts complex for its realization. The students consider in a preferential way that ICT can be linked in a multidisciplinary way, being used in the different learning areas and that the knowledge acquired in the Master, can be extrapolated to their working life. Finally, it has been observed that the main focuses where the teaching / learning problems are concentrated in the Master are the teachers, the organization and the lack of presence of the Master.
Chapter
There has been recent interest in studying the use of instant messaging (IM) as a teaching tool for supervising student dissertations and tutoring undergraduate students as discussed by Yue (2014a, 2014b, 2015). The research studies on this area have indicated that students are very positive about the use of IM for communicating with their tutors or supervisors. This chapter aims to study the use of IM as a supplementary tool in tutoring undergraduate students. The use of IM was analysed, based on the teaching and learning feedback obtained from an end-of-course questionnaire survey. A correlation analysis was carried out to study the possible relationship between the use of IM and the teaching and learning experience of students. Other associated measures, such as the tutorial attendance rate and assessment marks, were also examined.
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The Covid-19 pandemic has become a major disruption to colleges and universities around the world with most institutions moving to online-only instruction. As a result, the use of controlled environments to deliver hands-on experiences in typical MIS curriculum courses, such as programming, database management, network administration, information security, and web design was no longer available. This paper discusses a variety of simulated environments where students get hands-on experiences to replace the traditional learning environment in a classroom or computer lab setting.
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This study was carried out within the scope of the Basic Information Technologies Use (BITU) course given to formal education students in classroom and distance education environment. The aim of the study was to determine the perspectives of students regarding the course and distance education environment. Case study, which is one of the qualitative research methods was used in this research. The sample, which was a group of 303 students, contained 273 freshmen from the Faculty of Agriculture (FA), the Faculty of Forestry (FF), the Faculty of Fisheries (FoF), and 30 students from various associate degree programs, who repeated the course. Data were collected through the interview forms. During the analysis process, "data reduction", "data display", "conclusion drawing/verification" steps were carried out. The study revealed that the students generally found the course necessary, and that distance education was considered to be positive mostly due to the location independence, and negative mostly due to the internet connection problems and lack of communication. While more than half of the distance education students thought that they learned the subject efficiently, the majority of them preferred taking the course in the formal education environment. The study revealed that the rate of attendance and watching recorded lecture videos was not as high as expected. From the findings of this study, it can be suggested that arrangements be made to increase the level of communication in the distance education environment, and that students be encouraged to do more hands-on activities.
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Educational institutes across the world have closed due to the COVID-19 pandemic jeopardizing the academic calendars. Most educational institutes have shifted to online learning platforms to keep the academic activities going. However, the questions about the preparedness, designing and effectiveness of e-learning is still not clearly understood, particularly for a developing country like India, where the technical constraints like suitability of devices and bandwidth availability poses a serious challenge. In this study, we focus on understanding Agricultural Student’s perception and preference towards the online learning through an online survey of 307 students. We also explored the student’s preferences for various attributes of online classes, which will be helpful to design effective online learning environment. The results indicated that majority of the respondents (70%) are ready to opt for online classes to manage the curriculum during this pandemic. Majority of the students preferred to use smart phone for online learning. Using content analysis, we found that students prefer recorded classes with quiz at the end of each class to improve the effectiveness of learning. The students opined that flexibility and convenience of online classes makes it attractive option, whereas broadband connectivity issues in rural areas makes it a challenge for students to make use of online learning initiatives. However, in agricultural education system where many courses are practical oriented, shifting completely to online mode may not be possible and need to device a hybrid mode, the insights from this article can be helpful in designing the curriculum for the new normal.
Recent advancements in technology and increased globalization due to the internet have led to the development and popularization of asynchronous teaching formats. One of these is blended learning (BL), which combines online and physically in-person learning. While it is widely agreed that BL formats lead to measurable increases in student performance, little is understood about the relationship between student satisfaction and improved performance. We conducted an analysis of student and instructor feedback collected from surveys and interviews from four science courses converted from physically co-located to BL formats at a Canadian university. We specifically probed students’ experiences of BL, and student satisfaction in the blended format. We find that emotional engagement is a broadly applicable predictor of student satisfaction and success in BL courses. Specifically, we recommend instructors maintain personal connection with students, use collaborative active learning strategies, and emphasize alignment of learning activities with learning objectives. These may enhance the student experience and minimize challenges that have become characteristic of asynchronous teaching formats.
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The recent health emergency has changed the teaching mode globally, with traditional classroom teaching shifting to online platforms. This created challenges for both foreign/second language teachers and learners. Some recent studies investigated the challenges brought by online teaching from the teachers’ perspective; however, little is known about how students perceive the effectiveness of online language learning based on their experiences. Therefore, this study surveyed 252 Chinese students who took online EFL courses during the pandemic through an online survey platform. Survey questions include 75 statements regarding EFL learner’s perceived experience in taking online EFL courses, such as learning platforms, teaching and assessment methods, interaction mode, classroom management, and the effectiveness of online courses. Students rated each statement on a 5-point Likert Scale. Open-ended questions further targeted students’ suggestions to improve the quality of online language courses. Results from analysis of variance, factor analysis, and multiple linear regression analysis showed that students perceived the interactional opportunity and learning outcome as the most important factors in their online EFL learning experiences. Students generally showed a positive attitude toward their online language learning experiences and a high level of participation in synchronized online EFL courses. They further suggested a mixture of traditional and online class as an ideal teaching model for EFL learning, especially in the face of public crisis. Findings from this study may shed light on language curriculum design, language teacher education, and educational technology.
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Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented disruptions to medical education. Education in medical specialties, such as otolaryngology faces multiple challenges, including reduced bedside and "hands-on" training opportunities at all levels. Educators are turning to technological advancements to deliver effective remote medical education. This study investigated the value of enhancing traditional remote case-based teaching with the HoloLens2™. Methods: We present a randomized educational design study. All educational content, media, and learning outcomes were identical. Primary outcome measures included student performance as measured with pre- and post-intervention quizzes and student engagement as measured by a tally-mark system. Secondary outcome measures, collected using feedback questionnaires, included perceived enjoyment, engagement, and opinions regarding the educational role of this technology. Results: The undergraduate medical students were randomized to either conventional or HoloLens2™ enhanced remote case-based teaching (n = 56). HoloLens2™ enhanced teaching improved student performance by an average of 3 marks of 15% (p < 0.001). It was engaging and encouraged questions 4-fold per session (p < 0.05) when compared to conventional remote case-based teaching. There was no significant difference in overall objective measurements of engagement. Students taught using HoloLens2™ agreed that the teaching was enjoyable, effective in concept demonstration, and encouraged engagement. Conclusions: Remote teaching has allowed for the continuation of medical education in uncertain times. Beyond COVID-19, we predict that there will be a paradigm shift toward remote learning as new technological advancements emerges. These novel technologies may prove invaluable in the future potentially enabling education to be delivered between different hospitals, universities, and even overseas. Level of evidence: NA Laryngoscope, 2022.
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The present paper attempts to understand the new investment policy focusing more upon the challenges and issues related to the same. It aims at assessing the impact of the policy on the country's growth.
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Widespread of Covid-19 throughout the world in a fast rate pushes WHO to declare its status as a global pandemic. In February 2021, the virus have been already infecting 233 nations in the world. The effect of Covid-19 is present in all aspect of society, and one of them is education sector. The most prominent effect of Covid-19 on education is the erasure of traditional learning method through physical class, and the encouraged uses of online learning. Nevertheless, with the usage of e-learning contain several disadvantages, and one of them is the ineffectiveness of student to understand the courses and skills necessary in the education. In fact, according to several sources, student who come from lower social-economi classes in society tend to fail at grasping and understanding lesson from the teachers in the online-learning context,compared to the higher-upper clasess student. From those problems, we tried to provide a solution in the form of tutoring program which will be held at Pucang Arjo, Kelurahan Kertajaya, Kecamatan gubeng, which the majority of the people who live in here come from the lower social-economic status and profession, for instance, market merchant, driver of online transportation, and all other low-income job that makes their children ignored in terms of education aspect. The purpose of this community service is to help the students in terms of knowledge, skills, and understanding towards their courses in their respective grades. Methods used in this community service is by the means of tutoring them while also maintaining healthy protocols to prevent covid-19 spread. The result of this community service, are, the tutoring programs are succesfully held within 1 weeks and being responded by the students positively. This is indicated by the enthusiasm from the participants. Also, the knowledge, understanding, and skills from the students rises significantly after the program was held. With this tutoring programs, the students which mainly composed from kindergarten and elementary grade, gain more knowledge and skills after participating in this program.
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The present study aims to investigate the correlation between university students' satisfaction and anxiety in online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. To this aim, using a random sampling method, a sample of 430 male (n=150) and female (n=230) university students were selected at Ayatollah Borujerdi University. They filled out two questionnaires: one measuring their satisfaction and the other one measuring their anxiety in online classes. To triangulate the quantitative data, 22 university students completed a reflective written statement. To analyze the collected data, a Pearson correlation analysis, a multiple regression analysis, and a thematic coding analysis were used. Findings evidenced a moderate negative correlation between the participants' satisfaction and anxiety in online classes. Additionally, results documented that instructor, technology, and outcomes factors had the largest effects on the participants' anxiety in online classes. Complementary with the quantitative findings, the results of the reflective written statements yielded four overarching themes, including 'instructors are facilitators', 'technology makes learning easier', 'outcomes are more promising', and 'interacting with others is poor'. Finally, in light of the findings, a range of implications is suggested.
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