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Integrated nutrient energy management for sustainability in maize (Zea mays)-wheat (Triticum aestivum) cropping system

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... Input-wise energy involvement is tabulated in Table 4 under maize-blackgram cropping system prominent (6.77 to 0.43%) with lower efficiency which ultimately revealed that with the passage of time zero till-better in conventional system during the initial years which was at par with conservation tillage, but insignificantly increased yield was observed in zero tillage during the final years of experimentation. Thus, it indicates that in the long run with better yield in zero tillage positive results in specific heat (MJ/kg) and energy productivity (kg/MJ) are expected which had been recorded in the experimental results of Singh et al. (1998), which ultimately proved that with the passage of time zero tillage gave the indication of significant improvement in terms of energy i.e.120, 60, 40 kg N, P, K/ha) + vermicompost @ 5 t/ha; V 2 , 75% RDF + vermicompost @ 7.5 t/ ha; V 3 , 75% RDF + vermicompost @ 10 t/ha, V 4 , 100% RDF i.e.120, 60, 40 kg N, P, K/ha) + vermicompost @ 5 t/ha; V 2 , 75% RDF + vermicompost @ 7.5 t/ ha; V 3 , 75% RDF + vermicompost @ 10 t/ha; V 4 , 100% RDF conservations over conventional tillage . Maize-mungbean/ groundnut-based cropping systems were found to be the best alternative cropping systems considering production efficiency, energy output efficiency, energy-use efficiency and energy productivity (Mohapatra and Pradhan, 2018). ...
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A field experiment was conducted during 2010-12 at Pundibari, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, to analyse cropping systems in energy terms and to evaluate alternative solutions, especially for arable crops. The trial was carried out in a split-plot design with 2 main-plot (tillage), 2 subplot (mulching) and 4 sub-subplot treatments (INM). The highest net energy value was obtained with the conventional system, and the lowest with the conservation system. With respect to the treatments in maize (Zea mays L.)-blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] cropping system, conventional tillage produced the 3 years highest output energy (264.47 × 10 3 MJ/ha). Maize was the crop that contributed much to the total output energy in the tillage systems, followed by blackgram. The highest benefit: cost ratio (1.73) was observed at zero tillage. Conservation tillage, mulching and application of vermicompost by partial replacement of chemical fertilizer opened up the better scope of energy conservation within the system by renewable sources.
... The lowest grain (25.76 q ha -1 ) and stover (29.94 q ha -1 ) yields as observed in control (T 1 ) indicated that the native soil fertility was unable to support the optimal productivity of maize crop.A close observation of the above results also indicates that though the treatments T 4 and T 5 to T 16 received equal quantity of N (120 kg ha -1 ), the presence of additional P, K, Ca, S and micronutrients through organic sources and bioactive compounds formed during the decomposition might have been instrumental in increasing the yields significantly under combined treatments as compared to non INM treatments. These results confirm the findings of Jeyabal et al. (1998), Singh et al. (1998) and Hankare et al. (2005. ...
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A field experiment was conducted at College farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad during Kharif (maize) and rabi (groundnut) seasons of 2005-06 with a view to study the direct, cumulative and residual effects of integrated use of inorganic and organic sources of N on performance of maize and groundnut crops in terms of yield, nutrient uptake and quality besides soil health. The experiment was laid out in a randomized block design (RBD) with 16 treatments, each replicated 4 items.Among the different combinations tested, application of 75% RDFN + 25% N through VC + 100% P2O5 (T7) resulted in the highest grain and stover yields (51.38 and 59.77 q h-1 , respectively) of maize. The concentrations and uptake of N, P and K by maize at harvest were also highest in T7. The drymatter production, kernel and haulm yields of groundnut at flowering and harvest stages were higher under cumulative effects than their respective residual effects. Amongst the treatments testedin maize, the residual effects on groundnut with respect to drymatter yield (22.10 q ha-1) at flowering, kernel (16.36 q ha-1) and haulm yield (34.00 q ha-1) at harvest were highest with the application of 50% RDFN + 50% N through VC + 100% P2O5 (T13). Among the cumulative effects, treatment T13 (50% RDFN + 50% N through VC + 100% P2O5 to maize and 75% RDF to groundnut) showed the highest drymatter yield (26.89 q ha-1) at flowering, kernel (20.13 q ha-1) and haulm yield (41.94 q ha-1) at harvest. The increase in drymatter, kernel and haulm yields due to cumulative effects was by 21.8, 22.6 and 23.0 per cent, respectivelyover residual effects. The concentrations and uptake values of N, P and K by groundnut at harvest stage were higher under cumulative effects than their respective residual effects. The highest concentrations and uptake values of N, P and K by groundnut at harvest were recorded in T13 (50% RDFN + 50% N through VC + 100% P2O5) in cumulative and residual effect treatments.
... The farm yard manure (FYM) and pressmud (PM) have cumulative and residual effects in improving physical, chemical and biological environment of soil and also reducing the need of chemical fertilizers for crop production (Singh et al., 2009). An amount of 25-50% of available nitrogen was obtained from the FYM (Singh et al., 1998) but restricted the nutrient supplying capacity of FYM in winter season (Singh et al., 1983). The application of 20 t pressmud ha -1 can saved 25% of the recommended dose of fertilizers and had a significant residual effect of pressmud in the succeeding crops (Jurwarkar et al., 1993). ...
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A fixed plot field experiment was conducted during 2007 and 2008 at New Delhi to find out the effect of deoiled seed cake of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and castor (Ricinus communis L.) as a source of nutrient alone and in various combination with inorganic sources in spring sunflower (Helianthus annuus L)-maize (Zea mays L.) sequence. Nine combinations of three organic sources viz. jatropha cake (JC), castor cake (CC) and FYM @ 100%, 50% and 25% recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) and three inorganic levels viz. 0%, 50% and 75% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) were tested in sunflower along with RDF through inorganic (80, 26.2 and 30 kg N, P and K/ha) and control. Residual effects of treatments were evaluated on the succeeding maize along with RDF to fallow-maize (120, 26.2 and 33.3 kg N, P and K/ha). In first year of experiment, RDF to sunflower produced significantly the highest seed yield (2.64 t/ha) over other fertility levels barring the treatment of 75% RDF + 25% RDN either through JC (2.61 t/ha) or CC (2.52 t/ha). In the next season, 50% RDF + 50% RDN through JC (3.43 t/ha) being on par with 50% RDF + 50% RDN either through CC (3.36 t/ha) or FYM (3.22 t/ha) produced marked increase in seed yield over remaining fertility combinations. Grain yield of succeeding maize due to residual effect of 50% RDF + 50% RDN through JC (2.72 and 2.89 t/ha in respective year) was significantly higher than other residual fertility treatments, followed by 50% RDF + 50% RDN through CC (2.45 and 2.62 t/ha) in both the years. The highest system productivity in terms of sunflower seed equivalent (3.52, 4.75 t/ha) and net returns (Rs 45,418, 69,407/ha) were recorded with the application of 50% RDF + 50% RDN through JC, followed by 50% RDF + 50% RDN through CC during both the years. Nutrient uptake followed trend similar to yield. Compared to control and RDF, pH and bulk density decreased with increase in the quantity of organics and reverse trend was recorded with respect to organic carbon content.
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