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Climate change and human health: present and future risks (vol 367, pg 859, 2006)

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Climate change and human health: present and future risks (vol 367, pg 859, 2006)

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... limate change and antimicrobial resistance (AMR), or the null effects of antibiotics on bacteria, are two separate concerns of global health affecting biodiversity, the environment, and, most importantly, population health (Watts et al. 2017;Eliopoulos, Cosgrove, and Carmeli 2003;McMichael, Woodruff, and Hales 2006;Knight et al. 2018). The link of AMR with climatic factors (precipitations, global warming, dryness, etc.) has gained greater awareness because AMR growth has matched increases in global temperatures (Kaba, Kuhlmann, and Scheithauer 2020;MacFadden et al. 2018). ...
... The transmission of diseases in warmer and highly polluted environments could have catastrophic consequences for public health (Butler 2012;Shah and Gharbia 1999;McMichael, Woodruff, and Hales 2006;Watts et al. 2017). Climate change and AMR can impact water purity, sanitation, vaccination, pharmaceutical and agricultural products, and so on (Lorenz and Wackernagel 1994). ...
... Consequently, worst health statuses could be derived for population health, increasing the risks of combatting simple and chronic diseases, and even causing death. Previous studies have documented that the number of deaths attributable to AMR will become a major issue in 2050, and the same occurs with climate change, which is expected to cause 250,000 deaths per year between 2030 and 2050 (Cassini et al. 2019;McMichael, Woodruff, and Hales 2006;Sugden, Kelly, and Davies 2016;Stewardson et al. 2016;De Kraker et al. 2011;O'Neill 2014;Foreman et al. 2018). ...
Article
Climate change and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (AMR) have been studied as two separate problems affecting population health. Mortality attributable to AMR could reach up to 10 million people by 2050, becoming the most important challenge for global health. However, little is known about the changing environmental factors that could facilitate the spread of AMR infections. The article explores the linkage between climate change and AMR, in particular through the role of temperature, humidity, and the presence of metals in the environment. The PRISMA method was used for the systematic review based on the PubMed database. Previous research shows that warmer, more humid, and more highly polluted environments have a direct positive impact on the growth of microorganisms and most resistant bacteria. Global warming and structural changes in bacterial habitat, because of climate change, might result in new environmental conditions that facilitate the dissemination of AMR from a biological and reproductive perspective. This would have an impact on population health in the short- and long term because simple infections are becoming more aggressive as bacteria mutate constantly owing to the higher concentration of elements boosting their resistant capacity in their habitats. As a result, the morbidity and mortality of AMR could become more widespread as climate changes continue. Finally, the linkage between AMR and climate change is consistent and clear across different types of microorganisms and classes of antibiotics, and therefore the burden of AMR could be catastrophic if regulations on the environment, in the form of prevention policies, are not instituted in the future.
... Environmental sustainability has mainly been studied in the context of climate change and greenhouse gas emissions, and this has been well established [41,42]. Nevertheless, there are other dimensions to this concept. ...
... Climate change Climate change is driven by an exponential increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere as a result of human activities [42]. Livestock production is one of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for approximately 14.5% of all anthropogenic emissions (as much as all transportation-related direct emissions) [47]. ...
... An analysis of economic damage from climate change in the USA estimated a cost increase of 1.2% of the gross domestic product for each degree of warming, on average [63]. Climate change will increasingly lead to rising sea levels, changes in ecosystems, environmental degradation, and extreme weather events such as heat waves, wildfires, floods, and hurricanes [42,64]. All these environmental changes, which are impacted by food production, have direct and indirect effects on health and the economy. ...
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Purpose of Review Healthy dietary patterns are recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease, which remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. In this review, we discuss dietary patterns that are not only optimal for CVD prevention and management but also sustainable in maximizing health, environmental, and economic benefits. Recent Findings The growing literature on sustainable diets in the context of environmental sustainability includes subtopics of climate change, land use, biodiversity loss, freshwater use, and reactive nitrogen emissions. Similarly, economic sustainability, beyond the retail cost of food, extends to healthcare costs and the economic costs of environmental destruction related to current agricultural practices and food choices. Summary Dietary patterns that are high in plant foods and low in animal foods could maximize health, environmental, and economic benefits; however, questions remain about how to best promote these patterns to achieve wider adoption in an environmentally and economically sustainable way.
... a,b Values within the same row with different superscripts denote significance differences (P < 0.05). 1 AO postbiotic fed at 3 g/calf/day and mixed with milk replacer. 2 Milk replacer + starter intake. 3 Feed efficiency (gross BW gain/gross feed intake) × 100; Total energetic efficiency (gross energy gain/metabolizable energy intake) × 100; Partial energetic efficiency [(gross energy gain/ (metabolizable energy intake − net energy maintenance)] × 100. 4 Daytime (0500 to 1900); Nighttime (1900 to 0500). ...
... TN thermoneutral, TNR thermoneutral feed-restricted, HS heat stress, HSP heat stress-postbiotic, SEM standard error of the mean. 1 AO postbiotic fed at 3 g/calf/day and mixed with milk replacer. 2 Plasma AA entry rates in TNR, HS, and HSP were expressed relative to TN treatment. 3 Plasma Lys entry rate tended (P = 0.07) to decrease more in HS compared with HSP calves. ...
Article
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Increased ambient temperature causes heat stress in mammals, which affects physiological and molecular functions. We have recently reported that the dietary administration of a postbiotic from Aspergillus oryzae (AO) improves tolerance to heat stress in fruit flies and cattle. Furthermore, heat-induced gut dysfunction and systemic inflammation have been ameliorated in part by nutritional interventions. The objective of this study was to characterize the phenotypic response of growing calves to heat stress compared to thermoneutral ad libitum fed and thermoneutral feed-restricted counterparts and examining the physiologic alterations associated with the administration of the AO postbiotic to heat-stressed calves with emphasis on intestinal permeability. In this report, we expand previous work by first demonstrating that heat stress reduced partial energetic efficiency of growth in control (45%) but not in AO-fed calves (62%) compared to thermoneutral animals (66%). While heat stress increased 20% the permeability of the intestine, AO postbiotic and thermoneutral treatments did not affect this variable. In addition, AO postbiotic reduced fecal water content relative to thermoneutral and heat stress treatments. Heat stress increased plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A, haptoglobin and lipocalin-2, and administration of AO postbiotic did not ameliorate this effect. In summary, our findings indicated that heat stress led to reduced nutrient-use efficiency and increased systemic inflammation. Results suggest that the AO postbiotic improved energy-use efficiency, water absorption, and the intestinal permeability in heat stress-mediated increase in gut permeability but did not reduce heat stress-mediated rise in markers of systemic inflammation.
... Also, Zinc has been recognized as an indispensable component in the development and growth of normal brain activity and foetus [8]. It can cause a harm effect to human body when it is missed from the diet [9]. It is recommended, according to Bost et al. [6], that men should take 15 mg Zn a day, while women would take 12 mg daily. ...
... Some farmers use composts (from inorganic sources), fertilizers and plant nutrients in relatively large amounts that are rich in some metals and this might explain some of the higher value of metals in the mint. Besides, contamination from industrial activities nearby mint farms might also expected [1,4,9]. ...
Article
Mentha is the most common plant species grown in Saudi Arabia's Madinah city. Locally, the two popular types of mint are commercially called (Hasawi or Habaq) and (Mograbi). Both species are used in herbal teas, alone or as spice mixtures for many foods to offer aroma and flavour. In this research Hasawi mint samples were collected from three different locations and digested by two methods (acid digestion method and a microwave digestion system). Then, they were analysed for their metal contents by ICP-MS. The results from both digestion methods revealed that the following 10 metals were presented: V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb. The microwave digestion system was the best for all studied heavy metals in term of sample preparation procedures, linearity (≥ 0.999), recovery (97%- 101%, n=2) and precision (R.S.D% ≈ 1-2 %, n=2). Mint samples from first location contained 7 metals within the permissible limit while the remaining three metals (Cr, Cu and Zn) had higher levels. The second location contained 9 metals within the permissible limit but only one metal (Cu) had a higher level. The third location contained 6 metals within the permissible limit while it had 4 metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd) with higher level. All locations contained As, Cd and Pb within permissible limit except the third location which had a cadmium amount of (0.6 mg/kg) while the cadmium permissible level is (0.3 mg/kg). Some farmers use composts (from inorganic sources), fertilizers and plant nutrients in relatively large amounts that are rich in some metals and this might explain some of the higher value of metals in the mint. Moreover, contamination from industrial activities nearby mint farms might also be expected.
... People and communities around the world are increasingly witnessing dramatic and chronic environmental degradation and are experiencing a number of related responses and impacts [16]. It is well known that the effects of climate change threaten human health [17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32], and also increase existing inequalities, making the most marginalized people more vulnerable to the health consequences of a changing climate [33].For example, Patz et al. [17] indicates that many common human diseases are associated with climate fluctuations, from cardiovascular mortality and respiratory disease caused by heat waves to increase transmission of infectious diseases and malnutrition due to crop failure. Onozuka et al. [23] by analyzing future prognosis of excessive sudden cardiac arrest in an out-of-hospital environment related to climate change, showed a relationship between global climate change and mortality. ...
... Bai et al. [22] proves that short-term exposure to high level of ambient particulate matters has been linked with increased hospital admissions for schizophrenia. Castello et al. [31] and Mc Michael et al. [32] proved that changes in climate cause an acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases (including asthma and allergies) and an increase in the incidence of diseases transmitted by vectors, water and food. Hayes et al. [34] state that "climate change is a destructive reality with dire predictions for the future". ...
Article
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The 2030 Agenda with 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a challenge for all countries in the world. Their implementation may turn out to be a compromise or the creation of effective interactions that dynamize sustainable development. To achieve the SDGs, it is essential to understand how they interact with each other. It seems that in the times of the climate and health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, caring for the environment and ensuring a healthy life and promoting well-being at all ages is the basis for environmental, economic and social sustainable development. The aim of the study is to compare the degree of implementation of the goals of sustainable development in the scope of goal 13 “Climate action” and goal 3 “Good health and well-being” in the EU countries. In addition, we analyze how trade-offs and synergies between these goals have developed. Data from the Eurostat database were used to achieve the goal. The study used the method of multivariate comparative analysis—linear ordering of objects. The technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) method was used to measure the studied phenomenon. The results indicate a different degree of implementation of the sustainable development goals related to climate change and the improvement of health and social well-being. Only a few countries have synergy in achieving these goals, most of them compromise, manifesting themselves in improving one goal over another. In the group of analyzed EU countries, a simultaneous deterioration in the effectiveness of achieving both objectives were also noted. Our research also shows that energy policy is an important attribute in improving the achievement of these goals. The conducted analysis fills the gap in the research on the implementation of selected sustainable development goals and their interactions. It contributes to the discussion on increasing the links between them, in particular with regard to emerging compromises. This research can provide a basis for re-prioritizing and intensifying the actions where individual EU countries are lagging most behind.
... It is widely accepted in the scientific community and beyond that climate change presents an immediate and severe threat to human health and well-being. Increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (greenhouse gas emissions caused by human activity) cause rising global temperatures and other climatic changes, resulting in adverse health effects worldwide (McMichael et al., 2006). For example, the European heat wave of 2003 led to approximately 70,000 deaths, with the risk of heat-related mortality in Paris increasing by 70% due to anthropogenic climate change (Mitchell et al., 2016). ...
... Broadly, climate change affects human health through three basic pathways: (a) direct health implications associated with extreme weather events, including flooding, droughts, and storms; (b) health effects mediated via natural systems, including air pollution, and vector-, food-and water-borne diseases; and (c) health effects mediated via human systems, including food insecurity, displacement, mental health challenges, and violence and conflict (McMichael et al., 2006;Smith et al., 2014). In this paper, I will mainly explore the third pathway, linking climate change to social, economic, and demographic disturbances, and their subsequent effects on health. ...
... Immoderate rainfalls facilitate the entry of human sewage and animal waste into waterways and drinking water supplies, potentially leading to the increase of water-borne diseases. Besides infectious diseases, weather changes affect regional food yields, and disrupt fisheries, as well as lead to the loss of livelihoods and population displacement (McMichael, et al., 2006). McLaughlin et al. (2002) used precipitation data to show that the extinctions of plants in Jasper Ridge Preserve in California were caused by climate change. ...
... Climate change forecasts also warn of growing extinction risks caused by shifts in the abiotic environment (e.g., water, air, soil, gases) (McLaughlin, et al., 2002). The conflicts and the migrant and refugee flow likely to result from these wide-ranging effectssea-level rise, infectious disease, drought, flood, etc.would, typically, increase infectious diseases, malnutrition, mental health problems, and injury and violent death (McMichael, et al., 2006). McMichael, et al. say that if the climate is predictable, then human health could get a better future plan. ...
Thesis
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The present study assesses the degree to which temperature affects the crime rates in all 62 counties in the State of New York. Five different crimes (i.e., robbery, aggravated assault, burglary; larceny, and motor vehicle theft) for the year 2019 were selected from the Division of Criminal Justice Services of New York to be examined. The current study examined whether the rate of these crimes was associated with the changes in weather, with the assumption that higher weathers would lead to higher property and violent crimes, when controlling for the effect of various control variables. The findings suggest that the likelihood of all five crimes to happen was, indeed, affected by weather when controlling for the population, age, gender, race, and immigration trends of the counties. Relevant policy recommendations are suggested in light of these findings.
... Jones (1999) pointing on global surface air temperature raise in period of 1925-1944 by 0.370 C and over the period of 1978-1997 0.320 C (Jones, et al., 1999). While human activities are estimated to have caused approximately 0.5-1.0°C of global warming (McMichael, et al., 2006). These changes can lead to critical harm to human well-being and natural systems. ...
... There are many "anthropogenic" (human-induced) factors that contribute to climate change (IPCC, 2014) and climate change will affect human health in many ways-mostly adversely (McMichael et al., 2006). Today there is no doubt that humans contribute to the climate changes and the pressures on the ocean and its growing environmental issue all over the world (Halpern et al., 2015a). ...
Chapter
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As a small, densely populated country characterized by population and economic growth against a backdrop of land and water scarcity, Israel recognizes the importance of preparing for climate change in the wide scope of this phenomenon. Over the past decade, various Israeli research initiatives, consisting of representatives of government, academia, industry and non-governmental organizations, have been collecting knowledge on climate change and its impact on water, health, biodiversity and green building, analyzing these areas on an interdisciplinary basis using geostrategic and economic perspectives. Although (due to its geostrategic situation) Israel is an “island” country largely dependent on the sea, scientific studies on the effects of climate change on maritime security are in their infancy. This article presents modern knowledge about climate change in the world and in Israel the region, its potential impact on various aspects of the maritime security of the State of Israel and recommendations in accordance with this knowledge.
... La dégradation des forêts tropicales entraîne des modifications dans divers domaines, notamment : l'hydrologie (Eshleman, 2004;Giambelluca, 2002;Likens et al., 1978;Whitehead and Robinson, 1993) (modification des cours d'eau, du ruissellement et des réservoirs d'eau naturels, augmentation / diminution des épisodes de pluie, érosion et lessivage des sols), la climatologie (Wang et al., 2009) (régime des précipitations, échanges thermiques), les flux biogéochimiques (Kremen et al., 1999;F. E. Putz et al., 2008) (stockage du carbone, augmentation des micronutriments dans les sols), la santé humaine (McMichael et al., 2006;Patz et al., 2005;Patz and Norris, 2004) (vecteurs de maladies liés aux changements d'habitat, qualité de l'air) et la biodiversité (F. E. Steege et al., 1996;Turner, 1996;Watson et al., 2018) (perte et fragmentation de l'habitat, altération de la chaîne de prédation, réduction des espèces végétales et animales). ...
... The degradation of tropical forests leads to modifications in various fields, including : hydrology (Eshleman, 2004;Giambelluca, 2002;Likens et al., 1978;Whitehead and Robinson, 1993) (modification of watercourses, runoff and natural water reservoirs, increase / decrease in rainfall episodes, soil erosion and leaching), climatology (Wang et al., 2009) (the rainfall regime, thermal exchanges), bio-geo-chemical flows (Kremen et al., 1999;F. E. Putz et al., 2008) (carbon storage, increased micronutrients in soils), human health (McMichael et al., 2006;Patz et al., 2005;Patz and Norris, 2004) (habitat change disease vectors, air quality) and biodiversity (F. E. Steege et al., 1996;Turner, 1996;Watson et al., 2018) (habitat loss and fragmentation, altered predation chain, reduction of plant species and animals). ...
Thesis
Les forêts tropicales, représentant 6,4% de la surface terrestre, abritent la plus grande biodiversité des écosystèmes terrestres et jouent un rôle fondamental dans le cycle du carbone à l'échelle mondiale. La durabilité de l'exploitation des forêts tropicales est un enjeu fondamental tant du point de vue de la conservation de la biodiversité que de la réduction des émissions liées à la déforestation et à la dégradation des forêts (REDD +). L'Office National des Forêts (ONF) est chargé de la conservation et de la gestion de 6 millions d'hectares de forêts privé en Guyane française. La possibilité de cartographier les espèces dans la canopée par télédétection est d'un intérêt évident, tant appliquées que scientifique.Les inventaires spatialisés à l'échelle du paysage contribueraient à faire progresser les connaissances fondamentales de ce biome complexe et menacé et aiderait à sa gestion durable. Les cartes de distribution d’espèces peuvent être croisées avec les facteurs environnementaux et fournir ainsi des clés d’interprétation des schémas d’organisation des peuplements forestiers. Du point de vue de la gestion, les cartes de distribution des espèces offre une rationalisation de l'exploitation forestière. La cartographie des espèces commerciales pourrait favoriser des pratiques forestières minimisant l'impact environnemental de l'exploitation. L'identification des espèces permettrait de prioriser les zones particulièrement riches en espèces commerciales, tout en évitant d'ouvrir des pistes d'exploitation dans les zones à faible niveau de ressources exploitables. La télédétection offre également la possibilité de surveiller l’extension des espèces proliférantes, telles que les lianes.Des capteurs hyperspectraux et LiDAR ont été utilisés à bord d’un avion pour identifier les espèces dans les forêts tropicales guyanaises. Une large gamme spectrale issue des capteurs hyperspectraux (400–2500 nm) est mesurée permettant d'avoir de nombreux descripteurs. Le LiDAR embarqué offre une description fine de la structure du couvert, facilitant la segmentation des houppiers. La fusion de ces deux informations améliore la caractérisation de la ressource.Afin de tirer le meilleur parti des données hyperspectrales, différents prétraitements radiométriques ont été évalués. Le lissage spatial et le filtrage des ombres sont les principaux facteurs qui améliorent la discrimination des espèces. L'utilisation de la gamme spectrale complète est également bénéfique. Ces résultats de classification ont été obtenus sur un groupe 20 espèces abondantes. L’identification de ces mêmes espèces en mélange au sein d’un peuplement hyperdivers a constitué la deuxième étape de ce travail.Nous avons évalué le niveau d'information nécessaire et le degré de confusion tolérable dans les données d’apprentissage afin de retrouver une espèce cible dans une canopée hyperdiverse. Une méthode de classification spécifique a été mise en œuvre pour être insensible à la contamination entre classes focales/non focales. Même dans le cas où la classe non focale contient jusqu’à 5% de pixels de la classe focale (espèce à identifier), les classifieurs se sont révélés efficaces.La troisème étape aborde le problème de la transposabilité des classifieurs d’une acquisition à une autre. La caractérisation des conditions d’acquisition et la prise en compte de leurs effets sont nécessaires pour convertir les données de radiance en réflectance de surface. Cependant cette opération de standardisation reste une étape extrêmement délicate au vue des nombreuses sources de variabilité : état de l’atmosphère, géométrie soleil-capteur et conditions d'éclairement. Nous évaluons en comparant des vols répétés sur le même site, la contribution des diverses caractéristiques d’acquisition à la divergence spectrale entre dates. Ce travail vise à proposer des pistes pour développer des méthodes de reconnaissance d'espèces qui soient plus robustes aux variations des caractéristiques d'acquisition.
... Of particular importance has been emergence of the concept of "environmental refugees" [516], people who have been forced to leave their homes because of pressures created directly or indirectly by anthropogenic environmental, ecological and climate change [517]. Migration and conflict are now considered key mechanisms through which climate change and other environmental stressors increase frequency of migration and thus create environmental refugees [517][518][519][520]. ...
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Background: Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems. Ocean pollution is an important, but insufficiently recognized and inadequately controlled component of global pollution. It poses serious threats to human health and well-being. The nature and magnitude of these impacts are only beginning to be understood. Goals: (1) Broadly examine the known and potential impacts of ocean pollution on human health. (2) Inform policy makers, government leaders, international organizations, civil society, and the global public of these threats. (3) Propose priorities for interventions to control and prevent pollution of the seas and safeguard human health. Methods: Topic-focused reviews that examine the effects of ocean pollution on human health, identify gaps in knowledge, project future trends, and offer evidence-based guidance for effective intervention. Environmental Findings: Pollution of the oceans is widespread, worsening, and in most countries poorly controlled. It is a complex mixture of toxic metals, plastics, manufactured chemicals, petroleum, urban and industrial wastes, pesticides, fertilizers, pharmaceutical chemicals, agricultural runoff, and sewage. More than 80% arises from land-based sources. It reaches the oceans through rivers, runoff, atmospheric deposition and direct discharges. It is often heaviest near the coasts and most highly concentrated along the coasts of low- and middle-income countries. Plastic is a rapidly increasing and highly visible component of ocean pollution, and an estimated 10 million metric tons of plastic waste enter the seas each year. Mercury is the metal pollutant of greatest concern in the oceans; it is released from two main sources – coal combustion and small-scale gold mining. Global spread of industrialized agriculture with increasing use of chemical fertilizer leads to extension of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) to previously unaffected regions. Chemical pollutants are ubiquitous and contaminate seas and marine organisms from the high Arctic to the abyssal depths. Ecosystem Findings: Ocean pollution has multiple negative impacts on marine ecosystems, and these impacts are exacerbated by global climate change. Petroleum-based pollutants reduce photosynthesis in marine microorganisms that generate oxygen. Increasing absorption of carbon dioxide into the seas causes ocean acidification, which destroys coral reefs, impairs shellfish development, dissolves calcium-containing microorganisms at the base of the marine food web, and increases the toxicity of some pollutants. Plastic pollution threatens marine mammals, fish, and seabirds and accumulates in large mid-ocean gyres. It breaks down into microplastic and nanoplastic particles containing multiple manufactured chemicals that can enter the tissues of marine organisms, including species consumed by humans. Industrial releases, runoff, and sewage increase frequency and severity of HABs, bacterial pollution, and anti-microbial resistance. Pollution and sea surface warming are triggering poleward migration of dangerous pathogens such as the Vibrio species. Industrial discharges, pharmaceutical wastes, pesticides, and sewage contribute to global declines in fish stocks. Human Health Findings: Methylmercury and PCBs are the ocean pollutants whose human health effects are best understood. Exposures of infants in utero to these pollutants through maternal consumption of contaminated seafood can damage developing brains, reduce IQ and increase children’s risks for autism, ADHD and learning disorders. Adult exposures to methylmercury increase risks for cardiovascular disease and dementia. Manufactured chemicals – phthalates, bisphenol A, flame retardants, and perfluorinated chemicals, many of them released into the seas from plastic waste – can disrupt endocrine signaling, reduce male fertility, damage the nervous system, and increase risk of cancer. HABs produce potent toxins that accumulate in fish and shellfish. When ingested, these toxins can cause severe neurological impairment and rapid death. HAB toxins can also become airborne and cause respiratory disease. Pathogenic marine bacteria cause gastrointestinal diseases and deep wound infections. With climate change and increasing pollution, risk is high that Vibrio infections, including cholera, will increase in frequency and extend to new areas. All of the health impacts of ocean pollution fall disproportionately on vulnerable populations in the Global South – environmental injustice on a planetary scale. Conclusions: Ocean pollution is a global problem. It arises from multiple sources and crosses national boundaries. It is the consequence of reckless, shortsighted, and unsustainable exploitation of the earth’s resources. It endangers marine ecosystems. It impedes the production of atmospheric oxygen. Its threats to human health are great and growing, but still incompletely understood. Its economic costs are only beginning to be counted. Ocean pollution can be prevented. Like all forms of pollution, ocean pollution can be controlled by deploying data-driven strategies based on law, policy, technology, and enforcement that target priority pollution sources. Many countries have used these tools to control air and water pollution and are now applying them to ocean pollution. Successes achieved to date demonstrate that broader control is feasible. Heavily polluted harbors have been cleaned, estuaries rejuvenated, and coral reefs restored. Prevention of ocean pollution creates many benefits. It boosts economies, increases tourism, helps restore fisheries, and improves human health and well-being. It advances the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). These benefits will last for centuries. Recommendations: World leaders who recognize the gravity of ocean pollution, acknowledge its growing dangers, engage civil society and the global public, and take bold, evidence-based action to stop pollution at source will be critical to preventing ocean pollution and safeguarding human health. Prevention of pollution from land-based sources is key. Eliminating coal combustion and banning all uses of mercury will reduce mercury pollution. Bans on single-use plastic and better management of plastic waste reduce plastic pollution. Bans on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have reduced pollution by PCBs and DDT. Control of industrial discharges, treatment of sewage, and reduced applications of fertilizers have mitigated coastal pollution and are reducing frequency of HABs. National, regional and international marine pollution control programs that are adequately funded and backed by strong enforcement have been shown to be effective. Robust monitoring is essential to track progress. Further interventions that hold great promise include wide-scale transition to renewable fuels; transition to a circular economy that creates little waste and focuses on equity rather than on endless growth; embracing the principles of green chemistry; and building scientific capacity in all countries. Designation of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) will safeguard critical ecosystems, protect vulnerable fish stocks, and enhance human health and well-being. Creation of MPAs is an important manifestation of national and international commitment to protecting the health of the seas.
... Due to increasing concerns of rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, many countries have established programs and strategies to mitigate climate change [1][2][3]. These concerns are notably leading to demands for sustainable alternatives to crude oil and are encouraging the scientific community to explore new renewable feedstocks for producing energy and materials [4]. ...
Article
Lignin, a major constituent of lignocellulosic biomass, is the largest natural source of aromatic molecules and thus is an attractive feedstock for renewable chemical production. Direct incorporation of isolated lignin into materials has long been researched due to the idea’s simplicity and the scheme’s potentially high atom economy. However, due to its high chemical reactivity lignin is difficult to isolate without having it undergo uncontrolled condensation and repolymerization, which greatly hinder its ease of incorporation into polymers and other materials. Therefore, controlled chemical modifications have been and are being developed to increase lignin’s compatibility with existing materials. This review presents the latest advances in lignin extraction and functionalization and their potential for improving the production of lignin-based materials.
... Health risk assessments also apply to disaster and climate change contexts, two phenomena where there are complex direct and indirect pathways from hazards to health impacts (Banwell et al., 2018;Campbell-lendrum et al., 2015;Mall et al., 2019;Islam and Zhang, 2019). The approach in assessing risk is different from the traditional one where, here, the risk is a function of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and capacity (Mcmichael et al., 2005). ...
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p> Aim : This paper aims to understand how the concept of risk and risk governance can be best articulated and integrated into Indonesia’s SEA. Attention regarding health risks emerging from human interactions with the physical environment has increased in Sustainable Development and Planning (SDP). Methodology and Results : Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA) is the current context-based methodology addressing environmental and health risks of development planning in many countries. Environmental and health risk assessment (EHRA) is an integrated part of the SEA. EHRA, as a field of science, has evolved towards specific needs in many sectors, e.g. dose-response, quantitative microbial risk assessment, ecological risk assessment. The main challenge is how to determine the suitable EHRA approaches and translate the fact-based EHRA into risk-informed strategies in SDP. In Indonesia, the SEA is mandatory for regional planning documents. However, there is limited guidelines and application on EHRA in SEA. Through a meta-analysis, we reviewed scholarly articles published from 2009 to 2019 available in Google Scholar that report the concepts and implementation of EHRA and SEA in various countries. Conclusion, significance and study impact : This study has significant implications for the understanding of risk governance in SDP.</p
... Climate change can, in several ways, affect human life and survival, and a list of the main factors and events that are associated with extreme weather events would include: heat waves, cold spells, torrential rainfalls, floods, droughts, sand and dust storms, hurricanes, regional food shortages, the outbreak of fatal diseases, civil conflict, war, migration and displacement (McMichael et al. 2006). According to historical documents, however, it is drought that can be identified as the main (immediate) cause of famine, malnutrition and increased mortality rates, although the impact of unfavourable climatic periods is practically always associated with the spread of infectious diseases such as plague, cholera, smallpox, and bloody diarrhoea (McMichael 2012). ...
Article
During the Bronze Age, the cultural region of North Central Iran (NCI) suffered a longterm cultural decline, probably due to severe droughts. According to paleoclimate research, during the overall period c. 5.4–3.5 ka BP, four widely observable climatic events occurred at c. 5.3–5.0, 4.9–4.7, 4.2–3.9, and 3.8–3.5 ka BP, and these appear to have caused widespread environmental damage in the Near East. Archaeological evidence of the NCI region reveals political events that can be associated with the observed climatic variability. Paleoclimate research and archaeological studies can attribute, in combination, the cultural decline of NCI during the Bronze Age to the Late Holocene climate change.
... Of particular importance has been emergence of the concept of "environmental refugees" [516], people who have been forced to leave their homes because of pressures created directly or indirectly by anthropogenic environmental, ecological and climate change [517]. Migration and conflict are now considered key mechanisms through which climate change and other environmental stressors increase frequency of migration and thus create environmental refugees [517][518][519][520]. ...
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Pollution – unwanted waste released to air, water, and land by human activity – is the largest environmental cause of disease in the world today. It is responsible for an estimated nine million premature deaths per year, enormous economic losses, erosion of human capital, and degradation of ecosystems.Ocean pollution is an important, but insufficiently recognized and inadequately controlled component of global pollution. It poses serious threats to human health and well-being. The nature and magnitude of these impacts are only beginning to be understood. The review paper (1) Broadly examine the known and potential impacts of ocean pollution on human health. (2) Inform policy makers, government leaders, international organizations, civil society, and the global public of these threats. (3) Propose priorities for interventions to control and prevent pollution of the seas and safeguard human health.
... Climate change poses significant threats to, among other things, human health (McMichael et al., 2006), economic development (Ciscar et al., 2011), and species survival (Fordham et al., 2012). To mitigate such threats, increasingly ambitious policies and regulations on carbon and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are being introduced. ...
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Meeting increasingly ambitious carbon regulations in the construction industry is particularly challenging for earthmoving operations due to the extensive use of heavy-duty diesel equipment. Better planning of operations and balancing of competing demands linked to environmental concerns, costs, and duration is needed. However, existing approaches (theoretical and practical) rarely address all of these demands simultaneously, and are often limited to parts of the process, such as earth allocation methods or equipment allocation methods based on practitioners’ past experience or goals. Thus, this study proposes a method that can integrate multiple planning techniques to maximize mitigation of project impacts cost-effectively, including the noted approaches together with others developed to facilitate effective decision-making. The model is adapted for planners and contractors to optimize mass flows and allocate earthmoving equipment configurations with respect to tradeoffs between duration, cost, CO2 emissions, and energy use. Three equipment allocation approaches are proposed and demonstrated in a case study. A rule-based approach that allocates equipment configurations according to hauling distances provided the best-performing approach in terms of costs, CO2 emissions, energy use and simplicity (which facilitates practical application at construction sites). The study also indicates that trucks are major contributors to earthmoving operations’ costs and environmental impacts.
... McMichael concluded that the Earth's average temperature has increased by 0.5 • C since the 1970s and is expected to increase by a further 1.4-5.8 • C by the end of this century [4]. ...
Article
Significant changes have taken place in the global climate, especially in terms of carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration, temperature and humidity. The increase in CO2 levels and temperature will increase the likelihood of concrete carbonation-induced corrosion. Based on the prediction of climate change trend in the 21st century by the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and the climate observation records in different climatic areas, a modified carbonation model considering climate change is proposed. Then the carbonation depth was carried out through actual engineering examples in three typical Chinese cities (Harbin, Qingdao and Ningbo). The results showed that the model calculation was in good agreement with the situ results. It was concluded that climate change will result in much higher carbonation depths in the long term, effect of climate change on existing and new reinforced concrete structures should be considerable.
... Climate change has been termed "the biggest global health threat of the 21 st century" [1] and is expected to alter the geographic distribution, range and severity of many health risks, like cardiovascular diseases, heat related illness and vector borne diseases [2][3][4]. Ultimately climate change will likely increase the frequency of extreme weather events like e.g. extended warm spells and heat waves, leading to more areas affected by drought or, on the other extreme, by heavy precipitation events [5]. ...
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Climate change is expected to increase the frequency of extreme weather events, such as extended heat waves and droughts in the northern hemisphere. Besides affecting ecosystems worldwide, these changes in climate patterns will also affect the environmental health of human populations. While the medical community is mostly concerned with the negative impact of climate change, there might also be some beneficial effects. In this study we used laboratory data from a large university clinic in Germany (n = 13 406), to test for any detectable impact of two extreme summers on Vitamin-D [25(OH)D] plasma concentrations over a six year period (2014–2019). For the two years with extreme summers (2018 and 2019) the 25(OH)D plasma concentrations were significantly higher than in the previous four years (p < 0.001). A time series analysis (autoregressive term, AR, φ = 0.84, with an AR of one indicating a persistent effect) showed that 25(OH)D concentrations rise by 0.04 nmol/l (95% CI: 0.04–0.05 nmol/l) per hour of sunshine. The incidence of vitamin D deficiency was generally high (60% for 2014–2017) but dropped by 10% in 2018 and 2019. As such, the summers of 2018 and 2019, which are among the hottest and driest in Germany since the start of modern climate recordings, had a measurable positive effect on 25(OH)D plasma levels of the examined population. Given that 25(OH)D deficiency is widespread in higher latitudes, this implies that while mostly considered negative, climate change might also confer some health benefits with regard to vitamin D related medical conditions.
... A global environmental change, affecting physical systems and ecosystems, will also affect human health in many ways (McMichael, Woodruff, and Hales 2006). Flood impacts are shown to have an uneven regional distribution (Dottori et al. 2018), meaning many of the people affected by flood will be people living in a floodplain or with lower income. ...
Article
In March of 2019, flooding levels in many parts of Nebraska was the worst that streams and rivers had in decades, and in some locations, on record. Theses historic floods present an optimal case study to examine how current technological resources can be used to enhance our understanding of floods and how these floods impact in situ stream ecosystem processes like nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. Currently, there are only a few resources available to quantify the extent of floods; for my thesis, I will focus on satellite imagery and in situ water level gages. Unfortunately, due to technical issues with climatic phenomena, satellite image analysis did not yield comprehensive information of flooding extent. However, by analyzing the discharge records of 94 stream gages across the state, I was able to evaluate flood stage records and calculated flood return intervals. While the flood stage was reached primarily along streams in the Niobrara, Platte, and Elkhorn River watersheds, 17 streams across the state had a flood return interval greater than 100 years. The average return interval was 48 years ± 73. The nutrient spiraling metrics in ten streams across the state were compared in the summer before and after the flood to evaluate the flood impacts on stream ecosystem processes. In 2018, the mean uptake length (Sw) of NH4 and PO4 was 563m ± 348 and 600 m ± 260. The vertical velocity (Vf) in 2018 for NH4 and PO4 was 0mm/min ± 0.42 and 0.02 mm/min ± 0.42, respectively, while the aerial uptake rate (U) mean was 0.03 ug mm/min ± 0.30 and 0 ug mm/min ± 2.61 respectively. In 2019, the mean Sw of NH4 and PO4 was 248 m ± 349 and 256 m ± 352. The Vf in 2019 for NH4 and PO4 was 0.04 mm/min ± 0.42 and 0.15 mm/min ± 0.90 while the U mean was 0.01 ± 17.16 ug mm/min and 0.57 ug mm/min ± 58.61 respectively. There were no differences (p> 0.05) of NH4 or PO4 in Sw, Vf or U between years. These data suggest that Nebraska stream ecosystems were resilient to the flood. Yet, given the high uptake lengths and low uptake velocity and areal uptake values, these data also suggest that small streams are enriched with N and P well beyond their biological demand for these nutrients. Furthering our knowledge of the quantification of floods and their impacts on stream ecosystem processes can help mitigate the deleterious consequences of floods. Advisor: Jessica Corman
... Nowadays, climate change is an undeniable fact worldwide (European Commission, 2015;IPCC, 2014;2019); studies and researches have been proving, through scientific evidence, that climate change is producing diverse harmful effects on urban and human health (McMichael, Woodruff & Hales, 2006;Orimoloye et al., 2019). The risks related to climate change for urban settlements are referred to extreme weather phenomena as pluvial flooding and heat weaves; both are reduced or worsened due to the morphology, spatial structures and characteristics, as well as due to the functional qualities of both buildings and open spaces. ...
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The risks related to climate change for urban settlements are referred, among others, to extreme weather phenomena as pluvial flooding and heat weaves. In the urban context, certain areas suffer more than others when an extreme climate event happens, having negative effects on the built environment and human health. Thus, exploring solutions to mitigate negative impacts of climate change is an urgent need for urban planners, architects and decision makers. This paper is aiming to introduce possible approaches and tools to identify adaptive solutions to reduce climate change risks, and also to increase the preparedness of decision makers to cope with these challenges. To do so, this paper, at first, introduces the problem, looking at it through the developing paradigm of Ecosystem Services and Blue and Green Infrastructures positively impacting on urban systems and human health; then it stresses the potentialities of the methodology of Urban Living Labs as innovative environments for learning, where to produce and share knowledge about the topic and developing related solutions. Then, it introduces two complementary projects’ approaches belonging to the ongoing research program of the Department of Architecture of the University of Naples Federico II, in Italy, to cope with climate change issues. Finally, together with the identification of the strengths of the two experiences, this paper discusses to what extent the Urban Living Lab approach could be implemented in the further developments of the two projects, opening in this way to new possible perspectives of research.
... If the concentration of GHGs is not reduced significantly within the near future, irreversible and severe consequences for humans and natural systems are the consequence (McMichael et al., 2006). One of the biggest contributors of GHG emissions is the energy sector, accounting for 5. Online reference: http://www.gesetze-bayern.de/Content/Document/BayBO. ...
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The aim of this paper is to showcase different decarbonization pathways for Europe with varying Carbon dioxide (CO2) constraints until 2050. The Global Energy System Model (GENeSYS-MOD) framework, a linear mathematical optimization model, is used to compute low-carbon scenarios for 17 European countries or regions. The sectors power, low- and high- temperature heating, and passenger and freight transportation are included, with the model endogenously constructing capacities in each period. Emission constraints differ between different scenarios and are either optimized endogenously by the model, or distributed on a per-capita basis, GDP-dependent, or based on current emissions. The results show a rapid phase-in of renewable energies, if a carbon budget in line with established international climate targets is chosen. It can be shown that the achievement of the 2° target can be met with low additional costs compared to the business as usual case, while reducing total emissions by more than 30%.
... Rising urban heat and the increase in the number and size of urban heat islands (UHIs) directly affect the health of citizens (Patz et al., 2005;McMichael, Woodruff, & Hales, 2006;Błażejczyk et al., 2018;Jedlovec, Crane, & Quattrochi 2017). An increase in air temperature is directly related to an increase in mortality due to heat exposure during summers with very high temperatures (Harlan et al., 2006;Vutcovici, Goldberg, & Valois 2014;Lemonsu et al., 2015;Gao et al., 2020). ...
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The combined effects of global warming and increasing urban heat islands (UHIs) on air temperature and heat stress in cities are notable physical and mental health implications for citizens. With research having shown the effective role of urban green spaces in decreasing urban heat, this study investigated the cooling effect of a large urban park on thermal comfort outside the park area, from psychological and physiological perspectives. The studied park is located in the center of Madrid and adjacent to UHI. The study was performed by conducting field measurements and a survey with questionnaires. The measurements made on six summer days (with two-week intervals) showed that the park's cooling effect could decrease the air temperature by 2.4-2.8°C right up to the edge of the heat island (600m), and decrease the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by about 3.9°C. By decreasing air temperature and PET, this park was also shown to increase the perceived thermal comfort (PTC) of the citizens from the psychological perspective in the defined area of effect. This perceived thermal comfort was found to have a significant inverse relationship with PET (P-value <0.05). The examination of cognitive maps drawn by citizens showed that out of the 145 respondents, 68.3% marked the park as the area that they perceive as having the greatest thermal comfort, and prefer as the place to spend time enjoying thermal comfort, irrespective of its distance from their location.
... Climate change can, in several ways, affect human life and survival, and a list of the main factors and events that are associated with extreme weather events would include: heat waves, cold spells, torrential rainfalls, floods, droughts, sand and dust storms, hurricanes, regional food shortages, the outbreak of fatal diseases, civil conflict, war, migration and displacement (McMichael et al. 2006). According to historical documents, however, it is drought that can be identified as the main (immediate) cause of famine, malnutrition and increased mortality rates, although the impact of unfavourable climatic periods is practically always associated with the spread of infectious diseases such as plague, cholera, smallpox, and bloody diarrhoea (McMichael 2012). ...
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During the Bronze Age, the cultural region of North Central Iran (NCI) suffered a longterm cultural decline, probably due to severe droughts. According to paleoclimate research, during the overall period c. 5.4–3.5 ka BP, four widely observable climatic events occurred at c. 5.3–5.0, 4.9–4.7, 4.2–3.9, and 3.8–3.5 ka BP, and these appear to have caused widespread environmental damage in the Near East. Archaeological evidence of the NCI-region reveals political events that can be associated with the observed climatic variability. Paleoclimate research and archaeological studies can attribute, in combination, the cultural decline of NCI during the Bronze Age to the Late Holocene climate change.
... Transformation from Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 3006 2 of 20 natural surfaces to various man-made impervious surfaces (e.g., parking lots, roads, and buildings) made of concrete, asphalt, and metal has resulted in the alteration of land surface characteristics, including land surface temperature (LST), hydrothermal condition, landscape composition, and albedo, which have led to the phenomenon known as urban heat island (UHI), wherein urban areas tend to have warmer climates than their surrounding areas [3][4][5]. UHI has been proved to significantly affect air and water quality, energy consumption, regional climate, and human health [6][7][8]. Therefore, given the severity of the negative effects of UHI, there is a need for a better understanding and monitoring of the driving factors, contributing to the occurrence of UHI, to improve the quality of urban environments and to develop sustainable urban development policies. ...
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Land surface temperature (LST) is a crucial parameter in surface urban heat island (SUHI) studies. A better understanding of the driving mechanisms, influencing variations in LST dynamics, is required for the sustainable development of a city. This study used Changchun, a city in northeast China, as an example, to investigate the seasonal effects of different dominant driving factors on the spatial patterns of LST. Twelve Landsat 8 images were used to retrieve monthly LST, to characterize the urban thermal environment, and spectral mixture analysis was employed to estimate the effect of the driving factors, and correlation and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships. Results indicate that, (1) the spatial pattern of LST has dramatic monthly and seasonal changes. August has the highest mean LST of 38.11 °C, whereas December has the lowest (−19.12 °C). The ranking of SUHI intensity is as follows: summer (4.89 °C) > winter with snow cover (1.94 °C) > spring (1.16 °C) > autumn (0.89 °C) > winter without snow cover (−1.24 °C). (2) The effects of driving factors also have seasonal variations. The proportion of impervious surface area (ISA) in summer (49.01%) is slightly lower than those in spring (56.64%) and autumn (50.85%). Almost half of the area is covered with snow (43.48%) in winter. (3) The dominant factors are quite different for different seasons. LST possesses a positive relationship with ISA for all seasons and has the highest Pearson coefficient for summer (r = 0.89). For winter, the effect of vegetation on LST is not obvious, and snow becomes the dominant driving factor. Despite its small area proportion, water has the strongest cooling effect from spring to autumn, and has a warming effect in winter. (4) Human activities, such as agricultural burning, harvest, and different choices of crop species, could also affect the spatial patterns of LST.
... However, consideration of interactions and evolution of these drivers through time, societal and spatial scales remains low. Climate change is presented as an external driver which is expected in many contexts to act as a threat magnifier by exaggerating negative, push factors for vulnerable populations [34][35][36]. Attributes of climate change are split into three categories: physical, biological/ecological, and anthropogenic impacts [37,38]. The physical effects of climate change may be fast onset or slow onset. ...
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Both climate change and migration present key concerns for global health progress. Despite this, a transparent method for identifying and understanding the relationship between climate change, migration and other contextual factors remains a knowledge gap. Existing conceptual models are useful in understanding the complexities of climate migration, but provide varying degrees of applicability to quantitative studies, resulting in non-homogenous transferability of knowledge in this important area. This paper attempts to provide a critical review of climate migration literature, as well as presenting a new conceptual model for the identification of the drivers of migration in the context of climate change. It focuses on the interactions and the dynamics of drivers over time, space and society. Through systematic, pan-disciplinary and homogenous application of theory to different geographical contexts, we aim to improve understanding of the impacts of climate change on migration. A brief case study of Malawi is provided to demonstrate how this global conceptual model can be applied into local contextual scenarios. In doing so, we hope to provide insights that help in the more homogenous applications of conceptual frameworks for this area and more generally.
... On that basis, from 2042, coal will be the only fossil fuel existing up to 2112 [5]. Moreover, the burning of fossil fuel is one of the major reasons for the emissions which are causing global warming and climate change [6] leading to threats to human health [7]. Therefore, the study and use of sustainable energy sources, for example, hydropower, wind, solar, geothermal, or biomass is a necessity [8]. ...
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In Vietnam, the majority of electricity is generated from hydropower dams and coal and this causes many problems for the environment, such as deforestation and greenhouse gas emission. In addition, power shortages occur in the hot and sunny season. Rooftop solar power can help Vietnam to protect the environment and help people to combat the problem of power outages. With the high potential for solar energy, people in Vietnam can generate electricity by installing rooftop solar power-generating systems in their houses. The study reported shows that Vietnam enjoys many factors in favor of the development of rooftop solar power, especially its high sunshine duration. Rooftop solar is suitable for all parts of the country. Moreover, the development of rooftop solar power in Vietnam also benefits from support from the government, other foreign partners, and companies that provide rooftop solar equipment.
... Rising urban heat and the increase in the number and size of urban heat islands (UHIs) directly affect the health of citizens (Patz et al., 2005;McMichael, Woodruff, & Hales, 2006;Błażejczyk et al., 2018;Jedlovec, Crane, & Quattrochi 2017). An increase in air temperature is directly related to an increase in mortality due to heat exposure during summers with very high temperatures (Harlan et al., 2006;Vutcovici, Goldberg, & Valois 2014;Lemonsu et al., 2015;Gao et al., 2020). ...
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The combined effects of global warming and increasing urban heat islands (UHIs) on air temperature and heat stress in cities are notable physical and mental health implications for citizens. With research having shown the effective role of urban green spaces in decreasing urban heat, this study investigated the cooling effect of a large urban park on thermal comfort outside the park area, from psychological and physiological perspectives. The studied park is located in the center of Madrid and adjacent to UHI. The study was performed by conducting field measurements and a survey with questionnaires. The measurements made on six summer days (with two-week intervals) showed that the park’s cooling effect could decrease the air temperature by 2.4-2.8°C right up to the edge of the heat island (600m), and decrease the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by about 3.9°C. By decreasing air temperature and PET, this park was also shown to increase the perceived thermal comfort (PTC) of the citizens from the psychological perspective in the defined area of effect. This perceived thermal comfort was found to have a significant inverse relationship with PET (P-value <0.05). The examination of cognitive maps drawn by citizens showed that out of the 145 respondents, 68.3% marked the park as the area that they perceive as having the greatest thermal comfort, and prefer as the place to spend time enjoying thermal comfort, irrespective of its distance from their location.
... Land surface temperature are frequently higher in urbanized areas compared to out-lying green spaces (Quattrochi et al., 1998). The urban heat island effect has multiple implications, for instance, resulting in a reduction of air quality, an increase of energy consumption, and an adverse impact on human health (Mcmichael, Woodruff, & Hales, 2005). Therefore, a better understanding of the effects of the built environment on LST and its potential drivers is critically important for supporting urban planning and public health management. ...
Article
The effects of building density on land surface temperature (LST) and its spatial patterns remain poorly understood over large areas. Using Landsat 8 satellite imagery, we quantified the effects of building density on land surface temperature (K) across 21 cities in China and analysed their spatial patterns, possible factors, and mechanisms. Results showed that the effects of building density on LST were more significant in areas with dry climates compared to humid climates. The spatial variability in the effects of building density on LST was closely related to climate conditions, soil type, and vegetation. The results from stepwise regression analysis showed that precipitation (climate) controlled the spatial variability, indicating that there is a complex mechanism underlying these potential factors. Furthermore, the results from climatic zoning statistics revealed that the K-values of northern Chinese cities were positively correlated with the areas of local water bodies. However, the K-values of southern Chinese cities were significantly and positively correlated with the mean annual temperature and aridity and were negatively correlated with population density. Stepwise regression results further indicated that the mean annual temperature may be the most influential factor for southern cities. These results highlight the spatial variance and different determinants of K and suggest that climate-adapted urban design and planning standards are needed in different climate zones.
... On the other hand, hot and humid environments favor the proliferation of bacteria, fungi, and mites (Baughman and Arens 1996), in addition to increased thermal stress, due to slower sweat evaporation. This hinders the body's processes of heat dissipation and, thus, prevents it from cooling, which might lead to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders (McMichael et al. 2006;Souza et al. 2014). ...
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With the rising trends in elderly populations around the world, there is a growing interest in understanding how climate variability is related to the health of this population group. Therefore, we analyzed the associations between mortality in the elderly due to cardiovascular (CVD) and respiratory diseases (RD) and meteorological variables, for three cities in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: Campos do Jordão, Ribeirão Preto, and Santos, all in different subtropical regions, from 1996 to 2017. The main objective was to verify how these distinct subtropical climates impact elderly mortality differently. We applied the autoregressive model integrated with moving average (ARIMA) and the principal component analysis (PCA), in order to evaluate statistical associations. Results showed CVD as a major cause of mortality, particularly in the cold period, when a high mortality rate is also observed due to RD. The mortality rate was higher in Campos do Jordão and lower in Santos. In Campos do Jordão, results indicate an increased probability of mortality from CVD and RD due to lower temperatures. In Ribeirão Preto, the lower relative humidity may be related to the increase in CVD and RD deaths. This study emphasizes that, even among subtropical climates, there are significant differences on how climate impacts human health, which can assist decision-makers in the implementation of mitigating and adaptive measures.
... Promising economic and ecologic options arising from the use of renewable energies and resources have meanwhile raised attention all over the world, due to the mostly undoubted rising global challenges as posed to mankind by the climate change, decline of environmental integrity and diversity, energy prices, energy long-run supply problems and impacts of these challenges also on human health (Schröter et al., 2005;Hansen et al., 2006;McMichael, Woodruff, & Hales, 2006). A renewable source of considerable importance is lignocellulosic 'waste', which accumulates in large quantities every year in the form of residues from agriculture, forestry, energy crops, as well as residues from paper-pulp industries, timber industries and many agroindustries (Saini, Saini & Tewari, 2015). ...
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Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant bio-resource on earth, mainly composed of D-glucose, D-xylose and L-arabinose. It is widely considered to be a promising alternative feed-stock for biotechnological processes. Here we evaluated their potential to be the carbon source for growth of broadly distributed and well-established Escherichia coli laboratory and protein expression strains as well as a classic probiotic E. coli strain. E. coli DH5α, E. coli K12-MG1655, E. coli K12-W3110, E. coli BL21(DE3) and E. coli Nissle 1917 were cultivated in mineral media containing single lignocellulosic sugar components. Sugar consumption in these cultures and growth parameters of the different strains were characterized. Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) was chosen as a first easy to measure and prominent model recombinant target protein to demonstrate lignocellulose dependent recombinant protein production in E. coli. To open new production routes for high value food proteins based on lignocellulose, structural genes encoding bovine α S1-casein and human α S1-casein were synthesized, cloned and then expressed in an E. coli T7 expression system in different media based on single sugars and a synthetic wheat straw mixture. Successful recombinant production of both bovine and human α S1-caseins in E. coli under these experimental conditions was demonstrated and quantified by densitometric analysis after protein separation in polyacrylamide gels. Finally, efficient casein production in E. coli based on a real hydrolysate obtained by steam explosion of wheat straw lignocellulose in a bioreactor-based batch production process was successfully demonstrated. We believe that this proof-of-concept presented here is a promising starting point to open new routes for the production of food or feed proteins with high nutritional and economic value. As such, a valorization of bulk residual biomass like lignocellulose is envisioned as a key support of a growing and truly sustainable bioeconomy.
... Fig. 1 shows how climate change not only affects, but also influences a buildings indoor weather condition which needs to be kept at an ambient range to ensure the optimum comfort of the occupants. (McMichael et al. 2006) According to one report, UK has over 87,000 supermarkets currently operational across the country (Retail foods, USDA 2019). The UK building sector accounts for approximately 3% of total electricity use and the UK supermarkets and similar organizations are responsible for 1% of the entire UK GHG emissions (Tassou et al. 2011). ...
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Focus on climate change and extreme weather conditions has received considerable attention in recent years. Civil engineers are now focusing on designing buildings that are more eco-friendly in the face of climate change. This paper describes the research conducted to assess the impact of future climate change on energy usage and carbon emissions in a typical supermarket at multiple locations across the UK. Locations that were included in the study were London, Manchester, and Southampton. These three cities were compared against their building performance based on their respective climatic conditions. Based on the UK Climatic Projections (UKCP09), a series of energy modelling simulations which were provided by the Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers (CIBSE) were conducted on future weather years for this investigation. This investigation ascertains and quantifies the annual energy consumption, carbon emissions, cooling, and heating demand of the selected supermarkets at the three locations under various climatic projections and emission scenarios, which further validates annual temperature rise as a result of climatic variation. The data showed a trend of increasing variations across the UK as one moves southwards, with London and Southampton at the higher side of the spectrum followed by Manchester which has the least variability amongst these three cities. This is the first study which investigates impact of the climate change on the UK supermarkets across different regions by using the real case scenarios.
... Climate change risk management is a necessary step to decrease the possibility of vulnerability (Kunreuther et al. 2013). The risk of climate change is not a phenomenon that is recognized in the present (McMichael et al. 2006). The past and future effects are more easily observed (Peterson et al. 2002). ...
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Globally, climate change is an alarming threat to the livestock industry. Such changes in the climate can also adversely affect the returns of livestock farmers in Pakistan. Improvement in the production process could decrease the risk of losses. This study analyzes the efficacy of silage to abate the losses in livestock profitability resulting from the climate change. The study employed cross-sectional survey data of 492 livestock farmers collected from six districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. The data are analyzed with endogenous switching regression, considering the possibility of selection bias and endogeneity in adopting silage as a climate change adaptation measure. The study findings show a significant difference in material well-being between silage users and conventional feed users. Furthermore, training programs such as silage training and livestock development programs could be meaningful provisions to abate climate change and improve food security. It is suggested that training and development programs should be incorporated in policy plans to improve the well-being of farmers in terms of their farm revenues.
... According to statistics issued by the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013), the globally averaged surface temperatures increased by 0.85°C between 1880 and 2012, and the total increase between the average for the 1850-1900 period and the 2003-2012 period was 0.78°C (IPCC, 2013). It is generally believed that changes in the frequency or intensity of extreme weather and climate events would have greater impacts on both human society and natural systems than changes in the mean climate variables (Patz et al., 2005;McMichael et al., 2006;IPCC 2012;Thornton et al., 2014). IPCC (2012) noted that there is a high con dence that economic losses from weather-and climate-related disasters have increased during the last 60 years and will have greater impacts on water, agriculture, and food security, which are closely linked to climate. ...
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The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, also known as the Earth’s “third pole”, is sensitive to climate change due to its extensive areas at high elevation, which are presently dominated by snow and ice. Based on daily maximum and minimum surface air temperature and precipitation records at 94 meteorological stations throughout the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the spatial and temporal variation of 16 temperature and 11 precipitation extremal indices were investigated during 1960 to 2016. The warmth indices, including the numbers of warm days, warm nights, summer days, and tropical nights showed significantly increasing trends. In contrast, the cold indices, including the numbers of cool days, cool nights, ice days, and frost days significantly decreased. The number of frost day and ice days showed the fastest decrease (3.9 and 2.7 days/decade, respectively), whereas the growing season length showed the fastest growth trend (2.8 days/decade). The frequency and intensity of cold temperature events increased at high elevations, whereas warm temperature events showed the opposite trend. The regionally averaged monthly maximum 1-day precipitation and maximum consecutive 5-day precipitation increased by 0.17 and 0.70 mm per decade, respectively. In contrast, the number of consecutive dry days (CDD) and consecutive wet days (CWD) decreased at rates of 1.11 and 0.03 days per decade, respectively. The extreme precipitation events were more frequent in low-latitude and high-longitude regions. The strengthening Subtropical High Area (SHA) and Subtropical High Intensity (SHI), westward movement of Subtropical High Western Ridge Point (SHW) have contributed to the changes in climate extremes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
... The combination of high temperatures, high levels of moisture and changes in precipitation patterns also affect human health, particularly for the populations least responsible for climate change (Patz et al., 2007). These changes in nearsurface conditions increase the risk of high levels of heat stress (Sherwood and Huber, 2010;Matthews et al., 2017) and the spread of infectious diseases (Levy et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2016;McPherson et al., 2017), among other risks for human health (McMichael et al., 2006). ...
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The energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere over the last century has caused an accumulation of heat within the ocean, the continental subsurface, the atmosphere and the cryosphere. Although ∼90 % of the energy gained by the climate system has been stored in the ocean, the other components of the Earth heat inventory cannot be neglected due to their influence on associated climate processes dependent on heat storage, such as sea level rise and permafrost stability. However, there has not been a comprehensive assessment of the heat inventory within global climate simulations yet. Here, we explore the ability of 30 advanced general circulation models (GCMs) from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to simulate the distribution of heat within the Earth's energy reservoirs for the period 1972–2005 of the Common Era. CMIP5 GCMs simulate an average heat storage of 247±172 ZJ (96±4 % of total heat content) in the ocean, 5±9 ZJ (2±3 %) in the continental subsurface, 2±3 ZJ (1±1 %) in the cryosphere and 2±2 ZJ (1±1 %) in the atmosphere. However, the CMIP5 ensemble overestimates the ocean heat content by 83 ZJ and underestimates the continental heat storage by 9 ZJ and the cryosphere heat content by 5 ZJ, in comparison with recent observations. The representation of terrestrial ice masses and the continental subsurface, as well as the response of each model to the external forcing, should be improved in order to obtain better representations of the Earth heat inventory and the partition of heat among climate subsystems in global transient climate simulations.
... The impact of anthropization on the environment is unparalleled (McMichael and Butler, 2011 Current evidence suggests that climate change is likely to be contributing to the diseases emergences in regions previously unaffected at higher latitudes and altitudes and to their persistence and changed seasonality in endemic areas (McMichael, Woodruff and Hales, 2006). In addition, flood-associated outbreaks of diseases such as leptospirosis have been reported in environments as diverse as India, Argentina, Australia, Brazil and Italy (Lau et al., 2010). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic highlights that the spread of infectious diseases goes beyond geographical boundaries. Simultaneous changes in local biodiversity and land use, the increasing international connectivity through human transport and trade and the imminent threat of climate change have increased the risk of the emergence and reemergence of infectious diseases. The current public health response to emerging infectious diseases (EID) by passive surveillance has proven largely ineffective in preventing and controlling disease outbreaks. The way toward is to “get ahead of the curve” by identifying potential hotspots of disease emergence and detecting the environmental triggers such as land transformation, biodiversity loss and climate change. I used a biogeographic approach to study and analyze disease emergence across different taxonomic pathogen groups such as bacterial, viral, protozoal and fungal, globally and in French Guiana, a French Overseas territory located in South America. I found that regions at risk of floods, recent conversion of forest to agricultural lands and increasing minimum temperature (i.e. temperature at night) caused by cli mate change were drivers for disease emergence locally and globally across the different pathogen groups. The main findings of the PhD thesis are the following:1. Biogeographic approach to mapping the distribution of EIDs with using existing human cases data, remote sensing imagery and unconventional statistical models is effective to “get ahead of the curve” in the detection of regions at risk and the management of EIDs.2. EIDs are not unprecedented but predictable by identifying and managing the triggers of disease emergence, which have a direct link with the anthropization of the environment.
... Studies have shown that populations at low latitudes are less able to adapt to cold than those at high latitudes (McMichael et al. 2006), and therefore, the risk of OHCA caused by cold spells may be greater at lower latitudes. Shenzhen is located in a subtropical region and cold spells may still occur during the cold season. ...
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Cold spells have been associated with specific diseases. However, there is insufficient scientific evidence on the effects of cold spells on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Data on OHCA cases and on meteorological factors and air pollutants were collected between 2013 and 2020. We adopted a quasi-Poisson generalized additive model with a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to estimate the effect of cold spells on daily OHCA incidence. Backward attributable risk within the DLNM framework was calculated to quantify the disease burden. We compared the effects and OHCA burden of cold spells using nine definitions. The risks of different cold spells on OHCA increased at higher intensities and longer durations. Based on Akaike’s information criterion for the quasi-Poisson regression model and the attributable risk, the optimal cold spell was defined as a period in the cold month when the daily mean temperature was below the 10th percentile of the temperature distribution in the study period for at least 2 days. The single-day effect of the optimal cold spell on OHCA occurred immediately and lasted for approximately 1 week. The maximum single-day effect was 1.052 (95% CI: 1.018–1.087) at lag0, while the maximum cumulative effect was 1.433 (95% CI:1.148–1.788) after a 14-day lag. Men were more susceptible to cold spells. Young and middle-aged people were affected by cold spells similar to the elderly. Cold spells can increase the risk of OHCA with an approximately 1-week lag effect. Health regulators should take more targeted measures to protect susceptible populations during cold weather.
... However, an urgent plan for GHGs mitigation in the AgS is needed to minimize CO 2 and N 2 O emissions. -Teixeira et al., 2012, Arora et al., 2018, Bachev, 2008, Bǎ lan and Vasile, 2013, Bengraï ne and Marhaba, 2003, Brown et al., 1975, Cuce and Riffat, 2015, Demirbaş , 2003, Eder et al., 2019, European Climate Foundation, 2010a, Ganzenmü ller et al., 2019, Haszpra, 2011, Hijazi et al., 2016, Houweling et al., 2014, Hubacek et al., 2017, Ipek Tunç et al., 2007, Já mbor et al., 2016, Jámbor et al., 2016a, Kai et al., 2011, Kerdan et al., 2019, Kirschke et al., 2013, Leal Filho et al., 2018, Liu and Greaver, 2009, Liu et al., 2019, Mann, 1945, McMichael, 2014, McMichael et al., 2006, Molná r, 1997, Nisbet et al., 2014, Ou et al., 2010, Ozturk and Acaravci, 2013, Phylipsen et al., 1998, Roy Chowdhury and Moran, 2012, Schaefer et al., 2016, Shahbaz et al., 2013, Solorio, 2011, Srinivas and Sundarapandian, 2019, Szabo et al., 2016, Toló n-Becerra et al., 2010, United Nations, 2015, IPCC, 2007. ...
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In Hungary, successive steps have been taken toward adjusting GHG emissions from all sectors on a national scale. However, few studies were carried out to analyze the environmental dimensions of GHG emissions from an economic point of view. In this research, the contemporary changes of GHG emissions between 1985 and 2018 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test (M-K test); along with the interaction between GHG emissions and economic growth by applying the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Results showed that the industrial sector has been the main source of CO2-emitting, and contributed 72% of the total emissions. Meanwhile, the biggest CH4-emitting sector was the waste sector (44%), followed by the agricultural sector (39%). Nonetheless, the agricultural sector was responsible for more than 65% of N2O emissions over Hungary. The M-K test results showed that total CO2 emissions were reduced significantly (p < 0.05) by −1001 thousand tonnes/year. Similarly, the total N2O emissions were subject to a significant decrease (p < 0.05) of −0.31 thousand tonnes/year. Interestingly, the long-run positive significant coefficient on income growth (GDP), and negative significance on (GDP)² indicate EKC's existence for CO2 emission, CH4, and N2O in Hungary, revealing that GHG emissions will increase at a decreasing rate with economic growth in Hungary. The output of this research is useful for decision-makers to consider the environmental dimensions of GHG emissions and set priorities for minimizing emissions by sectors.
... They are among significant constituents contributing to regional and global climate change (Ramanathan et al. 2001;IPCC 2013), though in climate change modelling and assessments, aerosols have been described as the most significant source of uncertainty. Aerosols have a damaging effect on human health, the environment, air quality, and visibility reductions which lead to unfavorable conditions, especially for transportation (Gauderman et al. 2002;Liao et al. 2015;McMichael et al. 2006;Yu et al. 2016). ...
... The quality of human health is leveraged by the quality of the environment (Nowak et al., 2014). Mcmichael et al. (2006) revealed that drastic environmental changes could reduce the quality of human health through climate change. Water, Journal of Sustainability Science and Management Volume 17 Number 2, February 2022: [187][188][189][190][191][192][193][194][195][196][197][198][199][200][201][202][203][204] air, land, forests, and access to green space are basic human needs (Pretty et al., 2005). ...
... Xu et al. [10] forecast that areas inhabited by one-third of the human population could become the hottest parts of the world in 50 years unless greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are reduced. Climate change and global warming will lead to the permanent loss of critical resources, droughts and floods, imbalances in ecosystems, extinction of species, and threats to human life [11]. ...
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The objective of this paper was to gain novel insights into the complex relationships among Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in shaping productivity (GDP/capita) growth. Using dynamic panel regressions on data collected in 138 countries between 2000 and 2017, we found that rising temperatures negatively affect growth and mitigate the impact of other SDGs on growth. We also found that CO2 emissions have a U-shaped relationship with growth; life expectancy negatively influences growth (positively moderated by rising temperatures), and food security positively impacts growth (negatively moderated by rising temperatures). This study highlights the difficulty of simultaneously implementing SDGs and elucidates novel research perspectives and policies to decrease the negative impacts of climate change on socio-economic and environmental well-being.
... A change in air quality is predicted to exacerbate respiratory and allergic diseases in many regions (Haque & Singh, 2017). Smoke inhalation and high temperatures cause respiratory problems in millions of Indians (McMichael et al., 2006;Nomani & Parveen, 2020). Dengue is a severe vector-borne infectious disease, particularly in Kolkata and its surrounding districts (Bal & Sodoudi, 2020). ...
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In the twenty-first century, land use changes, massive expansion of urbanization, population growth, economic crisis, environmental issues are the main challenges of developing countries. Climate change and its effects on human health are the major concerns for the different age groups of the population. The study delved into the causes associated with climate change and climate change-related myriad health impacts on the study population. This study has used a concurrent mixed-method research design. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected from the study area. Perception and knowledge about climate change and its consequences on health was based on a quantitative approach of Bi-variate analysis and Chi-Square test and Fisher’s exact test; this study also used qualitative data analysis. Study results show that most respondents pointed out that temperature increases throughout the year and 90% of the respondents reported that rainfall pattern has also changed. Similarly, 65% of respondents agreed in their statements in favour of increased natural calamities in this region. The study findings show that more than 40% of population faces dengue fever and 10% of people also suffer from malaria. More than 60% of the urban population suffered from asthma. Similarly, more than 70% of the population also got affected by cold and cough due to weather variability. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and In-depth interviews of the participants also affirmed the fact that climate variability induced diseases and health problems in Kolkata Metropolitan areas. Urban residents perceived that excessive urbanization contributes to the changes in regional climate and human health. The study will encourage the policy-makers and local government to mitigate adverse health effects driven by climate change in the Kolkata Metropolitan Region.
... Nombre de publications projettent, en lien avec le changement climatique, une augmentation du risque de transmission des maladies vectorielles, notamment dans les régions du globe jusqu'ici épargnées (Fischer et al., 2013;Githeko, Lindsay, Confalonieri, & Patz, 2000;E. A. Gould & Higgs, 2009;Hales, de Wet, Maindonald, & Woodward, 2002;McMichael, Woodruff, & Hales, 2006;Semenza & Suk, 2018). Toutefois, plusieurs études soulignent également l'incertitude de ces prévisions du fait de la complexité des interactions entre les agents pathogènes, leurs hôte(s), leurs vecteur(s) et l'environnement (P. ...
Thesis
Le virus du chikungunya (CHIKV) est un arbovirus émergeant qui, au cours des dernières décennies, s’est largement propagé à l’échelle mondiale. Le virus est transmis par les moustiques du genre Aedes, notamment Aedes albopictus qui est aujourd’hui présent dans une soixantaine de départements en France. Vecteurs de plusieurs agents pathogènes, Ae. albopictus représente une réelle menace de santé publique. L’émergence d’arboviroses est généralement liée à la convergence d’un ensemble de facteurs intrinsèques et extrinsèques affectant le vecteur, l’agent pathogène et l’hôte. Le moustique étant un organisme ectotherme, dont la température interne varie avec celle de l’environnement, il est très sensible aux variations de température du milieu ambiant. La relation entre la température et la transmission des arbovirus reste encore mal comprise, en particulier sur le plan moléculaire. L’objectif général de ce projet est de comprendre comment la température affecte les interactions virus-moustique et influence les cycles de transmission. Pour cela, nous étudions les aspects moléculaires du CHIKV, de son vecteur Ae. albopictus et de leurs interactions sous l’influence de la température. Nos résultats démontrent que la température affecte d’une part l’évolution du CHIKV et d’autre part, l’expression génétique et la composition microbienne du moustique, notamment en réponse à l’infection. Ces données apportent des informations importantes sur la manière dont les systèmes vectoriels peuvent être affectés par la température. La compréhension des mécanismes sous-jacents les interactions virus-moustique avec l’environnement sont essentielles afin de prévenir les épidémies.
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Australia has a history of mosquito-borne disease, with historic accounts of endemic malaria, filariasis and dengue during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Bancroftian filariasis, once relatively prevalent in Queensland, has been eliminated and malaria was declared eradicated from Australia in 1981. However, the endemic flaviruses Murray Valley encephalitis and Kunjin and the alphaviruses Ross River and Barmah Forest, which cause encephalitic and polyarthritic syndromes, respectively, continue to be active. Dengue, although no longer considered endemic, is an ongoing issue for Queensland and exotics such as Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, West Nile and Rift Valley Fever viruses provide some cause for concern with respect to their possible introduction. Further, climate change has been proposed as likely to bring increased distribution and abundance of vectors and diseases, although regional, rural and residential development may be as much or more important. The various pathogens and the diseases they cause have to be viewed in their particular ecological contexts for a proper understanding of what the future might hold and how we will need to deal with the potential public health issues.
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Risks brought by climate change are inevitable obstacles to global development. Clarifying the features of climate change risks helps us to further understand and cope with climate change. There lacks a systematic review of climate change risks in terms of feature extraction and classification. The bibliometric analysis can be used to analyze and extract climate change risk features. The literature in the field of climate change was searched in the Web of Science database. Coauthors, citations, bibliographic coupling, co-citations, and keyword co-occurrence were analyzed. From five dimensions including nature, politics, economy, society, and culture, the risk features of climate change were extracted and summarized. Through text mining and cluster analysis, the climate change risk feature system was established, which is embodied in five different aspects: ecosystem and sustainability; uncertainty, vulnerability, and efficiency; behavior and decision-making; governance and management; and adaptation and mitigation. The feature system reflects that the current climate change risk presents strong variability and that the risk boundary is gradually blurred. The areas affected by risk are expanding and deepening. The strategies and governance for addressing risks are gradually diversified. This research contributes to the domain of climate change risk identification and assessment. The features of climate change indicate that we need to adjust policymaking and managerial practices for climate change in the future. Interdisciplinary cooperation, human cognition and preferences, public participation in global governance, and other unnatural factors related to climate change should be strengthened with a more positive attitude.
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The aim of the article was to explore pet welfare in Municipal Adaptation Plans (MAPs), based on a literature review and case studies of 40 MAPs accepted in Poland as part of the “Let’s Feel the Climate” project, supported by the Polish Ministry of Environment in 2017–2019. The study summarizes the concept of climate change and the importance of adaptation measures with particular emphasis on urban heat islands and heat stress, acknowledged by climate change literature, and outlines pet welfare in the context of thermal comfort and threats caused by heat stress. Because the authors subsequently presented an empirical study of the 40 accepted MAPs, they also discussed the role and legal nature of MAPs. The main hypothesis of this survey of Polish MAPs was that pet welfare in the context of their thermal comfort is an example of the adaptive measures clearly stipulated in Polish MAPs, which was examined after presenting the MAPs’ findings. The starting point was the assumption that the welfare of pets should also be assessed from the perspective of their thermal comfort – a new element of broadly understood animal welfare. This is due to the fact that pets are exposed to the risk of heat stress resulting from urban heat islands and, just like people, have to endure the inconvenience of extreme weather phenomena, which is impossible without the support of amenities such as drinkers or water shelters and the development of green and blue infrastructure.
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In recent years environmental problems have become the focus of public attention in the world. The growth of the industry triggered by population growth is the main cause of the emergence of environmental problems. This research was conducted to determine the impact of Gross Domestic Regional Product growth, population growth on environmental quality. This study involved 33 provinces in Indonesia as a unit of analysis. Secondary data was collected from the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics. Data analysis was performed using panel least square with software Warp-PLS version 6.0. Previous research deployed CO2 Emission and pollution as an indicator of environmental performance, this research used a score of environmental quality index which covers water quality index, index of air quality and index of forest cover. Findings showed Gross Domestic Product and population have a negative effect on environmental quality. This research indicates government need to that encourages the household and industrial sectors to use environmentally friendly energy, limits and controls the conversion of forests and agricultural land into land for settlement, agriculture, and industry, and encourages the household and industrial sectors to provide waterways and ensure that liquid waste discharged into rivers, lakes or waterways does not harm the environment. Keywords : Gross Domestic Regional Product, Population, Environmental Quality
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We have analyzed effects of compound events on heat-related health risks by vulnerable groups in Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea from 2012 to 2020. A multivariate analysis was conducted for heat-related health impacts by combination of meteorological factors. We have found that heat-related health risks have increased by compound events effects by humidity and solar radiation. Heat-related patients occurred more frequently in higher humidity or intense solar radiation conditions than in usual conditions. All-cause mortalities were higher with high vapor pressure (6.4%, 95% CI: 4.5–8.4%) and large amount of solar radiation (7.5%, 95% CI: 5.2–9.7%) conditions. Infectious and metabolic mortalities have increased about 10% in higher humidity or intense solar radiation conditions. The effects of compound events were different by vulnerable groups. Female’s metabolic mortalities were higher (24.3%, 95% CI: 11.2–37.5%) with solar radiation. The circulatory mortalities of outdoor workers (10.1%, 95% CI: -5.6–25.7%), daytime occurrence (12.5%, 95% CI: 7.6–17.4%), and lower education (13.9%, 95% CI: 7.6–20.1%) has also increased by solar radiation. Mortality of infectious diseases has increased in elderlies (23.5%, 95% CI: 10.3–36.7%) by duration of sunshine. It shows heat waves warnings and policies should consider other meteorological factors other than temperature.
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Objective Weather extremes are increasing with climate change and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Promotion of social connections is an emerging area of research and practice for risk reduction during weather extremes. This study examines the practice of checking on neighbors during extreme summer heat and extreme winter weather. Objectives are to (1) describe the extent of neighbor checking during these extremes, and (2) examine factors associated with neighbor checking. Methods We analyze survey data (n = 442) from a primarily low- and moderate- income study sample in a Southeastern U.S. city, using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results About 17.6% of participants checked on neighbors during extreme summer heat, and 25.2% did so during extreme winter weather. Being middle or older aged and having more adverse physical health impacts were positively associated with neighbor checking, for both extremes. For winter only, having less education was positively associated with neighbor checking. Conclusions Community-based partnerships for reducing risk during weather extremes may consider people who are older or have experienced their own adverse health impacts as initial target groups for promoting neighbor checking. Future research should also examine the motivations for, details about, and impacts of neighbor checking in greater depth.
Thesis
Le moustique tigre Aedes albopictus représente un enjeu majeur de santé publique de par sa capacité à transmettre divers pathogènes, associée à son caractère expansionniste. Outre sa forte plasticité écologique, son pouvoir invasif a été largement favorisé par les changements globaux. Ces dernières années, l’essor des recherches sur le microbiote a permis de démontrer son rôle dans des fonctions clés de la biologie des moustiques. L’amélioration des connaissances sur les liens qui unissent le moustique à son microbiote offre ainsi de nouvelles pistes dans la compréhension du fonctionnement de l’holobionte moustique. C’est dans ce contexte que se sont inscrits mes travaux de thèse qui visaient à évaluer la réponse du microbiote face à des perturbations abiotiques ainsi que son rôle dans le métabolisme du fructose, un constituant majeur de l’alimentation des moustiques. Les résultats ont permis de montrer des impacts différentiels des antibiotiques et de la diminution de température sur la composition et la structure du microbiote bactérien et d’identifier plusieurs genres bactériens et fongiques capables de métaboliser le fructose, parallèlement à la caractérisation des voies métaboliques actives. Ces données ouvrent de nouvelles perspectives de recherche ciblées sur l’impact des perturbations anthropiques sur le microbiote fonctionnel du moustique et ses conséquences à la fois sur la transmission des pathogènes et les interactions trophiques au sein de l’holobionte moustique
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Heat stress is detrimental to food-producing animals and animal productivity remains suboptimal despite the use of heat abatement strategies during summer. Global warming and the increase of frequency and intensity of heatwaves are likely to continue and, thus, exacerbate the problem of heat stress. Heat stress leads to the impairment of physiological and cellular functions of ectothermic and endothermic animals. Therefore, it is critical to conceive ways of protecting animals against the pathological effects of heat stress. In experiments with endothermic animals highly sensitive to heat (Bos taurus), we have previously reported that heat-induced systemic inflammation can be ameliorated in part by nutritional interventions. The experiments conducted in this report described molecular and physiological adaptations to heat stress using Drosophila melanogaster and dairy cow models. In this report, we expand previous work by first demonstrating that the addition of a postbiotic from Aspergillus oryzae (AO) into the culture medium of ectothermic animals (Drosophila melanogaster) improved survival to heat stress from 30 to 58%. This response was associated with downregulation of genes involved in the modulation of oxidative stress and immunity, most notably metallothionein B, C, and D. In line with these results, we subsequently showed that the supplementation with the AO postbiotic to lactating dairy cows experiencing heat stress decreased plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and the expression of interleukin-6 in white blood cells. These alterations were paralleled by increased synthesis of energy-corrected milk and milk components, suggesting enhanced nutrient partitioning to lactogenesis and increased metabolic efficiency. In summary, this work provides evidence that a postbiotic from AO enhances thermal tolerance likely through a mechanism that entails reduced inflammation.
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Synoptic temperature variability gives rise to cold waves and extreme cold events in winter. Based on four reanalysis datasets, this study investigates the decadal trend of synoptic temperature variability in boreal winter during the period from 1980 to 2019, with particular focus on the sharp drops in synoptic-scale temperature, which are associated with cold waves. The result shows that the synoptic-scale standard deviation of temperature decreases significantly with a trend of − 0.15K/decade (− 0.09 to − 0.21 K/decade among reanalysis datasets) over continental regions in mid to high latitudes. Correspondingly, the rapid cooling events (RCEs), defined based on the day-to-day temperature decrease exceeding 6 K, also shows a general decreasing trend in terms of its frequency and intensity, and the strongest decreasing trend occurs over the eastern North America (ENA) and western Eurasia (WE). The weakening of the RCEs is closely connected to the decreased trend of eddy kinetic energy (EKE), suggesting that the weakened transient eddy activities may have mitigated the synoptic-scale temperature variability and the associated RCEs over mid to high latitudes. This study highlights that the decreased synoptic temperature variability leads to fewer and weaker RCEs at synoptic scale over mid to high latitudes in winter, in addition to the warming trend of mean state.
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There is near unanimous scientific consensus that greenhouse gas emissions generated by human activity will change Earth's climate. The recent (globally averaged) warming by 0.5 degrees C is partly attributable to such anthropogenic emissions. Climate change will affect human health in many ways-mostly adversely. Here, we summarise the epidemiological evidence of how climate variations and trends affect various health outcomes. We assess the little evidence there is that recent global warming has already affected some health outcomes. We review the published estimates of future health effects of climate change over coming decades. Research so far has mostly focused on thermal stress, extreme weather events, and infectious diseases, with some attention to estimates of future regional food yields and hunger prevalence. An emerging broader approach addresses a wider spectrum of health risks due to the social, demographic, and economic disruptions of climate change. Evidence and anticipation of adverse health effects will strengthen the case for pre-emptive policies, and will also guide priorities for planned adaptive strategies.