Article

Jojoba oil as an organic, shelf stable standard oil-phase base for cosmetic industry

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Abstract

Jojoba is one of the finest cosmetic ingredients In the world. It is excellent oxidative stability properties rank it as one of the top cosmetic materials, in use today. It is a complex mixture of naturally occurring long chained linear esters with many functional cosmetic properties that are far superior to tri-glycerides. Because of Its stability towards rancidity it serves as a standard oil-phase base for the cosmetic industry. Jojoba oil has got the first priority in the preparation of personal care hygiene products. Today jojoba oil is an important ingredient of many cosmetic and hair care products. Jojoba oil is relatively shelf-stable when compared with other vegetable oils. Adding some jojoba oil to skin creams can help skin tone. Substantial quantity of good quality oil can be obtained from jojoba seeds for preparation of cosmetic base. Extraction of oil from Jojoba seeds Is also easy and it does not require any type of high cost sophisticated machinery. Jojoba seeds retain low moisture content. This gives an indication that good quality of oil with superior shelf life can be obtained from it. Superior shelf life of cosmetic base oil Is essential to store the cosmetics over a longer period. Due to its chemical closeness to human sebum it can support the natural balance of the skin by forming a nongreasy film that holds moisture In while controlling the flow of sebum. It won't clog the pores and its regulating action is frequently helpful with acne. Jojoba provides excellent spread ability and lubricity. Hypoallergenic and pure, Jojoba oil is perfect for any skin type especially those with large molecular structure. Since it blends well with the natural sebum of skin, jojoba oil may be effective in curbing over production of sebum - a condition that occurs in oily skins that are prone to acne. So it balances sebum level In skin.

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... The unsaponifiable matter of oil was 0.75 ± 0.01 per cent and which was similar to the values obtained by Bachheti et al (2012) [6] . The acid value of oil is an indicator of hydrolytic rancidity (Sandha and Swami, 2009) [25] and the apricot oil found to have low acid value i.e. 2.55 mgKOH/g whereas the peroxide value indicates the measure of oxidative rancidity (Sandha and Swami, 2009) [25] and the recorded value for oil was 5.21 ± 0.20 meq/Kg. The values obtained for the viscosity, residue matter and moisture content were 40.70 ± 0.30 cps, 99.20 ± 0.20 per cent and 0.79 ± 0.20 per cent respectively. ...
... The unsaponifiable matter of oil was 0.75 ± 0.01 per cent and which was similar to the values obtained by Bachheti et al (2012) [6] . The acid value of oil is an indicator of hydrolytic rancidity (Sandha and Swami, 2009) [25] and the apricot oil found to have low acid value i.e. 2.55 mgKOH/g whereas the peroxide value indicates the measure of oxidative rancidity (Sandha and Swami, 2009) [25] and the recorded value for oil was 5.21 ± 0.20 meq/Kg. The values obtained for the viscosity, residue matter and moisture content were 40.70 ± 0.30 cps, 99.20 ± 0.20 per cent and 0.79 ± 0.20 per cent respectively. ...
... The unsaponifiable matter of oil was 0.75 ± 0.01 per cent and which was similar to the values obtained by Bachheti et al (2012) [6] . The acid value of oil is an indicator of hydrolytic rancidity (Sandha and Swami, 2009) [25] and the apricot oil found to have low acid value i.e. 2.55 mgKOH/g whereas the peroxide value indicates the measure of oxidative rancidity (Sandha and Swami, 2009) [25] and the recorded value for oil was 5.21 ± 0.20 meq/Kg. The values obtained for the viscosity, residue matter and moisture content were 40.70 ± 0.30 cps, 99.20 ± 0.20 per cent and 0.79 ± 0.20 per cent respectively. ...
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Apricot oil extracted from wild apricot kernels with low acid value, rich in vitamin E and fatty acid was selected as the base material for the optimization of formulations of apricot based massage cream. The massage cream was developed by different concentration of oil and was compared with the commercially available apricot cream, on the basis of quality characteristics, functional properties, sensory and any adverse effects on skin. The massage cream containing 10 to 15 per cent of oil as a base material was found better on the basis of quality characteristics i.e. viscosity (28001 & 37350 cps), total fatty matter (13.90 &15.01 per cent), vitamin E (32.195 & 35.145mg/100g) and sensory qualities i.e. good spread ability and medium emollient and functional properties i.e. thermal stability and oil-in-water emulsion as per the BIS standards. Thus, on the basis of present studies, the formulation of 10-15% vitamin E rich wild apricot kernel oil can be utilized for the development of massage cream. Keywords: Wild apricots, kernel oil, massage cream, vitamin E, functional properties
... It solidifies at a temperature below 8° C, may be heated up to 300° C. It is resistant to oxidation. It consists of squalene, vitamins (A, E, F), saturated and unsaturated alcohols, fatty acids and their esters, phytosterols [6][7][8][9]. ...
... The market analysis of the dry skin creams showed that despite many cosmetic advantages of jojoba oil presented in the literature [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] this raw material is not a popular component of the emulsion formulations. In addition, it was also found that despite many descriptions of cosmetic benefits of jojoba oil [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16], there are no data on the impact of this vegetable fat on physicochemical and functional properties of the cosmetic emulsions. ...
... The market analysis of the dry skin creams showed that despite many cosmetic advantages of jojoba oil presented in the literature [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16] this raw material is not a popular component of the emulsion formulations. In addition, it was also found that despite many descriptions of cosmetic benefits of jojoba oil [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16], there are no data on the impact of this vegetable fat on physicochemical and functional properties of the cosmetic emulsions. ...
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Introduction. Jojoba oil is now a valued component of the cosmetics produced in form of emulsion. That liquid wax has a composition similar to human sebum. Due to the rich content of active ingredients it displays moisturizing, re-fatting, regenerating, bacteriostatic action and the effect of soothing the skin inflammation. Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of concentration of jojoba oil on the selected physico-chemical properties of rich creams for dry skin. Materials and methods. The research material consisted in emulsions designed on the basis of the literature and own experience. The impact of jojoba oil concentration on: stability (thermal and load test), viscosity test (rotational viscometer, DV-I+ Brookfield) and moisturizing properties (CM 825 Corneometer, Courage Khazaka) on the original creams was discussed. A sensory evaluation of tested emulsions was also conducted (methodology invented). The point of reference in the evaluation was to compare the results of the research with those obtained of high-quality commercial product. Results. Jojoba oil in the proposed concentrations (c=1,5-7,5% wt.) does not result in a loss of stability of the emulsion produced. The function of the increasing concentration of the additive the viscosity of the cosmetics and their moisturizing effect also increases. Original creams exhibit favorable sensory parameters, especially in the case of participation of the jojoba oil at the level of 6.0 % and 7.5%. Conclusions. There is a close relationship between the concentration of jojoba oil and the final physicochemical and functional properties of greasy creams for dry skin. The introduction of this wax to the cream recipe has a beneficial effect on the characteristics of the designed cosmetics. The results of the work may give rise to practical applications in formulating the composition of cosmetic products in the form of an emulsion. Wprowadzenie. Olej jojoba jest obecnie cenionym składnikiem kosmetyków wytwarzanych w formie emulsji. Ten ciekły wosk charakteryzuje się składem zbliżonym do ludzkiego sebum. Ze względu na bogatą zawartość składników aktywnych wykazuje działanie: nawilżające, natłuszczające, regenerujące, bakteriostatyczne i łagodzące stany zapalne skóry. Cel. Celem pracy była ocena wpływu stężenia oleju jojoba na wybrane właściwości użytkowe i fizykochemiczne kremów tłustych przeznaczonych do cery suchej. Materiał i metody. Materiał badawczy stanowiły emulsje zaprojektowane w oparciu o dane literaturowe i doświadczenia własne. Dyskutowano wpływ stężenia oleju jojoba na: stabilność (test termiczny i obciążeniowy), lepkość (wiskozymetr rotacyjny Brookfield DV-I+) i właściwości nawilżające (Corneometer CM 825 Courage Khazaka) oryginalnych kremów. Przeprowadzono także ocenę sensoryczną (metodyka własna) badanych emulsji. Punktem odniesienia w ocenie było porównanie rezultatów badań z otrzymanymi dla wysokiej jakości produktu handlowego. Wyniki. Olej jojoba w proponowanych stężeniach (c=1,5-7,5 %wt.) nie powoduje utraty stabilności wytworzonych emulsji. W funkcji rosnącego stężenia dodatku wzrasta także lepkość otrzymanych kosmetyków i ich działanie nawilżające. Oryginalne kremy wykazują korzystne parametry sensoryczne, szczególnie w przypadku udziału oleju jojoba na poziomie 6,0 i 7,5% wag. Wnioski. Istnieje ścisły związek między stężeniem oleju jojoba a finalnymi właściwościami fizykochemicznymi i użytkowymi tłustych kremów przeznaczonych do cery suchej. Wprowadzenie tego wosku do receptury kremu wpływa korzystnie na charakterystyki zaprojektowanych kosmetyków. Wyniki pracy mogą stanowić podstawę do praktycznych zastosowań przy komponowaniu składu kosmetyków w formie emulsji. Słowa kluczowe: olej jojoba, kremy do suchej skóry, jakość
... Jojoba liquid-wax ester is light yellow, odourless and unique in plant kingdom [1,2]. Jojoba oil is extensively used in the cosmetic industry due to excellent oxidative stability properties [3]. It is also used in pharmaceutical, Plastic and lubricant industries. ...
... The maximum response of 58% germination rate was found at a concentration 0.1 mg . L -1 GA 3 . At this concentration, the mean root and shoot length observed were 3.8 cm and 3.3 cm, respectively. ...
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Cellulose having linkages like β1,4linked homopolymer of glucose is major and primary portion in plant cell wall. Detection of released monosaccharides after enzyme treatment with suitable required cell ambience can unleash the detailed mechanism of optimum activity of cellulase and macerating enzyme. Efficiency of enzyme effect can be studied on sample plant particles. Cellulases and macerating enzyme hydrolyse cellulose into monosaccharides like glucose, dextrose and fructose. Cellulase activity may be affect by presence of catechin, thus catechin effect can be either inhibiting or facilitating the reaction. The detailed mechanism is discussed in the article.
... The Saponification number is the number of milligrams of Potassium hydroxide required to convert one gram of the fat completely into soap and glycerin. It gives information concerning the character of the fatty acids of the fat 29 . Higher Saponification value indicates high proportion of lower fatty acids since Saponification value is inversely proportional to the average molecular weight or chain length of the fatty acids 28 , which was found to be 180.92 and 194.94 for Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum basillicum respectively. ...
... The method measures the reaction of Iodine with double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Greater the numbers of double bonds more are the sites for oxidation 29,30 . Iodine value of Ocimum sanctum and Ocimum basillicum was found to be 7.74 and 8.50 respectively which suggest that the degree of unsaturation of Ocimum sanctum is less than Ocimum basillicum. ...
... Iodine value can be determined experimentally by the dissolution of biodiesel in cyclohexane and Wijs solution. The iodine value is found by titration with sodium tiosulphate (Na 2 S 2 O 3 ) solution (Sandha & Swami, 2009). ...
Chapter
Thermal stability of biodiesel is an important quality factor and it must be precisely evaluated. Despite the existence of conventional methods, fast, accurate, and robust analytical procedures are needed and still being developed. In this study, soybean and canola biodiesels underwent degradation by heating the samples and a systematic dependence on the concentration of endogenous chromophores (conjugated dienes, trienes, and tetraenes) and fluorophores (conjugated tetraenes) was optically monitored. UV–Vis absorption and fluorescence spectra of biodiesel allowed to identify the molecules formed in the initial thermal degradation stage. Absorbance and fluorescence intensities systematically changed at thermal treatment over 100 °C. Therefore, monitoring of the degradation compounds allows to evaluate the biodiesel degradation and the evolution of the degradation compounds content. The results indicate that analytical methods based on UV–Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy may be able to monitor the biodiesel degradation, providing basis for the development of simple, portable, and low-cost devices.
... It has wax-like unsaturated esters, consisting of a straight chain of fatty acids and higher alcohols [4,[6][7][8]. The jojoba oil has been reported previously as having potential capabilities for the cosmetics and skincare industry [9]. This industry seems to be the major marketplace for jojoba oil, with around two thousand tonnes being used annually, which is more than three-quarters of the total market portion [10]. ...
Article
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Jojoba is considered a promising oil crop and is cultivated for diverse purposes in many countries. The jojoba seed produces unique high-quality oil with a wide range of applications such as medical and industrial-related products. The plant also has potential value in combatting desertification and land degradation in dry and semi-dry areas. Although the plant is known for its high-temperature and high-salinity tolerance growth ability, issues such as its male-biased ratio, relatively late flowering and seed production time hamper the cultivation of this plant. The development of efficient biotechnological platforms for better cultivation and an improved production cycle is a necessity for farmers cultivating the plant. In the last 20 years, many efforts have been made for in vitro cultivation of jojoba by applying different molecular biology techniques. However, there is a lot of work to be done in order to reach satisfactory results that help to overcome cultivation problems. This review presents a historical overview, the medical and industrial importance of the jojoba plant, agronomy aspects and nutrient requirements for the plant’s cultivation, and the role of recent biotechnology and molecular biology findings in jojoba research.
... It is used in cosmetics and pharmaceutics, due to its unique features, which are close to those of sebum -the natural human skin oil . Jojoba oil is known for its high stability and long shelf-life (Sandha and Swami, 2009). It is used as a lubricant (Nassar et al., 2015), an ingredient of livestock feed (Labib and HA, 2012;Reddy and Chikara, 2010), medicines (Habashy et al., 2005) and toiletries (Oliphant et al., 2011), and as an innovative source for biodiesel (Canoira et al., 2006). ...
Article
Commercial pruning practice in jojoba plantations is traditionally dictated by maintenance requirements only. It enables machine movement between the plants and efficient harvest but is not designed to maximize long-term productivity. In this study, mechanical and manual pruning approaches were tested in two cultivars in a mature jojoba plantation, in comparison to the common practice. These new approaches were designed to enable better solar radiation penetration into the canopy, aiming to improve growth and productivity. As jojoba is an alternate bearing crop, the vegetative and reproductive performances were observed along four years, by remote sensing and manual measurements. The pruning strategy had a significant effect on growth, with distinction between the two tested cultivars. Top-pruning methods were found to best encourage new branching and yield, while side-pruning practices were less effective. Several treatments, including hedge pruning, attenuated or eliminated the alternation cycle. We conclude that using the proposed pruning practices would be beneficial in jojoba cultivation, and that the specific method should be suited to the cultivar characteristics.
... Comme l'huile végétale de fenouil est considérée comme une source riche en acides gras insaturés, il est crucial alors de déterminer l'indice de peroxyde de nos échantillons après son addition aux formulations. La formulation A (sans huile ajoutée) a été utilisée comme contrôle dans les calculs.Les indices de peroxyde obtenues dans le tableau 23 sont relativement inférieures aux limites maximales, révélant une formulation hautement stable contre l'oxydation[318]. La valeur de peroxyde de la formulation C est significativement inférieure à celle de la formulation B, cette diminution de la valeur du peroxyde était attendue comme l'huile essentielle de fenouil est riche en antioxydants qui peuvent réagir avec des radicaux et ainsi prévenir la formation des peroxydes[319].3.1.3. ...
Thesis
La croissance démographique, la consommation incontrôlée des ressources naturelles ainsi que l’activité industrielle jouent un rôle déterminant dans la dégradation de l'environnement mondial. A ce sujet et en se basant sur le concept que les consommateurs partagent la responsabilité de la pollution et de l'épuisement des ressources et leur coût, la mise en oeuvre des ressources renouvelables dans les processus industriels apparait comme une clé décisive. La renouvelabilité, la recyclabilité, la durabilité, la biodégradabilité sont les concepts de base sur lesquels nous pouvons compter pour protéger la nature et l’environnement. Dans ce contexte, une nouvelle approche de la bioraffinage a été développée dans cette thèse, elle a été appliquée à cinq espèces appartenant à 3 familles différentes (Foeniculum vulagre, Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi (Apiaceae), Salvia hispania (Lamiaceae) et Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranthaceae)). Ces espèces partagent une caractéristique commune, elles peuvent être définies comme Aroma Tincto Oleo Crops (ATOC) puisqu’elles sont une source d'huile végétale et d'huile essentielle (ou de colorant). Notre objectif est donc de déterminer la faisabilité biologique et technologique de l'application du concept ATOC-bioraffinage basé sur le développement, l'optimisation et la production de nouveaux produits biologiques, des nouvelles molécules biosourcées et d'autres technologies innovantes. Notre étude met l'accent sur l'évaluation de divers paramètres influençant le rendement et la qualité de l’huile dans les graines d'ATOC, y compris leurs origines géographiques et le procédé d'extraction, et leur impact sur l'activité biologique des extraits de résidus. La valorisation des huiles pour des applications dans l’industrie cosmétique a été realisée en les utilisant comme (i) additifs dans des formulations de crème hydratante. De plus, l’utilité du tourteau d'extraction comme (ii) substrat pour la fabrication d'agromatériaux par thermopressage et comme (iii) un ingrédient dans des formulations de pain de blé entier a été examinée.
... Several studies have noted the unique characteristics of jojoba oil that makes it particularly useful in cosmetics, lubrication, and the biofuel industry [7][8][9]. The texture and durability of jojoba oil makes it preferable for skincare, pharmaceuticals, as a substitute for synthetic polymers, and as a natural raw material for biofuel production [10]. It also has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial [11], antifungal [12], and antioxidant [4] activities. ...
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: Jojoba is one of the main two known plant source of natural liquid wax ester for use in various applications, including cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuel. Due to the lack of transcriptomic and genomic data on lipid biosynthesis and accumulation, molecular marker breeding has been used to improve jojoba oil production and quality. In the current study, the transcriptome of developing jojoba seeds was investigated using the Illunina NovaSeq 6000 system, 100 × 106 paired end reads, an average length of 100 bp, and a sequence depth of 12 Gb per sample. A total of 176,106 unigenes were detected with an average contig length of 201 bp. Gene Ontology (GO) showed that the detected unigenes were distributed in the three GO groups biological processes (BP, 5.53%), cellular component (CC, 6.06%), and molecular functions (MF, 5.88%) and distributed in 67 functional groups. The lipid biosynthesis pathway was established based on the expression of lipid biosynthesis genes, fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis, FA desaturation, FA elongation, fatty alcohol biosynthesis, triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis, phospholipid metabolism, wax ester biosynthesis, and lipid transfer and storage genes. The detection of these categories of genes confirms the presence of an efficient lipid biosynthesis and accumulation system in developing jojoba seeds. The results of this study will significantly enhance the current understanding of wax ester biology in jojoba seeds and open new routes for the improvement of jojoba oil production and quality through biotechnology applications.
... Jojoba liquid-wax ester is light yellow, odourless and unique in plant kingdom [1,2]. Jojoba oil is extensively used in the cosmetic industry due to excellent oxidative stability properties [3]. It is also used in pharmaceutical, Plastic and lubricant industries. ...
Chapter
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Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider (Simmondsiaceae) is a evergreen shrub of desert and marginal land of India. It produces a unique liquid-wax which has commercial potential in pharmaceutical industry. It is difficult to propagate vegetatively as it is a seasonal procedure and grows slowly. Therefore, there is a need to improve the propagation method through seed germination and seedling behaviour. The present investigation was carried out to assess viability and in vitro germination tests of fresh and old seeds. It was found that light (16/8-h day/night photoperiod) conditions resulted in early and higher seed germination percentage as compared to total dark period under in vitro culture conditions. Improvement in germination percentage of one-year-old seeds was observed using Gibberellic acid (GA 3), Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Thidiazuron (TDZ) under given photoperiod conditions. Interestingly, TDZ 1.0 mg/L-1 were produced highest germination rate of seeds (92%), as well as better seedling growth, followed by BAP with 70% germination rate at 0.5 mg·L-1 concentration. The method of propagation through in vitro seed germination could be effectively employed for large scale production of plant material.
... Based on these findings, since the IN of the castor oil was lower than 100 iodine unit, the oil could be classified as a non-drying oil and is not suitable for paint industry but can be oriented the soap industry [51].For more illustration, It can be seen from the Table 3 that coconut and palm kernel oils are very saturated (7-19 iodine unit) which means that they aresuitable for soap industry. On the other hand, tung and linseed oilsare highly [52]. 3 From the present investigation. ...
Article
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Castor oil has a number of medicinal, industrial and pharmaceutical uses. The oil wasextracted from seeds of Ricinus communis L. by hot mechanical pressing and characterized physically and chemically. The physical and chemical properties of the oil were found to be similar to those literatured.The crude oil was chemically analyzed using GC/MS after methylation. Accordingly, the major constituents of the oil were detectedas methyl or methyl esters derivatives. The primary constituent is the ricinoleic acid, making up to 74.99%, followed by palmitic acid derivatives (10.95%), stearic acid derivatives (8.43%), linoleic acid (4.32%), and oleic acid (3.31%). The oil yield obtained (36.12 %) and its quality were very encouraging for candidating such species as a pivot of small-scale industrial projects.
... The high oil content, long shelf life, and low moisture content made it suitable for use in industry as cosmetic base. It has high saponification number which makes it useful for formulating soaps, shampoos, conditioners, moisturizers, shaving creams, etc. (Sandha and Swami 2009). Sesame oil (Sesamum indicum) is used as antioxidant, demulcent, and emollient and for curing pimples (Prasad et al. 2012). ...
Chapter
The cosmetic industry is a high-valued and evergreen multibillion dollar industry with more specialized and advanced products adding up every year. The major product categories in the cosmetic industry are skin care, hair care, perfumes, deodorants, toiletries, and make-up. Of these, skin care products top the list, accounting around 36 % of the global cosmetic market. Natural products, a treasure of medicinally active compounds are used for treating various skin ailments, infections, inflammation and as a protectant of UV irradiation and pollution. The hybrid of cosmetic and pharmaceutical compounds, known as cosmeceuticals, possesses therapeutic as well as beautification potential based on its key ingredients. Natural products are well regarded as a rich source of cosmeceuticals. Different classes of natural compounds originating from animal, plant, and marine algal sources are placed under the category of high-valued cosmetic ingredients. The extraction of fatty acid components from botanicals and other natural sources opens up a big market in the cosmetic industry. The present chapter introduces the recent advancement and strategies followed in the cosmeceutical industry, and the role of plant tissue culture in enhancing the production of pharmaceutically valued natural products along with the current regulatory policies.
... [16][17][18] Jojoba seed oil contains unique fatty alcohol esters that provide high oxidative stability. 19,20 Hazel seed, wheat germ, and soybean are antioxidant oils selected for their viscosity to enhance product aesthetic properties. [21][22][23][24] Tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, ascorbyl palmitate, and β-carotene provide antioxidant protection for the botanical oils. ...
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Introduction UV‐induced oxidative skin stress leads to cutaneous photoaging. The objective of these 2 studies was to evaluate a nature‐based botanical facial oil for the ability to decrease UV‐induced oxidative skin stress. Methods 22 females were enrolled in the UVA study, and 10 females were enrolled in the UVB study. Skin chemiluminescence induced by UVA exposure was measured at baseline and after 2 weeks of daily topical application of the nature‐based facial oil was evaluated in study 1. In study 2, UVB‐induced erythema was measured after 8 weeks of twice‐daily topical application of the nature‐based facial oil to a photoprotected site followed by skin biopsy to evaluate sunburn cell formation. In both studies, the treatment response was compared to the response on untreated skin. Results The nature‐based facial oil significantly reduced skin chemiluminescence following UVA exposure, demonstrating antioxidant activity. The nature‐based facial oil also significantly reduced erythema formation following UVB exposure and resulted in reduced sunburn cell formation in 66.67% of subjects. Conclusion Topical nature‐based facial oil can reduce UV‐induced oxidative cutaneous damage.
... Jojoba liquid-wax ester is light yellow, odourless and unique in plant kingdom (Bala et al., 2015). Jojoba oil is extensively used in the cosmetic industry due to excellent oxidative stability properties (Sandha and Swami, 2009). It is also used in pharmaceutical and lubricant industries (Mills et al., 2001). ...
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Jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] produces a unique liquid-wax which has commercial potential. The present investigation was carried out to assess viability and in vitro germination tests of fresh and one-year-old seeds, stored in darkness at room temperature conditions. Viability of seeds was determined using Tetrazolium (TZ) test. It was found that light (16/8 h day/night photoperiod) conditions resulted in early and higher seed germination percentage as compared to total dark period under in vitro culture conditions. Improvement in germination percentage of one-year-old seeds was observed using Gibberellic acid (GA 3), Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Thidiazuron (TDZ) under given photoperiod conditions. Interestingly, TDZ 1.0 mgL-1 concentration produced highest germination rate of seeds (92%), as well as better seedling growth, followed by BAP with 70% germination rate at 0.5 mgL-1 concentration.
... This decrease could be explained on the basis of the double bonds saturation of the fatty acids during the production of hydroperoxides and other intermediate compounds. Iodine value represents true unsaturation of fats only when double bonds are unconjugated and addition is not interfered by other groups (Sandha and Swami, 2009). The results also indicate that time of frying had a significant effect on the iodine value of all samples which may due to the destruction of double bonds by oxidation and polymerization (Abdulkarim et al., 2007). ...
Article
Having a healthy and flake free scalp is a great part of hair health. Dandruff can be a very common aliment to reduce our scalp health. If ones want to take care of his/her hair and scalp, oiling is the best thing. Herbal oils are now-a-days widely used by the people because less or no side effects. The present work was aimed to formulate Maltyadi Tail oil for antidandruff purpose (application in Hair and scalp) and was evaluated analytical study. The organoleptic parameters are appearance, color, touch and odor. The physicochemical parameters are Solubility test, Viscosity test, pH, Acid value, Peroxide value, Iodine value, Saponification value, Volatile matter, Ester value, TLC and Test for heavy / toxic metals. The result of the study showed that Maltyadi Tail fulfills all the criteria for ideal hair oil.
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Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care. Differing ratios of essential fatty acids are major determinants of the barrier repair benefits of natural oils. Oils with a higher linoleic acid to oleic acid ratio have better barrier repair potential, whereas oils with higher amounts of irritating oleic acid may be detrimental to skin-barrier function. Various extraction methods for oils exist, including cold pressing to make unrefined oils, heat and chemical distillation to make essential oils, and the addition of various chemicals to simulate a specific scent to make fragranced oils. The method of oil processing and refinement is an important component of selecting oil for skin care, and cold pressing is the preferred method of oil extraction as the heat- and chemical-free process preserves beneficial lipids and limits irritating byproducts. This review summarizes evidence on utility of natural plant-based oils in dermatology, particularly in repairing the natural skin-barrier function, with the focus on natural oils, including Olea europaea (olive oil), Helianthus annus (sunflower seed oil), Cocos nucifera (coconut oil), Simmondsia chinesis (jojoba oil), Avena sativa (oat oil), and Argania spinosa (argan oil).
Chapter
The search for renewable fuels has increased in recent times, since petroleum-derived fuels are depleting supplies and contributing to accumulation of carbon dioxide in the environment. In this way, biodiesel presents economic, social, and environmental advantages as a renewable biofuel. This chapter aims to inform the reader about different raw materials that can be used to synthesize biodiesel. Moreover, the main physicochemical parameters are presented based on the standard agencies around the world. In general, the raw materials (algae, castor oil, soybean, waste frying oil, and Chrysomya albiceps larvae) represented satisfactory sources to produce biodiesel.
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