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Context: Eye-movement training (EMT) can induce altered brain activation and change the functionality of saccades with changes of the brain in general. Objective: To determine if EMT would result in changes in quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) and NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in patients suffering from acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. Our hypothesis is that there would be positive changes in qEEG and NIHSS after EMT in patients suffering from acute MCA ischemic stroke. Design: Double-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting and participants: Thirty-four subjects with acute MCA ischemic stroke treated at university affiliated hospital intensive care unit. Interventions: Subjects were randomized into a "control" group treated only with aspirin (125 mg/day) and a "treatment" group treated with aspirin (125 mg/day) and a subject-specific EMT. Main outcome measures: Delta-alpha ratio, power ratio index, and the brain symmetry index calculated by qEEG and NIHSS. Results: There was strong statistical and substantive significant improvement in all outcome measures for the group of stroke patients undergoing EMT. Such improvement was not observed for the "control" group, and there were no adverse effects. Conclusion: The addition of EMT to a MCA ischemic stroke treatment paradigm has demonstrated statistically significant changes in outcome measures and is a low cost, safe, and effective complement to standard treatment.
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January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 31
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
published: 22 January 2016
doi: 10.3389/fneur.2016.00003
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
Edited by:
Owen B. White,
Royal Melbourne Hospital and
The University of Melbourne, Australia
Reviewed by:
Bernard Yan,
Royal Melbourne Hospital and
The University of Melbourne, Australia
Mary Pauline Galea,
The University of Melbourne, Australia
*Correspondence:
Frederick Robert Carrick
drfrcarrick@post.harvard.edu
Specialty section:
This article was submitted to
Neuro-Ophthalmology,
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Neurology
Received: 03December2015
Accepted: 08January2016
Published: 22January2016
Citation:
CarrickFR, OggeroE, PagnaccoG,
WrightCHG, MachadoC, EstradaG,
PandoA, CossioJC and BeltránC
(2016) Eye-Movement Training
Results in Changes in qEEG and NIH
Stroke Scale in Subjects Suffering
from Acute Middle Cerebral Artery
Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized
Control Trial.
Front. Neurol. 7:3.
doi: 10.3389/fneur.2016.00003
Eye-Movement Training Results in
Changes in qEEG and NIH Stroke
Scale in Subjects Suffering from
Acute Middle Cerebral Artery
Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized
Control Trial
Frederick Robert Carrick1,2,3,4* , Elena Oggero1,5 , Guido Pagnacco1,5 ,
Cameron H. G. Wright1,5 , Calixto Machado1,3 , Genco Estrada3 , Alejandro Pando3 ,
Juan C. Cossio3 and Carlos Beltrán3
1 Neurology, Carrick Institute, Cape Canaveral, FL, USA, 2 Global Clinical Scholars Research Training Program (GCSRT),
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA, 3 Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Havana, Cuba, 4 Bedfordshire Centre
for Mental Health Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, 5 Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of
Wyoming, Laramie, WY, USA
Context: Eye-movement training (EMT) can induce altered brain activation and change
the functionality of saccades with changes of the brain in general.
Objective: To determine if EMT would result in changes in quantitative electroenceph-
alogram (qEEG) and NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) in patients suffering from acute middle
cerebral artery (MCA) infarction. Our hypothesis is that there would be positive changes
in qEEG and NIHSS after EMT in patients suffering from acute MCA ischemic stroke.
Design: Double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Setting and participants: Thirty-four subjects with acute MCA ischemic stroke treated
at university afliated hospital intensive care unit.
Interventions: Subjects were randomized into a “control” group treated only with
aspirin (125mg/day) and a “treatment” group treated with aspirin (125mg/day) and a
subject-specic EMT.
Main outcome measures: Delta–alpha ratio, power ratio index, and the brain symme-
try index calculated by qEEG and NIHSS.
Results: There was strong statistical and substantive signicant improvement in all
outcome measures for the group of stroke patients undergoing EMT. Such improvement
was not observed for the “control” group, and there were no adverse effects.
Conclusion: The addition of EMT to a MCA ischemic stroke treatment paradigm has
demonstrated statistically signicant changes in outcome measures and is a low cost,
safe, and effective complement to standard treatment.
Keywords: ischemic stroke, qEEG, NIHSS scores, eye moment therapy, stroke rehabilitation, saccades
January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 32
Carrick et al.
Eye-Movement Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
INTRODUCTION
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the United States
and is a major cause of adult disability; although from 2001
to 2011 the relative rate of stroke death fell by 35.1% and the
actual number of stroke deaths declined by 21.2%, the number
of persons suering from a stroke is still signicant (795,000
each year in the United States alone) and its consequences are
serious (in 2011, stroke caused 1 of every 20 deaths in the
United States) (1). Its etiology is a change in blood ow to a
specic area of the brain due to ischemia or hemorrhage, and it is
usually manifested as brain dysfunction with consequent eects
such as hemiparesis, dysphasia, ataxia, diplopia, or visual eld
loss. Strokes are diagnosed by physical and neurological examina-
tion, with the help of neurological scales specically developed
to quantify the impairment caused by a stroke, in particular the
NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS). is scale originally consisted of a
15-item examination (2), then amended to an 11-item examina-
tion (3), scored on a scale from 0 to 2, 3, or 4 depending on the
item, for a total score ranging from 0 (normal function) to 42
(severe stroke). Several studies have reported that the baseline
NIHSS (taken at hospitalization/diagnosis time) is a good predic-
tor of outcome aer a stroke (47). Diagnostic tools for strokes
include CT scans (with or without contrast), MRI scans (espe-
cially diusion-weighted imaging – DWI, and with magnetic
resonance angiography–MRA), Doppler ultrasound, and digital
subtraction angiography. In particular, for ischemic stroke, MRI
scans have shown a higher sensitivity and specicity than CT
scans without contrast (8). Once patients are hospitalized, elec-
troencephalograms (EEG) are used to continuously monitor their
brain function as well as to drive clinical management, since EEG
abnormalities are typical manifestation of an ischemic stroke. In
particular, quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) (9) has
been used for monitoring and formulating prognosis in acute and
sub-acute ischemic stroke (10). Of all the numerical parameters
that can be obtained from the qEEG, of particular interest are
the ratio of mean scalp delta to alpha power [known as the alpha
delta ratio (ADR), or its inverse the delta alpha ratio (DAR)] (11,
12), the power ratio index (PRI) of mean “slow” (delta and theta)
to mean “fast” (alpha and beta) activity (1214), and the brain
symmetry index (BSI or mBSI) (15, 16).
Standard treatment plans for patients aected by ischemic
stroke involve brinolytic therapy (administration of recom-
binant tissue-type plasminogen activator – rt-PA), antiplatelet
agents (such as aspirin), and mechanical thrombectomy (removal
of the clot causing the blood ow obstruction). Aer the acute
phase is concluded, the most eective rehabilitation programs
involve carefully directed, well-focused, repetitive practice to
relearn skills that are lost when part of the brain is damaged.
Saccades are fast eye movements that allow humans to vol-
untarily very quickly change the direction of gaze. Extensive
studies have been conducted to characterize the dierent brain
and eye mechanisms generating such movements and how
dierent pathologies aect them (17). A number of standard
parameters have been used to characterize saccades: latency or
reaction time (the time it takes for the eyes to start moving once
a stimulus is presented), velocity (at how many deg/s the eyes
move), amplitude (how many degrees the eyes move), and dura-
tion (how much time it takes) (18). All of these eye movements
can be quantied with diagnostic equipment, such as video-
nystagmography (VNG), but they can be observed at the bedside
as well. Standardized objective examination of eye movements
is of great value in the detection and clarication of sub-clinical
lesions in the central nervous system. Even patients with multiple
sclerosis (MS) with lesions beyond the primary visual pathway
have both saccadic latency and smooth pursuit abnormalities
of oculomotor dysfunction (19). Patients suering from mild
closed-head injury also demonstrate prolonged saccadic laten-
cies, and quantitative tests of oculomotor function may provide
sensitive markers of cerebral dysfunction (20) that can assist and
direct patient assessment. For instance, a cerebral vascular lesion
in the right and/or le hemisphere produces a general slowing
in the saccadic latency and a general reduction in the accuracy
of saccades with respect to a healthy subject’s performance (21).
Abnormalities in the control of saccades have been described
in patients with cerebral pathology (22), suggesting that they
might be robust biomarkers that could be utilized in guiding and
interpreting treatment outcomes. Discrepancy in horizontal and
vertical tilt angle coecients can cause eye positions to lie on a
twisted rather than a planar surface, resulting in eye velocities
that change during a visual saccade (23). e coordination of eye
movements is dependent upon the non-linear addition of visual
saccades and the pursuit components of catch-up saccades that
can be measured to assess function and disability (24). ere
are many variables that can result in dierent clinical scenarios
for patients with similar disease states or injuries. For example,
elderly patients demonstrate an increased latency and decreased
peak velocity from age-related degenerative changes in the central
nervous system with diseases of the central nervous system oen
causing saccadic disorders (25). Dierent disease states and sites
of neurological injury may aect one component of a visual task
while not aecting another. Alzheimer’s patients show increased
latency to initiation of saccades but no dierence in their ampli-
tude and velocity when compared to healthy controls (26). We
have observed slowing of visual saccades and saccadic intrusions
of visual pursuits in patients with acute middle cerebral artery
(MCA) infarction. Abnormal saccadic intrusions consisting of
frequent sporadic horizontal square wave jerks occur in a large
percentage of patients with acute or chronic focal cerebral lesions
(27). Low-amplitude cerebral square wave jerks can be detected
clinically by fundoscopy at the bedside. Reexive visually guided
saccade triggering may be facilitated or inhibited by the cerebral
cortex. Pierrot-Deseilligny and colleagues observed pathology
of saccades made toward and away from suddenly appearing
visual targets in patients with limited unilateral cerebral infarc-
tion (28). Dierent phenomenology of eye movements have
been observed with lesions of both the right and le cerebral
hemisphers. For example, ischemic lesions of the le frontal
eye eld (FEF) have been associated with abnormal reexive
visually guided saccades (gap and overlap tasks), antisaccades,
predictive saccades, memory-guided saccades, smooth pursuit,
and optokinetic nystagmus (29). Eye-movement analysis not only
January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 33
Carrick et al.
Eye-Movement Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
identies functional lesions but can also act as a biomarker for
treatment outcomes. Hemispatial neglect aects the ability to
explore space on the side opposite a brain lesion that is also mir-
rored in abnormal saccadic eye-movement patterns that provide
a sensitive means to assess the extent of neglect recovery (30).
Russell and colleagues provided the rst evidence for a decit
in remapping visual information across saccades underlying
right-hemisphere constructional apraxia (RHCA) (31). RHCA is
a common disorder aer right parietal stroke, oen persisting
aer initial problems such as visuospatial neglect have resolved.
Concurrent saccade programing is bilaterally impaired with
extensive right cerebral damage with an inability to produce
a corrective saccade within 100ms aer the end of a primary
saccade (32). Visual eld defects aer striate lesions are associ-
ated with changes in the frontoparietal network underlying the
cortical control of saccades, but may improve search strategies
with appropriate training of saccades (33). Nelles and colleagues
used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the
eects of eye-movement training (EMT) on cortical control of
saccades (34). EMT induced altered brain activation in the striate
and extrastriate cortex as well as in oculomotor areas and a rela-
tive decrease of activation in the le FEF. e cerebellum plays a
major role in saccadic adaptation representing a well-established
model of sensory–motor plasticity (35). e cerebellum remains
intact aer MCA infarction, while the intraparietal sulcus may be
the neural substrate for remapping of the visual environment by
saccadic training (36). But saccade training may not be enough
in EMT as repetitive contralesional smooth visual pursuit train-
ing has been shown to induce superior, multimodal therapeutic
eects in mild and severe chronic stroke patients with neglect
syndrome (37).
Exploratory ndings suggest that measurements of saccades,
smooth pursuit, and vergence are useful in detecting changes
associated with mild traumatic brain injuries (38), and it is
reasonable to utilize them in other brain syndromes, including
stroke. EMT has been used with vestibular rehabilitation in the
successful treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
in combat veterans aer traumatic brain injury (3941). Dong
and colleagues evaluated the sensitivity of measuring cognitive
processing in the ocular motor system as a marker for recovery
of decit in post-stroke patients (42). ey tested ocular motor
function and compared outcomes in the NIHSS score, modied
Rankin Scale (mRS), and standard cognitive function assess-
ments. Ocular motor function was more sensitive in identifying
cognitive dysfunction and improvement compared with NIHSS or
mRS. ey concluded that ocular motor assessment demonstrates
cognitive eects of even mild stroke and may provide improved
quantiable measurements of cognitive recovery post-stroke. We
desired to see if EMT might be benecial in the treatment of acute
MCA infarction and hypothesized that it would result in positive
changes of qEEG and NIHSS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
is study was a single-center, double-blind, randomized
controlled clinical trial performed at our Institutional Hospital
Intensive Care Unit and conducted in accordance with the
Declaration of Helsinki with equipoise. e protocol was
approved by the ethics committee of our Institution. Written
informed consent was obtained from every potential par-
ticipant prior to randomization. e eect of traditional stroke
therapy (aspirin regimen) combined with a subject-specic
EMT was investigated in subjects aected by MCA stroke, and
its outcome compared with a “control” group consisting of
subjects aected by the same pathology and receiving only the
aspirin regimen. We utilized the DAR, PRI, and BSI calculated
by qEEG, and NIHSS as outcome measures of intervention.
Participants
Subjects were recruited from patients with acute MCA ischemic
stroke admitted to our intensive care unit. Patients with a pre-
sumptive diagnosis of acute MCA ischemic stroke were screened
within 48h following stroke onset. Investigators veried eligibil-
ity and obtained written informed consent before randomization
to two groups.
Sample Size
e planned sample of 17 subjects in each treatment group was
calculated to give the study 80% power to detect a 30% reduction
in NIHSS at a 0.05 signicance level for a two-sided test. e
calculations assumed that 20% of participants would be lost to
follow-up or non-compliant or would die of other causes.
Inclusion Criteria
Non-disabling ischemic MCA stroke (mRS 3):
Onset within 48h before randomization.
No previous history of cerebral strokes and functionally inde-
pendent (mRS of 0 or 1) pre-morbidity.
Focal neurological decit of likely atherothrombotic origin
classied as ischemic stroke by questionnaire/algorithm and
conrmed as new cerebral infarction consistent with symp-
toms by cranial computed tomography and brain magnetic
resonance imaging.
Age >39years.
Agreement to participate in this study.
Written informed consent.
Exclusion Criteria
A previous history of cerebral stroke.
Potential sources of emboli (atrial brillation within 30days
of stroke, prosthetic cardiac valve, intracardiac thrombus or
neoplasm, or valvular vegetation).
Other major neurological illness that would obscure evalua-
tion of recurrent stroke.
Refractory depression, severe cognitive impairment, alcohol-
ism or other substance abuse.
General anesthesia or hospital stay of 3days, any type of
invasive cardiac instrumentation, or endarterectomy, stent
placement, thrombectomy, or any other endovascular treat-
ment of carotid artery within 30days prior to admission to
intensive care unit or scheduled to be performed.
January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 34
Carrick et al.
Eye-Movement Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
Randomization, Intervention, and
Follow-up
Fiy-seven subjects who had symptoms and signs of acute MCA
ischemic stroke within the rst 48h of clinical evolution were
admitted to our intensive care unit. Of these, 34 subjects (age
43–83years old) met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled in
this study. ey had no previous history of cerebral strokes and
were functionally independent (mRS of 0 or 1) pre-morbidity.
e subject design was reviewed with subjects and/or their fami-
lies who were oered a place in the study once informed consent
was obtained. Each subject underwent a CT scan study when
admitted to exclude hemorrhagic strokes, and a second CT study
was performed aer 72 h of stroke onset. e MCA ischemic
stroke was diagnosed according to clinical history, neurological,
and imaging exam. All participants consented to be admitted to
the study and then were randomly assigned to “treatment” and
control” groups. e allocation of participants was programed
by the statistical coordinating center, encrypted, and entered
into a data entry program installed on a study computer at our
institution. Aer computer verication that all eligibility criteria
had been met, participants were treated according to their groups
with both groups receiving standard medical care and support
in the intensive care unit. e “control” group (11 males and
6 females, age 58 ± 10.7 years) was treated only with aspirin
(125mg/day). e “treatment” group (13 males and 4 females,
age 61.9 ± 11.67 years) received the same aspirin regimen as
well as subject-specic EMT. Figure1 illustrates the CONSORT
diagram showing the ow of participants.
Treatment Group Intervention
Ipsilateral saccades are generated by the contralateral cerebral
cortex and we desired to utilize extraocular muscle targets that
are associated with cerebellar reexogenic activation in the plane
of the anterior and posterior canals. is strategy has been used
with success in the investigation of the treatment of PTSD in
combat veterans (39, 40). We prepared video targeting of the
exercises on Apple iPADs using Apple Keynote soware with
a 2 mm red circular ball target on a blue screen background.
Subjects with le MCA ischemic stroke performed diagonal
saccades to appearing targets (with a xation duration of 2 s
each) using gap paradigm from the lower le to the upper right
corner of the tablet monitor, followed by smooth pursuit of the
target from the upper right corner to the lower le. e saccadic
EMT activates the combination of right superior rectus and le
inferior oblique muscles that have reexogenic connections to
the right cerebellum. Subjects with right MCA ischemic stroke
performed the same type of EMT along the opposite diagonal of
the display (lower right to upper le), activating the combination
of le superior rectus and right inferior oblique muscles that have
reexogenic connections to the le cerebellum. is was followed
by smooth pursuit of the target from the upper le corner to the
lower right. Each treatment session consisted of three repetitions
of the saccades/smooth pursuit sequence, and subjects received
three such treatments a day. Each repetition took ~3min with
the entire intervention session taking <15min with short breaks
between repetitions.
Intervention Both Groups
All subjects underwent EEG testing upon admission and 7days
aerward. Using a Medicid-05 (I. C. NEURONIC S.L., Zaragoza,
Spain), with a gain of 20,000, sampling frequency of 200Hz, lter
band pass of 0.3–30Hz with a “notch” lter at 60Hz. e noise
level of the EEG recording was 2μV RMS and the recordings were
performed at an environmental temperature of ~23°C. Copper
electrodes coated with silver chloride were placed on the scalp at
19 monopolar derivations of the International 10/20 System with
linked ear lobes as a reference. Electrode-skin impedance was
<10kΩ. Total time of EEG data collection persession was 330s.
Patients were recumbent, awake, and relaxed. For each subject, 24
artifact free segments of 2.56s duration were visually selected by
an expert electroencephalographer and used for the subsequent
standard qEEG analysis [power spectrum in the delta (<4Hz),
theta (4–7Hz), alpha (7–14Hz), and beta (14–30Hz) frequency
bands] using the Neuronic EEG 6.0 soware (I. C. NEURONIC
S.L., Zaragoza, Spain). A custom script in MATLAB® (e
MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) was used to calculate the
DAR, the PRI, and the BSI that were used as outcome measures
for all subjects. e NIHSS was also administered to all subjects
upon admission and 7days aerward.
Statistical Analysis
e statistical analysis of the outcome measures was performed
using IBM® SPSS® Statistics release 20.0.0 (IBM Corporation,
Armonk, NY, USA) on the pre–post qEEG measures for both
“treatment” and “control” groups and on the pre–post NIHSS
scores. e normality of the distributions of the data was
veried using Kolmogorov–Smirnov with Lilliefors Signicance
Correction and Shapiro–Wilk tests of normality. Since these data
were found to be normally distributed, Multivariate General
Linear Model (M-GLM) analysis was performed to assess the
presence of dierences between the two groups in the pre-
treatment data, i.e., to verify if the two groups were dierent to
begin with. e existence of a dierence in pre–post changes
between the “treatment” and “control” groups was investigated
by performing a Multivariate Repeated Measures General Linear
Model (M-RM-GLM), with repeated measures being the pre and
post measures and the factor being the treatment modality. e
same M-RM-GLM was performed separately on the two groups
to verify if the two dierent treatment modalities were able to
produce statistically signicant changes in the outcome measures.
RESULTS
e descriptive statistics for the pre and post outcome measures
as well as for their paired pre–post changes for the “treatment”
and “control” groups are reported in Table1. Table2 reports the
results of the statistical analyses performed on the data: to quan-
tify the presence of statistically signicant dierences between
the two groups in the pre-treatment data, and in the pre–post
results between and within groups. eir signicance (p value)
and eect size (calculated as partial eta squared) are also reported
in the same table. A partial eta squared of 0.02 is considered a
small eect, 0.13 a medium eect and 0.26 a large eect. Figure2
depicts the pre and post DAR and BSI of “treatment” and “control”
TABLE 1 | Mean, its 95% condence interval (CI), and Standard deviation (SD) of the Pre, Post, and Pre–Post Change for the NIHSS, DAR, PRI, and BSI
measures of “treatment” (subjects receiving EMT therapy in conjunction with the standard aspirin regimen) and “control” (subjects receiving only the
standard aspirin regiment) groups.
Measure Group Pre Post Pre–post change
Mean (CI) SD Mean (CI) SD Mean (CI) SD
NIHSS Treatment 2.82 (1.38: 4.26) 3.03 1.44 (0.67: 2.21) 1.63 0.81 (1.34: 0.28) 1.11
Control 2.29 (1.66: 2.92) 1.33 1.86 (1.41: 2.31) 0.95 0.43 (0.67: 0.18) 0.51
DAR Treatment 1.77 (1.10: 2.44) 1.40 1.40 (0.81: 1.99) 1.24 0.37 (0.67: 0.0.07) 0.63
Control 2.48 (2.19: 2.77) 0.60 2.76 (2.46: 3.06) 0.64 0.28 (0.02: 0.54) 0.55
PRI Treatment 2.39 (1.60: 3.18) 1.66 2.17 (1.30: 3.04) 1.82 0.22 (0.51: 0.07) 0.61
Control 3.32 (3.09: 3.55) 0.48 3.69 (3.30: 4.08) 0.81 0.37 (0.04: 0.78) 0.87
BSI Treatment 0.27 (0.22: 0.32) 0.11 0.33 (0.27: 0.39) 0.13 0.06 (0.03: 0.09) 0.06
Control 0.23 (0.22: 0.24) 0.02 0.23 (0.22: 0.24) 0.03 0.00 (0.02: 0.02) 0.04
TABLE 2 | Results of the statistical analyses performed on the data,
including the question under examination, each considered parameter,
its signicance (p value) and the effect size (calculated as partial eta
squared).
Statistical question Measure Signicance
(p value)
Effect size
(partial eta
squared)
Are the two groups
signicantly different
pre-treatment?
Multivariate 0.305 0.164
NIHSS # #
DAR # #
PRI # #
BSI # #
Are the pre–post treatment
changes signicantly different
between the two groups?
Multivariate 0.004*** 0.402
NIHSS 0.162 0.066
DAR 0.003*** 0.243
PRI 0.029 0.141
BSI 0.001*** 0.279
Are the pre–post treatment
changes in the “control” group
signicant?
Multivariate 0.011* 0.699
NIHSS 0.008** 0.429
DAR 0.055 0.212
PRI 0.098 0.162
BSI 0.774 0.005
Are the pre–post treatment
changes in the “treatment”
group signicant?
Multivariate 0.008** 0.631
NIHSS 0.037* 0.243
DAR 0.026* 0.272
PRI 0.158 0.121
BSI 0.000*** 0.550
#Value not calculated because multivariate p did not reached required statistical
signicance (p<0.05).
*Statistical signicance p<0.05.
**Statistical signicance p<0.01.
***Statistical signicance p<0.005.
Bold font means signicant values.
January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 35
Carrick et al.
Eye-Movement Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
groups. Figure3 depicts the pre and post PRI and NIHSS scores
of “treatment” and “control” groups. Figure4 illustrates using box
plots the changes pre and post in the DAR, PRI, and BSI for the
“treatment” group.
Patient Follow-up Data
We have had no patient follow-up data on this preliminary
study, but have scheduled all subjects for follow-up with repeat
diagnostics at 1year and at yearly times aer the initial long-term
follow-up. We will report our outcomes to long-term follow-up
when they are available.
Efcacy of Treatment
e M-GLM analysis on the initial measurements (“pre”) of the
outcome measurements (rst question in Tab l e 2 ) indicated that
the “treatment” and “control” groups are not dierent to begin
with, with an overall multivariate tests signicance of p=0.305
(observed power=0.341). Aer verifying the sphericity of the data
using Mauchly’s test of sphericity, the M-RM-GLM analysis on the
pre/post measures with the group as a factor (second question in
Table2, conrmed by Figures2 and 3) showed that the dierences
in the changes between the two groups are indeed statistically
signicant. Specically, the multivariate tests showed that the
changes are dierent overall with a p=0.004 and observed power
of 0.922 and the tests of between-subjects eects and parameter
estimates showed that the changes in the DAR, PRI, and BSI are
dierent between the “treatment” and “control” groups with p of
0.003, 0.029, and 0.001 and observed power of 0.875, 0.602, and
0.926 respectively, whereas the NIHSS change is not signicantly
dierent between the two groups (p=0.162). e M-RM-GLM
analysis on the pre and post measures of the “control” group (third
question in Tab l e 2 , conrmed by Figures2 and 3) showed that
there is a statistically signicant dierence in the pre and post
measurements for this group (p=0.011 with observed power of
0.879), but this dierence is produced mostly by the change in
NIHSS, which is the only measure changing signicantly with
p= 0.008 and observed power of 0.823. e same analysis on
the “treatment” group (fourth question in Tab le  2 , conrmed by
Figure4) showed that the pre/post measures are statistically sig-
nicantly dierent for this group: the multivariate tests show that
the measures are dierent overall with a p=0.008 and observed
power of 0.882 and the univariate tests and the tests of within-
subjects contrasts show that NIHSS, DAR, and BSI are dierent
with p of 0.037, 0.026, and 0.000 and an observed power of 0.568,
0.633, and 0.985 respectively, whereas the PRI is not dierent to a
statistical signicance (p=0.158, observed power of 0.286).
DISCUSSION
We did not nd any published studies that investigated outcome
measures in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke using the
NIHSS and electrical brain activity aer EMT. Our results show
that the group of stroke patients undergoing EMT, although not
initially dierent from the “control” group, had a signicant
Assessed for eligibility (n=57)
Excluded (n=23)
Not meeting inclusion criteria (n=23)
Declined to participate (n=0)
Other reasons (n=0)
Analysed (n=17)
Excluded from analysis (n=0)
Lost to follow-up (n=0)
Discontinued intervention (n=0)
Allocated to EMT and standard medical
intervention (n=17)
Received allocated intervention (n=17)
Did not receive allocated intervention (n=0 )
Lost to follow-up (n=0)
Discontinued intervention (n=0)
Allocated to standard intervention (n=17)
Received allocated intervention (n=17)
Did not receive allocated intervention (n=0)
Analysed (n=17)
Excluded from analysis (n=0)
Randomized (n=34)
FIGURE 1 | CONSORT diagram showing the ow of participants.
January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 36
Carrick et al.
Eye-Movement Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
improvement of the electrical brain activity as measured by
the DAR and BSI qEEG indices. Such improvement was not
observed for the “control” group. Furthermore, the improve-
ments in all the qEEG indices considered, i.e., DAR, PRI, and
BSI, were signicantly larger in the patients treated with EMT
than in the controls. We did not investigate a functional rela-
tionship between qEEG ndings in this pilot study, but other
investigators have considered qEEG as a biomarker for neuro-
logical function. Song and colleagues (43) concluded that qEEG
measures of background rhythm frequency (BRF) and relative
power in the qEEG theta band are potential predictive biomark-
ers for cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts.
ese biomarkers may be valuable in the early prediction of
cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral infarcts. Our
ndings suggest that EMT might change the qEEG and have the
potential to decrease cognitive impairment in MCA ischemic
stroke patients. Song and colleagues (43) also demonstrated that
the risk hazard of developing cognitive impairment was 14 times
higher for those with low BRF than for those with high BRF
(p<0.001). We have found that EMT increases BRF and perhaps
decreases the risk hazard of developing cognitive impairment.
Schleiger and colleagues (44) also analyzed correlations between
post-stroke qEEG indices and cognition-specic functional
outcome measures. ey reported highly signicant correlations
with cognitive outcomes: frontal DAR (ρ=0.664, p0.001)
and global, relative alpha power (ρ=0.67, p0.001). We have
demonstrated that EMT changes these qEEG indices and as a
consequence may have a functional eect specic to cognition-
specic outcomes and clinical decision-making. Other inves-
tigators have utilized electrophysiological measurements to
identify the potential therapeutic eects of various treatments in
acute stroke. For example, Liao and colleagues (45) utilized elec-
trophysiology to evaluate neural and vascular responses of the
rat cortex to peripheral sensory stimulation following ischemic
insult. ey demonstrated neural recovery and the preservation
of neurovascular function as well as an optimal time window
of treatment that might result in minimal infarct volume in
the ischemic hemisphere. Our ndings of qEEG changes aer
EMT have led us to postulate that EMT might also be associ-
ated with neural recovery and better functional outcomes. e
DAR has also been correlated with motor function recovery.
Zhang and colleagues (46) evaluated the temporal alterations of
neural activities using EEG from the acute phase to the chronic
phase, and compared EEG with the degree of post-stroke motor
January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 37
Carrick et al.
Eye-Movement Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
FIGURE 2 | Pre and post delta–alpha ratio and brain symmetry index of “treatment” and “control” groups.
function recovery in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke. e
DAR was found to have the highest correlation coecients with
the motor function recovery. e statistically and substantively
signicant qEEG changes that we have reported aer EMT
would suggest that our therapy might be of use in the treatment
and rehabilitation of motor function. Our study was specic
to observe whether EMT would result in changes of qEEG
and NIHSS without measuring other functional neurological
changes. Other investigators have used similar technology to
explore the relationship between qEEG global indexes and their
association with functional outcome aer neurorehabilitation
in stroke patients. Leon-Carrion and colleagues (47) found that
qEEG indexes and other clinical variables were correlated with
functional recovery aer neurorehabilitation. ey suggested
that the ratio between delta and alpha may play a signicant role
in predicting and monitoring functional rehabilitation outcome.
We agree, and our ndings that EMT changes the DAR suggest
a functional application in the treatment of stroke along with
other neurorehabilitation tools. We have demonstrated statisti-
cally signicant changes in the NIHSS aer EMT. e NIHSS
oers a reliable approach to capture the true response patterns
that are associated with function, outcome, and mortality post-
stroke (48).
e addition of simple EMT to a patient’s treatment paradigm
has demonstrated statistically signicant changes in outcome
measures and is a low cost, safe, and eective complement
to standard treatment in MCA ischemic stroke. ese results
complement previous studies utilizing EMT discussed in the
introduction to this report.
Limitations
e outcome measures include only the three qEEG parameters
and the NIHSS. e NIHSS is a scale of stroke severity and does
not provide any insight as to functional changes. e study would
have beneted from the inclusion of some functional outcome
related to the rationale, e.g., change in visual tracking, cognitive
and functional testing, etc. Other investigators have found that
the outcomes we have utilized have been associated with func-
tional changes in neurological function. We expect that EMT will
also be associated with functional changes and improvement of
outcomes aer stroke treatment. We intend to address functional
outcome measurements in a new randomized controlled study
January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 38
Carrick et al.
Eye-Movement Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
FIGURE 3 | Pre and post power ratio index and NIHSS scores of “treatment” and “control” groups.
FIGURE 4 | Box plot comparing pre and post delta–alpha ratio, power
ratio index, and brain symmetry index for the “treatment” group.
as our present investigation is considered a pilot from which to
guide and direct future investigations and did not include other
functional measurements.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS
FC: designed the study and the eye-movement strategies, wrote
the manuscript, and contributed to the statistical analysis. EO:
contributed to the study design, reviewed and edited the manu-
script, and contributed to the statistical analysis. GP: contributed
to the study design, reviewed and edited the manuscript, and
contributed to the statistical analysis. CW: reviewed and edited
the manuscript and contributed to the statistical analysis. CM:
prepared IRB submissions, patient recruitment, and review of
the manuscript. GE: coordinated subject diagnosis and treat-
ment, and reviewed the manuscript. AP: reviewed and edited the
manuscript and contributed to subject assignment. JC: reviewed
the manuscript and contributed to the data collection and com-
pilation. CB: reviewed the manuscript and contributed to subject
treatment assignments.
FUNDING
We thank the Carrick Institute and Plasticity Brain Centers for
generously funding this study.
January 2016 | Volume 7 | Article 39
Carrick et al.
Eye-Movement Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
Frontiers in Neurology | www.frontiersin.org
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Conict of Interest Statement: e authors declare that the research was con-
ducted in the absence of any commercial or nancial relationships that could be
construed as a potential conict of interest.
Copyright © 2016 Carrick, Oggero, Pagnacco, Wright, Machado, Estrada, Pando,
Cossio and Beltrán. is is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). e use, distribution or reproduc-
tion in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are
credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with
accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which
does not comply with these terms.
... The treatment/intervention consisted of various sounds [29], manipulation (cervical or extremity) [7,21], or ocular movements [30]. For example, a computerbased auditory software program, the Mente Autism Device, was used to treat autism spectrum disorders [31], and eye movements were used to treat acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke [30]. ...
... The treatment/intervention consisted of various sounds [29], manipulation (cervical or extremity) [7,21], or ocular movements [30]. For example, a computerbased auditory software program, the Mente Autism Device, was used to treat autism spectrum disorders [31], and eye movements were used to treat acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke [30]. Posture and balance were influenced during body rotation [20] and also, with different types of music [32]. ...
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Background: Functional Neurology (FN), founded by FR Carrick, is an approach used by some chiropractors to treat a multitude of conditions via the nervous system including the brain. However, it seems to lack easily obtainable scientific evidence for its clinical validity. Objectives: 1) To define the topics of FR Carrick's publications, 2) to define the proportion of articles that are research studies, case studies, abstracts and conference papers, 3) to define how many of these are clinical research studies that purported or appeared to deal with the effect or benefit of FN, 4) in these studies, to establish whether the design and overall study method were suitable for research into the effect or benefit of FN, and 5) to describe the evidence available in relation to the clinical effect or benefit of FN, taking into account seven minimal methodological criteria. Method: A literature search was done on Pubmed from its inception till October 2018, supplemented by a search on Scopus and ResearchGate to find all published documents by FR Carrick. We identified their types and topics, retaining for a critical review full text scientific articles appearing to test effect/benefit of FN procedures, subjecting them to a basic quality assessment (scoring 0-7). Results from studies of methodologically acceptable standard would be taken into account. Results: We found 121 published texts, 39 of which were full scientific research articles. Of these, 23 dealt with topics relating to FN. Fourteen articles reported on clinical validity but only seven included a control group. The methodological quality of these seven articles was low, ranging between 1.5-4 out of 7. We therefore did not further report the outcomes of these studies. Conclusion: We found no acceptable evidence in favour of effect/benefit of the FN approach. We therefore do not recommend its promotion as an evidence-based method. Further research on this topic should be conducted in collaboration with independent scientific institutions using commonly accepted research methods. Trial registration: PROSPERO This review was registered in PROSPERO (application date 23.02.2019; no CRD42019126345).
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We investigated spectral resting-state EEG in persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia to determine its reliability, sensitivity, and relationship to functional behaviors. Resting-state EEG has not yet been characterized in this population and was selected given the demonstrated potential of resting-state investigations using other neuroimaging techniques to guide clinical decision-making. Controls and persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia completed two EEG recording sessions, separated by approximately 1 month, as well as behavioral assessments of language, sensorimotor, and cognitive domains. Power in the classic frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, and beta) was examined via spectral analysis of resting-state EEG data. Results suggest that power in the theta, alpha, and beta bands is reliable for use as a repeated measure. Significantly greater theta and lower beta power was observed in persons with aphasia (PWAs) than controls. Finally, in PWAs theta power negatively correlated with performance on a discourse informativeness measure, while alpha and beta power positively correlated with performance on the same measure. This indicates that spectral rsEEG slowing observed in PWAs in the chronic stage is pathological and suggests a possible avenue for directly altering brain activation to improve behavioral function. Taken together, these results suggest that spectral resting-state EEG holds promise for sensitive measurement of functioning and change in persons with chronic aphasia. Future studies investigating the utility of these measures as biomarkers of frank or latent aphasic deficits and treatment response in chronic stroke-induced aphasia are warranted.
... As reported in the introduction, FN is currently composed of different sub-specialties which represent various forms of FN practice. These do not always include manual therapy but choose other therapeutic strategies, for example eye movement training [49][50][51], "hemisphere specific remediation programs" [52,53], and music therapy [54]. ...
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En France, les chiropracteurs sont autorisés à pratiquer des actes conservateurs, incluant la manipulation vertébrale, afin de prévenir ou de remédier à des troubles neuro-musculo-squelettiques. La profession apparaît toutefois composite, certains chiropracteurs proposant de prendre en charge également des troubles non-neuro-musculo-squelettiques, sur la base d’approches aux théories diverses.La Neurologie Fonctionnelle (NF) en constitue un exemple contemporain. Il s’agit d’une approche attractive, présentée comme scientifiquement fondée. Elle fait cependant l’objet de vives critiques, la qualifiant parfois de pseudoscience.Cette thèse a pour but de contribuer à une meilleure compréhension de ce qu’est la NF ainsi qu’à une meilleure connaissance des faits scientifiques pouvant la sous-tendre, plus particulièrement dans un contexte chiropratique. Pour ce faire, une scoping review et deux revues critiques de la littérature ont été réalisées.La scoping review a montré que la NF est une approche thérapeutique conservatrice qui compterait de nombreuses indications, notamment non-neuro-musculo-squelettiques. Les “neurologues fonctionnels” recourent à de multiples outils thérapeutiques, dont la manipulation vertébrale, dans le but de stimuler le système nerveux, particulièrement des zones du cerveau. En NF, de nombreux éléments de langage sont empruntés aux neurosciences et différentes procédures diagnostiques et différents outils thérapeutiques sont issus de la médecine conventionnnelle. L’ensemble que forme sa théorie et ses applications cliniques lui apparait cependant propre et peu plausible.A travers une revue critique d’articles obtenus via un journal spécialisé en NF, aucune évidence scientifique probante n’a été trouvée à propos du bénéfice ou effet de la NF. A l’issue d’une revue systématique critique de la littérature, aucune évidence montrant que la manipulation vertébrale a un effet clinique via un effet sur l’activité cérébrale n’a été trouvée.Ces travaux nous ont amené à conclure que la NF, utilisée dans un contexte chiropratique, relève probablement d’une pratique pseudoscientifique.
... Several studies have provided evidence that visual search and eye movement training produce improved performance on sporting and occupational activities in normal adults 38,39 and on functional activities in clinical populations. [40][41][42][43] This indicates that interventions designed to treat impaired visual search in stroke survivors may produce improvements in functional performance. ...
Article
Background: Humans use voluntary eye movements to actively gather visual information during many activities of daily living, such as driving, walking, and preparing meals. Most stroke survivors have difficulties performing these functional motor tasks, and we recently demonstrated that stroke survivors who require many saccades (rapid eye movements) to plan reaching movements exhibit poor motor performance. However, the nature of this relationship remains unclear. Objective: Here we investigate if saccades interfere with speed and smoothness of reaching movements in stroke survivors, and if excessive saccades are associated with difficulties performing functional tasks. Methods: We used a robotic device and eye tracking to examine reaching and saccades in stroke survivors and age-matched controls who performed the Trail Making Test, a visuomotor task that uses organized patterns of saccades to plan reaching movements. We also used the Stroke Impact Scale to examine difficulties performing functional tasks. Results: Compared with controls, stroke survivors made many saccades during ongoing reaching movements, and most of these saccades closely preceded transient decreases in reaching speed. We also found that the number of saccades that stroke survivors made during ongoing reaching movements was strongly associated with slower reaching speed, decreased reaching smoothness, and greater difficulty performing functional tasks. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that poststroke interference between eye and limb movements may contribute to difficulties performing functional tasks. This suggests that interventions aimed at treating impaired organization of eye movements may improve functional recovery after stroke.
... Currently, there are many types of rehabilitation methods for post-stroke functional limitations [5,6], including joint activity training, neurophysiological methods such as the Bobath method [7], proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) [8], motor relearning program (MRP) [9], and some other new therapeutic methods. But these procedures largely rely on patients' initiative and cooperation, which leads to different treatment effects. ...
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Background Ischemic stroke, featuring high incidence, morbidity, and mortality, is one of the three major diseases troubling human beings. The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of early high-protein diet on neurofunctional recovery in rats with ischemic stroke as well as their cerebral infarct areas and molecular expressions of oxidative stress. Material/Methods The middle cerebral artery occlusion model (MCAO) was established, and 48 adult, male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats of clean grade aged seven to eight months (250–280 g body weight) were randomized into four groups: the MCAO group with high-protein diet (MH), the MCAO group with standard-protein diet (MS), the sham group with high-protein diet (SH), and the sham group with standard-protein diet (SS). High-protein diet intervention started on the first day of the surgery, and the rats’ body weights and their neurological deficit scores were measured on each postoperative day while the scores of motors coordination and balance ability were recorded every other day. In addition, their cerebral infant areas and the molecular expressions of oxidative stress injuries were detected as well. Results Compared to the MS group, the rats in the MH group gained faster weight growth (p<0.05), presented significantly lower neurological impairment scores (p<0.05), remarkably improved motor coordination and balance ability (p<0.05) as well as showed smaller cerebral infarct areas (p<0.05), increased expression of SOD (superoxide dismutase), and reduced expressions of MDA (malondialdehyde) and iNOS (inducible nitric oxide synthase). However, there was no significant difference between the SS group and the SH group (p>0.05). Conclusions Early high-protein diet facilitates the recovery of body weights and neurological functions as well the reduction of the cerebral infarct areas of rats, thus alleviating ischemic stroke-caused oxidative stress injuries.
... We understand that the functional integrity of the brain is closely related to eye movement function and that function is compromised postacutely in mCHI especially for saccades, antisaccades, smooth pursuit, and memory-guided sequences (5). We have observed similar cervical-vestibular-ocular pathology in our chronic PCS patients and have developed novel head-eye vestibular motion (HEVM) strategies that have been successful in patient outcomes (24)(25)(26)(27). We wanted to measure the consequence of our treatment on both the physical and mental health functions of our sports PCS population. ...
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ContextApproximately 1.8–3.6 million annual traumatic brain injuries occur in the United States. An evidence-based treatment for concussions that is reliable and effective has not been available.Objective The objective of this study is to test whether head–eye vestibular motion (HEVM) therapy is associated with decreased symptoms and increased function in postconcussive syndrome (PCS) patients that have been severely impaired for greater than 6 months after a mild traumatic brain injury.DesignRetrospective clinical chart review.Setting and participantsTertiary Specialist Brain Rehabilitation Center.InterventionsAll subjects underwent comprehensive neurological examinations including measurement of eye and head movement. The seven modules of the C3 Logix Comprehensive Concussion Management System were used for pre- and postmeasurements of outcome of HEVM therapy.Materials and methodsWe utilized an objective validated measurement of physical and mental health characteristics of our patients before and after a 1-week HEVM rehabilitation program. We included only PCS patients that were disabled from work or school for a period of time exceeding 6 months after suffering a sports concussion. These subjects all were enrolled in a 5-day HEVM rehabilitation program at our Institutional Brain Center with pre- and post-C3 Logix testing outcomes.ResultsThere were statistical and substantive significant decreases in PCS symptom severity after treatment and statistical and substantive significant increases in standardized assessment of concussion scores. The outcomes were associated with positive changes in mental and physical health issues. This is a retrospective review and no control group has been included in this study. These are major limitations with retrospective reviews and further investigations with prospective designs including a randomized controlled study are necessary to further our understanding.Conclusion Head–eye vestibular motion therapy of 5 days duration is associated with statistical and substantive significant decreases of symptom severity associated with chronic PCS.
... As reported in the introduction, FN is currently composed of different sub-specialties which represent various forms of FN practice. These do not always include manual therapy but choose other therapeutic strategies, for example eye movement training [49][50][51], "hemisphere specific remediation programs" [52,53], and music therapy [54]. ...
Article
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Background Functional Neurology (FN), a seemingly attractive treatment approach used by some chiropractors, proposes to have an effect on a multitude of conditions but some of its concepts are controversial. Objectives and design A scoping review was performed to describe, in the context of chiropractic manual therapy, 1) the FN theories, and 2) its clinical applications (i.e. its indications, examination procedures, treatment modalities, treatment plans, and clinical outcomes) using four sources: i) one key textbook, ii) the scientific peer-reviewed literature, iii) websites from chiropractors using FN, and iv) semi-structured interviews of chiropractors using FN. Methods The scientific literature was searched in PubMed, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus, completed by a hand search in the journal Functional Neurology, Rehabilitation and Ergonomics (November 2016 and March 2017, respectively). The only textbook on the topic we found was included and articles were chosen if they had an element of manual therapy. There was no restriction for study design but discussion papers were excluded. Websites were found in Google using the search term “Functional Neurology”. Chiropractors, known to use FN, were invited based on their geographical location. Theories were mainly uncovered in the textbook as were all aspects of the clinical applications except treatment plans. The other three sources were used for the five aspects of clinical applications. Results were summarized and reported extensively in tables. Results Eleven articles were included, five websites scrutinized, and four semi-structured interviews performed. FN is based on the belief that reversible lesions in the nervous system are the cause of a multitude of conditions and that specific clusters of neurons can be positively affected by manipulative therapy, but also by many other stimuli. Diagnostic procedures include both conventional and unusual tests, with an interpretation specific to FN. Initial treatment is intense and clinical outcomes reported as positive. Conclusion FN gives the impression to be a complex alternative to the old variant of the chiropractic subluxation model, in which the vertebral subluxation is replaced by “physiological lesions” of the brain, and the treatment, spinal adjustments, are complemented by various neurological stimuli. Both models purport to treat not the symptoms but the cause. We conclude there is a need for more scientific documentation on the validity of FN. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12998-017-0151-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Thesis
Certains chiropracteurs utilisent des « techniques spécifiques » comme les « techniques prescriptives » afin de déterminer un « diagnostic technique », basé sur des observations qui ne sont pas nécessairement en lien avec les symptômes ou la pathologie. Ce « diagnostic technique » déterminera ensuite le traitement. La Neurologie Fonctionnelle (NF) en est un exemple contemporain et complexe. Elle est attractive et se présente comme fondée sur les preuves. Cependant, actuellement, aucune preuve probante ne montre l’efficacité d’un traitement en NF, cette approche a même été qualifiée de pseudoscience. Cette thèse a pour objectifs de continuer l’analyse critique de la NF, notamment en s’intéressant à son développement et à sa diffusion, d’étudier l’attitude des étudiants en chiropraxie envers la NF et de réfléchir à des facteurs pouvant expliquer l’intérêt des chiropracteurs pour la NF.Pour ce faire, nous avons produit une revue critique des publications de FR Carrick (fondateur de la NF) et une revue sur le développement et la diffusion de la NF. Elles mettent en évidence une absence de preuve probante concernant l’effet/bénéfice clinique d’une intervention en NF et ont permis d’identifier plusieurs signes de pseudoscience. Enfin, l’enquête réalisée auprès des étudiants en chiropraxie met en évidence un fort intérêt pour la NF, cependant peu adhèrent aux concepts clefs présentés. Cette enquête a également montré que plus un étudiant a des idées « conservatrices » (i.e. qu’il est en accord avec les concepts historiques de la chiropraxie), plus il sera enclin à avoir une attitude positive envers la NF.Suite à ces résultats et en prenant en compte la littérature sur le concept des pseudosciences et les mécanismes cognitifs mis en place par un individu lorsqu’il est confronté à une nouvelle information, nous avons discuté des facteurs pouvant expliquer l’intérêt des étudiants et des chiropracteurs pour la NF. Ensuite, nous avons émis l’hypothèse, basée sur la littérature, que la NF pourrait être attractive pour différents « types » de chiropracteurs. Nos travaux nous amènent à conclure que, actuellement, la NF, dans un contexte chiropratique, peut être décrite comme une pseudoscience et que ses facteurs psychologiques et commerciaux pourraient expliquer l’intérêt de nombreux chiropracteurs pour cette approche. Afin de « protéger » les cliniciens des approches pseudoscientifiques, il est nécessaire de proposer des solutions, comme l’enseignement des signes d’alarme des pseudoscience et du scepticisme scientifique lors de leur formation académique.
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Each year, the American Heart Association (AHA), in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and other government agencies, brings together the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and presents them in its Heart Disease and Stroke Statistical Update. The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, and others seeking the best available data on these conditions. Together, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke produce immense health and economic burdens in the United States and globally. The Statistical Update brings together in a single document up-to-date information on the core health behaviors (including diet, physical activity [PA], smoking, and energy balance) and health factors (including blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose) that define cardiovascular health; a range of …
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Each year, the American Heart Association (AHA), in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and other government agencies, brings together the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and presents them in its Heart Disease and Stroke Statistical Update. The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policy makers, media professionals, clinicians, healthcare administrators, researchers, and others seeking the best available data on these conditions. Together, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke produce immense health and economic burdens in the United States and globally. The Statistical Update brings together in a single document up-to-date information on the core health behaviors and health factors that define cardiovascular health; a range of major clinical disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, …
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Saccadic eye movements offer several insights into the functional status of many areas of the central nervous system. As suchtheir observation is an important component of any neurological assessment. Unfortunately, these types of eye movementsare very fast and therefore cannot be evaluated in detail without high speed instrumentation. Direct infrared (IR) technologyallows to easily quantify standard saccades parameters such as latency, peak and mean velocity, and Q factor, as well as torecord the actual shape of the movement and its velocity. Using a direct IR device, we investigated if it is possible to changesaccades using a novel brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy in subjects suffering a variety of neurological dysfunctions.Pre-post therapy comparison of saccade parameters showed that this type of subject's specific therapy can improve withstatistical significance the parameters of interest. However, the effects were not limited to the parameters of interest:subject-specific brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy can improve the other parameters as well, although thisimprovement was not always statistically significant. Furthermore, we found that for the infrequent cases where thesubject-specific brain and vestibular rehabilitation therapy produced a deterioration of the other parameters, it was notstatistically significant.
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Hemispatial neglect affects the ability to explore space on the side opposite a brain lesion. This deficit is also mirrored in abnormal saccadic eye movement patterns. The present study investigated if the recovery of neglect is also reflected in saccadic eye movements. Patient AF, who displayed strong hemispatial neglect 1 month post-right thalamic stroke, had largely recovered 3 months later when tested on visual exploration tasks of the Behavioural Inattention Test. At this stage, AF was tested on a visual search task while his eye movements (direction, latencies and amplitudes of first saccades) and manual reaction times were recorded. The experimental conditions differed with respect to stimulus number and distracter type and increased in difficulty. AF correctly generated saccades into the neglected field when the target was presented alone. In contrast, a considerable left/right difference was present for all multiple-stimulus search displays. Although recovered from neglect in standardized assessment, AF showed a strong rightward bias resulting in highly asymmetric response times and eye movement behaviour. We conclude that eye movement patterns are far more susceptible to remaining spatial impairments and can thus provide a sensitive means to assess the extent of neglect recovery.