North-East Asian Super Grid for 100% renewable energy supply: Optimal mix of energy technologies for electricity, gas and heat supply options

ArticleinEnergy Conversion and Management 112:176-190 · March 2016with 3,078 Reads
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Abstract
In order to define a cost optimal 100% renewable energy system, an hourly resolved model has been created based on linear optimization of energy system parameters under given constrains. The model is comprised of five scenarios for 100% renewable energy power systems in North-East Asia with different high voltage direct current transmission grid development levels, including industrial gas demand and additional energy security. Renewables can supply enough energy to cover the estimated electricity and gas demands of the area in the year 2030 and deliver more than 2000 TW hth of heat on a cost competitive level of 84 €/MW hel for electricity. Further, this can be accomplished for a synthetic natural gas price at the 2013 Japanese liquefied natural gas import price level and at no additional generation costs for the available heat. The total area system cost could reach 69.4 €/MW hel, if only the electricity sector is taken into account. In this system about 20% of the energy is exchanged between the 13 regions, reflecting a rather decentralized character which is supplied 27% by stored energy. The major storage technologies are batteries for daily storage and power-to-gas for seasonal storage. Prosumers are likely to play a significant role due to favourable economics. A highly resilient energy system with very high energy security standards would increase the electricity cost by 23% to 85.6 €/MW hel. The results clearly show that a 100% renewable energy based system is feasible and lower in cost than nuclear energy and fossil carbon capture and storage alternatives.

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      Martin Greiner
    Deep decarbonization of the electricity sector can be provided by a high penetration of renewable sources such as wind, solar PV and hydro power. Flexibility from hydro and storage complements the high temporal variability of wind and solar, and transmission infrastructure helps the power balancing by moving electricity in the spatial dimension. We study cost-optimal highly-renewable Chinese power systems under ambitious CO 2 emission reduction targets, by deploying a 31-node hourly-resolved techno-economic optimization model supported by a validated weather-converted 38-year-long renewable power generation and electricity demand dataset. With a new realistic reservoir hydro model, we find that if CO 2 emission reduction goes beyond 70%, storage facilities such as hydro, battery and hydrogen become necessary for a moderate system cost. Numerical results show that these flexibility components can lower renewable curtailment by two thirds, allow higher solar PV share by a factor of two and contribute to covering summer cooling demand. We show that expanding unidirectional high-voltage DC lines on top of the regional inter-connections is technically sufficient and more economical than ultra-high-voltage-AC-connected “One-Net” grid. Finally, constraining transmission volume from the optimum by up to 25% does not push total costs much higher, while the significant need for battery storage remains even with abundant interconnectivity.
  • Article
    • Maarten Brinkerink
      Maarten Brinkerink
    • Brian O Gallachoir
      Brian O Gallachoir
    • Paul Deane
    Globally interconnected power grids are proposed as a future concept to facilitate decarbonisation of the electricity system by enabling the harnessing and sharing of vast amounts of renewable energy. Areas with the highest potential for renewable energy are often far away from current load centres, which can be integrated through long-distance transmission interconnection. The concept builds on the proven benefits of transmission interconnection in mitigating the variability of renewable electricity sources such as wind and solar by import and export of electricity between neighbouring regions, as well as on other known benefits of power system integration. This paper reviews existing global and regional initiatives in context of a sustainable future and presents the associated benefits and challenges of globally interconnected power grids and intercontinental interconnectors. We find that while the challenges and opportunities are clearly qualified, actual quantification of costs, benefits and environmental implications of the global grid concept remains in its infancy, imposing a significant gap in the literature.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Ali Razmjoo
      Ali Razmjoo
    • Andreas Sumper
    • Afshin Davarpanah
      Afshin Davarpanah
    Electrical production for residential areas is one of the most important goals of SDGs (17 UN goal) and UN-Habitat III (14 goals) that can be achieved by renewable energy. Now, renewable energy is a significant issue that must be considered seriously as a policy and in order to achieve energy sustainability on a global scale especially in whole developing countries. Also, since the role of renewable energy in sustainable development is remarkable, thus this article presents a comprehensive discussion of energy sustainability for urban areas with related energy indicators and technical analysis of a Hybrid Power System to show the importance of renewable energy to gain energy sustainability. This paper presents the feasibility of using PV-DG hybrid systems as the reliable energy by an economic and technical analysis in one of the southern cities of Iran use of HOMER software. Regarding the high average of solar radiation that is about 5.4 kWh/m2/d in Chabahar city, technical analysis of this system demonstrates that this city has a high capacity to producing the electrical energy via PV-diesel hybrid system with total electrical production amount of 10,575 kWh/yr from PV (8,447 kWh/yr) and Diesel system (2,128 kWh/yr). For do this work at the first, the required data is gathered from the meteorological organization of Iran and then technical and economic analysis is conducted with the Homer software. This study regarding the high potential of solar energy of Chabahar city shows that to achieve development especially in the energy sustainability field needs to implementing proper actions such as enough investment on clean energy and using renewable energy for electrical production.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Ali Razmjoo
      Ali Razmjoo
    • Afshin Davarpanah
      Afshin Davarpanah
    • Amirhossein zargarian
    The aim of this study is an economic and technical analysis of a hybrid system in the Semirom city of Iran that is performed by a technical-economic analysis on combined utilization of solar-wind and diesel system. In this study HOMER software is utilized for economic assessment and optimization. At first, the related meteorological data gathered and then using Homer software the calculation was carried out. This city has good potential for solar and wind energy. The solar radiation ranges of Semirom city is from 2.88 to 7.78 kWh/m2/d, and the wind speed ranges are from 2.9 to 5.3 m/s. Solar and wind analyses on Semirom show that this city have great potential in solar and wind energy generation because this city has a proper position to receive sun solar and has high potential in wind speed for wind power generation. Regarding this study and due to high potential in solar and wind energy in Semirom, investments on renewable energy sector of this city will be economically justified.
  • Article
    • Sebastian Zapata-Ramirez
      Sebastian Zapata-Ramirez
    Across the world, the electricity industry is changing with the advent of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind power. As these are exposed to intermittency, seasonality, and global-climate-variation, policy-makers' concerns are now shifting towards security of supply. In fact, the industry confronts three conflicting goals: security of supply, competitive prices to customers, and environmental protection. In this context, and given the multiple uncertainties of technology transformation, this paper uses modelling-based scenario analysis to investigate different extreme and plausible futures. Simulation is used to analyse policies aimed at increasing the penetration of renewables and to explore how these energy sources may affect system reliability. This paper explores the effect of incorporating renewables in Colombia, where a large hydroelectric component has led to insufficient electricity being available during droughts and to high electricity price volatility. Though not intuitive at first glance, this paper shows that renewables may contribute to: i) increased security of supply through complementarity, e.g., it does not rain when the sun shines; ii) reduced price volatility in the medium-term, and iii) increased industry sustainability.
  • Article
    • Yan-Xin Duan
    • Fanlu Meng
      Fanlu Meng
    • Kai-Hua Liu
    • Qing Jiang
      Qing Jiang
    Conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) into valuable chemicals, especially liquid fuels, through electrochemical reduction driven by sustainable energy sources, is a promising way to get rid of dependence on fossil fuels, wherein developing of highly efficient catalyst is still of paramount importance. In this study, as a proof-of-concept experiment, first a facile while very effective protocol is proposed to synthesize amorphous Cu NPs. Unexpectedly, superior electrochemical performances, including high catalytic activity and selectivity of CO2 reduction to liquid fuels are achieved, that is, a total Faradaic efficiency of liquid fuels can sum up to the maximum value of 59% at −1.4 V, with formic acid (HCOOH) and ethanol (C2H6O) account for 37% and 22%, respectively, as well as a desirable long-term stability even up to 12 h. More importantly, this work opens a new avenue for improved electroreduction of CO2 based on amorphous metal catalysts.
  • Article
    • Mark Z Jacobson
      Mark Z Jacobson
    • Mark A Delucchi
      Mark A Delucchi
    • Mary Cameron
      Mary Cameron
    • Brian Vad Mathiesen
      Brian Vad Mathiesen
    Matching electricity, heat, and cold demand with supply at low cost is the greatest concern facing countries seeking to provide their all-purpose energy with 100% clean, renewable wind, water, and sunlight (WWS). Implementing WWS worldwide could eliminate 4–7 million annual air pollution deaths, first slow then reverse global warming, and provide energy sustainably. This study derives zero-load-loss technical solutions to matching demand with 100% WWS supply; heat, cold, and electricity storage; hydrogen production; assumed all-distance transmission; and demand response for 20 world regions encompassing 139 countries after they electrify or provide direct heat for all energy in 2050. Multiple solutions are found, including those with batteries and heat pumps but zero added hydropower turbines and zero thermal energy storage. Whereas WWS and Business-As-Usual (BAU) energy costs per unit energy are similar, WWS requires ∼42.5% less energy in a base case and ∼57.9% less in a heat-pump case so may reduce capital and consumer costs significantly. Further, WWS social (energy + health + climate) costs per unit energy are one-fourth BAU's. By reducing water vapor, the wind turbines proposed may rapidly offset ∼3% global warming while also displacing fossil-fuel emissions. Thus, with careful planning, the world's energy challenges may be solvable with a practical technique.
  • Article
    • Christoph Zöphel
      Christoph Zöphel
    • Steffi Schreiber
      Steffi Schreiber
    • Theresa Ladwig
      Theresa Ladwig
    • Dominik Möst
    Purpose of ReviewIn the last decade, the growing penetration of renewable energy sources has induced an increasing research interest in the analysis of flexible energy systems. In particular, the integration of intermittent renewable energy sources, as wind and photovoltaic energy, requires flexibility to compensate the imbalances between energy demand and supply. The objective of the paper is to provide a comprehensive literature review about the role of flexibility options in different electricity systems with focus on Europe and selected countries. Recent FindingsAccording to the present analysis, it can be pointed out that the portfolio of flexibility options and the interdependencies between them are based on the prevalent energy system in a country or region. SummaryThe research on flexibility measures is mainly driven by the observed energy system characteristics as well as the pursued climate protection strategy. Additionally, it is not possible to cover the prospective flexibility needs with one flexibility option. Moreover, the optimal portfolio of flexibility measures depends on the type of flexibility provision required, the cost-effectiveness and whether the considered energy system is on a national or transnational level.
  • Chapter
    It is considered that the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam) has an ideal environment for introducing and spreading Smart Grids. Although power demands in Vietnam are increasing rapidly and continuously, the infrastructure for smart grids is still underdeveloped so that the demands have not been satisfied yet, and the same can be said for the other South-Eastern countries. Most of their thermoelectric power plants are generating power by using diesel generators and the hydroelectric power generation is another means of securing power. It seems that the governments in this region prefer a small-scale power system linked to new and renewable energies rather than supporting some large-scale power generation projects due to their regional characteristics being consisted of a number of islands where power infrastructures are inadequate. The demands for an independent power system are being demanded in the countries with many islands such as Indonesia, Malaysia or Thailand such that it is essential to find new export-oriented businesses in these areas and push ahead with the construction of test beds for smart grids. In this regard, this study considers the possibility of introducing a Korean model smart grid in Vietnam while considering their situation and trend of new and renewable energies.
  • Article
    • Pol Arranz-Piera
      Pol Arranz-Piera
    • Francis Kemausuor
      Francis Kemausuor
    • Lawrence Darkwah
      Lawrence Darkwah
    • Enrique Velo
      Enrique Velo
    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are emphatic on the role of energy for development, with a target to ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services to about 1.3 billion people without electricity access, and to increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix. For remote rural communities in developing countries, where grid extension is often expensive, decentralized biomass mini-grids can be a reliable electricity supply solution. This study investigated the technical and financial feasibility of decentralized electrification based on agricultural waste gasification in five Ghanaian communities. Results show that the projected electricity demand of the communities compares favorably with the potential energy generation from available agricultural residues, a situation that we envisage in many rural communities where agriculture is a predominant livelihood activity. As with most biomass electricity analysis, it is not profitable from the perspective of an entrepreneur with 100% private funding; however, by applying a customer tariff equal to the current expenditure on electricity equivalent uses in the communities, a subsidy of about 35% on initial investment would enable a private entrepreneur an internal rate of return of 15%, whereas a 60% subsidy could enable internal rate of return of 25%.
  • Article
    • Mark Z Jacobson
      Mark Z Jacobson
    • Vijaysinh Jadhav
    This study provides estimates of photovoltaic (PV) panel optimal tilt angles for all countries worldwide. It then estimates the incident solar radiation normal to either tracked or optimally tilted panels relative to horizontal panels globally. Optimal tilts are derived from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's PVWatts program. A simple 3rd-order polynomial fit of optimal tilt versus latitude is derived. The fit matches data better above 40° N latitude than do previous linear fits. Optimal tilts are then used in the global 3-D GATOR-GCMOM model to estimate annual ratios of incident radiation normal to optimally tilted, 1-axis vertically tracked (swiveling vertically around a horizontal axis), 1-axis horizontally tracked (at optimal tilt and swiveling horizontally around a vertical axis), and 2-axis tracked panels relative to horizontal panels in 2050. Globally- and annually-averaged, these ratios are ∼1.19, ∼1.22, ∼1.35, and ∼1.39, respectively. 1-axis horizontal tracking differs from 2-axis tracking, annually averaged, by only 1–3% at most all latitudes. 1-axis horizontal tracking provides much more output than 1-axis vertical tracking below 65° N and S, whereas output is similar elsewhere. Tracking provides little benefit over optimal tilting above 75° N and 60° S. Tilting and tracking benefits generally increase with increasing latitude. In fact, annually averaged, more sunlight reach tilted or tracked panels from 80 to 90° S than any other latitude. Tilting and tracking benefit cities of the same latitude with lesser aerosol and cloud cover. In sum, for optimal utility PV output, 1-axis horizontal tracking is recommended, except for the highest latitudes, where optimal tilting is sufficient. However, decisions about panel configuration also require knowing tracking equipment and land costs, which are not evaluated here. Installers should also calculate optimal tilt angles for their location for more accuracy. Models that ignore optimal tilting for rooftop PV and utility PV tracking may underestimate significantly country or world PV potential.
  • Article
    • Dmitrii Bogdanov
      Dmitrii Bogdanov
    • Christian Breyer
    • Francisco Javier Farfan Orozco
      Francisco Javier Farfan Orozco
    • Kristina Sadovskaia
      Kristina Sadovskaia
    Accordingly to the COP21 Paris Agreement a net zero greenhouse gas emission energy system must be built no later than 2050. Such a fast power system transition will be very challenging for the conditions of Northeast Asia, a region with a large and fast growing power demand. Power system transition modelling was performed in order to check the technical feasibility of such a transition. The results of the simulation show that the transition can be accomplished and a 100% renewable energy system is both technically feasible and economically viable in Northeast Asia with average electricity generation cost of around 55 €/MWh. Solar photovoltaic (PV) will become the major energy source in Northeast Asia with a generation share of more than 70%; wind energy will contribute to 18% of the generation. Decarbonisation of the system can be achieved quite fast: by 2035 CO 2eq emissions in the power sector will decrease by 95 and 99% by 2045, respectively.
  • Article
    • Dmitrii Bogdanov
      Dmitrii Bogdanov
    • Christian Breyer
    • Svetlana Afanasyeva
      Svetlana Afanasyeva
    The two main options on the market for utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) installations are fixed-tilted and single-axis tracking systems with a horizontal north-south-orientated axis. However, only a few global energy system studies consider the latter. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of single-axis tracking PV on energy scenarios. For this purpose, two scenarios with and without the single-axis tracking option are studied for 100% renewable energy (RE) systems in 2030. To find the optimum energy mix for both scenarios, the total annual cost computed by the LUT Energy System model is minimized. The satellite-based input global data have a temporal resolution of one hour and a spatial resolution of 0.45° × 0.45°. Furthermore, a model to estimate the annual yield of single-axis tracking PV is proposed and validated by using the PVsyst software. The simulation results are found to be within a 4% margin to the respective simulation results of PVsyst. Both scenarios demonstrate that a 100% RE system is possible at a low cost, where PV and wind power are the dominating generation technologies. Nevertheless, the results also show a significant effect of single-axis tracking PV. The global generation share of PV increases from 47% to 59%, and 20% of the total electricity is generated by single-axis tracking PV, while the share of wind energy decreases from 31% to 21%. Additionally, curtailment, power transmission requirements, storage demand, and the total cost decrease. The global average levelized cost of electricity decreases by 6% from 54.8 to 51.4 €/MWh. The findings indicate that energy system modeling should include single-axis tracking.
  • Technical Report
    Full-text available
    • Joni Karjalainen
      Joni Karjalainen
    • Sirkka Heinonen
      Sirkka Heinonen
    • Nicolas Balcom Raleigh
      Nicolas Balcom Raleigh
    • Morgan Shaw
      Morgan Shaw
    The point of discussing renewable energy technologies in the context of cultural transformation is to highlight culture as a game changer and catalyst for change. Too often only economic, technological and political dimensions are taken as key drivers for change. This working paper presents the results of the workshop session “New great electrification as Cultural Transformation for post-oil era – Everybody on board!” that was organised as a Special Millennium Project Workshop in Tampere June 14, 2018, within the conference “Energizing Futures – Sustainable Development and Energy in Transition”. In his keynote speech Jerome Glenn opened up vistas for how it is widely understood that the applications of artificial narrow intelligence (ANI) to all elements of the industrial production processes and service industries (The Fourth Industrial Revolution) will have a great impact on energy, employment, and the economy. However, it is less well understood that the applications of artificial general intelligence (AGI) and synergies among next technologies will generate far more profound changes than ANI and could create the Self-Actualization Economy and Culture. The starting point for the workshop was to explore futures of an economy, based on a new, entirely renewable energy based energy system in a peer-to-peer society 2050. The key question addressed was how to organise a circular economy with renewable energy and peer-to-peer principles? Five moderated small groups tackled this issue as follows. One group chose mobility and equality as their special focus and discussed how they could be achieved in the envisioned society. They came up with the entity of “Mobility, equality, and distributing aspirational dreams as personal simulations”. The second group chose as their topic the nexus of skills, education-to-employment, and inequalities, asking what kinds of education and skills are needed to achieve such a society, overcome national and global inequalities, and what kinds of new jobs will be available in that kind of a society? They crystallized their reflexions to “Peer-to-peer learning – aided by robotisation and AI or not?” The third group selected health as their focal issue, especially the connection between food and health. They questioned the concepts of control, and what is natural/artificial and envisioned “Farewell to hospitals: decentralised, multi-technology health care”. The fourth group concentrated on new risks for individual members of such a society. They identified a number of compelling competences for individuals to make the most of a peer-to-peer environment. They envisioned their results into “AI-Enabled Empathy Exchange”. The fifth group took leisure as their topic and discussed how leisure is organised in the envisioned society and what the tools are that constitute the sphere of leisure. They created a vision of “Self-Actualization for leisure (and work) in virtual reality”.
  • Article
    • Michael Child
      Michael Child
    • Christian Breyer
    • Roope Ilonen
    • Mihail Vavilov
    High shares of renewable energy, particularly wind power, were modelled in several future scenarios for the Scottish energy system. In the first part of this work, it was determined that Scotland could produce the equivalent baseload power for supply to England at a lower overall cost (99 €/MWh) than the proposed subsidized price (112 €/MWh) to be paid for electricity generated from the proposed Hinkley Point C nuclear power plant. This cost includes all extra generation capacity and transmission lines. In the second part of this work, it was determined that a 100% renewable energy system could be achieved at an annualized cost of 10.7 b€/a, approximately 8% less than the 11.7 b€/a expected for an energy system composed of 75% renewable energy. In the 100% renewable energy system, cost savings are achieved through effective energy storage, sector integration, and flexible generation from dispatchable renewable energy resources, such as hydropower (1.7 GWe), bioenergy, and synthetic fuels. Complementary resources to 23.4 GWe of wind power also included solar photovoltaics (10.1 GWe), tidal power (1.5 GWe), and wave power (0.3 GWe). It was also determined that carbon capture and utilization would be a preferable strategy to carbon capture and storage for Scotland. Complete defossilization of the Scottish energy system appears feasible by 2050, given the assumptions used in this study.
  • Article
    • Christian Breyer
    • Dmitrii Bogdanov
      Dmitrii Bogdanov
    • Siavash Khalili
      Siavash Khalili
    The Paris Agreement sets a clear target for net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the mid‐21st century. This implies that the transport sector has to reach zero GHG emissions mainly through direct and indirect electrification in the form of synthetic fuels, such as hydrogen and Fischer‐Tropsch (FT) fuels. The results of this research document that this very ambitious target is possible. This research analyses the global solar photovoltaics (PV) demand for achieving the Paris targets in the transport sector by the year 2050. The methodology is composed of the derivation of the transportation demand converted into final energy demand for direct electrification, hydrogen, methane, and FT‐fuels production. The power‐to‐gas (H2, CH4) and power‐to‐liquids (FT fuels) value chains are applied for the total electricity demand, which will be mostly fulfilled by PV, taking into account previous results concerning the renewable electricity share of the energy transition in the power sector for the world structured in 145 regions and results aggregated to nine major regions. The results show a continuous demand increase for all transportation modes till 2050. The total global PV capacity demand by 2050 for the transport sector is estimated to be about 19.1 TWp, thereof 35%, 25%, 7%, and 33% for direct electrification, hydrogen, synthetic natural gas, and FT fuels, respectively. PV will be the key enabler of a full defossilisation of the transport sector with a demand comparable with the power sector but a slightly later growth dynamic, leading to a combined annual PV capacity demand of about 1.8 TWp around 2050.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Christian Breyer
    • Arman Aghahosseini
      Arman Aghahosseini
    • Mahdi Fasihi
      Mahdi Fasihi
    Pathways for achieving the 1.5–2 °C global temperature moderation target imply a massive scaling of carbon dioxide (CO2) removal technologies, in particular in the 2040s and onwards. CO2 direct air capture (DAC) is among the most promising negative emission technologies (NETs). The energy demands for low-temperature solid-sorbent DAC are mainly heat at around 100 °C and electricity, which lead to sustainably operated DAC systems based on low-cost renewable electricity and heat pumps for the heat supply. This analysis is carried out for the case of the Maghreb region, which enjoys abundantly available low-cost renewable energy resources. The energy transition results for the Maghreb region lead to a solar photovoltaic (PV)-dominated energy supply with some wind energy contribution. DAC systems will need the same energy supply structure. The research investigates the levelised cost of CO2 DAC (LCOD) in high spatial resolution and is based on full hourly modelling for the Maghreb region. The key results are LCOD of about 55 €/tCO2 in 2050 with a further cost reduction potential of up to 50%. The area demand is considered and concluded to be negligible. Major conclusions for CO2 removal as a new energy sector are drawn. Key options for a global climate change mitigation strategy are first an energy transition towards renewable energy and second NETs for achieving the targets of the Paris Agreement.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Ali Razmjoo
      Ali Razmjoo
    Energy accessibility especially electrical energy is considered as one of the most appealing factors to achieve energy sustainability. The purpose of this study is to investigate energy sustainability using renewable energies for two high potential cities in the southeast of Iran until the year 2030. In this regard, Homer software is used to evaluate economic and technical analyses of PV-wind-diesel hybrid system for the two cities by the data gathering which was collected from Iran's meteorological organization. Therefore, the average of solar radiation per month for Zabol and Zahak were about 9 and 9.1 (h/d). Also, mean wind speeds are calculated 5.35 m/s and 4.7 m/s for Zabol and Zahak respectively which proposed that these cities have high potential in order to electrical production by a hybrid system. Furthermore, the amount of electricity production by PV array for Zabol and Zahak were 1700 (kWh/yr) and 1669 (kWh/yr) respectively, and the amount of electricity production by wind turbine were 9036 (kWh/yr) and 7263(kWh/yr) for Zabol and Zahak respectively. Consequently, it is of elaborated that the investments on solar and wind energy sectors for both cities would be economically justified.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Ali Razmjoo
      Ali Razmjoo
    • Reza Shirmohammadi
      Reza Shirmohammadi
    • Afshin Davarpanah
      Afshin Davarpanah
    • Alireza Aslani
      Alireza Aslani
    Energy accessibility especially electrical energy is considered as one of the most appealing factors to achieve energy sustainability. The purpose of this study is to investigate energy sustainability using renewable energies for two high potential cities in the southeast of Iran until the year 2030. In this regard, Homer software is used to evaluate economic and technical analyses of PV-wind-diesel hybrid system for the two cities by the data gathering which was collected from Iran's meteorological organization. Therefore, the average of solar radiation per month for Zabol and Zahak were about 9 and 9.1 (h/d). Also, mean wind speeds are calculated 5.35 m/s and 4.7 m/s for Zabol and Zahak respectively which proposed that these cities have high potential in order to electrical production by a hybrid system. Furthermore, the amount of electricity production by PV array for Zabol and Zahak were 1700 (kWh/yr) and 1669 (kWh/yr) respectively, and the amount of electricity production by wind turbine were 9036 (kWh/yr) and 7263(kWh/yr) for Zabol and Zahak respectively. Consequently, it is of elaborated that the investments on solar and wind energy sectors for both cities would be economically justified.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Lyudmila Chudinova
    • Sergei Podkovalnikov
      Sergei Podkovalnikov
    • Ivan Trofimov
      Ivan Trofimov
    Considered is experience of electric power integration in different parts of the world with emphasis on bilateral/multilateral interstate structures intended for promotion and development of interstate power grids. Analysed are Northeast Asian intergovernmental structures providing bilateral energy and power cooperation between Russia and other countries of the region. Multilateral cooperation in the field is just emerging, but should play a key role in promotion and development of Northeast Asian power grid.
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    Knies G, editor. Clean power from deserts – the Desertec concept for energy, water and climate security. Whitebook. Hamburg: DESERTEC Foundation; 2009.
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    Fell H-J. Global cooling: strategies for climate protection. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2012.
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    Zhenya L. State Grid Corporation of China's vision on a global super grid. Business & Climate Summit 2015 -working together to build a better economy, UNESCO headquarters, Paris, May 20-21; 2015.
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  • The economic competitiveness of renewable energy: pathways to 100% global coverage
    • W Hoffmann
    Hoffmann W. The economic competitiveness of renewable energy: pathways to 100% global coverage. John Wiley & Sons; 2014.
  • Stromspeicher in der Energiewende Agora Energiewende, Berlin; 2014. <www.agora-energiewende.de/themen/ optimierung/detailansicht/article/studie-die-energiewende-muss-nicht-aufstromspeicher-warten/>
    • Agora Energiewende
    Agora Energiewende. Stromspeicher in der Energiewende. Agora Energiewende, Berlin; 2014. <www.agora-energiewende.de/themen/ optimierung/detailansicht/article/studie-die-energiewende-muss-nicht-aufstromspeicher-warten/> [accessed 30.01.2015] [in German].
  • Thesis
    • Daniel Stetter
    As electricity generation based on volatile renewable resources is subject to fluctuations, data with high temporal and spatial resolution on their availability is indispensable for integrating large shares of renewable capacities into energy infrastructures. The scope of the present doctoral thesis is to enhance the existing energy modelling environment REMix in terms of (i.) extending the geographic coverage of the potential assessment tool REMix-EnDaT from a European to a global scale, (ii.) adding a new plant siting optimization module REMix-PlaSMo, capable of assessing siting effects of renewable power plants on the portfolio output and (iii.) adding a new alternating current power transmission model between 30 European countries and CSP electricity imports from power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East via high voltage direct current links into the module REMix-OptiMo. With respect to the global potential assessment tool, a thorough investigation is carried out creating an hourly global inventory of the theoretical potentials of the major renewable resources solar irradiance, wind speed and river discharge at a spatial resolution of 0.45°x0.45°. A detailed global land use analysis determines eligible sites for the installation of renewable power plants. Detailed power plant models for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power allow for the assessment of power output, cost per kWh and respective full load hours taking into account the theoretical potentials, technological as well as economic data. The so-obtined tool REMix-EnDaT can be used as follows: First, as an assessment tool for arbitrary geographic locations, countries or world regions, deriving either site-specific or aggregated installable capacities, cost as well as full load hour potentials. Second, as a tool providing input data such as installable capacities and hourly renewable electricity generation for further assessments using the modules REMix-PlasMo and OptiMo. The plant siting tool REMix-PlaSMo yields results as to where the volatile power technologies photovoltaics and wind are to be located within a country in order to gain distinct effects on their aggregated power output. Three different modes are implemented: (a.) Optimized plant siting in order to obtain the cheapest generation cost, (b.) a minimization of the photovoltaic and wind portfolio output variance and (c.) a minimization of the residual load variance. The third fundamental addition to the REMix model is the amendment of the module REMix-OptiMo with a new power transmission model based on the DC load flow approximation. Moreover, electricity imports originating from concentrating solar power plants located in North Africa and the Middle East are now feasible. All of the new capabilities and extensions of REMix are employed in three case studies: In case study 1, using the module REMix-EnDaT, a global potential assessment is carried out for 10 OECD world regions, deriving installable capacities, cost and full load hours for PV, CSP, wind and hydro power. According to the latter, photovoltaics will represent the cheapest technology in 2050, an average of 1634 full load hours could lead to an electricity generation potential of some 5500 PWh. Although CSP also taps solar irradiance, restrictions in terms of suitable sites for erecting power plants are more severe. For that reason, the maximum potential amounts to some 1500 PWh. However, thermal energy storage can be used, which, according to this assessment, could lead to 5400 hours of full load operation. Onshore wind power could tap a potential of 717 PWh by 2050 with an average of 2200 full load hours while offshore, wind power plants could achieve a total power generation of 224 PWh with an average of 3000 full load hours. The electricity generation potential of hydro power exceeds 3 PWh, 4600 full load hours of operation are reached on average. In case study 2, using the module REMix-PlaSMo, an assessment for Morocco is carried out as to determine limits of volatile power generation in portfolios approaching full supply based on renewable power. The volatile generation technologies are strategically sited at specific locations to take advantage of available resources conditions. It could be shown that the cost optimal share of volatile power generation without considering storage or transmission grid extensions is one third. Moreover, the average power generation cost using a portfolio consisting of PV, CSP, wind and hydro power can be stabilized at about 10 €ct/kWh by the year 2050. In case study 3, using the module REMix-OptiMo, a validation of a TRANS-CSP scenario based upon high shares of renewable power generation is carried out. The optimization is conducted on an hourly basis using a least cost approach, thereby investigating if and how demand is met during each hour of the investigated year. It could be shown, that the assumed load can safely be met in all countries for each hour using the scenario's power plant portfolio. Furthermore, it was proven that dispatchable renewable power generation, in particular CSP imports to Europe, have a system stabilizing effect. Using the suggested concept, the utilization of the transfer capacities between countries would decrease until 2050.
  • UDI world electric power plants database (WEPP)
    • Platts
    Platts. UDI world electric power plants database (WEPP). Platts -a division of The McGraw-Hill, Washington; 2012.
  • Chapter
    • Winfried Hoffmann
    Likelihood of a 100% Renewable World Global Network or Local Autonomy? Timeline for a 100% Renewable World
  • Chapter
    • Winfried Hoffmann
    Basic Energy Terms Global Energy Situation Energy Sectors Challenges for Fossil Fuels Problems with Nuclear Energy
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • D. Connolly
    • Brian Vad Mathiesen
      Brian Vad Mathiesen
    This paper outlines how an existing energy system can be transformed into a 100% renewable energy system. The transition is divided into a number of key stages which reflect key radical technological changes on the supply side of the energy system. Ireland is used as a case study,but in reality this reflects many typical energy systems today which use power plants for electricity, individual boilers for heat, and oil for transport. The seven stages analysed are 1) reference, 2) introduction of district heating, 3) installation of small and large-scale heat pumps,4) reducing grid regulation requirements, 5) adding flexible electricity demands and electric vehicles, 6) producing synthetic methanol/DME for transport, and finally 7) using synthetic gas to replace the remaining fossil fuels. For each stage, the technical and economic performance of the energy system is calculated. The results indicate that a 100% renewable energy system can provide the same end-user energy demands as today’s energy system and at the same price. Electricity will be the backbone of the energy system, but the flexibility in today’s electricity sector will be transferred from the supply side of the demand side in the future. Similarly, due to changes in the type of spending required in a 100% renewable energy system, this scenario will result in the creation of 100,000 additional jobs in Ireland compared to an energy system like today’s. These results are significant since they indicate that the transition to a 100% renewable energy system can begin today, without increasing the cost of energy in the short- or long-term, if the costs currently forecasted for 2050 become a reality.
  • Article
    • Andreas Palzer
      Andreas Palzer
    • H.-M. Henning
    A clear consensus exists in German society that renewable energy resources have to play a dominant role in the future German energy supply system. However, many questions are still under discussion; for instance the relevance of the different technologies such as photovoltaic systems and wind energy converters installed offshore in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. Concerns also exist about the cost of a future energy system mainly based on renewable energy. In the work presented here we tried to answer some of those questions. Guiding questions for this study were: (1) is it possible to meet the German energy demand with 100% renewable energy, considering the available technical potential of the main renewable energy resources? (2) what is the overall annual cost of such an energy system once it has been implemented? (3) what is the best combination of renewable energy converters, storage units, energy converters and energy-saving measures? In order to answer these questions, we carried out many simulation calculations using REMod-D, a model we developed for this purpose. This model is described in Part I of this publication. To date this model covers only part of the energy system, namely the electricity and heat sectors, which correspond to about 62% of Germany's current energy demand. The main findings of our work indicate that it is possible to meet the total electricity and heat demand (space heating, hot water) of the entire building sector with 100% renewable energy within the given technical limits. This is based on the assumption that the heat demand of the building sector is significantly reduced by at least 60% or more compared to today's demand. Another major result of our analysis shows that - once the transformation of the energy system has been completed - supplying electricity and heat only from renewables is no more expensive than the existing energy supply.
  • Article
    • Christian Breyer
    • Dmitrii Bogdanov
      Dmitrii Bogdanov
    • Keiichi Komoto
      Keiichi Komoto
    • Enebish Namjil
      Enebish Namjil
    Further development of the North-East Asian energy system is at a crossroads due to severe limitations of the current conventional energy based system. For North-East Asia it is proposed that the excellent solar and wind resources of the Gobi desert could enable the transformation towards a 100% renewable energy system. An hourly resolved model describes an energy system for North-East Asia, subdivided into 14 regions interconnected by high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission grids. Simulations are made for highly centralized, decentralized and countrywide grids scenarios. The results for total system levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) are 0.065 and 0.081 €/(kW&h) for the centralized and decentralized approaches for 2030 assumptions. The presented results for 100% renewable resources-based energy systems are lower in LCOE by about 30–40% than recent findings in Europe for conventional alternatives. This research clearly indicates that a 100% renewable resources based energy system is THE real policy option.
  • Article
    • Matthias Huber
      Matthias Huber
    • Albert Roger
      Albert Roger
    • Thomas Hamacher
    The electricity consumption in the ASEAN (Association of East Asian Nations) region is one of the fastest growing in the world and will lead to a dramatic increase in greenhouse gas emissions in the next decades. A decarbonization of the region's electricity supply is thus a very important measure when taking action on global climate change. This paper defines cost-optimal pathways towards a sustainable power system in the region by employing linear optimization. The proposed model simultaneously optimizes the required capacities and the hourly operation of generation, transmission, and storage. The obtained results show that all different kinds of renewable sources will have to be utilized, while none of them should have a share of more than one third. The findings give reason for setting up an ASEAN power grid, as it enables the transportation of electricity from the best sites to load centers and leads to a balancing of the fluctuations from wind and solar generation. We suggest fostering a diversified extension of renewables and to elaborate on political and technical solutions that enable the build up an transnational supergrid.
  • Article
    • Christos-Spyridon Karavas
    • Georgios Kyriakarakos
      Georgios Kyriakarakos
    • Kostas Arvanitis
      Kostas Arvanitis
    • George Papadakis
      George Papadakis
    The autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology has been developed in order to cover holistically needs in a remote area such as electrical energy, space heating and cooling, potable water through desalination and hydrogen as fuel for transportation. The existence of an advanced energy management system is essential for the operation of an autonomous polygeneration microgrid. So far, energy management systems based on a centralized management and control have been developed for the autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology based on computational intelligence approaches. A decentralized management and control energy management system can have important benefits, when taking into consideration the autonomous character of these microgrids. This paper presents the design and investigation of a decentralized energy management system for the autonomous polygeneration microgrid topology. The decentralized energy management system gives the possibility to control each unit of the microgrid independently. The most important advantage of using a decentralized architecture is that the managed microgrid has much higher chances of partial operation in cases when malfunctions occur at different parts of it, instead of a complete system breakdown. The designed system was based on a multi-agent system and employed Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for its implementation. It was then compared through a case study with an existing centralized energy management system. The technical performance of the decentralized solution performance is on par with the existing centralized one, presenting improvements in financial and operational terms for the implementation and operation of an autonomous polygeneration microgrid.
  • Article
    • Jakob Zinck Thellufsen
      Jakob Zinck Thellufsen
    • Henrik Lund
      Henrik Lund
    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation of the current Danish energy system, the combination of reductions in heat and electricity demands is analysed within the Danish district heating sector to show the benefits of coordinating savings in the electricity and district heating sectors.
  • Article
    • Judith Gurney
    • British Petroleum Company
  • Conference Paper
    Full-text available
    • Benoit Braisaz
      Benoit Braisaz
    • Chloé Duchayne
    • Mike Van Iseghem
      Mike Van Iseghem
    • Khalid Radouane
    Photovoltaic installations are usually guaranteed to operate for 25 to 30 years, with a warranty of 80% of initial performance remaining after this time. However, in order to determine the profitability of a project, it is important to estimate the performance of the photovoltaic modules over their lifetime, depending on their environment. In this study, a first version of an ageing model for photovoltaic systems is considered, taking into account the influence of the environmental stress factors, which are the temperature, the relative humidity, and the exposure to UV radiation. Another stress factor also needs to be taken into account: the module's voltage potential versus ground (Potential Induced Degradation). The impact of cell cracks on the modules is also included in the model, their impact over the years depending on the temperature, but mainly to thermal cycles, due to the differences in temperature between day and night (thermal dilatation). Accelerated Damp Heat tests, thermal cycling tests, PID tests and UV tests are interpreted and used for calibrating the model, in addition to other degradation studies taken from relevant literature. A simple model is first built for the corrosion, with the temperature and humidity as stress factors, considering only the maximum power degradation. A more advanced model is then built, considering the degradation of the two-diode model parameters. A model has been built for each degradation, that is to say corrosion (temperature and humidity), AR coating and EVA discoloration (UV exposure), PID causes (temperature, humidity and voltage), and cell cracks (Thermal cycling). First simulations have been done, with weather data from the south of France (Mediterranean climate), Miami (hot and humid), and Dubai (hot and dry) showing that the power output after 30 years is still above the warranty limit of 80%.
  • Article
    • D. Karl Critz
    • Sarah Busche
    • S. Connors
    The State of Hawaii's Clean Energy policies call for 40% of the state's electricity to be supplied by renewable sources by 2030. A recent study focusing on the island of Oahu showed that meeting large amounts of the island's electricity needs with wind and solar introduced significant operational challenges, especially when renewable generation varies from forecasts. This paper focuses on the potential of demand response in balancing supply and demand on an hourly basis. Using the WILMAR model, various levels and prices of demand response were simulated. Results indicate that demand response has the potential to smooth overall power system operation, with production cost savings arising from both improved thermal power plant operations and increased wind production. Demand response program design and cost structure is then discussed drawing from industry experience in direct load control programs.
  • Conference Paper
    • Keiichi Komoto
      Keiichi Komoto
    • Enebish Namjil
      Enebish Namjil
    • Jinsoo Song
    Case studies for very large scale PV (VLS-PV) in desert areas, by the IEA PVPS Task8 study, showed that the Gobi desert area of Mongolia is one of the most promising candidate sites for VLS-PV. It is expected that the demonstration phase will be started in the near-term, and it is intended that a concrete sustainable development scheme would be designed and that the capacity of the total PV system, VLS-PV, will reach GW-scale. Further, thinking about a concept of 'Renewable Energy Super Grid' in North-East Asia, the VLS-PV systems should play important roles.
  • Conference Paper
    • Christian Breyer
    • Alexander Gerlach
      Alexander Gerlach
    • Chris Werner
      Chris Werner
    Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. An updated grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for 215 countries/ islands and a total of 645 market segments all over the world. High PV industry growth rates have enabled a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. First grid-parity events have already occurred. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the world, reaching an addressable market of up to 96% of total global electricity market till 2030. In consequence, new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits will be required. In parallel, PV industry tackle its next milestone, fuel-parity. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Sander A. Mann
      Sander A. Mann
    • Mariska J. Wild‐Scholten
    • Vasilis M. Fthenakis
    • Wim C. Sinke
      Wim C. Sinke
    The photovoltaic (PV) market is experiencing vigorous growth, whereas prices are dropping rapidly. This growth has in large part been possible through public support, deserved for its promise to produce electricity at a low cost to the environment. It is therefore important to monitor and minimize environmental impacts associated with PV technologies. In this work, we forecast the environmental performance of crystalline silicon technologies in 2020, the year in which electricity from PV is anticipated to be competitive with wholesale electricity costs all across Europe. Our forecasts are based on technological scenario development and a prospective life cycle assessment with a thorough uncertainty and sensitivity analysis. We estimate that the energy payback time at an in-plane irradiation of 1700 kWh/(m2 year) of crystalline silicon modules can be reduced to below 0.5 years by 2020, which is less than half of the current energy payback time. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Conference Paper
    • Christian Breyer
    • Ann-Katrin Gerlach
      Ann-Katrin Gerlach
    • Daniel Stetter
    • Jürgen Schmid
    PV and wind power are the major renewable power technologies in most regions on earth. Depending on the interaction of solar and wind resources, PV and wind power industry will become competitors or allies. Time resolved geospatial data of global horizontal irradiation and wind speeds are used to simulate the power feed-in of PV and wind power plants assumed to be installed on an equally rated power basis in every region of a 1°x1° mesh of latitude and longitude between 65°N and 65°S. An overlap of PV and wind power full load hours is defined as measure for the complementarity of both technologies and identified as ranging between 5% and 25% of total PV and wind power feed-in. Critical overlap full load hours are introduced as a measure for energy losses that would appear if the grid was dimensioned only for one power plant of PV or wind. In result, they do not exceed 9% of total feed-in but are mainly around 3% - 4%. Thus the two major renewable power technologies must be characterized by complementing each other.
  • Article
    • Christian Breyer
    • Guido Pleßmann
      Guido Pleßmann
    • Matthias Erdmann
      Matthias Erdmann
    • Markus Hlusiak
    This study demonstrates – based on a dynamical simulation of a global, decentralized 100% renewable electricity supply scenario – that a global climate-neutral electricity supply based on the volatile energy sources photovoltaics (PV), wind energy (onshore) and concentrated solar power (CSP) is feasible at decent cost. A central ingredient of this study is a sophisticated model for the hourly electric load demand in >160 countries. To guarantee matching of load demand in each hour, the volatile primary energy sources are complemented by three electricity storage options: batteries, high-temperature thermal energy storage coupled with steam turbine, and renewable power methane (generated via the Power to Gas process) which is reconverted to electricity in gas turbines. The study determines – on a global grid with 1°x1° resolution – the required power plant and storage capacities as well as the hourly dispatch for a 100% renewable electricity supply under the constraint of minimized total system cost (LCOE). Aggregating the results on a national level results in an levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) range of 80-200 EUR/MWh (on a projected cost basis for the year 2020) in this very decentralized approach. As a global average, 142 EUR/MWh are found. Due to the restricted number of technologies considered here, this represents an upper limit for the electricity cost in a fully renewable electricity supply.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Diana Böttger
      Diana Böttger
    • Mario Götz
      Mario Götz
    • Nelly Lehr
    • Thomas Bruckner
      Thomas Bruckner
    The increasing amount of power generation from weather-dependent renewable sources in Germany is projected to lead to a considerable number of hours in which power generation exceeds power demand. One possibility to take advantage of this power surplus is through the Power-to-Heat technology. As combined heat and power (CHP)-plants can be upgraded relatively easily with a Power-to-Heat facility, a huge potential can be developed in German district heating grids which are mainly served by CHP-plants. In this paper the potential of the Power-to-Heat technology in district heating grids in Germany is evaluated for the years 2015 to 2030 under different assumptions.
  • Article
    • William F. Ruddiman
    The start of the period of large-scale human effects on this planet (the Anthropocene) is debated. The industrial view holds that most significant impacts have occurred since the early industrial era (˜1850), whereas the early-anthropogenic view recognizes large impacts thousands of years earlier. This review focuses on three indices of global-scale human influence: forest clearance (and related land use), emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4), and effects on global temperature. Because reliable, systematic land-use surveys are rare prior to 1950, most reconstructions for early-industrial centuries and prior millennia are hind casts that assume humans have used roughly the same amount of land per person for 7,000 years. But this assumption is incorrect. Historical data and new archeological databases reveal much greater per-capita land use in preindustrial than in recent centuries. This early forest clearance caused much greater preindustrial greenhouse-gas emissions and global temperature changes than those proposed within the industrial paradigm.
  • Article
    • J.A. Duffie
    • W.A. Beckman
      W.A. Beckman
    The book focuses on solar radiation characteristics, solar radiation available for practical applications, heat transfer, radiation characteristics of opaque materials, theory of flat-plate collectors, and concentrating collectors. Also discussed are solar process economics, solar water heating, solar heating system design, solar cooling, conversion to mechanical energy, evaporative processes, and selfgradient ponds.
  • Article
    • Thomas Huld
      Thomas Huld
    • Marcel Šúri
      Marcel Šúri
    • Ewan Dunlop
      Ewan Dunlop
    We present a geographical assessment of the performance of crystalline silicon photovoltaic (PV) modules over Europe. We have developed a method that is based on a material specific analytical expression of the PV conversion efficiency, relative to nominal efficiency, as a function of module temperature and irradiance. This method is combined with a climate database that includes average daytime temperature and irradiance profiles. It is found that the geographical variation in ambient temperature and yearly irradiation causes a decrease in overall yearly PV performance from 3 to 13% relative to the performance under Standard Test Conditions, with the highest decrease found in the Mediterranean region. Based on the above results we developed a simplified linear expression of the relative PV module efficiency that is a simple function of yearly total irradiation and yearly average daytime temperature. The coefficients to the linear expression are found by fitting to the map resulting from the above-mentioned analytical approach. The prediction of total yearly PV output from this linear fit deviates less than 0·5% from the more detailed calculation, thus providing a faster and more simplified alternative to the yield estimate, in the case when only limited climate data are available. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Article
    Full-text available
    • Stewart Taggart
    • Geoffrey Carlyle James
      Geoffrey Carlyle James
    • Z.Y. Dong
      Z.Y. Dong
    • Christopher Russell
    In this paper, we argue that Asia's unique geography, abundant low-emission energy resources, rapid economic growth, and rising energy demands merit consideration of a Pan-Asian Energy Infrastructure. In our study, we focus on development of wind and solar resources in Australia, China, Mongolia, and Vietnam as the potential foundation for an electricity grid stretching from China to Australia. Hourly climate data for a full year are used to estimate renewable energy generation, electricity demand, generation capacity are projected forward to the year 2025, and economic dispatch in an international market is simulated to demonstrate cost benefits. Intermittency, connectivity, future dispatch orders, storage, line losses, and engineering and financial issues are all addressed.
  • Article
    • Paul R. Epstein
    • Jonathan J Buonocore
      Jonathan J Buonocore
    • Kevin Eckerle
      Kevin Eckerle
    • Leslie W Glustrom
    Each stage in the life cycle of coal-extraction, transport, processing, and combustion-generates a waste stream and carries multiple hazards for health and the environment. These costs are external to the coal industry and are thus often considered "externalities." We estimate that the life cycle effects of coal and the waste stream generated are costing the U.S. public a third to over one-half of a trillion dollars annually. Many of these so-called externalities are, moreover, cumulative. Accounting for the damages conservatively doubles to triples the price of electricity from coal per kWh generated, making wind, solar, and other forms of nonfossil fuel power generation, along with investments in efficiency and electricity conservation methods, economically competitive. We focus on Appalachia, though coal is mined in other regions of the United States and is burned throughout the world.