Information Technology and the Ethics of Globalization: Transnational Issues and Implications
As technologies advance and become social norms worldwide, certain ethical considerations must be examined and reflected upon due to their various cultural implications. Information Technology and the Ethics of Globalization: Transnational Issues and Implications discusses the widespread influence of technologies across the globe with particular attention placed on moral consideration. A unique compilation of examinations on issues in IT, this innovative publication provides researchers, academicians, and practitioners with a comprehensive survey of theories and insight into human considerations of this vast globalization.
... În perioada modernă o dată cu industrializarea, a apărut și o altă categorie de copii aflați în dificultate -copiii exploatați prin muncă în fabrici, mine, despre care au scris extensiv K. Marx, F. Engels și alți gânditori socialiști, scrierile cărora au contribuit la reglementarea muncii copiilor și mai târziu la abolirea acesteia. Unii economiști, însă, precum Milton Friedman consideră că practic toți copiii lucrau în agricultură până la Revoluția Industrială, iar, de fapt, în această perioadă numărul copiilor care lucrau s-a redus . ...
Rezumat După obținerea independenței, Republica Moldova aflându-se în perioada de tranziție, s-a pomenit cu oameni ce și-au pierdut locurile de muncă, au ajuns fără speranță, în sărăcie, în vicii și alte comportamente deviante, o parte din care au plecat în străinătate. Un tablou ce ne amintește de ”călătoria prin pustie” a poporului evreu. Acestea reprezintă doar o parte din tot spectrul de consecințe care s-au răsfrâns asupra copiilor, ceea ce a determinat apariția copiilor aflați în dificultate, copii, care, în general pot fi caracterizați prin lipsa, insuficiența ocrotirii părintești sau prin ocrotire părintească inadecvată. Autorii în acest articol își propun să analizeze unele aspecte legale și sociale ale acestei categorii de copii în Republica Moldova în baza legislației țării și datelor oferite de Biroul Național de Statistică, făcând în prealabil o incursiune în istoricul și în definirea acestui grup de copii. Cuvinte-cheie: copii aflați în dificultate, legislație, protecția copiilor, definiție, evoluție istorică, Republica Moldova. Clasificare JEL: B10, B20, B50, D10, D60, H75, I31, J13, K15, K36, N30. Abstract After gaining independence, Republic of Moldova being in a transitional period, has got people who lost their jobs, became hopeless, in poverty, in vices and other deviant behaviours, part of which went abroad. A picture that reminds us of the "journey through the wilderness" of the Jewish people. These represent only part of the whole spectrum of consequences that have been inflicted on children, which has led to the emergence of children in difficulty, children, which, in general, can be characterized by lack, insufficient parental care or inadequate parental care. The authors of this paper intend to analyze some legal and social aspects of this category of children in the Republic of Moldova based on the legislation of the country and the data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics, doing beforehand a foray into the history and definition of this group of children. Key words: children in difficulty, legislation, child protection, definition, historical evolution, Republic of Moldova. JEL Classification: B10, B20, B50, D10, D60, H75, I31, J13, K15, K36, N30.
... When IT is aligned positively with environmental practices (part of sustainability) it also affects the environmental coordination of manufacturing and marketing (Ryoo and Koo, 2013). The green movement with IT has become a priority for (Schultz 2010). There is a high usage of IT in e-commerce, which increases the IT capital proportion in business. ...
This paper establishes the relationship between e-commerce and sustainability factors in the business organizations. The author has also shown the medium to the high positive effect of e-commerce on a clear majority of twenty sustainability factors belonging to environmental, economic, social and general domains asper the opinion survey. Given the effect of e-commerce on sustainability factors, with an overall mean score of3.61 out of the maximum rating of 5 in an opinion survey, consequently the respondent generally believesthatthe e-commerce does have a positive effect on the overall sustainability of an organization. The author suggestse-commerce as one the sustainability development measures that can be implemented by business organizations.The sustainability factors are arranged in the metrics, that can be adopted by a business manager for measuring the extent of the e - commerce effect on the sustainability of a business organization. E-commerce managers may also use the findings of this study to gain further insight into sustainability aspects of e-commerce activities. The author urges businesses to leverage e-commerce to create sustainable solutions that address customer, environmental and societal value expectations. The author has shown in the statistical analysis, that overwhelming majority of the sustainability factors (economic, environmental, social) is positively correlated with each other. Therefore, business practice shall be congruent and compatible with the business initiatives for environmental and social responsibility. Furthermore, the author urges businesses to leverage e-commerce not only for economic reasons, but these activities will also help meet environmental compliance.
Business and academic organizations are in a constant pursuit of efficient and ethical technologies and practices to safeguard their information assets from the growing threat of hackers. Ethical hacking is one important information security risk management strategy they use. Most published books on ethical hacking have focused on its technical applications in risk assessment practices. This paper addressed a scarcity within the organizational communication literature on ethical hacking. Taking a qualitative exploratory case study approach, the authors explored ethical hacking implementation within a Canadian university as the case study in focus, applying technoethical inquiry theory paired with Karl Weick's sensemaking model as a theoretical framework. In-depth interviews with key stakeholder groups and a document review were conducted. Findings pointed to the need to expand the communicative and sociocultural considerations involved in decision making about ethical hacking organizational practices, and to security awareness training to leverage sensemaking opportunities and reduce equivocality.
Modern technology, starting about 250 years ago, exacerbates conflicts with the ecosystem. The products and by-products of modern technology are typically either toxic or cannot be incorporated into the ecosystem. The largely petroleum-based products from about 1900 replace products more compatible with the ecosystem. Conflicts with the ecosystem therefore accelerate.
Why modern science is a superior source of truth. Modern science contains the essence of modern technology. The distinguishing feature of modern technology is that it treats everything as nothing but resource. This explains why modern technology must conflict with the ecosystem, because it does not recognize the ecosystem as anything other than a set of resources it can exploit. Corporations are the institution par excellence for embodying modern technology, since their overriding concern is to maximize profits, and treating everything as resource is the best way to maximize profits.
Several versions of human superiority are characterized and analyzed. None give humans the right to do whatever they want to the rest of the environment. Although humans have physical superiority, that does not give humans “dominion” over the rest of the world.
Data protection is a chronic problem. Technology has had a social and ethical impact on our professional, social, and private lives. It is imperative for computing practitioners and researchers to link the ethical dilemmas and the technologies to the relevant ethical theories. This paper argues that the cause is rooted in our indifference to ethics—one doesn't take ethics as seriously into consideration as one should when formulating information security policies and protection standards—and proposes an ethics-based approach that can lessen the incidence of hacking or make hacking exasperate, aiming at mitigation rather than eradication. Central to this approach is ethical computing preconditioned on a sound understanding of the applicable theories of ethics and a shift of view of risk and ethics.
The political sociology of emerging technology is critical for any government, particularly in terms of the potential for assisting in ruling over the citizen body. Noticeably, while authoritarian governments have little to no concern about their ‘right to rule', how is ‘rule of law' in the technoethics of cybernetics defined in democratic regimes? As we are now in the cyber era, this study contends that various democratic practices in cybernetics have in practice transformed into techniques of technocratic totalitarianism throughout partnerships between governments and corporations under the guise of democratism. Hence, this study hypothesises that the technoethics of cybernetics, the divisions between legitimacy versus illegitimacy, and judicial versus unjudicial matters have turned out to be indistinct in theory, which noticeably signifies many constitutional violations.
People face multiple decisions that have ethical dimensions and are often unable to resolve appropriately ethical dilemmas in the use of the cyberspace. Individuals find it difficult to explain the rationale behind their moral judgments in their interactions and access to digital content. Identifying ethical and moral orientation that prompts acceptable or unacceptable ethical judgments is an important factor in cyber ethics. The goal of this study is to employ three prominent ethical theories to predict and explain cyber ethical judgements in terms of computer ethics, privacy, intellectual property rights, and academic integrity. The study develops conceptual and predictive models to test a set of hypotheses. The results show Consequential Ethics as the most significant predictor of Computer Ethics, Cyber Privacy, and Academic Integrity. Deontological Ethics most significantly predict Intellectual Property right, but is not a significant predictor of Academic Integrity.
Over the past decade (2006–18), a number of Israelis from Iranian background initiated Civilian Relations Building Initiatives (CRBIs) dedicated at bridging the divide with the Iranian people and help in preventing war between Israel and Iran. They mostly use information technologies (IT), including social media and radio platforms, to connect with the Iranians and have been successful at gaining such an Iranian audience. Given the important role that such CRBIs could play in defusing the growing Israeli-Iranian tensions, this pioneering study aims at evaluating how effective these CRBIs have been and analyze the obstacles they confront.
There is currently a large body of quantitative evidence to support the prevalence of cyberbullying behaviours, however operationalising the term and measuring this consistently is proving difficult. Aim: The present study aimed to explore qualitatively how counsellors define, understand and work with this issue with clients. Method: Six child counsellors were interviewed about their experiences of working with clients who had been cyberbullied. Analysis: Data was analysed using Braun and Clarke's (2006) thematic analysis. Results: Seven themes emerged with three sub-themes arising from these. Discussion: The research provides a balanced argument for appropriate training and continuing professional development for counsellors and supervisors working with this issue.
Technoethics is a new, but rapidly developing field of ethical reflection of technoscience. It can claim to unite the various ethical projections of the science and technology development in a common approach. One of the starting points of understanding this role of technoethics may be NBIC-convergence. The ethical dimensions of the NBIC-projects is represented in these sub-areas of applied ethics as a nanoethics, bioethics, neuroethics and ICT ethics. In this article particular attention is paid to the biomedical field, which is a prime example of innovative high technology, as well as the interaction of different types of ethics.
The shift of the real communication to the virtual sphere has influenced the nature of interpersonal relations. The article focuses on the characterization of the phenomenon 'virtual communication', playing the dominating role in the electronic world culture. Drawing from a socio-cultural analysis and the theory of simulacra by J. Baudrillard, the article proposes the classification of the virtual communication types in terms of the nature of human relations and illustrates their peculiarities and features. Using the axiological approach, the author characterizes the phenomenon of the virtual communication and the existential and ethical aspects of the interpersonal relation transfer to the sphere of the information contact. The research resulted in revealing the features and peculiarities of the virtual communication and the benefits and risks for human beings and society.
The work of feminists and other critics of global development has successfully demonstrated the persistent failure of development to promote just and equitable social change. The author examines a central cause of this failure, which she refers to as the problem of structural exclusion. Structural exclusion occurs where participation in decision-making is restricted to a narrow range of structural perspectives and interests. The author provides a systematic account of structural exclusion as an epistemic obstacle to just and effective development policy. Drawing on this account, she then propose a principle of structural pluralism, which requires that all relevant structural perspectives be included on equal terms and have equal right and effective opportunity to contribute to or influence deliberations at all levels of decision-making about the appropriate vision and policies of development.
The 2001 terrorist attacks in the USA and the 2011 seismic events in Japan have brought into sharp relief the vulnerabilities involved in storing nuclear waste on the land’s surface. Nuclear engineers and waste managers are deciding that disposing nuclear waste deep underground is the preferred management option. However, deep disposal of nuclear waste is replete with enormous technical uncertainties. A proposed solution to protect against both the technical vagaries of deep disposal and the dangers of surface events is to store the nuclear waste at shallow depths underground. This paper explores social and ethical issues that are relevant to such shallow storage, including security motivations, intergenerational equity, nuclear stigma, and community acceptance. One of the main ethical questions to emerge is whether it is right for the present generation to burden local communities and future generations with these problems since neither local peoples nor future people have sanctioned the industrial and military processes that have produced the waste in the first place.
The lesson study concept is certainly not a new thing in the development of teaching activities. The concept is one sharpshooter concept that can support the existing learning activities to be able to continue to grow each time. Unfortunately at this time, the development of systems based on lesson are still very few in number and the research related to that system development is still not widely practiced. In this paper, we will examine what needs to be about to be considered by the developer when the developer will create a system based on lesson study. The assessment process is done through the teaching development problems study and literature study related to solution concepts which has been raised in this paper.
The 2001 terrorist attacks in the USA and the 2011 seismic events in Japan have brought into sharp relief the vulnerabilities involved in storing nuclear waste on the land's surface. Nuclear engineers and waste managers are deciding that disposing nuclear waste deep underground is the preferred management option. However, deep disposal of nuclear waste is replete with enormous technical uncertainties. A proposed solution to protect against both the technical vagaries of deep disposal and the dangers of surface events is to store the nuclear waste at shallow depths underground. This paper explores social and ethical issues that are relevant to such shallow storage, including security motivations, intergenerational equity, nuclear stigma, and community acceptance. One of the main ethical questions to emerge is whether it is right for the present generation to burden local communities and future generations with these problems since neither local peoples nor future people have sanctioned the industrial and military processes that have produced the waste in the first place.
The World Bank is in crisis, struggling to devise a formula for development as critics slam it for incompetence, inefficiency, and irrelevance. Who to blame? Try bank President Jim Wolfensohn, whose personal failings and misguided policies have muddled the bank's mission and pushed its best staff out the door. But the bank's travails also underscore the hypocrisy of its rich shareholder nations, who speak grandly about reducing poverty but stand by as the world's top development institution falls apart. An exclusive investigative report.
ABSTRACT Welfare states are often urged to secure a social minimum for citizens—a level of material well-being beneath which no-one should be permitted to fall. This paper examines the justification for such a claim. It begins by criticising John Rawls's rejection of the social minimum approach to justice in A Theory of Justice: the argument Rawls uses to justify the Difference Principle, based on what he calls ‘the strains of commitment’ in the ‘original position’, actually provides a better justification for a social minimum principle. The paper then examines the substance of that argument outside the context of Rawls's contractarianism, showing that there is a general case for seeing to it that desperate need does not go unmet in a liberal society.