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Factors in the Distribution of Successful Marriage

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Successful marriage is a dynamic growing relationship in which the personalities of both partner continue to develop to achieve personal satisfaction. The earlier the adjustments are made, the more likely is the marriage to be happy and the fewer the areas in which the couples fails to adjust, the better are the chances for happiness in the marriage. The findings of the study revealed that factors that emerged to be important for enhancing marital satisfaction were respect for emotion, attitude towards marriage, expression of love, regard for views and importance to the likings of the spouse, ignoring weaknesses of the spouse, sexual adjustment, temperament, value, taste and interest. The lower ranks of management of time, management of income, technological factors and job related factors reflect that these are not considered serious because couples are already enjoying labour saving and luxury items and frequently go for outings. With respect to conflict resolution avoidance was given higher rank in comparison to arbitration.Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-3, issue-1: 60-64
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S. Dey and J. Ghosh. (2016) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-3, issue-1: 60-64
Full text of this paper can be downloaded online at www.ijssm.org/ & http://nepjol.info/index.php/IJSSM/issue/archive
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S. Dey and J. Ghosh. (2016) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-3, issue-1: 60-64
DOI: 10.3126/ijssm.v3i1.14315
Full text of this paper can be downloaded online at www.ijssm.org/ & http://nepjol.info/index.php/IJSSM/issue/archive
FACTORS IN THE DISTRIBUTION OF SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE
Seema Dey1* and Jyotirmoy Ghosh2
1Post Graduate Department of Home Science, Ranchi University, Ranchi-834008, India
2ICAR-Indian Institute of Natural Resins and Gums, Namkum, Ranchi-834010, India
*corresponding author email: seemadey@rediffmail.com
Abstract
Successful marriage is a dynamic growing relationship in which the personalities of both partner continue to develop to achieve personal
satisfaction. The earlier the adjustments are made, the more likely is the marriage to be happy and the fewer the areas in which the couples
fails to adjust, the better are the chances for happiness in the marriage. The findings of the study revealed that factors that emerged to be
important for enhancing marital satisfaction were respect for emotion, attitude towards marriage, expression of love, regard for views and
importance to the likings of the spouse, ignoring weaknesses of the spouse, sexual adjustment, temperament, value, taste and interest. The
lower ranks of management of time, management of income, technological factors and job related factors reflect that these are not considered
serious because couples are already enjoying labour saving and luxury items and frequently go for outings. With respect to conflict resolution
avoidance was given higher rank in comparison to arbitration.
Keywords: Factors; marriage; satisfaction
Introduction
Urbanization, industrialization, education, migration and
other socio-cultural factors are affecting various aspects of
traditional Indian society. After independence due to
constitutional provisions, planned economic development,
science and technology there has been a great change in the
family and society. Women who adopted the ideal-typical
role of the working women generally changed their old
attitude and developed modern attitudes. Earlier women had
faced problem like economic, dependency, male
domination, discrimination etc. The modern society gave
rise to new problem for women like mal-adjustment, status
problem, family crisis, divorce and inter-generational
conflict. The relationship between wives’ employment and
marital satisfaction has changed over the last 30 years.
Marital quality (satisfaction, happiness or adjustment)
decreased particularly among husbands, when wives were
employed outside the home in the 1960s (Burke and Weir,
1976; Orden and Bradburn, 1969). By the 1970s there was
no significant difference in marital quality for husbands or
wives in families in which the husband was the only wage
earner and in two-earner families (Glenn and Weaver, 1978;
Locksley, 1980). Satisfaction level was found to be highest
among those whose husbands helped in cooking and lower
among those who did their cooking alone It was found that
small family size, good health, adequate family income
and grown up children were the main factor promoting
satisfaction level of the working women in respect of their
home role performance (Kaur and Punia, 1986). Couple
therapy approach placed emphasis upon helping couples to
use couple assessment to assist self-evaluation of their
relationship’s strengths and weaknesses, and to understand
the influences that have lead the relationship to take its
current form. This understanding is used as the base from
which each partner is assisted to identify self- change that
can enhance the relationship (Halford, 2001). Forgiveness
appears to be especially important in marital relationship.
Marital forgiveness is seen as an exciting area for future
exploration and one that is ripe with possibility (Fincham et
al., 2006). Women seem to be most satisfied with husbands
with similar age or older to them by 1 to 5 years. The
satisfaction diminishes as the age difference increases
(Bernard 1934). Individuals whose spouses were of a
different religious persuasion than themselves had been
found to report lower levels of marital satisfaction (Ortega
et. al., 1988). Hafstrom and Dunsingh (1972) also reported
that income acts as a source of power in marital relationship
due to higher income, the husband can afford to have other
resources which minimize the wife’s participation in
domestic work. It revealed that there was a significant effect
of similar personality traits of the spouses in achieving
marital satisfaction. Certain dissimilar temperamental traits
also helpful for marital adjustment. Regarding similarity
between spouses with regards to value of life is generally
found to be conducive to marital satisfaction. Perceived
spousal support adequacy uniquely predicts marital quality
(Dehle et. al., 2001).
Jharkhand, a mineral rich state, has witnessed fast
industrialization in 20th century which picked up after
independence. The process of industrialization facilitated
Research Article
60
S. Dey and J. Ghosh. (2016) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-3, issue-1: 60-64
Full text of this paper can be downloaded online at www.ijssm.org/ & http://nepjol.info/index.php/IJSSM/issue/archive
emergence of subsidiary industries and social
infrastructures like, school, college and hospitals. The
massive social reforms and awakening programmes
undertaken by voluntary organizations particularly
Christian Mission helped a lot in socio-economic
empowerment of women. Chhotanagpur region of
Jharkhand comprises two divisions viz., Ranchi and
Hazaribagh where the concentration of industries and
voluntary organization is more. The present study was
planned to investigate factors in the distribution of
successful marriage of working women from different
organized sectors.
Materials and Methods
The study was carried out in four district of Jharkhand state
namely Ranchi, Hazaribag, Ramgarh and Bokaro on the
basis of representative average of working women in the
state. A substantial number of women are employed in
industries and social organizations like schools, colleges
and hospitals. A total of three hundred respondents were
randomly selected- 100 from different professions like
education, health and other services. The variables were
measured with the help of scales and indices already
available as well as developed under this study. The
information on socio economic condition of the working
women were collected through a specially designed
schedule for the purpose and adopted for the survey after
needed modification in the light of the requirement of the
pre-testing through a pilot study. The data thus collected
was systematically classified tabulated and analyzed for
drawing the relevant interferences. Conceptual framework
of marital satisfaction is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1: Conceptual framework of marital satisfaction
Results and Discussions
Suitable measures for overcoming marital stress and
enhancing marital satisfaction
The importance of this study lies in recommendations for
reducing marital stress and enhancing marital satisfaction
(Table 1). For this suggestions of the respondents were
sought on psychological, personal, social, family
,management of time, management of income, recreational,
technological, job related and conflict resolution factors
divided into 32 items related with marital satisfaction. The
items were ranked on the bases of frequency of the
respondents against selected factors.
Doctor gave first rank to adjustment with prioritized work
of the spouse followed by respect for emotion, expression
of love, regard for views and enjoying leisure time with
spouse. Last rank was given to freedom to take part in social
and religious activities. Officer rated attitude towards
marriage as the most important factor followed by
expression of love, respect for emotion, regard for views
and sexual adjustment. They gave last rank to refraining
from comparing with others. As far as the suggestions of
college teacher is concerned, they considered attitude
towards marriage as the most important factor followed by
expression of love, importance to the likings of the spouse,
respect for emotion and ignoring weaknesses of the spouse.
For school teacher the factors in descending order of
importance were; suitable working hours, respect for
emotion, attitude towards marriage, regard for views and
leisure time with spouse. In the opinion of clerk, the most
important factor was attitude towards marriage followed by
removing undue interference of elders, say in decision
making, consensus expenditure and consensus savings.
They gave last rank to similarities of habits. Nurse placed
highest importance on psychological factors. According to
them the factors in descending order of importance were;
similarities of temperament followed by the factors like
value, habits, interest and taste. The responses of different
categories of the respondents were aggregated to decide the
overall rank of the items. Respect for emotion emerged to
be the most important factor followed by attitude towards
marriage, expression of love, regard for views and
importance to the likings of the spouse, ignoring
weaknesses of the spouse, sexual adjustment, temperament,
value, taste and interest.
Psycho-personal factors were more important than other
factors to reduce marital stress and increase marital
satisfaction. It is natural for anybody to expect that one’s
emotion is respected. The bondage developed out of
emotion is the strongest. However, this bond is very
sensitive and requires high skills on the part of partners for
its sustenance. Spouses could be suggested to respect the
emotions of one another on continuous basis. Attitude
towards marriage is deeply rooted in traditional values.
Favourable attitude lies on elders as well as social and
cultural organizations. Love is internal but suggested to
express to the maximum possible extent, by presenting gift
on appropriate occasion, appreciation, continuous contact if
located at distant place, patting, kissing, hugging or any
means permitted by the respective culture. Everybody
expects regard for ones intellect. Spouses, must respect the
views of the partner.
61
S. Dey and J. Ghosh. (2016) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-3, issue-1: 60-64
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Table 1: Suggestions for overcoming marital stress and enhancing marital satisfaction
Respondent
Factor
Doctor
Officer
College teacher
School teacher
Clerk
Nurse
Overall
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
I Psychological
Interest
33
XIII
31
X
25
XI
28
XIII
12
XXII
42
IV
171
X
Value
34
XII
33
IX
24
XII
27
XIV
11
XXIII
46
II
175
VIII
Temperament
36
XI
35
VIII
26
X
25
XV
10
XXIV
48
I
180
VII
Taste
30
XIV
37
VII
22
XIV
36
VII
8
XXV
40
V
173
IX
Habits
4
XXXI
40
VI
23
XIII
1
XXXII
1
XXXII
44
III
113
XV
II Personal factor
Attitude towards marriage
28
XXV
49
I
47
I
45
III
46
I
23
XIV
238
II
Expression of love
46
III
47
II
45
II
30
XII
29
X
27
XII
224
III
Respect for emotion
47
II
45
III
40
IV
46
II
28
XI
39
VI
245
I
Regard for views
45
IV
43
IV
30
VIII
42
IV
27
XII
25
XIII
212
IV
Importance to liking of the spouse
41
VII
29
XI
42
III
32
XI
26
XIII
38
VII
208
V
Ignoring weaknesses of the spouse
37
X
27
XII
37
V
33
X
25
XIV
33
IX
192
VI
Sexual adjustment
38
IX
42
V
35
VI
22
XVI
24
XV
31
X
192
VI
Adjustment with prioritized work of the spouse
49
I
5
XXIX
32
VII
9
XXIV
23
XVI
29
XI
147
XII
Refraining comparing with others
5
XXX
2
XXXII
27
IX
35
VIII
18
XIX
35
VIII
122
XIV
III Social factors
Freedom to take part in social and religious
activities
3
XXXII
4
XXX
2
XXXI
20
XVII
16
XX
21
XV
66
XXV
Freedom to interact with outsiders
40
VIII
3
XXXI
1
XXXII
18
XVIII
14
XXI
19
XVI
95
XX
IV Family factors
Removing undue interference of elders
26
XVI
25
XIII
21
XV
16
XIX
44
II
15
XVIII
147
XII
Say in decision making
24
XVII
24
XIV
20
XVI
15
XX
42
III
17
XVII
142
XIII
V Management of time
62
S. Dey and J. Ghosh. (2016) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-3, issue-1: 60-64
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Table 1: Suggestions for overcoming marital stress and enhancing marital satisfaction
Respondent
Factor
Doctor
Officer
College teacher
School teacher
Clerk
Nurse
Overall
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
N
R
Enjoying leisure time with spouse
44
V
22
XV
15
XIX
40
V
22
XVII
14
XIX
157
XI
Spare time for household chores
23
XVIII
20
XVI
14
XX
13
XXVI
20
XVIII
13
XX
103
XIX
VI Management of income
Consensus expenditure
10
XXVI
19
XVII
16
XVIII
11
XXII
40
IV
11
XXII
107
XVII
Consensus savings
9
XXVII
18
XVIII
18
XVII
10
XXIII
38
V
12
XXI
105
XVIII
VII Recreational factors
Joint outings
6
XXIX
17
XIX
13
XXI
10
XXV
3
XXX
10
XXIII
59
XXVI
Joint home entertainment
7
XXVIII
16
XX
9
XXIV
9
XXVI
2
XXXI
9
XXIV
52
XXVII
VIII Technological factors
Use of labour saving device
11
XXV
7
XXVII
10
XXIII
8
XXVII
5
XXVIII
8
XXV
49
XXIX
Use of luxury items
12
XXIV
6
XXVIII
11
XXII
34
IX
4
XXIX
7
XXVI
74
XXIII
IX Job related factors
Spousal support in job related matters
20
XX
15
XXI
6
XXVII
7
XXVIII
36
VI
6
XXVII
90
XXI
Employers support in family matters
18
XXI
13
XXII
3
XXX
6
XXIX
34
VII
3
XXX
77
XXII
Suitable working hours
15
XXIII
10
XXV
5
XXVIII
47
I
32
VIII
4
XXIX
113
XV
Genuine work load
17
XXII
9
XXVI
4
XXIX
4
XXX
30
IX
5
XXVIII
69
XXIV
X Conflict resolution
Avoidance
42
VI
12
XXIII
8
XXV
38
VI
7
XXVI
1
XXXII
108
XVI
Arbitration
22
XIX
11
XXIV
7
XXVI
2
XXXI
6
XXVII
2
XXXI
50
XXVIII
63
S. Dey and J. Ghosh. (2016) Int. J. Soc. Sci. Manage. Vol-3, issue-1: 60-64
Full text of this paper can be downloaded online at www.ijssm.org/ & http://nepjol.info/index.php/IJSSM/issue/archive
Going by ones likings is natural phenomenon. Partner
should be allowed to do the things of one’s choice to the
permissible limit. If liking is against the society, norms and
could not be permitted as per resources available, the matter
should be resolved by using intellect and emotions. No
person is complete. Everybody has some strong and some
weak points. Weaknesses of the partner should be
overlooked to the possible extent. At the same time efforts
should be made to remove those weaknesses. Sex is the
foundation of marriage so care should be taken to ensure
sexual adjustment by discussion on sex related issue, sexual
extroversion, guessing sexual need of the partner and acting
thereupon. Similarities of temperament, value, taste and
interest are the favourable factors. If both the partners are ill
tempered, the problem will aggravate. Hence, difference is
sometimes helpful in marital satisfaction. These
psychological factors could be harmonized by manipulation
through intelligence and emotions.
Conclusion
The factors having higher rank were related to
psychological and personal characteristics of marriage
partners. This gives a clue that satisfaction lies within the
partners and positive modification in these factors are
sufficient enough to bring about happiness in married life.
However, some roles are expected to be played by elders of
the family, cultural organizations, employer and
government for infusing peace and happiness in the life of
the married couple for making a happy society and
producing dedicated individuals.
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Brief Couple Therapy
  • W K Halford
Halford WK (2001) Brief Couple Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.