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In recent years, sustainability concept has become the common interest of numerous disciplines. The reason for this popularity is to perform the sustainable development. The Concept of Green Architecture, also known as “sustainable architecture” or “green building,” is the theory, science and style of buildings designed and constructed in accordance with environmentally friendly principles. Green architecture strives to minimize the number of resources consumed in the building's construction, use and operation, as well as curtailing the harm done to the environment through the emission, pollution and waste of its components.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 216 ( 2016 ) 778 – 787
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of IEREK, International experts for Research Enrichment and Knowledge Exchange
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.12.075
ScienceDirect
Urban Planning and Architecture Design for Sustainable Development, UPADSD 14- 16 October 2015
GREEN ARCHITECTURE:
A CONCEPT OF SUSTAINABILITY
Amany Ragheba
*
, Hisham El-Shimyb, Ghada Raghebb
aDepartment of Architectural Engineering, Delta University for Science and Te chnology, Mansoura, Egyp t
bDepartment of Architectural Engineering, Pharos University, Alexandria 21311, Egypt
Abstract
In recent years, sustainability concept has become the common interest of numerous disciplines. The reason for this popularity is to perform the
sustainable development. The Concept of Green Architecture, also known as "sustainable architecture" or "green building," is the theory,
science and style of buildings designed and constructed in accordance with environmentally friendly principles. Green architecture strives to
minimize the number of resources consumed in the building's construction, use and operation, as well as curtailing the harm done to the
environment through the emission, pollution and waste of its components.
To design, construct, operate and maintain buildings energy, water and new materials are utilized as well as amounts of waste causing negative
effects to health and environment is generated. In order to limit these effects and design environmentally sound and resource efficient
buildings; "green building systems" must be introduced, clarified, understood and practiced.
This paper aims at highlighting these difficult and complex issues of sustainability which encompass the scope of almost every aspect of human
life.
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Peer-review under responsibility of IEREK, International experts for Research Enrichment and Knowledge Exchange.
Keywords: Green-building systems; sustainable buildings; natural buildings; living architecture; renewable resources; eco-design; eco-friendly architecture;
earth-friendly architecture; environmental architecture; natural architecture.
1. Introduction
Sustainability is comprehensive therefore a complex subject. It is of vital importance to all because it deals with the survival of
human species and almost every living creature on the planet. Sustainable and eco-friendly architecture is one of the main aims that
humans for creating a better life have made as the ultimate model for all their activities. For this reason, moving towards a greener architecture
is well-thought-out the main goal of the present architecture of our time (Mahdavinejad, 2014)
At the rate the development needs of this world is using the scarce and limited resources found on the earth, it is becoming
obvious that unless there are major changes to Man's thinking and behavior, the future of civilization as known today is dubious.
This complex subject has no straight forward solution, especially considering that sustainability is a goal for all to reach as they
continually strive to reach towards it.Green architecture produces environmental, social and economic benefits. Environmentally,
green architecture helps reduce pollution, conserve natural resources and prevent environmental degradation. Economically, it
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0-100-520-6790; fax: +2-03-3877423.
E-mail address: ghada.ragheb@pua.ed u.eg
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of IEREK, International experts for Research Enrichment and Knowledge Exchange
779
Amany Ragheb et al. / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 216 ( 2016 ) 778 – 787
reduces the amount of money that the building's operators have to spend on water and energy and improves the productivity of
those using the facility (Thomas, 2009)
And, socially, green buildings are meant to be beautiful and cause only minimal strain on the local infrastructure.
The buildings in which we live, work, and play protect us from nature's extremes, yet they also affect our health and
environment in countless ways. As the environmental impact of buildings becomes more apparent, a new field called "green
building" is gaining momentum.Green, or sustainable, building is the practice of creating and using healthier and more resource-
efficient models of construction, renovation, operation, maintenance and demolition (Roy,2008).
1.1. Green Architecture
Green architecture, or green design, is an approach to building that minimizes harmful effects on human health and the
environment. The "green" architect or designer attempts to safeguard air, water, and earth by choosing eco-friendly building
materials and construction practices (Roy,2008).
1.2. Green Architecture and Green Design
Green architecture defines an understanding of environment-friendly architecture under all classifications, and contains some
universal consent (Burcu, 2015), It may have many of these characteristics:
x Ventilation systems designed for efficient heating and cooling
x Energy-efficient lighting and appliances
x Water-saving plumbing fixtures
x Landscapes planned to maximize passive solar energy
x Minimal harm to the natural habitat
x Alternate power sources such as solar power or wind power
x Non-synthetic, non-toxic materials
x Locally-obtained woods and stone
x Responsibly-harvested woods
x Adaptive reuse of older buildings
x Use of recycled architectural salvage
x Efficient use of space
While most green buildings do not have all of these features, the highest goal of green architecture is to be fully sustainable.
Also Known As: Sustainable development, eco-design, eco-friendly architecture, earth-friendly architecture, environmental
architecture, natural architecture (USGBC, 2002).
2. METHODOLOGY
In order to achieve the stipulated aim, the study presented in this paper, traces the following steps:
1. General overview on applying “Green Architecture “as a concept of sustainability.
2. Defining Considerations for Green Building.
3. Defining the benefits of applying criteria for Green Building strategies that could maximize energy efficiency, and indoor
air quality.
4. Describing case Study potentials in terms of Green Building aspects.
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3. CONSIDERATION FOR GREEN BUILDING
Green building involves consideration in four main areas: site development, material selection and minimization, energy efficiency, and
indoor air quality
Consider site development to reduce the impact of development on the natural environment. For example, orient the buildings t o take
advantage of solar access, shading and wind patterns that will lessen heating and cooling loads.
Carefully select materials that are durable, contain recycled content, and are locally manufactured to reduce negative environmental impacts.
A growing market exists of quality recycled products at affordable prices.
Incorporate energy-efficient design into buildings to create an efficient and comfortable environment. Take advantage of the natural elements
and technologies to conserve resources and increase occupant comfort/productivity while lowering long-term operational costs and pollutants
(CBFEE, 1999).
Design for high indoor air quality to promote occupant health and productivity.
• Minimize the waste in construction and demolition processes by recovering materials and reusing or recycling those (CGB, 2009).
4. THE PRINCIPLES OF GREEN BUILDING DESIGN
The green building design process begins with an intimate understanding of the site in all its beauties and complexities. An ecological
approach to design aims to integrate the systems being introduced with the existing on-site ecological functions performed by Mother Nature.
These ecological functions provide habitat, respond to the movements of the sun, purify the air as well as catch, filter and store water.
Designers can create features in their buildings that mimic the functions of particular eco-systems. Species that thrive in natural ecosystems
may also utilize habitats created in man-made structures. Creating new habitat on structures in urbanized areas is especially important to
support bio-diversity and a healthy ecosystem (Thomas, 2009).
The following points summarize key principles, strategies and technologies which are associated with the five major elements of
green building design which are: Sustainable Site Design; Water Conservation and Quality; Energy and Environment; Indoor Environmental
Quality; and Conservation of Materials and Resources. This information supports of the use of the USGBC LEED Green Building Rating
System, but focuses on principles and strategies rather than specific solutions or technologies, which are often site specific and will vary from
project to project (USGBC).
Fig.1: Elements of green building design by author (USGBC).
4.1. Water Systems
Water - often called the source of life - can be captured, stored, filtered, and reused. It provides a valuable resource to be celebrated in the
process of green building design.
According to Art Ludwig in Create an Oasis out of Greywater, only about 6% of the water we use is for drinking. There is no need to use
potable water for irrigation or sewage. The Green Building Design course introduces methods of rainwater harvesting, grey water systems, and
living pools (BCKL, 2009).
The protection and conservation of water throughout the life of a building may be accomplished by designing for dual plumbing that
recycles water in toilet flushing or by using water for washing of the cars. Waste-water may be minimized by utilizing water conserving
fixtures such as ultra-low flush toilets and low-flow shower heads. Bidets help eliminate the use of toilet paper, reducing sewer traffic and
increasing possibilities of re-using water on-site. Point of use water treatment (fig5) and heating improves both water quality and energy
efficiency while reducing the amount of water in circulation. The use of non-sewage and greywater for on-site use such as site-irrigation will
minimize demands on the local aquifer (Stephen & Harrell, 2008).
4.2. Natural Building
A natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving
sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those
that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living environments and maintain indoor air quality. Natural building tends to rely on human
labor, more than technology. As Michael G. Smith observes, it depends on "local ecology, geology and climate; on the character of the
particular building site, and on the needs and personalities of the builders and users (Smith, 2002).
The basis of natural building is the need to lessen the environmental impact of buildings and other supporting systems, without
sacrificing comfort or health. To be more sustainable, natural building uses primarily abundantly available, renewable, reused or recycled
materials. The use of rapidly renewable materials is increasingly a focus.
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In addition to relying on natural building materials, the emphasis on the architectural design is heightened. The orientation of a building, the
utilization of local climate and site conditions, the emphasis on natural ventilation through design, fundamentally lessen operational costs and
positively impact the environmental. Building compactly and minimizing the ecological footprint is common, as are on-site handling of energy
acquisition, on-site water capture, alternate sewage treatment and water reuse (Smith, 2002).
4.3. Passive Solar Design
Passive solar design refers to the use of the sun’s energy for the heating and cooling of living spaces. The building itself or some element of it
takes advantage of natural energy characteristics in its materials to absorb and radiate the heat created by exposure to the sun. Passive systems
are simple, have few moving parts and no mechanical systems, require minimal maintenance and can decrease, or even eliminate, heating and
cooling costs (BCKL, 2009).
Passive solar design uses that to capture the sun’s energy:
x Solar passive features
x Shape and form of buildings.
x Orientation of the facades.
x Design of Building plan and section.
x Thermal insulation and thermal storage of roof.
x Thermal Insulation and thermal storage of the exterior walls.
Homes in any climate can take advantage of solar energy by incorporating passive solar design features and decreasing
carbon dioxide emissions. Even in cold winters, passive solar design can help cut heating costs and increase comfort (BCKL,
2009).
Solar buildings are designed to keep environment comfortable in all seasons without much expenditure on electricity 30 to
40% savings with additional 5 to 10% cost towards passive features.
Major Components: Orientation, double glazed windows, window overhangs, thermal storage walls roof, roof painting,
Ventilation, evaporation, day lighting, construction material etc.
Designs depend on direction & intensity of Sun & wind, ambient temp., humidity etc. Different designs for different climatic
zones.
4.4. Green Building Materials
Green building materials are generally composed of renewable rather than non-renewable resources and are
environmentally responsible because their impacts are considered over the life of the product. In addition, green building
materials generally result in reduced maintenance and replacement costs over the life of the building, conserve energy, and
improve occupant health and productivity. Green building materials can be selected by evaluating characteristics such as reused
and recycled content, zero or low off-gassing of harmful air emissions, zero or low toxicity, sustainably and rapidly renewable
harvested materials, high recyclability, durability, longevity, and local production (Cullen, 2010).
The materials common to many types of natural building are clay and sand. When mixed with water and, usually, straw
or another fiber, the mixture may form cob or adobe (clay blocks). Other materials commonly used in natural building are: earth
(as rammed earth or earth bag), wood (cordwood or timber frame/post-and-beam), straw, rice-hulls, bamboo and stone. A wide
variety of reused or recycled non-toxic materials are common in natural building, including urbanite (salvaged chunks of used
concrete), vehicle windscreens and other recycled glass (Woolley , 2006).
One-half of the world’s population lives or works in buildings constructed of earth. Straw bale construction is now
gaining in popularity and Many jurisdictions in California have adopted the Straw bale Building Code. Green Building Design
favors natural building for its local availability, ease of use, lack of toxic ingredients, increased energy efficiency, and aesthetic
appeal (NAOHB, 1998).
Several other materials are increasingly avoided by many practitioners of this building approach, due to their major
negative environmental or health impacts. These include unsustainably harvested wood, toxic wood-preservatives, Portland
cement-based mixes, paints and other coatings that off-gas volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and some plastics, particularly
polyvinyl chloride (PVC or "vinyl") and those containing harmful plasticizers or hormone-mimicking formulations (Woolley ,
2006).
4.5. Living Architecture
The environment like our bodies can metabolize nutrients and waste. Living Architecture focuses on these processes,
integrating ecological functions into the buildings to catch, store, and filter water, purify air, and process other nutrients. Living
Architecture also addresses biophilia, the documented health benefits associated with being in touch with living systems in the
built environment (Susan, 2008).
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Throughout history greening of outside walls and roofs of buildings has taken place. Reasons for doing so were the increase of
insulation (keep cool in summer and keep cold out in winter), improved aesthetics, improved indoor and outdoor climate, reduce
the greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) as well as increasing
ecological values by creating habitats for birds and insects (Sheweka & Magdy, 2011).
4.5.1. Green roofs
serve several purposes for a building, such as absorbing rainwater, providing insulation, creating a habitat for wildlife, increasing benevolence
and decreasing stress of the people around the roof by providing a more aesthetically pleasing landscape, and helping to lower urban air
temperatures and mitigate the heat island effect (Vandermeulen, 2011)
There are two types of green roof:
1. Intensive roofs, which are thicker, with a minimum depth of 12.8 cm, and can support a wider variety of plants but are heavier and
require more maintenance.
2. Extensive roofs, which are shallow, ranging in depth from 2 cm to 12.7 cm, lighter than intensive green roofs, and require minimal
maintenance (Volder, 2014).
The term green roof may also be used to indicate roofs that use some form of green technology, such as a cool roof, a roof with solar thermal
collectors or photovoltaic panels. Green roofs are also referred to as eco-roofs, vegetated roofs, living roofs, green roofs and VCPH (Wilmers,
1990). (Horizontal Vegetated Complex Partitions).
4.5.2. Green Walls
Also known as vertical greenery is actually introducing plants onto the building façade. Comparing to green roof, green
walls can cover more exposed hard surfaces in the built environment where skyscrapers are the predominant building style
(Jonathan, 2003).
According to Ken (Ken,2008), if a skyscraper has a plant ratio of one to seven, and then the façade area is equivalent to
almost three times the area. So, if the building is covered two thirds of the façade, this have contributed to doubling the extend of
vegetation on site. So a skyscraper can become green, thus increasing the organic mass on the site (Wilmers, 1990).
There are three types of Green Walls:
The green walls can be divided into three fundamental types according to the species of the plants; types of growing media and
construction method.
1. Wall-climbing Green wall is the very common and traditional green walls method. Although it is a time consuming process,
climbing plants can cover the walls of building naturally. Sometimes they are grown upwards with the help of a trellis or
other supporting systems (Wilmers, 1990).
2. Hanging-down Green Wall is also another popular approach for green walls. It can easily form a complete vertical green belt
on a multi-story building through planting at every story compare to the wall-climbing type (Wilmers, 1990).
3. Module Green Wall is the latest concept compared to the previous two types. It requires more complicated design and
planning considerations before a vertical system can come to place. It is also probably the most expensive green walls method
(Jonathan, 2003)
5. GREEN BUILDING BENEFITS
Green building is not a simple development trend; it is an approach to building suited to the demands of its time, whose
relevance and importance will only continue to increase (USGBC)
Comfort. Because a well-designed passive solar home or building is highly energy efficient, it is free of drafts. Extra sunlight
from the south windows makes it more cheerful and pleasant in the winter than a conventional house (Kats, 2006)
Economy. If addressed at the design stage, passive solar construction doesn’t have to cost more than conventional
construction, and it can save money on fuel bills (Kats, 2003)
Aesthetics. Passive solar buildings can have a conventional appearance on the outside, and the passive solar features make
them bright and pleasant inside.
Environmentally responsible. Passive solar homes can significantly cut use of heating fuel and electricity used for lighting. If
passive cooling strategies are used in the design, summer air conditioning costs can be reduced as well (Woolley , 2006).
6. CASE study
The study area has a typical Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by a long fairly warm season and a short slightly
rainy temperature winter, favorable for thermophilic biological spectrum. Precipitation falls mainly during the colder season
from autumn to spring. The prototype is therefore designed for the warm humid climate of Northern Western Coast Hinterland in
Alexandria region (UNEP, 1995)
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6.1. Localized Indigenous Knowledge (IK).
In addition to IK, Development professionals treasure this local knowledge, finding it extremely useful in solving complex problems of health,
agriculture, education, and the environment, both in developed and in developing countries, enhancing the ways that knowledge has been
adapted, applied, and disseminated.
Investigations from existing housing units within the study area habitat demonstrated the combination of indigenous architectural elements
leading to much more efficient buildings in terms of adaptability to IK.Major IK concepts applied:
1. Courtyard. Courtyard homes are more prevalent in the study area, as an open central court can be an important aid to cooling house in warm
weather. Courtyard draws fresh air down through the wind catch. The comforts offered by a courtyard-air, light, privacy, security, and
tranquility - provides the shadows are properties nearly universally desired in human housing. Courtyard used for many purposes including
cooking, sleeping, working, playing, gardening, and even places to keep animals.
Fig.2: Courtyard design by author (Amany, 2013)
2. Thickness of stone walls. The walls are designed to provide insulation, sunlight filters through increase wall thickness (40-50
cm).
3. Roof. It is placed a mixture of sand and lime mortar above the linoleum protect the bishop from the impact of the sun's heat
and reduces the permeability of water falling from the rain in the winter.
4. Narrow openings. Narrow openings and high from the ground to prevent the entry of heat during the day for the inside and
maintain them for the night
6.2. Housing Prototype Suggestion
This study produced prototype referred to as Typical Housing Prototype (THP) which is built with a central courtyard, single-
story two bedrooms. The plan of the prototype is shown in Fig.25 below.
Fig.3: House prototype floor plan by author (Amany, 2013)
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Features were considered to optimize the integration of passive design strategies. Building orientation determines the amount of
solar radiation it receives. In addition to other elements such as Evergreen trees were planted on north side to act as a win d break
in winter, while deciduous trees on south side to shade in summer only.
¾ Courtyard design. The central courtyard allows spaces for relaxation and interaction of occupants keeping their activities
away from neighbors in addition to passive cooling strategies. It achieves enough daylight penetration, reduces solar heat
and promotes cooling breezes while keeping out hot and dusty wind.
¾ Sun angles and Shadings. The design doesn’t oversize the amount of south-facing windows as oversizing can lead to
overheating. Horizontal exterior overhangs are used on the south side of the building to block direct summer sun. Ideal
proportions for an overhang are calculated by latitude (Alexandria, 31.2000° N).The overhang is large enough to block
summer sun, but doesn’t block sun in winter.
Fig.4: South horizontal overhangs by author (Amany, 2013)
¾ Thermal Mass. The walls of the house are thick and massive. The high-mass walls are cooled from the cool night time
temperatures. In turn, the walls then cool the occupants during the day by accepting the heat radiating from their bodies.
¾ Construction Materials.
x Walls: Solid 8" Masonry wall which could be double wall for maximizing thermal mass.
x Roof Construction: Flat light weight concrete (20 cm) and plaster (1 cm).
x Floor: Slab on Grade covered by carpet or casework.
¾ Rain water harvesting. The roof of the building consists of gutters or pipes that deliver rainwater falling on the rooftop to
the storage tank. Harvested water can be used for toilet flushing and garden irrigation.
¾ Aquifer Water. Well pumps are built to be used for extracting water from an underground source.
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Fig.5: Cross section of the suggested prototype by author (Amany, 2013)
¾ Energy Systems.
x Biogas Plant production. Biogas is one of many renewable energy systems that provide greater independence at very low cost.
Produced gas from anaerobic digestion of organic material will usually be piped from the top of the tank to a biogas cooking
stove and/or biogas lights.
x Photovoltaic (PV array). Photovoltaic panels are installed on south-facing roof which is inclined with an angle to maximize
the amount of electricity produced.
x Solar domestic hot water. Solar hot water systems are used to collect energy from the sun in panels or tubes to produce
domestic hot water used in the house.
Fig.6: 3D model of the suggested prototype by author (Amany, 2013)
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Conclusion
x Principles of Green Architecture are: Water features and their management; natural building design; passive solar design;
green building materials; living Architecture. These principles are applied in a sustainable fashion to achieve an eco- friendly
building.
x Any architect has the ability to change an entire building process by specifying materials with low carbon dioxide emissions.
x Green building standards are available for almost every type of building on a global basis and these standards are well
developed and are regularly being updated; they cover all phases of a building’s life cycle from design through demolition.
x Buildings that have been designed according to sustainability standards need to be operated and maintained according to these
same standards.
x Buildings that were built prior to enacting these sustainability standards can also be upgraded to meet the standards that have
subsequently been put in place.
x Green buildings must have a number of common components: these include a focus on energy e fficiency and, in some cases,
renewable energy; the efficient use of water; the use of environmentally desirable building materials and specifications; a
minimization of the waste and toxic chemicals generated in the building's construction and operations; good indoor air quality;
and an eye on so-called "smart" growth and sustainable development.
x Green architecture produces environmental, social and economic benefits. Environmentally, green architecture helps reduce
pollution, conserve natural resources and prevent environmental degradation. Economically, it reduces the amount of money
that the building's operators have to spend on water and energy and improves the productivity of those using the facility. And,
socially, green buildings are meant to be beautiful and cause only minimal strain on the local infrastructure.
x Traditional building materials are to be adapted to meet code-required standards for health and safety in contemporary
buildings. Not only are they cost effective and environmentally friendly, but, when used correctly, these natural alternatives
match the strength and durability of many mainstream construction materials.
x New building technologies, and in particular ICT automation and new materials, are to constantly be introduced to enhance the
sustainable building process with the goal of reducing the impact of the building on the surrounding environment by using
resources more efficiently (e.g. energy, water); enhancing and protecting the health and well-being of the occupants; and
reducing any negative impacts.
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... It happened because the process did not produce any solid waste, zero waste. Efficient and green behaviors become the global demands to preserve nature ( (Ragheb et al., 2016). Recycling rattan wastes into rattan fiber strips is an effort to preserve the environment, design, and industry. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aims to reduce and use wastes of rattan industries, especially during the splitting stage. This stage refers to the process of making the rattan into rattan fiber strips. This Research & Development experimented with developing the previous study, using NaOH to produce the fibers. The research procedure included preparing, soaking, washing, pressing, drying, tensile, stretching, and workmanship-experimenting processes. The most effective and efficient process, with reliable rattan fiber strips for industrial purposes, was the 1kg soaking process of rattan. 1 Liter of H2O: NaOH 98%, 100gram: 72 hours of the soaking process The result was light-brown, soft, and flexible rattan fiber strips. The widths of the strips were between 20mm and 35mm. The thicknesses of the strips were between 0.5 and 1mm. The length was adjusted based on the initial length of the material, 6000mm. The tensile strength of the rattan fiber was 3.747N while the stretching strength was 6.796%. The implementation of the fibers included crafted product designs and decorative or functional furniture. The applicable craftsmanship techniques included weaving, bundling, and winding. The rattan fiber strips of the research could be the innovation base or applied research result for product design and green interior.
... Salah satu konsep mayor dalam hal ini adalah Konsep Green Architecture, dikenal juga sebagai "sustainable architecture" atau "green building" dalam teorinya, sains dan gaya desain bangunan berdasarkan prinsip yang bersahabat dengan alam dan lingkungan. [9] 7. Multimedia Interaktif Multimedia berarti "multiple media" or "a combination of media. The media can be still graphics and photographs, sound, motion video, animation, and/or text items combined in a product whose purpose is to communicate information in multiple ways. ...
... Green building encompasses all classifications of environmentally friendly architecture and has some consensus. It may have several of the following characteristics: heating and cooling ventilation systems that are meant to be efficient; lighting and appliances that use less energy; plumbing fixtures that use less water; landscapes designed to make use of passive solar energy; minimal impact on the natural environment; alternative energy sources such as solar or wind; non-synthetic materials; and adaptive reuse of older structures [21], (see figure 16). Establishing a new architectural style direction is a contentious and challenging process. ...
... A sustentabilidade é muito abrangente e necessária para a sobrevivência da espécie humana, para que o hoje não comprometa as próximas gerações. Um dos aspectos que garante a sustentabilidade é a escolha de materiais nas construções, optando-se por aqueles que sejam menos poluentes, recicláveis e apresentem eficiência energética, a fim de diminuir o impacto ao meio ambiente (KELLERT; CALABRESE, 2015;RAGHEB et al., 2016;CAVALCANTI et al., 2008). ...
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Os materiais naturais como madeira ou mesmo aqueles industrializados, que remetem ao aspecto natural, são mais valorizados pelos usuários, por estarem associados ao bem-estar e aos princípios da biofilia pelas texturas, cores, desenhos e atributos emocionais e simbólicos que conferem aos ambientes internos. Os projetistas têm papel estratégico nesse contexto, criando novas experiências e formas de morar, atentos aos aspectos sustentáveis e tecnológicos atuais. Como parâmetro das tendências de mercado do setor, as mostras de design e arquitetura de interiores são referências e representam uma prospecção de futuro, tendo em vista que aproximam profissionais e consumidores, interagindo com cenários, materiais e novas soluções. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste artigo é identificar como tem sido aplicada a madeira e seus derivados nos projetos de interiores, através do Estudo de Caso de três importantes mostras gaúchas, que ocorreram em Porto Alegre e Região Metropolitana, em 2021. Através de revisão bibliográfica, visitas exploratórias e análise de dados qualitativos e fotográficos dos locais, foi possível identificar duas correntes principais de atuação dos arquitetos e designers: uma ligada ao conceito contemporâneo e, outra, que busca um resgate mais natural dos ambientes. Em ambas, a apropriação da madeira e seus derivados em variadas formas de uso foram identificados. Palavras-chave: madeira; emoção; sustentabilidade.
... The role of sustainability in maintaining the present Earth's condition for future generations is becoming a growing concern for many environmentalists, engineers, and architects. Sustainable and eco-friendly architecture and engineering aim to promote better life and to move towards eco-friendly earth [1] as it strives to maximize the resources with limited environmental impacts [2]. Sustainable development considers the whole and balanced ecosystem, supporting biological diversity and global environments, empowering social participation, and enhancing economic growth [3]. ...
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Housing is a basic necessity for everyone. Each country seeks to fulfill its citizens' housing needs. One of which is done by the Indonesian government, whose program is one million houses for the needy. The negative impact of this program is in the form of extensive land exploitation and environmental damage due to construction implementation. Building material is the main element in construction activities, where the material production process consumes much energy and produces carbon dioxide (CO2). The choice of environmentally friendly material will reduce embodied energy and carbon during the building's life cycle. This study calculates the amount of embodied energy and embodied carbon on building materials used in the residential buildings of type 36 simple houses of great interest to Indonesian people. The results showed that Brick Stone, Zink Roof, Cement, and Timber materials are the dominant materials that consume more than 70% embodied energy and produce embodied carbon, around 80% of total energy. The total embodied energy in building materials is 127,714.66 MJ with carbon as much as 10,257.48 KgCO2. Based on the building area, the embodied energy is 3,547.63 MJ /m2, and carbon is 284.93 KgCO2 /m2. A large amount of energy and carbon produced by buildings will impact the high pollution of the environment, contributing to global warming.
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Günümüzde hızlı nüfus artışı, çevre kirliliği, doğal kaynakların tükenmeye başlaması, iklim değişiklikleri, ekonomik krizler, sosyal eşitsizliğin artması gibi birçok problemde görülen artış sürdürülebilirliğin önemini daha da arttırmıştır. Gelecek nesillere daha adil, refah düzeyi yüksek ve yaşanabilir bir dünya bırakmak adına işletmelerin sürdürülebilir pazarlamayı anlamaları ve tüketicilerin çevre bilincine sahip olarak sürdürülebilir tüketim gerçekleştirmeleri oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı sürdürülebilir pazarlama faaliyetlerinin tüketicilerin çevre bilinçleri ve sürdürülebilir tüketim davranışları üzerindeki etkilerini ve bu değişkenler arasındaki ilişkileri bir model çerçevesinde ortaya koyabilmektir. Çalışmada kolayda örnekleme ve çevrimiçi anket yöntemleri kullanılmış ve 404 kişilik bir örneklem büyüklüğüne ulaşılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde keşfedici faktör analizi, güvenilirlik analizi, doğrulayıcı faktör analizi ve yapısal eşitlik modellemesi analizlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda sürdürülebilir pazarlama ve sürdürülebilir tüketim arasında pozitif yönlü bir ilişki olduğu; sürdürülebilir pazarlama ve çevre bilinci arasında pozitif yönlü bir ilişki olduğu; çevre bilinci ve sürdürülebilir tüketim arasında pozitif yönlü bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca çevre bilincinin, sürdürülebilir pazarlama ile sürdürülebilir tüketim arasındaki ilişkide aracı etkiye sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
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This monograph is the result of research in the project entitled “Harnessing the potential of the Social Economy towards a green transformation through the establishment of Socially Driven Green Labs within Universities” (SDG Labs) and consists of 9 chapters. The first is devoted to the genesis of the green transformation in the European Union with a presentation of the key concepts related to it. The second chapter presents the role of the public sector in relation to other market actors in the green transition process. This outlines the framework for the role of the social economy in this process, which is discussed in detail in chapter three. In this way, the key issues from the point of view of the green transformation process are presented. Chapter four is devoted to the green skills component of this transformation, where their characteristics are outlined. Chapter five presents the activities of public institutions for the development of green skills. The sixth chapter is devoted to the role of education in green skills development. Based on this, a framework for the concept of SDG Labs as a laboratory space for green skills development in the social economy sphere was developed, which formed the content of the seventh chapter. The eighth chapter was a presentation of the research methodology and results of the international surveys carried out within the project among its three target groups: social economy actors, social economy academics and social economy students. The final ninth chapter dealt with the development of a theoretical model for the SDG labs programme, which will be the subject of further project activities. The authors are aware of the introductory nature of some of the issues raised here, which, however, arose from the need to initiate a wide-ranging discussion on green skills and the strengthening of the capacity of social economy actors to be part of the green transformation of the whole economy.
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Demonstrating efficient sustainable design can be measured by improving factors. Houses are required to be designed and constructed in terms of decreasing zero carbon emissions and meeting environmental targets. The creation of a prototype will help formalizing the typical housing prototype (THP) for a moderate housing scale in Northern western cost hinterland in Egypt. The study suggests the creation of a typical unit in terms of compliance with environmental aspects and reduction of energy loads through passive and active design strategies as well as the existing Indigenous knowledge (IK) which reflects thousands of years of experimentation and innovation in topics for culture in which it develops. The integration of adequate technological elements is also considered to help keep the prototype and its operation zero carbon. Among these elements is considered the usage of low cost photovoltaic units and renewable energy scale measurements. The used material during design phase, construction and selection stage for finishing works, each of these stages are stated in term of zero efficient criteria compared to the created prototype.
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A textbook aimed at graduate and upper level undergraduate students, which deals with the many ways in which plants both respond to and alter the climate.
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Vegetation can play an important role in the topoclimate of towns and the microclimate of buildings too. It is different according to the macroclimatic circumstances, but in any case vegetation can give a significant contribution to the climatic conditions.Local climate is determined by atmospheric elements, such as net radiation, advection and convection, and by geographical fators, especially longitude and latitude, oceanity and aridity, the relief graduations and the factors of the urban surface and structure. Those factors ‘stress’ the atmospheric elements and form the urban topoclimate and microclimate.The urban structures, volume and special surfaces alter the near-surface conditions of the atmosphere. They form special climatotopes. These urban types can be organized as poleotopes of different density and structures which build— more or less — their own topoclimate: therefore we call them ‘poleoclimatotopes’.Each poleoclimatotope, industrial, commercial/city, residential/urban/suburban, and different kinds of open spaces in towns, has its own mean structure and percentage of vegetation surface. But also in the ‘choroclimatotopes’ — the climatotopes of the open landscape — as wood, grove, heath, farmland greenery, arable land, and open water surfaces — special styles of vegetation surface and structure can be found.With buildings, some vegetative climatic effects can be made by combining green cover on walls, roofs, and in open spaces in the vicinity of buildings. According to the environmental conditions the different climatotopes show the effect of vegetation on the urban topoclimate and microclimate, regarding different styles of greenery at and around buildings.
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Increasing urbanization has created pressure on land use. Today more and more land in urbanized areas is used for housing, industry, community services or other economic functions. However, green spaces have a proven positive effect on people living in the neighborhood of green spaces, as well as on people working or recreating in the urbanized area. Therefore, green infrastructure investments have been put high on the agenda in many European countries. In order to convince the public and other stakeholders of the usefulness of these kind of green investments, it is necessary to give a correct, understandable and easily repeatable method to value the investment. The current article describes a model that can be used to put the value of green infrastructure investments into economic terms. Evaluating the project at site scale and regional scale will give a complete overview of all direct, indirect and use values of the investment. By using cost–benefit as well as multiplier analyses the monetary values can be estimated. The article shows that using this model helps to justify policy's support for and investment in green space.
Natural Building: A Guide to Materials and Techniques
  • T Woolley
Woolley T. 2006. " Natural Building: A Guide to Materials and Techniques ". Crowood Press.