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Describing the diversity of community supported fishery programs in North America

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... There has been a recent proliferation of alternative seafood marketing programs in North America, which connect small-scale fishers to consumers by way of partnering with or bypassing seafood processors and intermediary distributors. While taking various forms, these enterprises generally aim to shorten or streamline seafood supply chains in order to promote a host of economic, environmental, and social outcomes [1][2][3][4][5]. To an extent, the proliferation of alternative marketing is linked to consumers' increasing appetite for local, sustainable, healthy, traceable, and ethical sources of seafood, following reports of human rights violations [6], contaminated seafood [7], and mislabeling and seafood fraud [8] along commodity-scale or 'conventional' supply chains. ...
... For example, Stoll et al. (2015) document the price premiums achieved by fishers within a CSF in the Southeastern United States (US) and present a model for how such programs could produce different types of social capital [1]. However, further documentation of the other values generated by different types of alternative seafood marketing is warranted, given that these programs are highly diverse [5]. In addition, relatively limited attention has been given to the drivers behind these initiatives or to how they are linked to fisheries policy and management. ...
... The study highlighted the unique structures of different alternative seafood value chains. This follows on the work of Bolton et al. (2016), which describes the organizational diversity of one form of alternative seafood marketing: community supported fisheries (CSFs) [5]. Of the programs already in operation during the time of this study (n=16), the number of steps in their chains of custody from boat to fork ranged from three to 12. ...
Article
This paper suggests that detrimental effects of certain neoliberal fisheries policies are key drivers behind the development of alternative seafood marketing programs in North America. It examines the structures, market and non-market values, and challenges of these programs. The primary aim of the research, based on interviews involving 20 programs and a conference workshop, was to advance understanding of the market value of alternative seafood marketing to fishers and communities. However, the importance of a broader set of non-market values was repeatedly highlighted by those engaged in these programs. Overall, the research suggests that alternative seafood marketing can enable fishers to participate in fisheries managed by neoliberal, market-based policies, through the promotion of market values along their diverse value chains. At the same time, alternative seafood marketing appears to resist market-based fishing systems, sometimes through the promotion of broader, non-market outcomes. Common challenges along these alternative seafood value chains highlight the structural conflicts that exist while simultaneously participating in and resisting neoliberal fisheries structures.
... Originating in Maine in 2007 [35], CSFs decrease the distance (physical and/or social) from 'boat to bowl,' much like Community Supported Agriculture programs reduce the distance from 'farm to fork' [12]. CSF missions vary [36] but typically involve providing fresh, local seafood and corresponding education to consumers and generating alternative markets and fair prices for suppliers. CSFs often seek to make seafood environmentally friendly by minimizing overexploitation, habitat impairment, and carbon emissions from international trade [12,13,37]. ...
... As with any case study, there are important contextual issues which help define the example at hand. CSFs are primarily located in the United States and Canada [13,36], so our research naturally occurred in a North American context, and our data were specific to the mid-coastal United States. Although our goal to evaluate how COVID-19 affected the Fishadelphia network could only be addressed at this spatial scale, our methods and findings are applicable to CSFs in other parts of North America and fisheries throughout the world [30]. ...
... occurrence of localregional-global interactions) are often similar [33]. As CSFs grow in number, structural uniqueness, and stakeholder diversity [12,36], we show how metacoupling-based network analysis is a useful, systematic approach for understanding these emerging food supply chains and promoting robust CSF management amid ordinary logistical and financial challenges [37] and extraordinary circumstances created by public health emergencies and other crises. Network analysis also has broader relevance for addressing metacouplings in terrestrial agriculture, fisheries and wildlife management, disease ecology, international trade, and other fields [16,43,44,65,66]. ...
Article
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Fisheries are coupled human-natural systems locally, regionally, and globally. However, human-nature interactions within and between adjacent and distant systems (metacouplings) are rarely studied in fisheries despite their prevalence and policy relevance. We filled this knowledge gap by using network models to identify how the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has rewired couplings and reshaped resilience of Fishadelphia, a community-supported fishery program (CSF) in New Jersey and Pennsylvania, USA. As abstractions illustrating interactions among supply-chain actors, networks are helpful for characterizing flows and assessing resilience to disturbances such as those induced by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Since Fall 2018, 18 seafood (finfish and shellfish) species totaling 6,273 lbs have flowed from harvesters (n = 4), to processors (n = 2), to a distributor, to retailers (n = 2), and finally to customers (n = 183). The pandemic reduced the number of seafood harvesters and processors (-50%), seafood flow quantity (-25%), species diversity in the marketplace (-67%), and species per supplier (-50%) before stopping flows in mid-March 2020, when Fishadelphia closed for three months. Models of network optimality indicated that the pandemic fragmented metacouplings that previously allowed multiple seafood suppliers to provide diverse products to customers. However, demand-side resilience increased through dispersed, socially distanced, efficient seafood delivery that expanded the customer base and generally increased customer satisfaction. This resilience dichotomy—wherein the post-closure network was less resilient than the pre-closure network in supply-side species diversity, but more resilient in demand-side social distancing, delivery efficiency, and customer satisfaction—has implications for rewiring networks to sustain CSFs and other local food systems amid ecological and social disturbances.
... Based on community supported agriculture (CSA), CSFs seek to provide fair compensation to small-scale fishers, increase access to locally caught seafood, and create shortened, transparent supply chains [18]. CSFs sell seafood directly to consumers, often through pre-payments (frequently referred to as 'shares') at the beginning of a fishing season [19]. Advance payment systems aim to help cover fishing costs, share food production risks, and assure sufficient sale volumes. ...
... Establishing positive financial performance is necessary for the long-term financial viability of CSFs, and along with social and ecological factors like public outreach and product sustainability, it is a critical component contributing to their overall economic viability [32]. There is large variation in CSF structure [19], including differences in the products they sell, their social media presence, and the payment options they offer. There is also variation among CSFs in terms of their financial stability, with some CSFs becoming well-established and profitable, and others being unable to attract enough shareholders to achieve profitability [17]. ...
... To assess features important for the financial performance of CSFs, this study identified North American CSF programs and collected data related to their finances and operations. There is no standard definition for a CSF [20]; rather, the diversity of CSFs is such that a single definition would be insufficient [19]. Acknowledging this diversity, this study established criteria for programs to be included in the study, only collecting data from programs in North America that self-described as CSFs and that strived to: 1) provide a transparent chain-of-custody from fisher to consumer; 2) increase access to locally caught/produced seafood to consumers; and 3) provide at or above market prices to fishers for their catch. ...
Article
Community supported fishery (CSF) programs are emerging as appealing alternatives to large-scale industrial fisheries for some seafood consumers and commercial fishers. While CSFs provide many social, economic, and environmental benefits to their local communities, the associated financial costs can make it difficult for such programs to remain solvent. The goal of this research was to identify specific features that influence the financial performance of CSF programs. Using data collected online and from surveys of past and current North American CSFs, this research identified a combination of three key features associated with positive profit margins: engaging in social media, offering a retail option, and having a fisher as a founding member. The potential reasons behind the influence of these features on financial performance is explored, and recommendations for how they can be incorporated into CSF programs are presented. It is hoped that through integrating these features, prospective and currently operating CSFs could potentially improve their long-term financial performance, enabling them to focus on their non-financial goals and increase their overall economic viability.
... The shorter chain in CSFs makes it easier to identify and follow the origin and processing history and distribution of a product throughout the entire supply chain (Bolton et al., 2016). By providing quality fresh seafood to consumers, greater information and a positive impact for the local economy, CSFs like CSAs tend to reduce the lack of transparency observed in conventional seafood supply chains (Oberholtzer and Grow, 2003;Brown and Miller, 2008). ...
... Explaining why consumers are increasingly attracted by CSFs is challenging for many reasons. As shown by other studies, this way of consuming fresh produce is supposed to increase the environmental value of goods (Brinson et al., 2011;McClenachan et al., 2014;Bolton et al., 2016) and has often been created in opposition to conventional markets (Dubuisson-Quellier and Lamine, 2004). First of all, this market institution is meant to propose local food of higher environmental quality at reasonable prices to consumers who are willing to support the local producers in return by a long-term contractual commitment of pre-arranged price and delivery. ...
... reinsurance or awareness about the product itself. Whether our results can be extended to other community-supported food networks could also be challenged in regard to the heterogeneity of CSFs, either among consumers, harvesters or species, as analyzed by Bolton et al. (2016) in the North American context. As CSFs are only emerging in France (three cases only, direct sales being more frequent although less structured), the Yeu Island CSF case remains quite unique by the strong commitment of local actors, and therefore does not really allow for general results about consumers' motives for joining CSFs. ...
Article
In a Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) or Community-Supported Fishery (CSF), buyers commit to pay a periodic fixed amount to ensure a guaranteed revenue for producers. In return, they benefit from scheduled deliveries but with unknown content. The shorter channels for seafood products are valued by consumers because they often include more sustainable fishing practices and avoid food miles. However, consumers may join these systems for many other reasons linked to lower prices or higher quality of fish, the support to the local economy, and social or political reasons. Who is, if ever existing, the “typical” CSF buyer, and what makes CSFs appealing to fish consumers? With an original survey of 556 French seafood consumers belonging to the Yeu Island CSF, this research aims at disentangling the various motives for joining and purchasing fish exclusively from CSFs. Among a large range of motivations, the analysis reveals the existence of three factors: credence attributes (environment and local support), relational aspects (meet people), and economic incentives. We show through a simultaneous equation model that exclusive CSF consumers are positively influenced by the relational dimension but negatively by credence attributes.
... The first CSF started in Port Clyde, ME, in 2007, with now nearly 40 in operation across the USA and Canada, and more opening every year (Godwin et al. 2017). CSFs were initially inspired by the success and structure of CSAs (Snyder and St. Martin 2015), and have developed over time to include a variety of seafood distribution arrangements with shortened supply chains and a focus on product traceability: some involve advance payment from customers for regular deliveries of seafood, while others arrange direct sales from harvesters to customers (Bolton et al. 2016;Godwin et al. 2017;Witter and Stoll 2017). These alternative seafood distribution systems, like their agricultural counterparts, fall under the broad category of "value chains": supply chains (networks which move products from production to consumption) that aim not just to maximize profit but also to provide benefits to all stakeholders (Dey et al. 2015). ...
... Research suggests that both suppliers and consumers participate in alternative food chains at least in part for selfinterested reasons. The self-interested reasons cited for supplier participation are primarily economic: they see CSAs/CSFs as a way to get access to a new market and command a better price for their products by circumventing conventional supply chains (Bolton et al. 2016;Hinrichs 2015;Morgan et al. 2018;Ostrom 2007;Stoll et al. 2015;Witter and Stoll 2017;Worden 2004). Their self-interest is not expressed solely in monetary terms; however, they see supplying these alternative markets as a way of sustaining their independent livelihoods and improving their quality of life (Samoggia et al. 2019;Snyder and St. Martin 2015;Witter and Stoll 2017). ...
... Their self-interest is not expressed solely in monetary terms; however, they see supplying these alternative markets as a way of sustaining their independent livelihoods and improving their quality of life (Samoggia et al. 2019;Snyder and St. Martin 2015;Witter and Stoll 2017). For seafood harvesters in particular, another self-interested motivation identified in the literature is what in this paper we term pride: the opportunity to promote the quality of their own products and practices, as well as those of their industry, and to be recognized for their work (Bolton et al. 2016;Witter and Stoll 2017). Farmers are likely also motivated by the opportunity for greater recognition, but this factor does not emerge as distinctly from the CSA literature as it does in the CSF literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Local and regional food initiatives—new ways of connecting food suppliers with nearby consumers—have proliferated in recent decades in the USA and beyond. One manifestation of this local food movement is the emergence of community-supported fishery (CSF) programs: alternative seafood distribution arrangements with shortened, traceable supply chains. Such alternative food value chains are seen as having the potential to benefit multiple stakeholders, including suppliers, customers, and intermediaries; however, the nature of those benefits—and the degree to which they foster connection among stakeholders—needs to be better understood. In particular, regional, intermediated value chains are less well understood than those that involve direct sales from harvester to consumer. This case study examines an intermediated, regional CSF (Fishadelphia) intentionally designed to connect culturally dissimilar stakeholders: New Jersey seafood suppliers and diverse consumers in Philadelphia. The project is coordinated by high school students from the Philadelphia neighborhoods served by the project. The paper examines the perspectives of three participant groups—suppliers, students, and customers—and compares motivations for taking part, values derived from doing so, and awareness of/interest in other stakeholders. Input was solicited from all active members of each participant group. Data were collected at multiple points during Fishadelphia’s first year of operations using a combination of surveys and individual/group interviews. We found that views of other stakeholders in this value chain varied widely within and across groups; these views showed some evidence of being affected by direct face-to-face contact. Our findings suggest that interplay among three types of values—self-interested, altruistic, and relational—may be important in motivating stakeholders to initiate and sustain participation in alternative value chains. This analysis furthers understanding of varied benefits that alternative food value chains can yield for different stakeholders, and illuminates opportunities for, and limitations to, the development of connection among value chain stakeholders.
... In the face of dwindling resources and increasing competition, one possible adaptation for commercial linefishers is to engage in their own version of collective sourcing, marketing and selling. Consumer trends favouring sustainable, traceable and quality food products (Hinrichs 2000;Campbell et al. 2014;Bolton et al. 2016;Witter and Stoll 2017); the experiences of smallscale fishers' cooperatives in Europe (Verhaegen and Van Huylenbroeck 2001;Pascual-Fernández et al. 2019) and North and South America (Kitts and Edwards 2003;Devaux et al. 2009;Foley and McCay 2014); and similar efforts amongst small-scale agricultural producers in Africa (Barham and Chitemi 2009;Kaganzi et al. 2009) suggest that collectivisation and cooperation between small-scale producers can improve profit-taking through the branding, marketing and retailing of their own products (Stoll et al. 2015). Furthermore, cooperative selling may also improve product quality, pricing (Simmons and Birchall 2008) and access to markets (Chloupkova et al. 2003;Kitts and Edwards 2003;Ünal et al. 2009), whilst reducing producers' costs (Verhaegen and Van Huylenbroeck 2001;Hellin et al. 2009;Markelova et al. 2009). ...
... Concomitantly, recognition of small-scale fishers' collectives has spread, with the majority of European Union member states, for example, opting to include 'producers' organisations' in legislation (Martin 2008) with a view towards supporting the marketing and sale of their products. The spread of such collectivisation and its application in different contexts has resulted in a range of structures and implementations such that there is no single model of CSF (Bolton et al. 2016;Witter and Stoll 2017). Witter and Stoll (2017) suggest rather that it is more pertinent to talk of 'alternative seafood marketing programmes' that assume various forms but also embrace several key characteristics including a shortened supply chain that looks to connect consumers more closely with production and/ or producers; the promotion of various social, economic and environmental objectives; a focus on local production; traceability; and sustainability (Witter and Stoll 2017). ...
... By offering local species, the approach may also serve to decrease pressure on overexploited species whilst adding value to others that are traditionally underrepresented in the market (McClenachan et al. 2014). Further to this, many alternative marketing collectives emphasise face-to-face interactions between fishers and consumers, resulting in greater community support of the fishers as well as stronger community identity (Brinson et al. 2011;Campbell et al. 2014;Stoll et al. 2015;Bolton et al. 2016). ...
Article
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Faced with competition from large-scale fisheries and other pressures, many small-scale fisheries are looking to ‘alternative’ seafood marketing options to enhance livelihoods. Based on the findings of participant observation and action research, we discuss opportunities and challenges associated with an attempt to create a novel brand and alternative seafood marketing scheme with small-scale handline fishers in the southern Cape region of South Africa. The work focussed on collective action to create a seafood branding scheme distinguishing fish caught using traditional small-scale, low-impact linefishing methods from commercially trawled fish. After a failed start to the scheme on the quayside owing to pressure from fish-buying middlemen representing inshore trawling companies, the linefishers adapted their approach, supplying a more upmarket seafood store away from the harbour opened by one of their number. Initially, the linefishers and store owner wanted to differentiate their catch from trawled fish by only offering linefish in the store. However, consumer demand for, and attitudes towards, certain seafood products and species ultimately compelled the store to incorporate seafood products sourced from the trawling companies via the middlemen, in its offering. The research findings indicate that collective action is of potential value to linefishers. However, in the southern Cape, inshore trawling companies and their affiliated middlemen continue to exert influence over how commercial linefishers can market and sell their catch via a relationship of interdependence. This relationship will have to be carefully negotiated if future collective linefish branding and sales in the region are to succeed.
... Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) and Community-Supported Fishery (CSF) provide such identity and sense of belonging for farmers and fishers, who cannot be merely reduced to rent-seekers (Galt, 2015), and also to eaters whose motivations go far beyond the need for organic local food by including political, social and ethical values (Brinson et al., 2011;Stoll et al. 2015;Bolton et al., 2016;Salladarré et al., 2018). By creating a direct relationship between producers and eaters through regular, pre-arranged deliveries of products, these institutions produce multiple market and non-market benefits (Brinson et al., 2011;Bolton et al., 2016). ...
... Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) and Community-Supported Fishery (CSF) provide such identity and sense of belonging for farmers and fishers, who cannot be merely reduced to rent-seekers (Galt, 2015), and also to eaters whose motivations go far beyond the need for organic local food by including political, social and ethical values (Brinson et al., 2011;Stoll et al. 2015;Bolton et al., 2016;Salladarré et al., 2018). By creating a direct relationship between producers and eaters through regular, pre-arranged deliveries of products, these institutions produce multiple market and non-market benefits (Brinson et al., 2011;Bolton et al., 2016). For instance, fishers receive higher payment for fish, are guaranteed a stable income, and can activate political support through direct interaction with consumers and the induced increase of social capital (Stoll et al., 2015). ...
... Consumers join to have access to distinctive products. Actually, most CSF/CSA serve local organic food with a higher level of quality, making this specific channel of distribution more attractive for consumers who want to eat local and healthy products (Brinson et al., 2011;Bolton et al., 2016). As those expectations are more focused on convenience, economic utility, there is low evidence that they can produce and develop a common identity. ...
Article
Community-supported agriculture/fisheries (CSA/CSF) create both market and nonmarket values, including environmental and social benefits. When shared by a community of users, these values generate identity and sense of belonging for the members who are prone to accept conditions they would not bear in conventional markets (e.g., higher prices, inconvenient delivery time and location, lack of choice, and supply risk). We argue that longevity of CSA/CSF depends on their capacity to create such a sense of belonging. For this reason and because of some CSF peculiarities compared to CSA, analyzing the sense of belonging to a CSF becomes an interesting challenge to understand the nature and extent of the community and its underlying social characteristics and motives. A qualitative-quantitative mixed methodology was used. Data come from an original online survey of 556 French seafood consumers belonging to the Yeu Island CSF, and from individual, semi-directive interviews. An ordered probit model with endogenous treatment effects for commitment experience was developed, and the evidence of results was related with a content analysis from qualitative materials. The sense of belonging to CSF is positively influenced by the relational dimension and negatively by the demand for high-quality goods, but not by the credence attributes (support of fishers and the local economy, origin of products, environmental outcomes…). Moreover, commitment as volunteer member tends to have a positive influence on belongingness. Interviews with members highlight the social and cultural entanglement of their relationship. They show notably the importance of the sociability built around fish – leading to an increase of knowledge around species, ways of cooking, and to the strengthening of a food identity – on the sense of belonging. The long-term sustainability of CSF may highly depend on these relational dimensions, acting as cohesive factors in the community.
... Community-supported agriculture (CSA) and community-supported fishery (CSF) provide such identity and sense of belonging for farmers and fishers, who cannot be merely reduced to rent seekers (Galt 2015), and also to eaters whose motivations go far beyond the need for organic local food by including political, social, and ethical values (Brinson et al. 2011;Stoll et al. 2015;Bolton et al. 2016;Salladarré et al. 2018). By creating a direct relationship between producers and eaters through regular, prearranged deliveries of products, these institutions produce multiple market and nonmarket benefits (Brinson et al. 2011;Bolton et al. 2016). ...
... Community-supported agriculture (CSA) and community-supported fishery (CSF) provide such identity and sense of belonging for farmers and fishers, who cannot be merely reduced to rent seekers (Galt 2015), and also to eaters whose motivations go far beyond the need for organic local food by including political, social, and ethical values (Brinson et al. 2011;Stoll et al. 2015;Bolton et al. 2016;Salladarré et al. 2018). By creating a direct relationship between producers and eaters through regular, prearranged deliveries of products, these institutions produce multiple market and nonmarket benefits (Brinson et al. 2011;Bolton et al. 2016). For instance, fishers receive higher payment for fish, are guaranteed a stable income, and can activate political support through direct interaction with consumers and the induced increase of social capital (Stoll et al. 2015). ...
... Consumers join to have access to distinctive products. Actually, most CSF/CSA serve local organic food with a higher level of quality, making this specific channel of distribution more attractive for consumers who want to eat local and healthy products (Brinson et al. 2011;Bolton et al. 2016). As those expectations are more focused on convenience, economic utility, there is low evidence that they can produce and develop a common identity. ...
Article
Community-supported agriculture/fisheries (CSA/CSF) create both market and non-market values, including environmental and social benefits. When shared by a community of users, these values generate identity and sense of belonging for the members who are prone to accept conditions they would not bear in conventional markets (e.g., higher prices, inconvenient delivery time and location, lack of choice, and supply risk). We argue that longevity of CSA/CSF depends on their capacity to create such a sense of belonging. For this reason and because of some CSF peculiarities compared to CSA, analyzing the sense of belonging to a CSF becomes an interesting challenge to understand the nature and extent of the community and its underlying social characteristics and motives. A qualitative-quantitative mixed methodology was used. Data come from an original online survey of 556 French seafood consumers belonging to the Yeu Island CSF, and from individual, semi-directive interviews. An ordered probit model with endogenous treatment effects for commitment experience was developed, and the evidence of results was related with a content analysis from qualitative materials. The sense of belonging to CSF is positively influenced by the relational dimension and negatively by the demand for high-quality goods, but not by the credence attributes (support of fishers and the local economy, origin of products, environmental outcomes … ). Moreover, commitment as volunteer member tends to have a positive influence on belongingness. Interviews with members highlight the social and cultural entanglement of their relationship. They show notably the importance of the sociability built around fish – leading to an increase of knowledge around species, ways of cooking, and to the strengthening of a food identity – on the sense of belonging. The long-term sustainability of CSF may highly depend on these relational dimensions, acting as cohesive factors in the community.
... Alternative seafood networks (ASNs) are seafood distribution models that aim to shorten or restructure seafood supply chains in order to promote a variety of economic, environmental, and social values (Bolton et al., 2016;Brinson et al., 2011;Campbell et al., 2014;McClenachan et al., 2014;A. L. Witter, 2020). ...
... Though there is existing literature on ASNs, it primarily focusses on one specific type of ASN: community supported fisheries (CSFs). While existing research has acknowledged that alternative seafood arrangements can take on a diverse range of structures and distribution methods (Bolton, 2016) few have explored this diversity in depth. The evolution of "alternatives" in the seafood space beyond the widely studied community supported fishery model, is documented further in Chapter 2. ...
... Existing literature on alternative seafood businesses has called for further research into a variety of topics. These include: how ASN operators conceptualize terms like "local" and "alternative"; to what extent these values influence their beliefs about what alternative food movements accomplish (Campbell et al., 2014); and finally, how flexibility and plurality within alternative food movements influences the space (Bolton et al., 2016). Understanding value diversity in ASNs will address these knowledge gaps and also contribute to literature on alternative food movements more generally, which are often criticized for not having a singular definition. ...
Thesis
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The globalization of the seafood industry has prompted the creation of alternative business models that seek to resist the industrialization of the industry, while promoting a specific set of core social and environmental values that ostensibly deviate from the global mainstream. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, actors in this "alternative" space emerged as a visible feature of the global seafood distribution system. By restructuring and shortening seafood supply chains, alternative seafood networks (ASNs) are reasserting the importance of a specific set of values in food systems for both environmental and socio-cultural reasons. This thesis explores the diversity of businesses within the alternative seafood space and how this diversity has emerged and changed over time. It also draws comparisons from food systems literature to understand the implications of too much diversity within the alternative seafood space. Finally, this thesis also explores the challenges ASN operators face and opportunities to address them. This work is an opportunity to explore the current and future role of ASNs in the broader seafood economy. iii
... The primary data have been triangulated with the information compiled from the online initiatives' websites, as well as by tracking the initiatives' social media (Twitter and Facebook), news articles, and secondary complementary sources, which helped to correctly frame the scope of the marketing initiative (e.g., legislation). According to this information and taking as reference the descriptions provided by Bolton [24] in the case of the USA and Canada and FARNET (The European Fisheries Areas Network) in the case of Europe [20], the initiatives have been classified as SCC (Short Supply Circuit)/CSF (community supported fisheries) or direct sale. The literature on alternative seafood marketing arrangements originally arose in the US and Canada in the early 2000 s, where the initiatives were primarily based on the Community Supported Agriculture model [25]. ...
... The literature on alternative seafood marketing arrangements originally arose in the US and Canada in the early 2000 s, where the initiatives were primarily based on the Community Supported Agriculture model [25]. The main goals of these initiatives were to react to producers' and consumers' concerns about the environmental impacts, social, economic, as well as cultural consequences on rural communities that globalization and industrialization could produce [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. These initiatives, originally linked to social movements, provided an arena for producer and consumer activism, with the aim of re-embedding food markets in the social fabric of communities and to tackle the environmental impacts that large agrifood value chains produce [32]. ...
... The primary data have been triangulated with the information compiled from the online initiatives' websites, as well as by tracking the initiatives' social media (Twitter and Facebook), news articles, and secondary complementary sources, which helped to correctly frame the scope of the marketing initiative (e.g., legislation). According to this information and taking as reference the descriptions provided by Bolton [24] in the case of the USA and Canada and FARNET (The European Fisheries Areas Network) in the case of Europe [20], the initiatives have been classified as SCC (Short Supply Circuit)/CSF (community supported fisheries) or direct sale. The literature on alternative seafood marketing arrangements originally arose in the US and Canada in the early 2000 s, where the initiatives were primarily based on the Community Supported Agriculture model [25]. ...
... The literature on alternative seafood marketing arrangements originally arose in the US and Canada in the early 2000 s, where the initiatives were primarily based on the Community Supported Agriculture model [25]. The main goals of these initiatives were to react to producers' and consumers' concerns about the environmental impacts, social, economic, as well as cultural consequences on rural communities that globalization and industrialization could produce [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. These initiatives, originally linked to social movements, provided an arena for producer and consumer activism, with the aim of re-embedding food markets in the social fabric of communities and to tackle the environmental impacts that large agrifood value chains produce [32]. ...
... Whatmore et al., 2003;Goodman et al., 2012), which emerged in response to problems in terrestrial food systems, ASNs aim to address perceived economic, social, and environmental issues associated with the global seafood system-including but not limited to concerns about overfishing, industrialization, privatization, and the disappearance of smallscale and community-based fishing operations (Brinson et al., 2011;Campbell et al., 2014;McClenachan et al., 2014;Stoll et al., 2015). The literature also refers to ASNs as direct marketing arrangements (Stoll et al., 2015), community supported fisheries (Bolton et al., 2016), and relational seafood supply chains . While further research is needed to define the parameters of ASN, we use the term ASN broadly to describe individual and collective efforts by fishers and fishing families shocks impact all levels of the food system, from producers to consumers, and can lead to "deadlock" in the system. ...
... Daily website analytics for eight ASNs in the United States (n = 6) and Canada (n = 2) was collected for the time period of January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020. Businesses were selected purposefully to ensure geographic coverage across the United States and Canada (East and West Coasts) and to account for different types of ASN described by Bolton et al. (2016): ...
Article
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Export-oriented seafood trade faltered during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast, alternative seafood networks (ASNs) that distribute seafood through local and direct marketing channels were identified as a "bright spot." In this paper, we draw on multiple lines of quantitative and qualitative evidence to show that ASNs experienced a temporary pandemic "bump" in both the United States and Canada in the wake of supply chain disruptions and government mandated social protections. We use a systemic resilience framework to analyze the factors that enabled ASNs to be resilient during the pandemic as well as challenges. The contrast between ASNs and the broader seafood system during COVID-19 raises important questions about the role that local and regional food systems may play during crises and highlights the need for functional diversity in supply chains.
... In this context, the voluntary participation of the parties remains essential, primarily due to economic reasons. Frequently, the producers are encouraged by the possibility of wider promotion of their products, better recognition on the market, social appreciation or educational activities in the area of economic, social, and environmental importance of agriculture and fisheries [12]. Consumers' motivations are predominantly driven by the willingness to purchase healthy, organic, high-quality food. ...
... Consumers' motivations are predominantly driven by the willingness to purchase healthy, organic, high-quality food. They result, to a lesser extent, from altruistic motives in relation to the local producers or the need to support sustainable food production practices [8,[12][13][14][15]. ...
Article
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Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) is an alternative form of distributing agricultural products, including fish, consistent with the model of food supply chain shortening. It extends beyond the traditional model of profit maximization and aims at strengthening local interactions with food consumers. The purpose of this article is to assess the feasibility of implementing the CSA model in the Polish carp market, representing the dominant aquaculture product. The research focused on the potential identified on the supply and demand sides of the carp market. The source material was collected through a pilot two-track empirical study conducted in 2019 in the Barycz Valley, where the largest complex of carp breeding ponds is located in Poland, and in Europe. We propose that the following CSA model of direct sales can become a source of specific benefits in the economic, social, and environmental dimensions for the key stakeholders of the supply chain, (i.e., carp producers and consumers). The research results show that in the case of carp production in Poland, CSA may turn out a desirable support for the sale of fish in the future; however, the existing conditions are not yet fully favourable for its development.
... CSF in itself does not represent a homogenous economic model, specific structure or kind of organization. It does however stand for a common food sovereignty and producer philosophy engaging the consumer in the sustainability, traceability and genealogy of fish (Bolton et al., 2016). ...
... But there are also a number of challenges and constraints. Bolton et al. (2016) demonstrate a number of these in the North American context. Most prominent are increased workload due to marketing and branding activities and meeting consumer demands with an unpredictable supply of products. ...
... Across the United States, growing demand for local and sustainable food supports an explosion of farmers markets and marketing methods that emphasize ethics in food production (Hinrichs and Lyson 2009;Pojman, Pojman, and McShane 2016). There has been considerable attention by scholars to the topic of sustainability issues in seafood 1 (Stoll, Dubik, and Campbell 2015;Bolton et al. 2016;Stoll and Johnson 2015;McClenachan et al. 2014), including food system research that examines unethical practices in seafood production (e.g., Constance and Kirk Jentoft 2011;Marschke and Vandergeest 2016;Chantavanich, Laodumrongchai, and Stringer 2016). However, consumers appear to have difficulty understanding the origins of the seafood products they encounter in the market, and the production issues attached to the seafood they buy. ...
... CSFs are based on the Consumer Supported Agriculture model; customers pay an up-front fee to a fisher or fishing organization in exchange for a share of whatever is caught (Campbell et al. 2014). CSFs are successful in many locations (Bolton et al. 2016). Further engagement comes with self-education through reading articles about seafood and commercial fishing in local, regional, and national news media. ...
Article
Growing demand for local, sustainable food is supporting an explosion of direct marketing throughout the United States (U.S.). Despite recent scholarship on ethics and sustainability issues in seafood, these are less commonly addressed among the consumers participating in the local food movement. This paper examines the interplay between demand for local and ethically sourced foods and the implications for seafood sustainability in the U.S. south, asking: what are Georgia consumer perceptions of local and sustainable foods, to what extent do they consider seafood in the local food movement, and how can Georgia fisheries fit within these understandings and preferences? We refashion a values‐based supply chain model to encapsulate consumers’ preferences, and propose a three‐tiered, process based model of involvement for seafood consumers. In sum, we argue that sustainable seafood deserves a more prominent place in the local food movement.
... Small-scale fisheries face market competition from large-scale fishery products, foreign imports, and aquaculture products, and many small-scale fishing operations are pursuing new ways to market and sell their catch . Over the last decade, a diversity of experiences to promote and differentiate small-scale fisheries products have been developed (Bolton et al. 2016;Godwin et al. 2017). The scientific literature on marketing strategies to promote small-scale fisheries products is scarce. ...
... The most studied CSF initiative is 'Walking Fish', an initiative from Beaufort, in North Carolina (USA), implemented in 2009 (Bolton et al. 2016;Brinson et al. 2011 ;Campbell et al. 2014;Stoll andJohnson 2015). Examples of other CSFs in the literature include 'Off the Hook' (Canada), 'Port Clyde Fresh Catch' (USA), 'Community Fish' (USA) (Brinson et al. 2011 ) (Table 8.1). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Several factors affect the ability of small-scale fishers to secure their livelihoods. Particularly relevant is their capacity to sell their fish, receive remunerative prices, and add value to their catches. In general, catches from small-scale fisheries have a superior quality and freshness, but this does not always lead to better prices or higher demand. Too often, local fishing catches are not sufficiently differentiated in the market from those coming from imports, larger scale fisheries, aquaculture, or even from furtive fishing. This chapter focuses on strategies adopted by small-scale fishers to add value and improve the market penetration of their catches. These strategies must embrace a wide range of actors and issues. There is also a need to know whether the fishing resources available can cope with demand, or in what ways consumers’ preferences could be refocused on other marine species to make more efficient use of potential resources. This requires the contribution of a variety of scientists, ranging from the fields of natural sciences to economics and marketing, with social sciences also playing an important role. Consequently, transdisciplinary research in this area is needed in order to optimize the income of fishing families and make it easier for consumers to access locally caught fish. This chapter will also provide a practical example to illustrate transdisciplinary research to improve small-scale fisheries capacity for innovation in marketing being developed in Tenerife (Spain). These strategies involve collaborations between scientists, local government, and the industry to produce an innovative small-scale fisheries branding initiative.
... Despite the multi-faceted motivations behind enhancing local seafood markets, research to-date into seafood distribution systems is not widespread [21]. Except for a study in New England by O'Hara and McClenachan [19], most research on local seafood marketing has focused on direct marketing business models like community supported fisheries (CSFs) [11,[2][3][4]. Consumer purchases through these channels predominately occur for at-home consumption [27]. ...
... The omitted binary variable in the regression represents the North Pacific and Pacific FMC regions. 2 ...
Article
Local seafood marketing is intended to improve livelihoods in coastal communities and the sustainability of fisheries practices. While local seafood procurement aligns with the objectives of “farm to school” (F2S) programming in the United States (U.S.), local seafood purchases by schools are infrequent. Understanding the impediments to local seafood procurement can inform strategies to support such practices. This research employs Farm to School Census data to identify attributes that influence school purchases of local seafood at both the school-level and regional-level in the U.S. At the school-level, outreach strategies and promotional efforts employed by schools are important in influencing local seafood sourcing decisions, while the percentage of students on free/reduced-price lunch and school size are not. These findings suggest that technical assistance to practitioners is impactful in supporting the development of local seafood markets. Schools that are close to commercial fishing ports are also more likely to procure seafood locally. At the regional-level, North Pacific and New England schools had a greater propensity to procure local seafood than elsewhere. In the North Pacific this could be occurring because the commercial fishery is economically prominent. In New England this phenomenon may be occurring to develop new markets for alternative seafood species, since historically-important groundfish stocks are depleted. Local agricultural marketing is also relatively important in New England. Thus, there could be spillover benefits to local fishers from technical assistance resources developed to support the local marketing of agricultural products.
... CSF in itself does not represent a homogenous economic model, specific structure or kind of organization. It does however stand for a common food sovereignty and producer philosophy engaging the consumer in the sustainability, traceability and genealogy of fish (Bolton et al., 2016). ...
... But there are also a number of challenges and constraints. Bolton et al. (2016) demonstrate a number of these in the North American context. Most prominent are increased workload due to marketing and branding activities and meeting consumer demands with an unpredictable supply of products. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is a TemaNord report, funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers. In the report, we explore the potentials of a differentiated approach to the development of Nordic fisheries. By this we mean an approach that cater to different development logics, and which sets new development goals especially for the small and coastal fishing fleets. The new development goals should be seen as an addition to the already existing development strategies, where focus is on efficiency, volume and standardization. Instead, this report explores approaches focusing on cross-sectorial innovation, product qualities and specialization. What will be the main principles of this development? What are the necessary pre-conditions for such a development? What can the policy side do? And what can the business side do? These are the guiding questions for this report. We seek to answer these questions through looking at experiences in the land-based food sector and through case studies of three coastal areas in Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Methodologically, we have sought to go in-depth with our case areas. Instead of gathering numerous inspirational best practices, we explore the obstacles and (sparse) connections between business activities and local policy drivers. Through the case studies, we explore the actual experiences with the differentiated development approach.
... 'Co-op' hosted collective accounting and asset management functions for small-scale fisher cooperatives, and 'Marketplace' captured small-scale fisher socio-cultural 'stories' on a traceability platform where fishers availed their catch for the Restaurant Supported Fishery (RSF). This 'storied' fish was modelled on the rapidly expanding arena of small-scale fisher direct marketing that facilitates shorter value chains between fishers and schools, hospitals, restaurants and homes [46][47][48][49][50][51][52]. At the time of writing, the most active modules were the Abalobi 'Fisher' and 'Marketplace' modules, with 'Monitor', 'Manager' and 'Co-op' in development. ...
... "Our relationship with the government, there are no relationship-the only relationship is with the caretaker and the caretaker take care of all of us." (FG1, skipper group, 03/10/2017) Adversely included small-scale fisher value chain actors have overcome exploitation through the rise of local food movements that shorten small-scale fisher value chains by sourcing directly from fishers, bypassing the middleman and encouraging fisher post-harvest processing [48,49,115,116]. Despite the importance of effective governance to small-scale fisher value chains [13,[117][118][119][120], small-scale fishers further bemoaned the lack of effective co-management structures through which they could exercise influence on policy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Though Internet and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have been employed in small-scale fisheries (SSFs) globally, they are seldom systematically explored for the ways in which they facilitate equality, democracy and sustainability. Our study explored how ICTs in South African small-scale fisheries are leveraged towards value chain upgrading, collective action and institutional sustainability—key issues that influence small-scale fishery contributions to marine resource sustainability. We held a participatory workshop as part of ongoing research in the town of Lambert’s Bay, South Africa, in collaboration with small-scale fishers and the Abalobi ICT project. We mapped fisher value chain challenges and explored the role of ICT-driven transformation pathways, adopting Wright’s ‘Real Utopian’ framework as the lens through which to explore equality, democracy and institutional sustainability. We found Abalobi’s ICT platform had the potential to facilitate deeper meanings of democracy that incorporate socio-economic reform, collective action and institutional sustainability in South Africa’s small-scale fisheries. Where fishers are not engaged beyond passive generators of data, this had the potential to undermine the goals of increasing power parity between small-scale fisheries and other stakeholders.
... CSF in itself does not represent a homogenous economic model, specific structure or kind of organization. It does however stand for a common food sovereignty and producer philosophy engaging the consumer in the sustainability, traceability and genealogy of fish (Bolton et al., 2016). ...
... But there are also a number of challenges and constraints. Bolton et al. (2016) demonstrate a number of these in the North American context. Most prominent are increased workload due to marketing and branding activities and meeting consumer demands with an unpredictable supply of products. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report is funded by the Nordic Councils of Ministers. In the report, we explore the potentials of a differentiated approach to the development of Nordic fisheries. By this we mean an approach that cater to different development logics, and which sets new development goals especially for the small and coastal fishing fleets. The new development goals should be seen as an addition to the already existing development strategies, where focus is on efficiency, volume and standardization. Instead, this report explores approaches focusing on cross-sectorial innovation, product qualities and specialization. What will be the main principles of this development? What are the necessary pre-conditions for such a development? What can the policy side do? And what can the business side do? These are the guiding questions for this report. We seek to answer these questions through looking at experiences in the land-based food sector and through case studies of three coastal areas in Finland, Sweden and Denmark. Methodologically, we have sought to go in-depth with our case areas. Instead of gathering numerous inspirational best practices, we explore the obstacles and (sparse) connections between business activities and local policy drivers. Through the case studies, we explore the actual experiences with the differentiated development approach.
... This is rooted in concerns about the environmental footprint of global food markets, and is often coupled with a desire to support local producers, who are sometimes seen to be producing food in more sustainable ways. This discourse has begun to shape thoughts about the consumption of seafood, manifesting, for example, in the growth of a range of different Community Supported Fisheries (CSFs) models ( Brinson et al., 2011;Stoll et al., 2015;McClenachan et al., 2014;Bolton et al., 2016). The third discourse with a high visibility for consumers is related to the health effects of consuming seafood. ...
... Perhaps the most information about local seafood marketing channels pertains to community supported fisheries (CSF) operations, which are premised on the CSA model (e.g., Brinson, Lee, and Rountree 2011;Campbell et al. 2014;McClenachan et al. 2014;Bolton et al. 2016). There are approximately 400 CSF operations and small-scale harvesters nationally (LocalCatch.org ...
... These experiences have catalyzed interest in alternative and local seafood distribution systems (Bolton et al., 2016), but the pace of trade has not waned. More than 200 nations currently participate in international seafood trade (FAO, 2016) and the average number of trade partners per country has risen by 65% since 1994, increasing from 25.3 in 1994 to 41.7 in 2012 (Gephart and Pace, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Reliance on international seafood markets leaves small-scale fishers and fishing economies vulnerable to distant disturbances that can negatively affect market prices and trigger social, economic, and environmental crises at local levels. This paper examines the role of seafood trade routes and re-exports in masking such market linkages. We employ a network approach to map the global trade routes of lobster (Homarus spp.) from small-scale producers in North America to terminal markets and evaluate the extent to which intermediary nations act to obscure producer-market relationships. In taking this approach, we provide a method for systematically measuring “teleconnectivity” created through seafood trade routes, and thus making explicit vulnerabilities to small-scale fisheries from this teleconnectivity. Our empirical analysis shows that the perceived trade diversification of lobster producers is masking increased dependencies on a reduced number of end-markets, particularly in Asia. These results suggest, paradoxically, that the apparent diversification of trade partnerships may actually amplify, rather than reduce, the vulnerabilities of small-scale fishers associated with international trade by making risk harder to identify and anticipate. We discuss our results in the context of local fisheries and global seafood trade and describe key impediments to being able to monitor market dependencies and exposure to potential vulnerabilities.
... Examples of RSSC can be found worldwide (e.g., Pascual-Fernández, Pita, Josupeit, Said, & Rodrigues, 2019, Salladarré, Guillotreau, Debucquet, & Lazuech, 2018 and data from North America show that they are becoming increasingly prevalent in this region (Figure 2). These arrangements take on a diverse range of corporate structures and marketing practices (including operations like community supported fisheries, fishermen's markets, dish-to-plate programs), but a unifying dimension is that they aim to explicitly strengthen the feedback loop between small-scale harvesters and consumers (Bolton, Dubik, Stoll, & Basurto, 2016). We posit here that the relationships that come from RSSC and their associated feedback loops, create the conditions necessary to catalyze action towards sustainability in three central ways. ...
Article
Full-text available
Seafood certifications are a prominent tool being used to encourage sustainability in marine fisheries worldwide. However, questions about their efficacy remain the subject of ongoing debate. A main criticism is that they are not well suited for small‐scale fisheries or those in developing nations. This represents a dilemma because a significant share of global fishing activity occurs in these sectors. To overcome this shortcoming and others, a range of “fixes” have been implemented, including reduced payment structures, development of fisheries improvement projects, and head‐start programs that prepare fisheries for certification. These adaptations have not fully solved incompatibilities, instead creating new challenges that have necessitated additional fixes. We argue that this dynamic is emblematic of a common tendency in natural resource management where particular tools and strategies are emphasized over the conservation outcomes they seek to achieve. This can lead to the creation of “hammers” in management and conservation. We use seafood certifications as an illustrative case to highlight the importance of diverse approaches to sustainability that do not require certification. Focusing on alternative models that address sustainability problems at the local level and increase fishers’ adaptive capacity, social capital, and agency through “relational” supply chains may be a useful starting point.
... As a result of changing market dynamics, many small-scale fishers are now pursuing new ways to market and sell their catches (Stoll et al. 2015). Over the last decade, a diversity of experiences to promote and differentiate small-scale fisheries products have been developed in Europe and elsewhere, as reported by several authors (Bolton et al. 2016;Godwin et al. 2017;Pascual-Fernandez et al. 2019). Several chapters in this volume mention initiatives to differentiate small-scale fisheries products in the market (e.g. ...
Chapter
Small-scale fisheries constitute an important segment of the Spanish fishing fleet. Within the European context, the Spanish small-scale fleet is the third largest behind only Greece and Italy. The historical, cultural, economic, and social significance of this fishing sector in Spain is high, as is the range of gears and strategies used. This chapter aims to provide an overview of the condition of small-scale fisheries in Spain. It focuses on factors which have influenced the development of the sector over time. It thus pays attention to the role of local fisher organisations (cofradías), the interactions that occur with other fisheries but also with tourism, and the effects of the European Common Fisheries Policy. This chapter argues that small-scale fisheries in the country differ from one region to another, but all face serious challenges both at sea and in the markets. These are to be addressed by relevant actors at different scale levels.
... As a result of changing market dynamics, many small-scale fishers are now pursuing new ways to market and sell their catches (Stoll et al. 2015). Over the last decade, a diversity of experiences to promote and differentiate small-scale fisheries products have been developed in Europe and elsewhere, as reported by several authors (Bolton et al. 2016;Godwin et al. 2017;Pascual-Fernandez et al. 2019). Several chapters in this volume mention initiatives to differentiate small-scale fisheries products in the market (e.g. ...
Chapter
Small-scale fisheries play a major role in Europe, employing large numbers of people, shaping the socio-economic life of coastal communities, and providing fresh, high-quality seafood to local, regional, national and international markets. This chapter synthesises findings from the 25 country chapters in this volume, bringing together key lessons regarding the nature of European small-scale fisheries and their national contexts. It focuses on the socio-economic characteristics, governance arrangements, markets, interactions with other coastal activities, and the challenges encountered by small-scale fisheries. Finally, it reflects on the future of small-scale fisheries in Europe and concludes that, although this sector has faced hard times, there are now significant policy trends in its favour.
... As a result of changing market dynamics, many small-scale fishers are now pursuing new ways to market and sell their catches (Stoll et al. 2015). Over the last decade, a diversity of experiences to promote and differentiate small-scale fisheries products have been developed in Europe and elsewhere, as reported by several authors (Bolton et al. 2016;Godwin et al. 2017;Pascual-Fernandez et al. 2019). Several chapters in this volume mention initiatives to differentiate small-scale fisheries products in the market (e.g. ...
Chapter
Small-scale fisheries in Europe have historically rarely received the attention they deserve. Fishery scholars and policy makers worldwide have until recently paid scant attention to the diversity of the fisheries sector, or to the existence of small-scale fleets and their fishing communities. For far too long, small-scale fishing activity has been obscured by a focus on medium or large-scale fleets, idealised as being more modern, technologically advanced and more profitable. However, resource crises in some fisheries and increasing concerns about unsustainable practices and subsidies have put small-scale fisheries in Europe, and beyond, centre stage once again. This chapter introduces 25 country studies about small-scale fisheries in Europe, written by authors from different academic fields as well as by practitioners. Here, we provide insights into the backgrounds of small-scale fisheries in Europe, linking them to prevailing policy approaches, such as the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). We argue that small-scale fisheries in Europe are diverse, complex and dynamic, and show various levels of resilience. The evidence collected in this book will help people to understand the range of challenges small-scale fisheries face and how these might be overcome.
... Today, oceans are often seen and portrayed as a frontierfor science, for development, for conservation, and for governance [23]. They also represent a canvas for human inspiration and ingenuity about alternative forms of development [24,25]. Contemporary interest in the oceans by governments, scientists, the private sector, NGOs, and philanthropic foundations has risen drastically over the last decade [26]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the ‘new Gilded Age’ of mega-wealth and big philanthropy, academics are not paying enough attention to private foundations. Mirroring upward trends in philanthropy broadly, marine conservation philanthropy has more than doubled in recent years, reaching virtually every globally salient marine conservation issue in all corners of the planet. This paper argues that marine conservation philanthropy warrants a dedicated research agenda because private foundations are prominent, unique, and under-studied actors seeking to shape the future of a “frontier” space. We present a co-produced social science research agenda on marine conservation philanthropy that reflects the priorities of 106 marine conservation donors, practitioners, and stakeholders who participated in a research co-design process in 2018. These “research co-designers” raised 137 unique research questions, which we grouped into five thematic research priorities: outcomes, governance roles, exits, internal foundation governance, and funding landscape. We identify issues of legitimacy, justice, and applied best practice as cross-cutting research priorities that came up throughout the five themes. Participants from the NGO, foundation, and government sectors identified questions within all five themes and three cross-cutting issues, underscoring shared interest in this work from diverse groups. The research we call for herein can inform the practice of conservation philanthropy at a time when foundations are increasingly reckoning with their role as institutions of power in society. This paper is broadly relevant for social and natural scientists, practitioners, donors, and policy-makers interested in better understanding private philanthropy in any environmental context globally.
... seafood campaigns, ecolabelling) has largely avoided taking specific account of SSF (Penca 2020), and the strengthening of the SSF sector was instead delegated to the policy domain. However, growing literature is exploring markets by SSF as venues of a sustainability transition, alongside regulation of access to fishery resources (Stoll et al. 2015;Bolton et al. 2016;Witter and Stoll 2017;Penca 2019;Duggan et al. 2020). This article contributes to this literature by presenting the dual nature of markets for SSF-as both an obstacle and an emerging opportunity for their empowerment and adjustment. ...
Article
Full-text available
Improved access to markets by small-scale fisheries (SSF), as called by Sustainable Development Goal 14b and other global and Mediterranean policy documents, is impeded by the existing organisation of value chains and market structures, which are typically antagonistic to the nature of SSF. This article analyses the markets in the Mediterranean to map the drivers and feedback loops that keep fisheries in an unsustainable trajectory and reviews the key innovations in support of a socially, economically and environmentally sustainable small-scale fishing sector. We show how the current market is dominated by lack of product traceability and underappreciation of the inherent value of SSF products (e.g. local production, freshness, season dependence, quantitatively and culinary varied nature). In addition, due to a lack of organisation and the capacity to act, small-scale fishers are poised to have little to no influence over the price. In what we conceptualise as a response to the negative effects of existing market structures, we identify and classify initiatives that add value to SSF products, but not exclusively. These are the shortening of the value chain, innovation in the distribution channel, diversification in the type of product offered, promotion and education regarding SSF products, label and brand development and the empowerment of SSF communities through improved leadership, ownership, cooperation and coordination. We provide examples of these activities and propose the key types of intervention at various levels of governance to accelerate and capitalise on them in order to accomplish policy goals and achieve a better status of both the oceans and the fishers.
... To understand consumer behavior, daily website traffic for 8 ASNs in the United States and Canada was collected for the time period of January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2020. Businesses were selected purposefully to ensure geographic coverage across the United States and Canada and to account for the different types and scales of direct producer-to-consumer seafood models (see: Bolton et al. 9 for a typology of ASNs). Because they are a non-random sample, results are intended to show a qualitative trend. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Export-oriented seafood trade faltered during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. In contrast, alternative seafood networks (ASNs) that distribute seafood through local and direct marketing challenges were identified as a “bright spot”. In this paper, we draw on multiple lines of quantitative and qualitative evidence to show that ASNs experienced a temporary pandemic “bump” in both the United States and Canada in the wake of supply chain disruptions and government mandated social protections. We use a systemic resilience framework to analyze the factors that enabled ASNs to be resilient during the pandemic as well as challenges. The contrast between ASNs and the broader seafood system during COVID-19 raises important questions about the role that local and regional food systems may play during crises and highlights the need for functional diversity in supply chains.
Article
Consistent with preferences for other food products, consumers increasingly care about a range of search and credence seafood characteristics such as: environmental effects and product form. This study utilized a dataset obtained from an online survey, and a Multivariate Ordered Probit formulation to examine the impact of: demographic characteristics, lifestyle preferences, and seafood consumption frequency on preferences for selected seafood attributes. The findings indicate that the factors influencing consumer preferences differ across the attributes examined. Although some demographic variables have a statistically significant effect on consumers’ preferences for seafood attributes other than price, their predictive power was limited regarding preferences for wild-caught, fresh seafood and the impact of sustainability on purchasing decisions. Furthermore, consumers who utilize direct marketing outlets have stronger preferences towards fresh and wild-caught seafood products.
Article
Alternative food networks (AFNs) for seafood employ different approaches along their diverse value chains, yet typically share five common attributes – supporting small-scale and place-based fishing operations through the provision of traceable, sustainable, and high-quality seafood products to customers. While a range of benefits from AFNs have been described, the potential for broad impacts of seafood AFNs remains largely unknown due to a range of constraints, including a lack of understanding of consumer preferences related to different seafood attributes, including those central to AFNs. This paper utilizes an online survey of consumers in Canada (n = 2006) to assess the potential demand for products supplied through seafood AFNs. Results indicate both barriers and opportunities for growing seafood AFNs. While respondents’ top three consumed seafood species (salmon, tuna, and shrimp) aligned with North American consumption patterns, a willingness to substitute between species was also indicated, which could present market opportunities for seafood AFNs offering a variety of product options based on local seasonality and abundance. Respondents prioritized product quality attributes situated at the consumption end of the value chain (e.g., taste, appearance, freshness, affordability, health benefits, and seafood type) over harvesting-related features (e.g., sustainability, production method, and fair compensation to harvesters). In addition, despite some degree of willingness to pay (WTP) – especially for high quality seafood – respondents were not willing to pay large price premiums for other features emphasized by seafood AFNs. Finally, different consumer segments interact differently with seafood AFNs’ five key features – for example, higher WTP was evidenced amongst younger consumers. Overall, the paper suggests that seafood AFNs should consider emphasizing their high-quality product offerings, pricing their products competitively, and targeting specific consumer segments when looking to expand into new markets.
Article
Fisheries management is a complex task made even more challenging by rapid and unprecedented socioecological transformations associated with climate change. The Resist‐Accept‐Direct (RAD) framework can be a useful tool to support fisheries management in facing the high uncertainty and variability associated with aquatic ecosystem transformations. Here, RAD strategies are presented to address ecological goals for aquatic ecosystems and social goals for fisheries. These strategies are mapped on a controllability matrix which explores the ability to guide a system's behaviour towards a desired state based on ecological responsiveness and societal receptivity to change. Understanding and improving the controllability of aquatic systems and fisheries can help managers to maintain the broadest suite of available RAD management strategies. El manejo de recursos pesqueros es una tarea compleja que se complica aun más con las transformaciones socioecológicas asociadas al cambio climático. El marco de Resistir‐Aceptar‐Dirigir (RAD) puede ser una herramienta útil para la toma de decisiones en el manejo pesquero en cara a la alta incertidumbre y variabilidad asociada a las transformaciones de los ecosistemas acuáticos. Aquí se presentan las estrategias de RAD en cuanto a los objetivos ecológicos para los sistemas acuáticos y objetivos sociológicos para las pesquerías. Dichas estrategias están presentadas en una matriz de control, la cual explora la habilidad de guiar el comportamiento de un sistema hacia el estado deseado basado en la capacidad ecológica a responder al manejo y la receptividad social a cambios. Entender y mejorar el nivel de control de sistemas acuáticos y pesquerías puede ayudar a los manejadores a mantener una amplia selección de estrategias de manejo RAD.
Article
Rapid climate changes are currently driving substantial reorganizations of marine ecosystems around the world. A key question is how these changes will alter the provision of ecosystem services from the ocean, particularly from fisheries. To answer this question, we need to understand not only the ecological dynamics of marine systems, but also human adaptation and feedbacks between humans and the rest of the natural world. In this review, we outline what we have learned from research primarily in continental shelf ecosystems and fishing communities of North America. Key findings are that marine animals are highly sensitive to warming and are responding quickly to changes in water temperature, and that such changes are often happening faster than similar processes on land. Changes in species distributions and productivity are having substantial impacts on fisheries, including through changing catch compositions and longer distances traveled for fishing trips. Conflicts over access to fisheries have also emerged as species distributions are no longer aligned with regulations or catch allocations. These changes in the coupled natural-human system have reduced the value of ecosystem services from some fisheries and risk doing so even more in the future. Going forward, substantial opportunities for more effective fisheries management and operations, marine conservation, and marine spatial planning are likely possible through greater consideration of climate information over time-scales from years to decades.
Article
Shrimp farming in Southeast Asia is often touted as a globalisation success story. The region emerged as a key area for farmed shrimp production in the 1990s, and it remains a leading producer of shrimp for export to international markets to this day. This achievement has not, however, been without cost. Small-scale shrimp farmers in Southeast Asia have suffered persistent social, economic and environmental dislocations stemming from price pressures imposed by globalisation and neoliberal economic policies in the seafood sector. Community supported fisheries (CSF) represent an alternative marketing model which could potentially support small-scale producers in Southeast Asia whose viability is threatened by the intensification of shrimp production by large corporate interests. This article investigates opportunities for CSF in the region, encourages research that builds social capital in aquaculture communities, and identifies opportunities to link small-scale shrimp farming operations with local markets that seek high quality seafood produced in an environmentally sustainable and socially responsible manner.
Article
Fishing communities are highly dependent on fishing and maritime economies. Regulations and techniques attempt to control quotas, types of fish caught, and the gear utilized in the industry. Furthermore, societal preferences and markets dictate the value of the fish transacted. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship and recent changes between fishing and community development in two fishing communities in Massachusetts: Gloucester and New Bedford. Moreover, I also discuss the role that fish food plays in cities and their foodways. The research asks how these communities have adapted to changes in fishing stocks, techniques, socioeconomic trends and regulations during the last two decades. A resilience public affairs approach centered on seven governance dimensions of fisheries is utilized to analyze the case studies. It is argued that specializing in niche markets, developing adequate industry facilities, and nurturing the cultural aspects endemic to each fishing community has positively influenced the communities' capacity to withstand major societal transformations. The harbor plans for Gloucester and New Bedford provide some plausible directions toward future improvements in the fishing sector.
Article
The sustainable seafood movement is at a crossroads. Its core strategy, also known as a theory of change, is based on market-oriented initiatives such as third-party certification but does not motivate adequate levels of improved governance and environmental improvements needed in many fisheries, especially in developing countries. Price premiums for certified products are elusive, multiple forms of certification compete in a crowded marketplace and certifiers are increasingly asked to address social as well as ecological goals. This paper traces how the sustainable seafood movement has evolved over time to address new challenges while success remains limited. We conclude by exploring four alternative potential outcomes for the future theory of change, each with different contributions to creating a more sustainable global seafood supply. The decades-long movement for sustainable seafood is centred on a ‘theory of change’ that emphasizes third-party initiatives for certification and consumer signalling. The evolution of that theory, and its potential futures, shows the challenges of management and co-ordination with multiple actors.
Article
The processing/wholesale supply chain model has been historically adopted by farmers of Australia's Sydney rock oyster (SRO) (Saccostrea glomerata) industry to transfer their product to consumers. The model has been criticized for restricting farmer's price bargaining power and for offering limited added value to the product. Recent anecdotal reports suggest that there has been a change in how oysters are supplied by farmers to the market. This case study aimed to map the supply chain of SROs at an industry level, to identify and to describe the existing supply and value chain models within the broader supply network structure, and to investigate factors that determine how farmers choose supply chain models. A literature review, a web-content search, and semi-structured interviews with supply chain stakeholders were undertaken to achieve these aims. Results suggest that the processing/wholesale model still plays a dominant role within the broader supply network. However, other models of supply chain coordination that generate higher returns have emerged in response to farmer's dissatisfaction with the processor/wholesaler model. Findings suggest that oyster farmers choose specific distribution models based on the net financial value they generate and other considerations such as farmers' skills, interest in maximizing profits, knowledge about consumer demand, time/effort to develop network links and existing trust-based relationships.
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Laying a Solid Foundation for Community Supported Fisheries
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