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Decolonizing the university: New directions

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Abstract

What are the limits placed on the ‘decolonization’ project by the forces of neoliberalism? How are the latter affecting the future of the university? Is ‘decolonization’ the same as ‘Africanization’?

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... Expeditions and surveys played an important role in the economic, technological, and cultural development of colonial powers (Britain and Spain in particular). Spanish engineers surveyed much of South America during the period from 1750 to the 1840s, and British surveyors operated across the British Empire from the 1830s to the 1870s (Teale, 1945;Chakrabarti, 2019;Stafford, 1984Stafford, , 1988Miller, 2020). Many expeditions, surveys, and "missions" to countries and territories where colonies were later established included a geological element. ...
... As British colonialism and the British Empire were rising, modern-day nations were being established and territories were being fought for in South America (Spanish America in particular). These nations had little or no access to Spanish mineral survey data, conducted in the territories by colonial expansionists (Miller, 2020). Miller (2020) argues that these fledgling nations (and ultimately all nations) are most closely defined by shared knowledge and knowledge systems -in the case of Spanish America, knowledge exchange between Indigenous peoples and Spanish colonials had been ongoing for centuries. ...
... These nations had little or no access to Spanish mineral survey data, conducted in the territories by colonial expansionists (Miller, 2020). Miller (2020) argues that these fledgling nations (and ultimately all nations) are most closely defined by shared knowledge and knowledge systems -in the case of Spanish America, knowledge exchange between Indigenous peoples and Spanish colonials had been ongoing for centuries. Secord (2018) introduce the idea that resource extraction was not the sole geological motivation during the time of colonial expansion (particularly of northern European empires). ...
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Geology is colonial. It has a colonial past and a colonial present. Most of the knowledge that we accept as the modern discipline of geology was founded during the height of the post-1700 European empire's colonial expansion. Knowledge is not neutral, and its creation and use can be damaging to individuals and peoples. The concept of “decolonising the curriculum” has gathered attention recently, but this concept can be misunderstood or difficult to engage with for individuals who are not familiar (or trained to work) with the literature on the issue. This paper aims to demystify decolonising the curriculum, particularly with respect to geology. We explain what decolonising the curriculum is and then outline frameworks and terminology often found in decolonising literature. We discuss how geology is based on colonised knowledge and what effects this may have. We explore how we might decolonise the subject and, most importantly, why it matters. Together, through collaborative networks, we need to decolonise geology to ensure our discipline is inclusive, accessible to all, and relevant to the grand challenges facing diverse world societies.
... In Africa, Andoh and Salmi (2019) have stressed that many universities in Eastern, Western and Southern Africa have focused on North American and European universities for collaborations, partnerships and support. Recent debates on postcolonial studies and the need to decolonise African universities place them in constant tension with the Global North (Mamdani, 2019;Mbembe, 2016), although calls for decolonisation are not new (see Fanon, 1964;Nyerere, 1966). In the context of internationalisation, some African universities have faced challenges. ...
... Another impetus for recontextualising the adopted ideas and practices is decolonisation (Mbembe, 2016). IoHE in Mozambique is historically linked to the colonial past (Mário et al., 2003). ...
... The Global South has long discussed the need for 'Africanisation' of African HEIs, including knowledge, mind, language and literature (Mbembe, 2016;Wa Thiong'o, 1986). Beyond that, however, decolonisation is, according to Mbembe (2016), opposition to the existing and prevailing dominant academic model from the Global North described as the Eurocentric epistemic canon. ...
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Internationalisation is transforming higher education institutions worldwide. However, the understanding of internationalisation, the rationales presented, the strategies applied and the challenges encountered differ between contexts. One challenge, especially for universities in the Global South, is how to consider internationalisation with a decolonised approach. This study explores internationalisation in two major universities in Mozambique through documentary analysis and semi-structured interviews with academics and managers. The study was guided by two questions: (1) How have Mozambican universities undertaken internationalisation in terms of understanding, rationales, strategies and challenges? (2) How are global ideas of internationalisation interpreted and translated into local practices? The results are interpreted with a theoretical lens combining neo-institutionalism and decolonisation theory, both providing arguments for translation and adaptation of ideas and practices to the local context. The findings suggest that the approaches to internationalisation emphasise the adoption of Western templates and values and can be more deliberately decolonised.
... Even with the transition from the apartheid regime to a democratic government in 1994, higher education curricula continued to be rooted in colonial and apartheid systems (Zembylas 2018, 3), despite the African National Congress (ANC) directives on the transformation of the country's higher education (Mampane et al. 2018, 1). Authors on decolonisation of higher education curricula have agreed that there is something profoundly wrong when curricula designed to meet the needs of colonialism and apartheid are allowed to continue well into the liberation and democratic era (Mbembe 2016;Jansen 2017;Heleta 2016;Padayachee, Matimolane, and Ganas 2018). According to Mashiyi (2020, 153), decolonization will not happen without the transformation of higher education, it is therefore imperative that the voices and perceptions of the students be heard and taken into consideration. ...
... According to the authors', researchers and academics in South Africa who are largely responsible for developing new knowledge are often highly systematised, and thus tend to keep the body of knowledge within globalised systems that are removed from the everyday lived experiences of African students thus enabling higher education learning in South Africa to become highly "Westernised" or "Eurocentric" (Postma 2019). According to Mbembe (2016), this type of learning attributes truth only to the "Western way of knowledge production", and completely disregards other epistemic traditions. ...
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Universities of technologies (UoT's) unlike most traditional universities in South Africa do not have law faculties and therefore only certain law modules such as commercial law, corporate law and other business law courses are offered to students. This article seeks to examine the extent to which Africanist epistemologies and perspectives should be included in the content of the business law curricula in UoT's. The article applies the mixed methods research approach. Questionnaires with both closed and open-ended questions are administered to second year business law students of the Durban University of Technology (DUT). A semi-structured interview is conducted with third year business law students to ascertain their perceptions of the first year business law curricula and the content they would like to see included in the curricula. The results indicates that African students desire the inclusion of their lived experiences and epistemologies in the business law curricula. Students desire the inclusion of the indigenous jurisprudence of Ubuntu, traditional dispute settlement mechanisms, and other indigenous traditional contractual practices in the business law curricula. The findings will assist higher education managers and university curricula developers in developing an inclusive curricula that will meet the demands of African students.
... In addition to deconstructing coloniality as the dark side of modernity, other reconstruction efforts have also been made. In their analyses of the decolonization of African universities, Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2018) and Mbembe (2016) both emphasized the importance of epistemic pluriversity and argued that provincializing Anglo-European knowledge, the self-assured relevance of indigenous African knowledge, and inter-knowledge dialogues that transcend disciplinary divisions are necessary steps to foster worldwide epistemic justice. To de-center English as the exclusive academic lingua franca, Thiong'o ([1986]1994) advocated abandoning English and legitimizing indigenous languages as a significant medium of knowledge. ...
... These findings imply that by focusing on the knowledge construction and negotiation processes situated within the unequal global geopolitics related to knowledge production, theoretical resources for epistemic decolonization from Asia, Africa, and Latin America can be employed as an integrated lens to analyze decolonial awareness and related practices in EMI programs (Mbembe, 2016;Mignolo, 2005;Ndlovu-Gatsheni, 2018). As teachers have adopted explicit decolonial stances when designing and enacting an EMI program, their decolonializing practices aligned with Chen's geosocial historical materialism to a significant degree; these inter-referencing sub-strategies can be further unpacked within the contexts of knowledge ecologies and intercultural translation proposed by Santos (2014). ...
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This qualitative study integrates key theories on epistemic decolonization from Asia, Africa, and Latin America to investigate the decolonial awareness and curriculum practices of teachers and international students in an English as a medium of instruction (EMI) program on Chinese philosophy and culture at a top-rated university in China. Content analysis of the in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 17 informants reveals that the teachers and students all demonstrated varying degrees of decolonial awareness related to the marginalized status of Chinese philosophy in Anglo–-Eurocentric disciplinary systems and adopted the following strategies to decolonialize the curriculum and foster epistemic justice in the unequal geopolitics associated with knowledge production: (1) historicizing Chinese philosophy as a modern discipline that has emerged from inter-knowledge dialogues across philosophical traditions and is still in constant tension with the complex interplay of the semi-colonial, imperial, and Cold War legacies; (2) abandoning the Anglo-Eurocentric benchmark by pluralizing the disciplinary contemporaneity, and (3) cultivating epistemic trust in Chinese through intercultural translation. Moreover, the flexible shuttling between Chinese and English in EMI classrooms and tutorial sessions helped the informants to observe the decolonial awareness that was inherent in their understanding of the discipline-specific ontology. The findings suggest the agentive potential of teachers and international students to foster epistemic justice in EMI curriculum design and implementation that counters the hegemony of English as a colonial force. Finally, implications for decoloniality-informed EMI policymaking and curriculum internationalization are discussed.
... Echoing Mbembe's (2016) words: "We have to decolonize this because it is deterring students and teachers from a free pursuit of knowledge. It is substituting this goal of free pursuit of knowledge for another, the pursuit of credits. ...
... It can barely provide the means to overcome a standardized and common sense modality of understanding reality. The tendency is rather to turn higher education into a military, religious or factory-like system educational setting, where the adherence to certain credo, standard or set of rules is more valued than any exploration of new possible worlds (Marsico, 2015;Szulevicz et al., 2016;Mbembe, 2016). ...
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The paper discusses the problem of master theses’ production in psychology from a decolonial perspective. It presents a critique to the reproductive and monological model of knowledge currently promoted in higher education. Then, it proposes an alternative pedagogic model of research-tandem. The research-tandem is an example of an innovative way of understanding a university without borders, as developed within the international network of excellence “IBEF- Ideas for the Basic Education of the Future”. Higher education must be detached from national-based curricula, and become a nomadic and collaborative across-cultural knowledge building endeavor. Current higher education aims to be national in its curricula but global in its marketability. In cultural psychology’s perspective, higher education of the future shall be regarded as global in its vision yet local in its solutions. Future students must have the opportunity to build new knowledge by experiencing and sharing diversity rather than complying with standardized and monological trajectories.
... Además, los productores de teorías legitimadas como "universales" suelen ser hombres europeos o euroamericanos, lo que induce a la narrativa académica tradicional a seguir siendo muy selectiva. Al subyugar las epistemologías locales en favor del eurocentrismo, el contenido del conocimiento universitario permanece gobernado "por Occidente a Occidente", mientras que las formas de conocimiento no occidentalizadas se celebran como "culturas locales", mercantilizadas y apropiadas, o simplemente no reconocidas (Stein & Andreotti 2016;Mbembe 2016). ...
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Este artículo que parte de una tesis doctoral tiene el objetivo de comprender las bases epistemológicas de los discursos dominantes sobre internacionalización en una universidad pública brasileña. Partiendo de la idea de (De)Colonialidad, que enfatiza el lado oculto y más oscuro de la modernidad occidental, resumo los resultados de una investigación empírica cualitativa desarrollada en la universidad, donde recogí datos a través de observación directa, entrevistas, bibliografía y documentos. Los resultados fueran organizados en cinco categorías: (1) Internacionalización como imperativo y bien incondicional; (2) Internacionalización como objeto resultante de determinaciones externas; (3) "Exclusivamente en inglés, por supuesto"; (4) Internacionalización como medio de estratificación y competencia generalizada; y (5) Internacionalización como medio de difusión de la retórica moderna/colonial. Estas categorías señalan que en el contexto universitario los discursos y las estrategias de internacionalización dominantes descuidan las relaciones internacionales desigualmente constituidas a lo largo de la historia y no cubren la amplitud, diversidad o complejidad de una universidad pública brasileña. En cambio, son altamente funcionales para la etapa actual del capitalismo global en curso, reflejando un proyecto que está diseñado para transformar la institución universitaria en una organización dictada exclusivamente por la racionalidad económica. Además, los resultados sugieren que la interpretación dominante de la internacionalización en la universidad está inmersa en la matriz cultural del poder colonial; opera bajo la base de un imaginario jerárquico global que tiende a reforzar geografías desiguales de poder, de saber y de ser. El estudio sostiene que posibilitar la concepción de otras formas de hacer, vivir y ser en las relaciones internacionales de la educación superior implica un distanciamiento de los discursos dominantes que han sido adoptados y reproducidos acríticamente. La investigación contribuye a deconstruir el discurso que ubica este proceso como un "bien incondicional", arrojando luz sobre su complejidad y apego a cuestiones políticas y éticas que son discutibles y contradictorias. De manera general, contribuye al desarrollo de un campo emergente de estudios críticos de internacionalización. Palabras clave: Educación superior, internacionalización, epistemología, (des)colonialidad, Brasil.
... Questions such as what counts and knowledge and who decides what knowledge is valid, need to be posed. Mbembe (2016) sees demythogising at the centre of decolonisation and calls for demythologising whiteness, decolonising buildings and public spaces, decolonising the curriculum and decolonising systems of management. Escobar (2007) stresses the importance of lifting out subaltern voices and advocates a logic of diversality that states we are equal before we are different. ...
... Indigenous scholar Leann Betasamosake Simpson points out that educational systems "are primarily designed to produce communities of individuals willing to uphold settler colonialism" (Simpson, 2014, p. 1). Furthermore, universities across the world are often physically built on the stolen land of Indigenous peoples, while historically excluding Black and Indigenous students, and perpetuating an ontology that erases and devalues Indigenous and Black knowledges (Freire, 1968;Robinson, 1983;McLaughlin and Whatman, 2011;Simpson, 2014;Mbembe, 2016). These structures perpetuate patriarchal, racialized and colonial harms, which are then exacerbated and furthered by the exploitation of academic capitalism. ...
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The impact of COVID-19 on conducting research is far-reaching, especially for those scholars working for or alongside communities. As the pandemic continues to create and exacerbate many of the issues that communities at the margins faced pre-pandemic, such as health disparities and access to resources, it also creates particular difficulties in collaborative, co-developed participatory research and scholar-activism. These forms of community engagement require the commitment of researchers to look beyond the purview of the racialized capitalist and neoliberal structures and institutions that tend to limit the scope of our research and engagement. Both the presence of the researcher within the community as well as deep community trust in the researcher is required in order to identify and prioritize local, often counter-hegemonic forms of knowledge production, resources, and support networks. The pandemic and similar conditions of crises has likely limited opportunities for building long-term, productive relationships of mutual trust and reciprocity needed for PAR while communities refocus on meeting basic needs. The pandemic has now not only exacerbated existing disparities and made the need for engaged, critical and co-creative partnerships even greater, it has also abruptly halted opportunities for partnerships to occur, and further constrained funds to support communities partnering with researchers. In this paper we highlight accomplishments and discuss the many challenges that arise as participatory action researchers are displaced from the field and classroom, such as funding obstacles and working remotely. An analysis of experiences of the displacement of the scholar exposes the conflicts of conducting PAR during crises within a state of academic capitalism. These experiences are drawn from our work conducting PAR during COVID-19 around the globe, both in urban and rural settings, and during different stages of engagement. From these findings the case is made for mutual learning from peer-experiences and institutional support for PAR. As future crises are expected, increased digital resources and infrastructure, academic flexibility and greater consideration of PAR, increased funding for PAR, and dedicated institutional support programs for PAR are needed.
... In the delimitation of our object of analysis, we have highlighted the need to consider the socio-political axis embodied not only in the materiality of power but also in the politics of knowledge. The power relationships inherent in the global academic and research landscape (Mbembe, 2016) have been reinforcing the sexist and colonial legacy of science. Gender and race are beginning to appear hand in hand in recent reviews (Apostolopoulou et al., 2021) to highlight how both structuring axes of social inequality intersect. ...
Article
A social vision is slowly emerging of the bioeconomy as an avenue towards sustainability. This paper presents a systematic review of the existing literature on the connection between gender (as a social dimension) and bioeconomy. We have reviewed 244 scientific publications which explicitly mention bioeconomy and gender/women in their title, abstract, keywords or text; 127 documents were identified as having high (19) or medium (108) gender-oriented centrality. The literature is fragmented but six cross-sectional key themes have been identified: Gender and social impacts of the bioeconomy; gender equality as a goal and a just policy; gender differences in perceptions, discourses and strategies relating to the bioeconomy; women as potential stakeholders and actors in the transition towards bioeconomy; frameworks, strategies, and tools to connect gender and the bioeconomy; and gender inequalities and geography. Moreover, they show hardly any connection with the three predominant social currents in the struggle for gender equality: grassroots social movements, ecofeminism, and intersectionality. The paper concludes by identifying key pathways for future research to address current gaps. We suggest integrating a feminist metatheoretical base with an integrative ontology, an epistemology that recognises its own partiality and situationality, and a methodology sensitive to the specificities of the contexts which are committed to the goal of transforming women's everyday contexts.
... many universities in the Global South have witnessed calls for multilingual approaches to education (Alexander 1989;wa Thiong'o 1994;Santos 2014;Mbembe 2016;Mayaba, Monwabisi, and Angu 2018). Those making these calls constitute loose coalitions of various anticolonial or 'decolonial' movements that have been calling for approaches that value local knowledgesand languagesas a way forward for universities alongside the need for critical engagement with the imposed (colonial) orders of the past. ...
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Globalisation, for which language is a pivotal instrument, is defined by Giddens (1990) as the ‘intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities’ (64). Though it is a contested terrain, of globalisations – from above and from below (Torres 2009), there are both negative and positive effects on any society. The globalisation of higher education has elevated the international status of colonial languages, such as English, to the status of a global academic lingua franca, with universities today both collaborating and competing on a worldwide scale in the pursuit of knowledge production. In many international contexts, English has emerged as the language of choice for those undertaking and offering university education, and, subsequently, has become not only a valuable commodity in the global economy (O’Regan 2021), but also a language associated with reproducing certain epistemological stances and worldviews (Santos 2014). The imposition of a powerful language as a medium of instruction is far from a ‘neutral’ pedagogical decision. Rather, it is a profoundly political and cultural dilemma for people who are compelled to learn it and use it for teaching within higher education. Its imposition can also elicit sentiments of cultural erasure, occupation, and identity loss (Skuttnabb-Kangas et al. 2009), and lead to linguistic and cultural displacements (Phillipson 2017). Language, therefore, carries much more than communicative value. It creates mechanisms of symbolic power (see Badwan 2020), and can act as a tool for symbolic violence (Bourdieu 1991). This brings to the fore what we refer to in this editorial as higher education’s ‘Language Problem’.
... What attracts me to Mbembe's (2016) idea of a decolonised (African) university are the notions of openness, criticality, and cosmopolitanism. An open university allows pedagogical spaces for deliberation, agreement, and dissonance. ...
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The notion of the African university ought to be decolonised on the grounds that decolonisation enhances humanisation and rehumanisation, as well as cosmopolitan pluriversalism. This article argues that unless the university takes its task to liberate, resist, and advance cosmopolitan ideals seriously, the decolonisation of the African university will remain elusive.
... Der Begriff Pluriversität wird unter anderem verwendet von Boidin et al. (2012), Mbembe (2016) und de Sousa Santos (2017. Bei Mbembe steht Pluriversität für einen Lernprozess, der aus der Dekolonisierung der Universität hervorgehen wird und im Rahmen dessen unterschiedliche Wissensformen anerkannt werden, ohne dass zwingenderweise die Idee von einem universellen Wissen für die Menschheit aufgegeben, sondern vielmehr über eine horizontale Strategie der dialogischen Offenheit verschiedene epistemische Traditionen einbezogen würden (Mbembe 2008: 19;2016: 37). ...
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Die Hochschule gerät dabei als Spiegel und Manifestation gesellschaftlicher Verhältnisse in den Blick und überdies als ein Ort, der unter spezifischen Bedingungen zum Motor notwendiger Veränderungsprozesse werden kann. Aus unterschiedlichen disziplinären, aktivistischen und sozialkritischen Perspektiven wird die Hochschule als eine machtvolle Institution beleuchtet. Von deren Rändern aus entfalten sich widerständige Vermittlungspraxen, die schließlich kritisch-performative Zugänge für eine sozial und kulturell gerechtere (Hochschul-)Welt eröffnen.
... In the UK, universities are under increasing pressure to demonstrate their relevance and contribution to society, offer improved 'value for money', and provide students with relevant skills and experiences to enter the job market. There are also increasing calls around the world to 'decolonise' the university and open up new visions of its purpose, structure and values that can de-centre and challenge dominant Eurocentric academic models (Mbembe 2016). Meanwhile, the role played by university research in the development of Covid-19 vaccines may have provided a countervailing tendency towards the strengthening of positive public opinion in some quarters. ...
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Responding effectively to climate crisis requires strong science-policy links to be put in place. Past research on the research-policy interface indicates longstanding challenges that have become more acute in the case of climate science, since this requires multi-disciplinary approaches and faces distinctive political challenges in linking knowledge with policy. What can be learned from the experiences of university-based researchers seeking to influence policy as they try to operate in the brokering space? With this in mind, an empirical study was designed to capture the detailed views and experiences of forty researchers in four universities across four countries—Bangladesh, Germany, Uganda and UK. It found a wide range of different researcher attitudes to policy engagement, diverse methods of engaging, a preference for working with government and civil society over private sector policy actors, and a perceived need for more university support. The findings suggest a need to rethink conditions for engagement to create spaces for knowledge exchange and cooperation that can contribute to policies for societal transformation. More attention also needs to be paid to interdisciplinary research approaches, improving research connections with private sector actors, and strengthening university research links with local communities. Finally, the position of university based researchers in the Global South will require strengthening to improve North–South knowledge exchange, capacity development, and incentives for policy engagement.
Article
How does geographical thought and praxis challenge intellectual frameworks and everyday practices to seed pluriversal imaginaries? What role can Antipodean geographers play in decolonising knowledge production and the university? This special section centres, invigorates, and refreshes scholarship that embodies fearlessness, interdependence, commitment to epistemic justice, and generosity nourished by collaborative ethnographic research with, not about, vulnerable, marginalised, and racialised bodies.
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This chapter conceptualizes Oliver “Tuku” Mtukudzi’s philosophy of multi-layered reconstruction. It explores Mtukudzi’s approach to reconstruction by reviewing the meaning of the concept. The chapter opens with an overview of the reflections on identity in post-colonial contexts and African philosophy. It reviews approaches to reconstruction in African theology, appreciating their insights but proposing to transcend them. The chapter then analyses the levels of reconstruction that are discernible in Mtukudzi’s philosophical approach. Thus, the chapter reflects on personal, cultural, political, religious and global reconstruction. Overall, the chapter locates Mtukudzi as a highly creative and radical post-colonial African philosopher and activist who calls for a new world order by siding with those on the under-side of history.
Article
This paper analyzes the unmarked forms of discipline and punishment employed against Palestinian researchers in Israeli academia, attempting to decolonize it through critical knowledge production. Based on interviews with 15 researchers from a cross-section of academic institutions in Israel, the paper identifies subtle mechanisms of discipline and punishment, directed toward normalizing the epistemology of the colonized. The findings suggest that the gatekeepers of Israeli academia not only seek to maintain the existing racial hierarchy between Israeli and Palestinian researchers but also seek to “eliminate” the indigenous epistemology of the latter through mechanisms of hidden surveillance, used to control them as colonized subjects unable to challenge the Zionist ideology that is an essential aspect of Israeli academia. The current paper aims to unpack these invisible mechanisms of surveillance, which are part of a broader colonial apparatus aiming to maintain not only territorial sovereignty but also epistemologic sovereignty.
Thesis
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In recent years, more indigenous poets in the United States have been vocalising their responses to ecological distress exacerbated by postcolonial capitalism. Using a postcolonial, ecocritical framework privileging indigenous scholarship, this thesis presents close readings of four poets of different indigenous nations in North America—Sherwin Bitsui, Natalie Diaz, Allison Adelle Hedge Coke, and Layli Long Soldier. The study addresses techniques of movement in their poetry, which I call kinetic poetics, to interpret their responses to colonial, extractivist industries which dictate America’s relationships to and dependence on indigenous land. Following Sherwin Bitsui’s own use of the word “kinetic”, I define kinetic poetics as forms of textual movement being evoked in two main ways: firstly through textual representations such as translingualism, form, aural and visual iconicity, intertextuality, punctuation, and non-linear chronology; and secondly through the text’s gesticulation beyond language, towards the mobile relationships between human bodies, land, water, and other non-human life. I consider how these main forms of kinetic poetics, or textual movements, contribute to the poetic quality of being “unpinnable”; beyond the grasp of fixed structures, particularly those grounded in Western and/or colonial ideologies. I argue that these four poets share these kinetic techniques and the ability to forge their own cartographies, while outlining each writer’s markedly distinct indigenous worldviews and aesthetics. How do these kinetic nuances condemn extraction, damming and other forms of ecological distress, inseparable from colonial containment, affecting indigenous communities in particular? This somatic and translingual focus highlights poetic complexities which are often overlooked, although these poets mark a distinct place not only in ecocritical and postcolonial poetry, but in contemporary poetry at large.
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This chapter traces some of the key moments in the history of Pan-Africanism with a particular emphasis on questions of identity and belonging as conceptual bridges between Pan-African thought and psychology. We present the variety, multivocality, and complexity of Pan-African theories, modalities, and enactments that provide insights into the rich diversity of ideas, possibilities, and contradictions that have spanned the movement over decades and arguably centuries. Partially historical, partially conceptual, the chapter highlights the identity constructions of blackness and Africanness as seen through the lens of important figures and strands in the Pan-African movement, such as Négritude, Double-Consciousness, Afrocentricity, Garveyism, African Womanism, amongst others; and other conceptual tools important to critical orientations to psychology, including notions of unity, solidarity, self-determination, and collective consciousness. These ideas and concepts are critically considered and they provide the framework upon which the remaining chapters are located, delineating a common thread across the various psychological interrogations of contemporary and past challenges for the continent and the diaspora.
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The chapter examines possible use of instruments and processes such as ethical clearance in the institutions of higher learning as subtle means of perpetuating inequality and racial prejudice towards the indigenous people of South Africa who had recently emerged from the scourge of apartheid with a hope of democracy ultimately providing not only freedom of association and speech, but also intellectual freedom. Freedom to produce African-based knowledge by Black African intellectuals pursuing their postgraduate studies and academics whose careers are at formative stages. However, their vision of becoming producers of African Indigenous knowledge is thwarted by subtle and invisible activities that are aimed at perpetuate coloniality in the higher institutions of learning. Sadly, ethical clearance process has possibly been utilized to derail research outputs that some of the old guard from historically white universities are uncomfortable to witness, thus continuing to maintain the colonial status quo.
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The essay argues that the widely acknowledged “crisis” in the humanities extends beyond the United States to many understudied, and arguably misunderstood, regions. It relates case-studies of the American University in Beirut and Northwestern University’s Qatar campus, buttressed with curricular analyses, enrollment figures, faculty hiring, and extant data on the region’s humanities programs, to provide a glimpse of US influence and local conditions in the Middle East. Mediated by the ever-present specter of colonial history, recent Western military and economic interventions, and the implications of English’s role in globalization, the present crisis in the West has been a reality in the Middle East for decades, yet is also deflected by newer and wealthier humanities programs in English (and other languages) tailored to meet the local education market.
Article
This article examines Afro-Belgian resistance to sociological research procedures and in particular, the way in which demands for compensation and citation policies have recently emerged as a sine qua non activist condition for participation in academic devices. Grounded on a long-term ethnography conducted within Afro-Belgian anti-racist circles (2011–2019), the article argues that activist resistances, whether or not they give rise to political claims, have something to do with the colonial engagement of sociology and more generally of science. Building on postcolonial/black/feminist studies and decolonial indigenous research, the article explores to what extent, academic politics of citation and compensation of anti-racist activists could then be considered as decolonial interventions. Against the background of research involving groups whose activism is intrinsically linked to a political and epistemic domination, the paradigm of ‘protection’ of the ‘researched’ (through procedures of anonymization) is not only insufficient but problematic. Decolonial intervention should not only be addressed under the lens of knowledge co-production (participative/decolonial/anti-racist research) but also in terms of co-ownership policies of data/knowledges.
Article
This contribution focuses on the specific Islamic authority figures that have been incorporated as ‘key figures’ in Belgian deradicalisation policies since 2015, in order to formulate a theological counter discourse. It asks firstly how these Muslim authority figures differentiate their position as ‘non-state’ actors manoeuvring a space of negotiation in secular power structures. Secondly, the contribution reflects on how they negotiate what Talal Asad has called ‘the secular episteme’ in their formulation of a theological counternarrative, as well as on how this relates to processes of ethical self-making and ‘apt’ authority formation. Rather than considering them as docile agents of the secular sovereign state, the concept of ‘border thinking’ is used to value the inter- and intra-traditional situatedness from where they attempt to renegotiate the horizons of expectations subscribed in hegemonic secularism.
Thesis
In recent years, different actors in Chile have portrayed the vast volumes of astronomy data produced by international observatories in the Atacama Desert as a unique opportunity for scientific and economic development. Research, policy and corporate initiatives have been put into place to leverage this situation. In this thesis I examine the governance of this data by developing a framework based on collective autonomy. Unlike the paradigms of openness and sovereignty, collective autonomy speaks to long-standing concerns related to social justice in Latin America that took shape in parallel with European colonialism. This framework builds upon decolonial thinking and mobilised groups in the region, situating the analysis in the context of a capitalist modern/colonial world system. Collective autonomy also draws on post-Marxism, foregrounding dissenting voices and examining the changing positionalities of the parties involved. In analytical terms, I approach interviews, field notes and policy documents from a discursive-material perspective sensitive to the role of both meaning and matter. The empirical chapters explore three different spheres. First, I look at the implementation of dataintensive research and examine how the articulation of a new positionality by local actors favours an obedient stance in knowledge generation. After that, I turn to the economy and trace emerging meanings of development, extractivism and the state as actors make sense of what is going on with astronomy data. Finally, I connect the expansion of data infrastructure in Chile with the long-standing threat to Indigenous worlds cultivating balanced modes of existence in the territory. As this thesis shows, collective autonomy introduces previously ignored concerns and changes the actors, scales and aims at stake in the governance of data. Furthermore, this framework aims to depart from the precepts of capitalist modernity and, instead, supports decoloniality and the flourishing of multiple worlds.
Article
African universities’ curricula remain largely Eurocentric, and this constitutes a factor in the continuing epistemicide against indigenous knowledge systems. While calls for epistemic decolonisation have highlighted this epistemic violence, the role of African scholars in the actualisation of such epistemic decolonisation has not been sufficiently exposed. This article, therefore, proffers Paulo Freire’s critical pedagogy (CP) as a framework for the transformative reconstruction of Western epistemologies in African universities. While Freire’s CP is typically utilised as a pedagogical method through which the teacher stimulates students’ critical consciousness, this article exposes its nature as a means of stimulating African scholars to the critical consciousness of their role in the process of deconstructing epistemic hegemonies. It argues that African scholars have a crucial role to play in epistemic decolonisation – as stimulants through which students learn to be critically conscious and as bastions of ideas and ideals guiding progressive social movements.
Article
Online learning as an emergency response to the Covid-19 pandemic provides a set of challenges that all educators had to navigate in their approach to teaching. This article details our experiences, as young educators, with developing a remote version of the anthropology field trip. The initial hard lockdown in South Africa determined the minimal conditions of emergency remote teaching (ERT). First, a necessary condition for the field trip was that teaching and learning had to take place asynchronously to account for the various contexts where students were situated. Second, we had to strike a balance between empathy towards students’ varying access to ERT and ensuring that the teaching objectives and standards remained appropriate for their level of study. Third, the role of mentorship in the process was a critical element of the virtual field trip and enabled us to engage affective learning strategies and facilitate epistemic access. Due to the shared navigation of ERT between students and educators, a reflexive and critical pedagogy strongly informed our later adaptations of the course. We conclude with reflections on the challenge of teaching/learning ethnography remotely and a brief statement on the value of critical and experimental pedagogies for remote situations.
Article
This paper draws on Francis B. Nyamnjoh’s The Disillusioned African to argue that thinking beyond cosmopolitan borders should be an essential dimension of a cosmopolitan imagination and cosmopolitan politesse that defines the relationship between African leaders and the African masses and Africa, the West, and the rest. Nyamnjoh’s novel affirms that the maintenance of fluid cosmopolitan borders would facilitate cultural encounters and engender cosmopolitan opportunities, which would blur the us/them dichotomies that define and confine relationships between African leadership and Africans and between Africa and the West or the rest. Analyzing the novel from this perspective affirms Nyamnjoh’s belief in nimble-footedness and flexibility in belonging. It is a perspective that foregrounds the author’s informative concepts of incompleteness and conviviality and thus the importance of reciprocal acknowledgment of the Other in her/his otherness among Africans, and between Africans and the West or the rest. The paper argues that this can indeed become the most potent feature and future of a common global cosmopolitan identity.
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Although decolonisation is a pressing goal for many front-line instructors, there are few pedagogical resources for how to do this in the online environment. This article provides a set of strategic approaches that can help combat dominant power dynamics in the classroom and open opportunities for transformative learning. The research draws on instructor focus groups and student surveys from the synchronous, online Master of Development Practice programme at Regis University, USA. Six pedagogical approaches are described in light of their successes and remaining challenges: building community, learning from each other and co-creating knowledge, opening spaces for participation, de-centring Western voices and epistemologies, focusing on the critical thinking, reflection and action cycle and creating connection in virtual spaces.
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Considering globalization as part of a post-colonial conjuncture, the examination of the politics of decolonization is essential to understand key conflicts in global civil society. Recently, a global movement for the decolonization of higher education has played a key role in this context, with the #RhodesMustFall movement being particularly important. Starting at the University of Cape Town and spreading to Oxford University, the movement initially protested against the presence of statues of Cecil Rhodes at both sites. We argue that the #RhodesMustFall movement is part of what we call a global field of decolonial politics. We also demonstrate how movement discourse is necessarily rearticulated when shifting context: the primary characteristic of the UCT discourse is its constitution of “black” subjectivity, while the Oxford discourse is largely shaped by the diasporic situation of formerly colonized peoples within an ex-metropolis, constructing multiple plural subjectivities and recovering issues of race and coloniality from political margins.
Article
The aim of this article is to use decolonial thinking, as applied in the field of AI, to explore the ethical and pedagogical implications for higher education teaching and learning. The questions driving this article are: What does a decolonial approach to AI imply for higher education teaching and learning? How can educators, researchers and students interrogate the coloniality of AI in higher education? Which strategies can be useful for undoing the ethics of digital neocolonialism in higher education? While there is work on decolonial theory in AI as well as literature on the decolonization of higher education, there is not much theorization that brings those literatures together to develop a decolonial conceptual framework for ethical AI in higher education teaching and learning. This article offers this conceptual framing and suggests decolonial strategies that challenge algorithmic coloniality and colonial AI ethics in the context of higher education teaching and learning.
Article
This article analyses findings from a research project examining the Pear Tree Community School in Oakland, California, USA – a small, social justice-focused school primarily serving Black, Indigenous and other students of colour in grades from kindergarten to Grade 5. Through this multi-year case study, which included observations, interviews and focus groups, this article presents data from interviews with teachers and administrators who explain how they decolonise their primary school classroom curriculum, particularly amid national and global issues, such as heightened racial violence and increasingly polarised political discourse, which adversely impact the families and communities to which students belong. Teachers and administrators share concrete examples of decolonial approaches at the school level and within their classroom curricula that centre the lived experiences and histories of communities of colour. This article contributes an empirical study of one school’s decolonial approaches at the early grades level to the emerging scholarship on decolonising education.
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This paper proposes a reformulation of the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework (SLF) fit for the 21st century. The article explores the rise and usage of the original SLF, highlighting how its popularity among development practitioners emerged both from its practical focus, and its depoliticization of wider shifts in the development landscape at the time. Distilling the various critiques that have emerged around the use of the SLF and sustainable livelihoods approaches, the article highlights problems of theory, method, scale, historical conceptualisation, politics, and debates on decolonising knowledge. It further explores two key shifts in the global development landscape that characterise the 21st century, namely the impacts of climate change on rural livelihoods, and the shifts wrought by globalisation, before highlighting the structural and relational turns in critical development literature. In speaking to both historical critiques and more recent debates, we present a SLF for the 21st century, foregrounding a structural, spatially-disaggregated, dynamic and ecologically-coherent approach to framing rural livelihoods. We offer a framework and not an approach, hoping that that our SLF leaves open the possibility for different theoretical traditions to better work with emerging rural livelihoods.
Chapter
Any worthy system of education must extol cultural worldviews. However, this seemingly modest mission has eluded Ghana, Africa, and its diaspora owing to Arabian and European imperialist disruptions. In Ghana, Eurocentric perspectives have usurped and placed African knowledge systems in servitude. Conversations to redress this anomaly in African higher education have gained some traction owing to the importance African worldviews to the development of Africa and Africans. Notwithstanding the destruction of ancient African literature and historical artefacts, the continent still wields, among others, its rich oral arts. Proverbs make up one of these arts and have served both as a medium and knowledge system in inter-generational education. In this chapter, I employ African proverbs to advocate for African higher education [with a focus on Ghana] to serve a public purpose. The need to analyse these proverbs is important because of the cultural significance and foundation it provides towards meaningful education. It offers an opportunity to strengthen the mainstreaming of African worldviews in schooling [education]. Overall, this endeavour contributes to the broader deliberations on decolonizing knowledge and African education.
Article
This special issue contributes insights into ongoing debates on the politics and ethics of knowledge production in “global” childhood studies by decentering dominant, northern-centric models of childhood and using southern epistemologies. We contest the ways in which most of the world’s children have their experiences and contexts interpreted through the theoretical canons, vernaculars and institutions of northern academia. Drawing on studies that deploy indigenous, decolonial and postcolonial perspectives on the study of childhood and children in different temporal moments and spatial contexts of Africa, Latin America and South Asia, authors of papers aim to push the boundaries for ways of knowing children and doing childhood studies through cross-disciplinary, generative south-north and south-south encounters. The special issue critically engages with questions of epistemic plurality and bottom-up theorization of research with globally southern children, to both rectify the onto-epistemological imbalance in childhood studies and reinscribe indigenous knowledge systems that have received limited attention in this field thus far.
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The COVID crisis has disrupted routine patterns and practices across all spheres of everyday life, rupturing social relations and destabilising our capacity for building coherent selves and communities by recollecting the past and imagining potential futures. Education is a key domain in which these hopes for the future have been dashed for many young people and in which commitments to critical scholarship and pedagogies are being contested. In a world of stark socioeconomic inequality, racism, and other forms of dehumanising othering, the pandemic serves not to disrupt narratives of meritocracy and progress but to expose them as the myths they have always been. This paper will explore forms of political resistance and the (im)possibilities for experimental pedagogies in response to the broken promises and unrealised dreams of (higher) education in the context of the COVID crisis. Reflecting on my own everyday life as a scholar and educator in a South African university, and in dialogue with students’ narratives of experience, I will examine the ways in which the experience of the pandemic has released and mobilised new forms of resistance to historical institutional and pedagogical practices. However, these hopeful threads of alternative narratives are fragile, improvised in the weighty conditions of a status quo resistant to change, and in which the alienation and inequality of the terrain are being exacerbated and deepened through a proliferation of bureaucratic and technicist solutions.
Article
Despite several calls to develop indigenous theories to contribute to Indian management knowledge, there has been limited success. There is no well-developed alternate Indian paradigm in management that can sustain a rigorous research programme and be relevant to practice. We argue that the intellectual colonisation of Indian academia due to the prevailing Eurocentrism (and US-centrism) and the use of English as a language for research and dissemination of knowledge are two key reasons underlying this failure. We demonstrate this by illustrating the near absence of scholarly work on Kautilya’s Arthashastra despite its wide acceptance in popular writings in India and its use in management practice. Finally, we suggest strategies to achieve intellectual decolonisation or intellectual freedom to enable scholars to engage with Indian issues and phenomena using indigenous knowledge perspectives and to contribute to an indigenous paradigm that might provide unique insights into managing the Indian way.
Chapter
This chapter critically engages relevant literature on the trajectories of disability inclusion in Technical Vocational Education and Training Centres (TVET) education and training systems. It challenges dominant epistemologies in critical disability studies that have been traditionally fore-grounded, imagined, and constructed within Westernized philosophical paradigms. For centuries, it has been difficult to re-imagine alternative forms of knowledge of impairment, disability, and debility from the subaltern standpoint. The author seeks to highlight the uneven ways through which knowledge systems on Disability Inclusion in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) oscillates between the so-called problematic dichotomies of the global North and Global South. This is achieved by critically weighing in the contribution and impact of legislation, policies, and newer perspectives on the Scholarship of Learning (SoL) from the global North that influences critical pedagogies on disability inclusion in TVET colleges in the Southern African context.
Article
This article seeks to delve deeper into the discourse about the epistemic decoloniality of Westernised higher education in South Africa. Discrete academic studies have indicated that African Knowledge paradigms have not found a home in South Africa’s Westernised academies yet; knowledge patterns remain foreign and colonized. The current curriculum at a section of Historically White Universities in South Africa largely reflects the colonial and apartheid worldviews and is disconnected from African realities, including the lived experiences of most black South Africans, taking into account Arts and Humanities. Based on an examination of the decoloniality project and curriculum dishonesty and reform through literature study, the article calls for critical rethinking and reconfiguration, which should position South Africa, Africa, and last of all, the globe at the centre of knowledge production. Epistemic decoloniality at South Africa’s Historically White Universities should not be pursued with knowledge violence but rather with scholarly debate. This article introduces the framework of decoloniality by tracing the genesis of (South) Africa’s knowledge coloniality and initiates a discussion on the current epistemic decoloniality in South Africa’s Westernised higher education. The focus is on curriculum justice and knowledge integration across Historically White Universities in South Africa. The last portion of the paper applies the proposed measures to evaluate the cogency of decolonial discourses.
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In this article, I rely on a number of theoretical approaches to reflect on the possibility of the transformation of universities, in particular the University of the Free State (UFS). A starting point is the role of public space in a transforming society with emphasis on universities as public spaces. A ‘site of conscience’ approach, namely an approach to public space that endorses a critical and active engagement with the past to reflect on enduring injustice, is followed to reflect on the Red Square (the nickname derived from the red brick with which the ‘President’s Square’ was built), a prominent space on the campus of the UFS. Suggestions on how the space can be re-interpreted are considered. “Reconciliation” as featured in the work of Hannah Arendt and “Reflective nostalgia” (Boym) are relied on to contemplate the potential of the Red Square as a space of transformation and as a space of conscience. The potential of reconciliation to create a shared world that makes a plural cohabitance possible is considered. I am not arguing that reconciliation could or should take place but that conversations on what reconciliation may entail could be of value. Reflective nostalgia embraces the ambivalence of belonging and provides for multiple homes. I suggest the idea of reflective nostalgia as a possible way by which the past and figures from the past can be remembered in a critical way as it discloses multiple narratives and embraces conflicting perspectives.
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Contributing to the debate on decolonising the curriculum, this reflective article questions: What does a safe space in a decolonised classroom mean? For whom is it safe? And at what cost? Must we redraw the parameters of ‘safe’? Prompted by a real-life ‘n-word incident’ in the classroom, this article unpacks the collision of decolonising the curriculum to continue making teaching and learning more pluriversal and inclusive, with the enactment of the ‘wounded attachments’ of identitarian politics and the playing of ‘Privilege or Oppression Olympics’. Using snippets from British parody and satire on decolonising the university, we query how far wokeness in a university setting can become political correctness taken to extremes that threaten decolonising efforts. In its concluding reflections, the article makes tentative recommendations for setting up safe spaces, away from self-silencing or censoring, and backing away from contention and provocation in the classroom.
Article
Colonial epistemes persist in studies of African geographies. We argue that colonial continuities are revealed in (a) the status of human geography within African higher education; (b) the marginalization of Africa (particularly beyond Southern Africa) within the discipline of human geography; and (c) erasures of the functions of racialization in African societies. These are compounded by the relative marginalization of African knowledge within decolonial thought, including decolonial geographies and the disunities between the subfields of black geographies and African geographies. To challenge some of these dynamics, we introduce the concept of defiant scholarship in Africa, a form of scholarship that seeks to work against and outside of dominant grammars and prevailing registers and which draws from a powerful and extensive intellectual tradition across the African continent. Working from Walter Rodney's ‘guerrilla intellectuals’ and drawing on Walter Mignolo's ‘epistemic disobedience’, defiant scholarship cultivates those ways of thinking and those practices that are external to, in opposition to, and/or unconventional to the coloniality of knowledge. We ask what it means for our scholarship to be disobedient to colonial and capitalist epistemes, and, in so doing, we sketch the contours of an African geographies subdiscipline that is anti‐racist, decolonial, and in active conversation with black geographies. The result of our engagement is a call for a reinvigoration of African geographies as we currently know and practice them.
Chapter
Whereas the multilingual language policies adopted by some of the South African Institutions of Higher Education are laudable, the policy implementation is a solid bedrock of linguicism that perpetuates the English language imperialism (and to certain extent Afrikaans) at the expense of the South African indigenous languages. The purported inaptness purposely assigned to the latter languages is valorised and the essence of their constructed peripheral position is naturalised and sealed beyond question. It has therefore been universalised that the natural, meaningful and practicable approach to learning and teaching is through the medium of the English language despite evidence from research that points to the contrary. Despite the South African Institutions of Higher Education practices that favour the English- only medium, there are very few studies that have analysed the ideological positions found in the universities in South Africa’s post-apartheid era, which began with the release of Nelson Mandela from prison in 1991. In this chapter I use the “what you call” metaphor to argue that post-apartheid linguistic higher education landscape has not changed meaningfully. The “what you call” metaphor refers to anyone that is regarded as insignificant, a useless no hoper and a loser. It is here that I present and analyse data emanating from these institutions to demonstrate the typical treatment of South African indigenous languages in post-apartheid South African institute of higher learning. In conclusion, I draw key learning sets from the study and offer insights on future research direction.
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Since the dawn of the twenty-first Century, multilingualism has become a global norm where minoritized languages continue to receive some attention. Increasingly, South Africa has been a destination for immigrants from Sub-Saharan Africa due to its status as the economic hub in the continent. Unlike in the other countries where immigrant languages and cultures have relatively received some attention, the South African universities experience basic challenges with adopting local languages that have an official status and policy mandate as languages of research, learning and teaching. Worth noting, however, is that teachers have not been prepared to teach multilingual children in linguistically diverse classrooms. While research on the use of multilingual pedagogies such as translanguaging has been influential in the last five years, very little is known about the effects of monolingual, monolithic universities on teacher education and professional practices in the schools. In this chapter, we explore how post-Apartheid language in education policy practices at South African universities have influenced preparing teachers for multilingual classrooms. Drawing from the field of translanguaging, we use case study of a primary school in Johannesburg to track how higher education institutional identities have had a colonial carry-over effect on pedagogical practices in the local schools. In the end, we offer suggestions for a multilingual identity development language and literacy education teacher education programmes to valorize translingual approach in a manner that affirm multilingual post-Apartheid schooling in South Africa. Insights on future research directives in comparable contexts are highlighted at the end of the chapter.
Article
In this article, I reflect on the idea of university spaces as potential sites of conscience. I explore how these spaces act not only as continuous reminders of past violence, marginalization, and exclusion, but as reminders also of ethical accountability and redress. The latter discloses opportunities and possibilities for a reinterpretation of such spaces, keeping in mind that the traces of the past will remain and that every attempt at erasure will be incomplete. The article considers how spaces or places that remain in the process of decolonization can be mobilized as sites of conscience. These sites/spaces/places manifest relationality also between materiality and symbol and between judgment and ethical accountability. The article focuses on issues surrounding the removal of a statue of the past president of the Republic of the Orange Free State, President M. T. Steyn at the University of the Free State (UFS) in Bloemfontein, South Africa. The university has a long and troubled history of exclusion, racism, and authoritarianism, among others. Since the early 1990s, many attempts have been made to transform, not all in vain. The statue itself was a site of contention at the UFS for many years and was removed over the last weekend in June 2020. I conclude that space that remains on the UFS campus is one of haunting that urges a certain sense of place and atmosphere that could forge learning, education, and transforming citizenship.
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In light of the movement to decolonize universities, the aim of educating global citizens should become a future orientation in internationalization practices and study abroad programs of universities. Studying abroad is a global phenomenon that has increased over the last decades. Making international contacts contributes to global citizenship identity. Global Citizenship Education (GCE) aims at empowering learners to make ethical decisions and take responsible actions to face and resolve global challenges. It enables learners to develop a global mindset that encompasses justice motivations, reflective, critical and relational metacognitive capabilities, and sustainability-oriented practices.The normative orientation of this educational concept is guided by values such as non-discrimination, respect for diversity, solidarity for humanity and global social justice. In this way, GCE offers an opposite horizon towards dominating neoliberal perspectives of the internationalization processes of universities. This chapter seeks to engage conceptually with the potential of study abroad for building global citizenship. Of particular interest is the process of global citizen learning of international students. Utilizing social identity theory and transformative learning opens a new theoretical view on how international students develop global citizenship.
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Considering the three dimensions of adaptation as (1) act and process, (2) heuristic tool, and (3) political possibility, what can be distinctive about teaching English canonical texts through adaptations in the semi-peripheral classroom? To address this question, the chapter proposes ways to decolonise Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights in the undergraduate semi-peripheral classroom. Framed by an inter-imperial perspective on the Atlantic slave trade, our decolonised reading of the novel firmly places Heathcliff in the colonial countryside of Yorkshire, and examines the visual translations of the racialising tropes associated with this character across three screen adaptations.
Article
Western education still dominates the education terrain across Africa. For some people, the dominance is nothing but ‘academic imperialism,’ which is believed to have relegated African scholars to mere conduits of knowledge through which European and American scholarship and interests are protected and promoted. Consequently, a dissident voice is resonating in the African educational system, particularly South African education system, demanding the recognition of ‘home-grown’ knowledge to solve home-grown problems. This article engages the debate about decolonization of higher education in South Africa and asks the fundamental question of whether or not it is possible to achieve a fully decolonized curriculum in a society that is already cloaked and engulfed by capitalism and Western ideologies.
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