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Swallowing Outcome After Laryngectomy (SOAL) questionnaire - Author generated copy
For each of the questions below, please indicate (
) the response which best suits what you have
felt or experienced today or over the last few days
A lot
If you answered a little
or a lot, does this
bother you? Please
indicate Y/N
1. In your opinion, do you have a swallowing
problem now?
2. Do you have a problem swallowing thin
liquids (tea, water, juice)? Unrelated to voice
prosthesis leaking.
3. Do you have a problem swallowing thick
liquids (soup, milkshake, supplement
4. Do you have a problem swallowing
soft/mashed foods (macaroni cheese,
shepherds pie)?
5. Do you have a problem swallowing dry solid
food (bread, biscuits)?
6. Do liquids stick in your throat when you
7. Does food stick in your throat when you
8. Does food or liquid come back up into your
mouth or nose when you eat or drink?
9. Do you need to swallow liquid to help the
food go down?
10. Do you need to swallow many times on
each mouthful to help the food or drink go
11. Do you avoid certain foods because you
cannot swallow them?
12. Does it take longer to eat a meal?
13. Has your enjoyment of food reduced?
14. Has the size of your meal reduced?
15. Has your appetite reduced because you
cannot taste or smell food normally?
16. Has your eating been more difficult due to
dry mouth?
17. Do you feel self conscious eating with other
Thank you for your time
Scoring (for the clinician):
Assign a score of 0 for (no); 1 for (a little) and 2 for (a lot). Sum the columns and add the totals to obtain a
score out of 34. Lower scores indicate fewer problems and better self-reported overall swallow function.
Bother: Items checked (yes) should be explored clinically to determine whether further discussion/intervention
during rehabilitation may be helpful to the patient.
Reference: Govender R, Lee MT, Drinnan M, Davies T, Twinn C & Hilari K. (2015)
Psychometric evaluation of the Swallowing Outcome after Laryngectomy (SOAL) patient-
reported outcome measure. Head & Neck.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Full-text available
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Swallowing Outcomes After Laryngectomy (SOAL) in a large group of people who underwent a laryngectomy. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional psychometric study of laryngectomy patients (minimum 3 months posttreatment) attending routine hospital follow-up for the psychometric evaluation of SOAL. Results: One hundred ten people participated in this study. Thirteen percent of the patients had a laryngectomy, 63% had laryngectomy with radiotherapy, and 24% had laryngectomy with chemoradiation therapy. The SOAL showed good quality of data (minimal missing data and floor effects); good internal consistency (α = 0.91); and adequate test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.73). In terms of validity, it differentiated people by treatment group (F(2,85) = 8.02; p = .001) and diet texture group (t(102) = -7.33; p < .001). Conclusion: The SOAL demonstrates good validity and has potential for use in research. Further study is required to determine its clinical application. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2015.