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Dissertation research and writing for construction students, Second Edition

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Abstract

Dissertation Research and Writing for Construction Students is the only how-to guide for BSc and MSc students. Covering topic selection, research planning and methodology to structuring and writing the dissertation, this book includes everything needed for a successful write-up. A new chapter on Supervision and Assessment as well as updates to references and case studies ensures students know what is expected of them and how they will be assessed. The clear, concise, step-by-step text illustrated with examples of best case practice makes this an ideal resource for anyone involved in research in this field. © 2007, Dr S. G. Naoum. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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... The results have been compared to the data of average usage of people living connected to the national utility grid and to estimate a cost-saving for the varying levels of usage. The aforementioned is then applied to the study as an analytical case study (Naoum, 1999) to determine the outcome of the hypothesis proven or disproved. Due to the outbreak Covid-19, exploration of articles produced due to the unintentional global experiment (Greetham, 2019) of living in a world of lower emissions and pollutants. ...
... The methods that have been used in this study will be quantitative research (Naoum, 1999). By extracting climate data for South West England, this will determine if weather patterns over ten years can sustain an off-grid lifestyle. ...
... Technology and infrastructure will also be explored in a quantitative research manner (Naoum, 1999) to determine if there are options available to sustain this way of life. The payback time is calculated to determine if this is a viable option, and if the initial cost of installation saves money for this to be an economical option for households concerned with climate change. ...
Thesis
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Living off-grid, will it help the environment and start to reverse climate change? Research and case studies have been compared for the financial viability; this has shown that although initial outlay is similar. The difference lays in the ongoing outlay; it is not the same longer-term due to continuing utility costs. The regional weather data proved that not only is it able to cover the needs of an off-grid household, there is also an excess of needed provisions. Off-grid living can sustain a modern way of life and is a lot more environmentally friendly with a significantly reduced carbon footprint. It is hoped that the outcome of this study will encourage more research into off-grid life. More importantly, encourage more people to do more to reduce their carbon footprints or just uproot and move to an off-grid lifestyle. There is also the hope that laws regarding living on your own land will eventually be less restrictive in the future to make this way of life more accessible. This way of life has been found to be the most substantial impact to help global warming and climate change. Therefore, within the governments best interests to make it easier to obtain the net-zero emissions, they strive to reach.
... The project team and how the individuals operate as team members have a significant impact on productivity. The project manager, as a leader, can, therefore, also focus on team building and development 3. Methodology Naoum (2007) defines research as a careful search or inquiry to discover new or put together old facts. The quantitative research approach was used for this study. ...
... The study is based on the hypothesis and objectives used to verify the theories surrounding the project manager's leadership style influencing construction productivity. The quantitative research approach is best for verifying the theories on which this study is based (Naoum, 2007). The quantitative research method is relevant to this study, as the data used are facts and based on hard and reliable data provided by the selected respondents. ...
... The researcher used an internet application named Survey Monkey to distribute the questionnaires to the respondents. Data received were analyzed using descriptive statistics to determine the frequency distribution in tables format (Naoum, 2007). A weighted factor was used to analyze questions that required selection to be made from most likely to least likely. ...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Productivity in the construction industry is essential for business sustenance. Project Managers play a significant in achieving productivity in construction. Therefore, this study examined the critical project manager's leadership style that can influence construction productivity. Design: The study adopted a quantitative research approach; thus, closed-ended questionnaires were distributed to construction professionals via the Survey Monkey platform. Data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics to identify frequencies and weighted scores. Findings: The findings indicate the main factors affecting construction productivity as incompetent supervising and management, poor leadership, lack of skilled and experienced labour, and poor project communication. Therefore project managers should exhibit supportive (ability to delegate and assign tasks to the employees), charismatic (ability to transform attitudes and beliefs in employees), transformational (ability to inspire others), and democratic (ability to include employees in decision making) leadership styles to influence construction productivity positively. Implications: There is an urgent need for project managers to be trained on the appropriate soft skills aspect of managing construction projects to effectively improve construction productivity, reduce project cost and time overruns, and sustain construction businesses. Value to the conference theme: The study reveals critical leadership styles employers and project managers should focus on in achieving project success, maximize their profits, and remain in business.
... Quantitative Approach: The quantitative research approach tests a hypothesis or theory to determine whether the hypothesis is true (Naoum, 2007). A hypothesis is a tentative proposition, which would be tested and verified through the research study (Naoum, 2007). ...
... Quantitative Approach: The quantitative research approach tests a hypothesis or theory to determine whether the hypothesis is true (Naoum, 2007). A hypothesis is a tentative proposition, which would be tested and verified through the research study (Naoum, 2007). This study's research method is based on a hypothesis formulated and tested through a quantitative research approach. ...
... The secondary data used in the study are the data collected from the literature review. Data analysis techniques: Quantitative research is used in this study to test whether the hypothesis is true (Naoum, 2007). The hypothesis is a tentative proposition being tested and verified through the research study (Naoum, 2007). ...
Conference Paper
Purpose: Construction productivity is essential in the construction industry as firms are finding new ways to improve project output to minimise cost. Thus, the project manager plays a significant role in efficient project delivery; therefore, project managers must exhibit essential qualities and skills to influence construction productivity positively. The study evaluated project manager's skills that can affect construction productivity from the perspective of construction professionals. Design: The study used a quantitative research approach. A structured questionnaire made up of closed-ended questions was distributed, via the Survey Monkey platform, to professionals working in the South African construction industry. Findings: The study's findings showed that the main project managers' skills affecting construction productivity are; incompetent supervising and management, poor leadership skills, lack of labour with skills and experience, and poor communication. The project managers' main skills to improve construction productivity include communication, leadership, and time management skills. Implications: There is a need for project managers to be trained on both hard and soft skills to effectively improve construction productivity to minimise project cost and time overruns and achieve the required quality. Employers and clients could look for communication, leadership, and time management skills in identifying an effective project manager for their projects. Value to the conference theme: Companies seek for a resolution to increase turnover and minimize expenditure. The success of the project delivery is mainly dependent on the role players in project teams. The study gives insight into the critical values and skills project managers, who provides leadership to project teams, to achieve project success. The study provides the essential skills employers must look for when engaging with project managers to ensure the achievement of project objectives.
... The qualitative research approach is categorised with exploratory research and attitudinal research. Exploratory research is conducted in circumstances when the researcher's knowledge about the topic is limited (Naoum, 2007). Detailed interviews are conducted to get a clear idea of the studied problem. ...
... The attitudinal research is subjectively conducted to evaluate a person's overall idea or opinion towards an object (Naoum, 2007). ...
... A separate questionnaire for the pilot study feedback was launched along with the main questionnaire. This pilot study questionnaire was based on the sample questions mentioned in Naoum (2007). The feedback from the industry professionals on the pilot study is illustrated in chapter five. ...
Preprint
The construction industry has never been as open to welcoming new ideas and strategies from other industries as it is now. Excessive waste in the three pillars of the construction industry, time, cost, and quality, led to adopting certain concepts tried and proven to work successfully in other sectors. Lean is one of such ideas that made its way to the construction industry after years of success in the manufacturing sector. Building Information Modeling (BIM), on the other hand, has been around for quite a while in the construction industry. Imagine how amazing it would be for the construction professionals and designers to live in what is yet to be constructed. BIM made it possible to foresee the future of the project. The question is not how successful these two strategies are, as this has already been proven through numerous studies, but how sustainable would that project be if both Lean and BIM are used concurrently? Qatar's construction industry has embraced lean and BIM concepts and Sustainability measures on its own, owing to a multitude of external and internal factors. Through a mixed-method approach of research strategy, an in-depth review of the literature helped explore the synergies between lean construction, BIM and Sustainability. However, the survey questionnaire and interviews led to identifying the two main barriers to implying lean and BIM in Qatar’s construction industry, “Culture and Attitude” and “Commitment & Support from Top Management”. The survey results also indicated the interaction of lean, BIM and Sustainability at different project stages and helped identify misunderstandings about Sustainability among the industry professionals. The proposed performance measurement strategy also received an overwhelming response.
... Qualitative research is subjective, and its purpose is to determine a precise statement of the research via diagnosis, determining alternatives and discovering solutions to a problem. Focusing on descriptions and experiences it is typically conducted where there is limited knowledge on the area of research using the interview technique [35]. Due to the impact of COVID-19, conducting semi structured interviews with small housebuilding developers would prove more difficult than initially thought. ...
... Open-ended questions were used to allow for flexibility in responses and discover as much as possible about the specific issues relating to efficiency and sustainability and the future of construction for small housebuilding developers using panelised systems [35]. ...
... Selected sampling is commonly chosen when conducting qualitative research as respondents need to have knowledge and experience on the subject area. Offsite manufac-Sustainability 2021, 13, 4054 7 of 20 turing is a relatively new construction method, and a selected sample of respondents was thought to be more appropriate than random sampling [35]. ...
Article
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Offsite construction is increasingly being presented as a way to increase housing delivery and reduce the housing crisis. Large developers play a pivotal role in the delivery of affordable homes and therefore offsite construction could be beneficial in alleviating the crisis. Previous Offsite Construction (OC) studies conducted into the drivers, barriers and decision factors provide qualitative analysis from manufacturers and larger developers appear to be taking advantage of the UK government’s renewed interest in offsite manufacturing and have begun investing in these methods. However, the role of smaller housebuilding developers in the use of offsite construction systems is rather more uncertain. This research addresses this gap in the literature through an exploration of small housebuilding developers’ best value perceptions of offsite construction methods within the UK housebuilding sector. A questionnaire survey was used to ascertain perceptions of the 134 small developers towards the drivers, barriers and decision factors identified in the extant OC literature. Although survey respondents had not widely used offsite manufactured systems previously, the results indicate a high level of agreement with the drivers identified within the offsite construction literature. The respondents identified the buyers’ perception traditional methods as superior to OC systems and creating higher sales figures. Many any of the respondents also believe that best value, and hence maximised profit, higher sales value, and greater returns on investment, is achieved through traditional methods of construction. These two factors combined are more desirable for small developers, rather than the perceived increase in sustainability and efficiency offered by OC systems, due to their positive effect on profit.
... It is mainly classified into two types: qualitative and quantitative research. The most widely used data collection technique for conducting surveys to extract facts, views and opinions is through a structured questionnaire (Naoum, 1998). In this study, a quantitative approach is selected, because it is an objective measurement of the problem. ...
... In this method, each participant has an equal opportunity to be selected (Weisberg et al., 1996). According to Naoum (1998), the two main steps for performing a random sample are: choosing a list of names and addresses and making a random numbering technique. A list of contracting companies' contact info and numbers was obtained from JCCA and the sample companies were selected randomly from that list. ...
... The questionnaire design was undertaken to determine the contractors' viewpoint regarding the factors affecting material wastage. The questionnaire was of the closed type, where the questions are straightforward and require no additional clarification by the respondent (Naoum, 1998). The questionnaire was divided into the following four sections to fulfill the study objectives: company profile, factors affecting material wastage, percentage of material wastage in construction projects and advantages of managing and minimizing material wastage. ...
Article
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Recent studies have recognized material waste from construction projects as a serious problem for both economies and the environment. This research aims to identify the major causes of material waste in construction projects, determine the level of wastage for some selected materials and suggest strategies to manage and minimize wastage. In order to facilitate the application of this research, Jordan was taken as a case study. The results from 61 returned surveys suggested 49 factors which were then analyzed to identify the main causes of material wastage; the main factors are as follows: design changes during the construction phase, rework due to labor mistakes, purchases not complying with specifications, improper cutting of materials and poor site layout. The study concluded that the most important advantages of managing and minimizing material wastage are minimizing time and cost overruns and helping in determining the required quantities, thus leading to improved project performance.
... This is associated with arranging an investigation to identify variables and their inter-relationships Farrell [11]. It also includes identification and investigation of social characteristics of Civil Engineering and Architecture 9(1): 206-213, 2021 209 the research subjects (respondents) Naoum [12]. For a given research must conform to the principles of the methodology and the information collected has to be from the representative of the area under study. ...
... This assumed a purposive sampling strategy where respondents were selected at the discretion of the researcher but with the sole purpose to be typical of the whole population and the research question was best examined to evaluate participant engagement Saunders et al [13]. The sample size covered selected senior employees of clients, contractors, developers and consultants in small and medium scale Construction Company within Kaduna metropolis, Nigeria who are involved in construction project management at strategic level as Naoum [12] described this as a selected sampling process. Accordingly, sample size in quantitative research design is fundamental for the success of the research. ...
... Cooper and Schindler [15] suggested that bias can be avoided through effective quantitative research methodology and will allow the respondents to freely express their knowledge about the subject matter as they respond to the research questions. However, a descriptive statistical approach was used to effectively analyse the results generated from the questionnaire and analysed through Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS-16) to obtain the descriptive and inference statistical analysis [11,12]. Lastly, respondents claimed that there is currently a moderate lag in the completion and delivery of housing projects in the study area (M 3.39; SD 1.07) and affirmed that there is currently a huge housing deficit in Nigeria (M 4.39; SD 0.07). ...
... A qualitative method was used on this project, placing the interpretation of theory on the data collected. A survey approach was used for data gathering purposes (Naoum, 2007), with a total of 61 professionals participating in the survey. ...
... The study incorporated primary data collected through the process explained above, together with the secondary data (Naoum, 2007) collected by reviewing the literature to reach a conclusion. The research furthermore went through an ethical clearance process at the University of the Free State. ...
Article
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The construction industry has often been described as stagnant and out-of-date due to the lack of innovation and innovative work methods to improve the industry (WEF, 2016; Ostravik, 2015). The adoption of Building Information Modelling (BIM) within the construction industry has been relatively slow (Cao et al., 2017), particularly in the South African Construction and Built Environment (CBE) (Allen, Smallwood & Emuze, 2012). The purpose of this study was to determine the critical factors influencing the adoption of BIM in the South African CBE, specifically from a quantity surveyor’s perspective, including the practical implications. The study used a qualitative research approach grounded in a theoretical framework. A survey questionnaire was applied to correlate the interpretation of the theory with the data collected (Naoum, 2007). The study was limited to professionals within the South African CBE. The study highlighted that the slow adoption of BIM within the South African CBE was mainly due to a lack of incentives and subsequent lack of investment towards the BIM adoption. The study concluded that the South African CBE operated mainly in silos without centralised coordination. The BIM adoption was only organic. Project teams were mostly project orientated, seeking immediate solutions, and adopted the most appropriate technologies for the team’s composition. The study implies that the South African CBE, particularly the Quantity Surveying profession, still depends heavily on other roleplayers in producing information-rich 3D models. Without a centralised effort, the South African Quantity Surveying professionals will continue to adopt BIM technology linearly to the demand-risk ratio as BIM maturity is realised in the South African CBE. K E Y W O R D S Building Information Modelling (BIM), South African Construction and Built Environment (CBE), design silos
... The questionnaire must be addressed to a diverse population, characterized by different economic status of respondents belonging to several sectors ( Figure 15). According to Naoum (2013, cited in Opoku et al. 2016, the sample selection process affects the reliability of the survey results. ...
... Set N°5 Set Moreover, as per (Sarrantakos 1998, 2013, and saunders et al. 2009, cited in Opoku et al. 2016, the required sample size depends on constraints such as: ...
Thesis
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Renewable energy technologies contribution to a sustainable future, whether in terms of conservation or in terms of availability of the resources, has become a global priority. Yet, for Tunisia the share of renewable energy in the power generation has slightly evolved from 1990 to 2019 without exceeding the 3%, compared to the share of natural gas which contribute to 90% of the electricity production. In addition, the carbon dioxide emission from electricity generation has almost doubled going from 3,8 to 8,8 mega tons per year for the same period, the natural gas being the primary energy source with a share of 99% (IEA, 2020). This study describes the actual renewable energy potential, the current installed capacity in terms of electricity generation from renewable energy sources, and the evolution of the renewable electricity consumption in Tunisia. Moreover, the study goes through the analysis of success factors and constraints to the development of the renewable energy technologies market of solar water heating systems and photovoltaic solar panels in Tunisia. For this purpose, a quantitative research survey is conducted on a random sample population regrouping either experts in the field as well as ordinary users and prospects. Furthermore, the study highlights and discusses the results obtained from the survey using inferential statistics data analysis. What is more, the developed inferential regression models contribute to test the hypothesis derived from a conceptual model designed for the purpose to answer the research questions. Finally, this master thesis comes out with recommendations to improve the sustainability of the renewable energy technologies market expansion policy in Tunisia.
... Prior to conducting the survey, a pilot survey was conducted amongst three participants who are working as cost consultants in the construction industry in the UK with 35, 10 and 1-years' experience. Naoum (2013) suggests that a pilot study provides a test run for the questions, which involves evaluation of the wording of the questions, identifying any ambiguous questions, testing the technique that the researchers use to collect the data. Based on Naoum (2013), the pilot survey was used to achieve two things; to ascertain that the local cost overrun control factors are not excluded and to prevent misunderstanding and ambiguities. ...
... Naoum (2013) suggests that a pilot study provides a test run for the questions, which involves evaluation of the wording of the questions, identifying any ambiguous questions, testing the technique that the researchers use to collect the data. Based on Naoum (2013), the pilot survey was used to achieve two things; to ascertain that the local cost overrun control factors are not excluded and to prevent misunderstanding and ambiguities. Few issues that were raised in the pilot to improve the clarity of the question were addressed before questionnaires were rolled out. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to identify and analyse the factors affecting the selection of effective cost control techniques in the UK construction industry and assess their importance. The study examines these key areas; the factors that have significant impacts on cost overruns, the most effective cost control techniques and the factors for selecting cost control techniques for a project. Design/methodology/approach The study relies on a mixed-method research approach; a qualitative exploration of the most effective cost control techniques and the factors affecting the selection of cost control techniques, followed by a questionnaire survey and follow-up interviews. Relative importance index (RII) is used for ranking the factors. Findings The budgeting technique is ranked first with-0.821RII, followed by cost forecasting-0.800RII and cashflow monitoring-00.733RII, as the most effective cost control techniques. On factors that influenced the choice of the techniques used, cost information/cost-related factors are ranked first with-0.611RII, followed by the size of the company-0.509RII and the effectiveness of the technique-0.572RII. Research limitations/implications Although the scope of the study was limited to the UK construction industry, the results could be interpreted for critical learning in other developed/developing countries. Originality/value Identifying and ranking the factors affecting the selection of effective cost control techniques in the UK construction industry has been the focal point of this study. The study also proposes a simple but effective model which can be used for critical learning on mitigating cost overruns and the effective use of cost control techniques in the construction industry.
... According to Walliman (2011), Naoum (2012 and Maxwell (2013), exploratory qualitative research is suitable to diagnose a situation, screen alternatives and discover new ideas when there is only little knowledge available on the topic in contrast to quantitative approach. Hence, qualitative approach would be more suitable to assess the current status of urban renewal projects in Sri Lanka and explore new ideas to improve strengths and mitigate weaknesses. ...
... Furthermore, according to Kothari (2004) the case study method provides vigilant and comprehensive observations about a situation, an individual or an institution. Urban renewal projects in Sri Lanka being an area which had not been studied in depth, case study methods under qualitative research were used to carry out an in-depth analysis of a particular project as per Toledo-Pereyra (2012) and Naoum (2012). The major focus of this study was to explore the current phenomenon of urban renewal in depth given the limited amount of knowledge was available on the topic. ...
Article
Although urbanization can increase the prosperity and development of the urbanized communities, the planning, management and governance of these areas is often a struggle resulting in incomplete infrastructure, precarious urban settlements and environmental issues. This study, therefore, was focused on exploring the economic implications of urban renewal by identifying the economic factors that affect the planning and delivery of the associated projects. The study adopted an interpretive stance and the research strategies used were a survey and three case studies. A pilot study was first done and it was followed by case studies. The cases were selected using judgmental sampling and represented the subsystems of urban renewal. The data collected using semi-structured interviews were analysed by comparing with a pattern of impacts developed using literature findings. The study identified the strengths, weaknesses and the areas that can be improved in urban renewal proposals. The findings including were identified under four categories: regional economy, demography, real estate market and transportation economy. The weaknesses of the projects and the strategies that can mitigate them were also identified. A framework that can be used to screen and select new urban renewal proposals was finally developed based on the findings of the study.
... MSW management is not just an environmental duty but it includes numerous technical and social and economic criteria. Such as IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/1090/1/012013 2 reuse waste, recycling waste, reducing waste, energy recovery from waste, and disposal landfill [7]. Moreover, a safe disposal landfill of solid waste management is required for right MSW. ...
... Such as, the economical, technical and environmental criteria at stages and operation stages of landfill projects. The main objective of the landfill site location selection process is to make sure that the disposal land facility is located at the good site possible with a minimum negative impact to the environment or to the population possible [10]. For landfill siting, a substantial assessment procedure is wanted to classify the ideal available disposal place which meets the requirements of government regulations and best reduces economic, environmental, health, and social costs [11]. ...
Article
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Administrating and managing solid waste are complicated and challengeable tasks for the local government of Baghdad city. In this area, the landfills site does not satisfy the required local and international criteria. As well as, in Baghdad, selecting the geographical location of Landfill sites is a complex process due to the enormous number of variables that need to be analyzed and considered. This study aims to identify the criteria for landfill site selection in Baghdad governorate. To do so, this study has considered and analyzed three of the main criteria, (which are environmental, political and economic criteria to make recommendations of selecting the location of the landfills site in Baghdad. Within the three main criteria, thirty sub-criteria of the most important criteria were selected for this purpose. From ministries (fieldwork) and theoretical study. In this study, (IBM,SPSS,V23) program was used to analyze the main criteria and sub-criteria and rank them from top-bottom based on their values of Relative Importance Index (RII) technique. The results of this study have reviled that the economic criteria is the most significant main criteria and tenure of land are the most significant sub criteria, which must be significantly considered to make recommendations of selecting the location of the landfills’ sites in Iraq.
... It was used because it is a fairly fast and inexpensive technique of gathering data from a large number of individuals on a particular subject and offers replies to similar questions from all surveyed individuals [36]. It also can sample a big population with reduced costs and effort and allow to generalize the findings [37]. ...
... The value of RII ranged from 0 to 1 [37] where the highest value indicates the high significance of the item as a cause of cost overrun in construction projects. The value of (RII) was determined by using the following equation [43,44]: ...
Conference Paper
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While all project parties agree that exceeding the budget results in project failures, most construction projects in Jordan are suffering from cost overruns. Understanding the root cause of the issue is critical to solve the problem comprehensively. However, the previous studies lack information on the underlying causes that are resulting in cost overruns among the nation’s construction projects. The principal purpose of this study is to identify the most significant causes of cost overruns in Jordanian construction projects. Therefore, the researcher used the quantitative approach for data collection through questionnaire survey among stakeholders in the construction project. This study uses the principles of multivariate statistics in analyzing the causes of cost overruns in Jordanian construction projects. The findings revealed that the four major underlying causes for cost overruns in Jordan are financial difficulties, materials issues, design issues and additional works. Besides, the results also revealed that high transportation cost, unrealistic contract duration, slow decision making, extra quantity during construction, inadequate funds for project financing, inconsistent cash flows and payment problems faced by the clients from the government are critical sub cause for cost overruns in the region. The findings on the critical and underlying causes for cost overruns may help industrial practitioners in developing strategies to achieve better project success.
... According to Denscombe [35], descriptive statistics are often used to uncover the patterns, distributions, and peculiarities within a data sample. Therefore, for data of a univariate type, frequency distributions were considered appropriate [39]. Measures of central tendency were used to identify mean response points with respect to the Likert scales [35]. ...
Article
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Employer Information Requirements (EIR) are the keystone for developing a successful Building Information Modelling (BIM) project. However, clients’ lack of skill and experience in categorising and defining these requirements often undermines the performance of a construction project and, ultimately, the ability of the finished product to meet their needs. By definition, EIR shortcomings include incomplete and inconsistent requirements and specifications, and whilst some work has been performed to try to address these, this area is still underdeveloped. This paper reports on the development of a transformative approach to the categorisation of requirements in a meaningful way, enabling effective filtering so that stakeholders can access just the information they need for the task at hand. The Ontology-based framework for Employer Information Requirements (OntEIR) seeks to provide a step change in categorisation by identifying ‘static’ and ‘dynamic’ requirements, including related types and sub-types. OntEIR has been rigorously validated by a group of BIM experts, and the results have revealed that this approach to categorisation significantly improved the elicitation and understanding of requirements.
... A pilot study was carried out in order to improve and validate the questionnaires. Naoum (2007) revealed that a pilot test makes provision for a trial run for questionnaires allowing more variables to be tested. The prepared questionnaire was administered to the participants and later collected after completion by some selected fire safety experts and building managers. ...
Article
Ineffective fire safety management is one of the severe issues in public buildings, especially in Nigeria. There has been a significant increase in fire disaster cases in Nigeria in the last 25 years, the incidence of fire disasters becomes the most significant and ultimate threat to building occupants, building and its contents, as well as the economic growth of the nation. Therefore, in order to ensure the safety of building occupants, building contents, the essential features depend on the fire safety protection system, which should be under the fire safety regulation requirements. Nonetheless, practical fire safety management could remedy the damages or rates of injury in fire events. This study presents the findings on the investigation of the effectiveness of fire safety management strategy in Nigeria public buildings. This study attempts to determine the factors affecting improper fire safety management and determine the level of effective implementation of fire s afety m anagement c omponents. From t he study, s afety t raining a nd a dequate fire safety compliance are the factors that affect improper fire safety management the most. The level of effective implementation of fire safety management strategy is low, which translated to inadequate fire safety management. The most effective approach identified to improve the fire safety management and achievement of fire safety objectives is through effective fire safety management strategy and improvement in fire safety training arrangement and absolute compliance with the fire safety regulations.
... Interviews can be deeper data collection methods; they help gather reliable and valid data that can address research questions and objectives [19]. Interviews can be defined as a face-to-face interpersonal situation in which the interviewer asks a number of designed questions to either collect or validate research data [19,20]. In addition, any person-toperson interaction, either face-to-face or otherwise, between two or more individuals with a specific purpose in mind can be called an interview [21]. ...
Article
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Over the past few years there has been a significant change in fire safety design and management. As the possibility of safe escape is the most crucial aspect of a building’s fire safety features, the understanding of human behaviour under fire conditions is important for a successful evacuation. Previous research studies have developed models, prototypes, and serious games that help engineers/architects to design or firefighters to improve design so that the building facilitates a smooth evacuation process. Although these studies have looked into human behaviour, perceptions of important stakeholders (such as occupants, structural engineers, fire engineers, facility managers) are still not understood. These perceptions are important for the appropriate application of technology for evacuation. The broader research effort, of which this paper is part, stems from the premise that bespoke evacuation instructions can be sent directly to evacuees’ smartphones. Information from a BIM model with the aid of sensors can be used to customise these evacuation instructions. The prospect of information being delivered to occupants during a fire emergency is still at its premature phase and more research is needed. Twenty-three interviews were conducted with occupants who currently live in high-rise residential buildings in Egypt and the United Kingdom to understand their views of using smartphones to assist during fire evacuations. The sampling strategy targeted occupants who currently live in high-rise residential buildings but have not necessarily experienced a fire evacuation. The research clearly shows the importance of smartphones during evacuation and the role they can play in assisting occupants to find the fastest and safest egress route. The interview findings will assist in future research to develop an evacuation framework system that could be implemented for high-rise residential buildings.
... The data from the questionnaire survey were analyzed statistically using statistical packages like Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), Microsoft Excel, and R-programming . The relative importance index (RII) was calculated for the factors included in the questionnaire using the equation shown below (Wanous et al., 2003;Enshassi et al., 2010;Naoum, 2012). ...
Thesis
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Construction companies devote a large amount of resources to bidding, and bidding decisions are critical for their success. Due to little research into the factors that influence contractors’ bidding decisions in Nepal, judgments are made heuristically, and the construction business has become difficult for genuine/capable contractors owing to increased competition. The goal of this article is to identify, rank, and investigate significant factors that influence construction contractors’ bidding decisions in Nepal. The research objectives were met by analyzing data collected from 82 Nepalese construction contractors via questionnaire. The questionnaire was created using criteria discovered through literature review, pilot study, and expert input. A total of 41 factors influencing Nepalese contractors’ bidding decisions were discovered and rated using the relative importance index. To investigate the difference in opinions between two classes of contractors, hypothesis testing was carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) was then used to discover the most significant factors affecting bidding decisions. Based on the descriptive study, the most critical factors identified in each group were the size of the project, accuracy of bid documents, experience on similar type of project, and fluctuation of resource price in the market. According to the hypothesis test, there was no significant difference in opinion between the two types of contractors. On PCA analysis, only 14 out of 41 factors were found to be significant, accounting for 66.473% of the variation in the data. Most of the factors found significant through PCA were not among the ones highly ranked by the respondents. This proves that there is difference between what contractors think is important and what is actually considered in actual bidding decision. The study identifies important factors to consider while bidding, in order to improve bidding decisions. The important factors identified can be considered by Nepalese contractors, and might also be useful for other contracting companies in developing nations like Nepal. In addition, the study might be valuable for those international contractors preparing to bid on projects in Nepal, as part of a joint venture with a Nepalese company.
... The expert-based approach for enhanced data collection targeted 150 specialists across the entire sectors of the off-site construction industry and research and academic communities in the Gulf Cooperation Council region ( Figure 1). This number was considered adequate as the judgmental sampling technique was adopted [83][84][85]. ...
Article
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Despite persistent calls for cleaner production and improved automation of construction processes, the adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) in managing the supply chains of off-site construction businesses has been discouraged due to various constraints. This paper methodically identifies and prioritizes the crucial factors that impede the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in off-site construction. Content analysis and an expert-based evaluation strategy were used to identify and evaluate the constraints affecting Internet of Things adoption in off-site construction. The ISM, MICMAC, and DEMATEL techniques were used to analyze the data. This study identifies the “lack of clear strategy for governing IoT utilization in supply chain management” as the most significant factor that impedes the application of the Internet of Things (IoT) in off-site construction businesses. The outcomes also provide a rich source of insights into off-site construction businesses to clearly recognize the implications of utilizing IoT technologies in managing the supply chains of businesses and what to expect when applying IoT technologies and solutions. While this paper advocates for improved green construction practices, cleaner production, and automation in the construction industry, it has set the stage for integrating IoT technologies in the supply chain management of off-site construction businesses.
... Para Polit, Beck, and Hungler, (2001) el estudio piloto es una prueba de viabilidad el cual consiste en versiones a pequeñas escala o ensayos llevados a cabo para un estudio mayor. Mientras que Bell (1996) sostiene que el estudio piloto es recoger los errores de un instrumento de modo que los sujetos del estudio principal no experimenten dificultad al completarlo, así el investigador puede llevar a cabo estudios preliminares (Citado en Naoum, 2007). Por otra parte, Leon ...
Conference Paper
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El estudio piloto forma parte de la rigurosidad científica en el marco de los estudios en turismo. En este artículo no se pretende proporcionar resultados de un estudio en particular, sino más bien proporcionar evidencia empírica de la importancia del estudio piloto en la investigación en turismo. El análisis llevado a cabo pretende contribuir a fortalecer la rigurosidad científica en la investigación en turismo, tal como lo señalan Cornejo y Salas (2011) el rigor apunta a la calidad de los datos producidos y a sus análisis, a los reportes de investigación generados, o a los diferentes procedimientos de investigación implementados.
... The scale was used to quantify the five-point Likert scale, and questionnaires were sent through email to respondents. Closed-ended questions were employed to gather data for the present study because they can be readily evaluated, as suggested by (Naoum, 2003). To eliminate any ambiguity in the questionnaire, a pilot test was done with specialists and project professionals from the construction industry and the government's higher education department, in order to properly analyse the language used, the logic of each question, and the layout. ...
Article
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The identification of success elements and success criteria is critical for the successful completion of construction projects. The major goal of this research is to identify success factors and criteria for higher education development initiatives in the Pakistani province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Projects are not successful owing to variety of causes producing delays in completion with high cost notably in construction business with context of higher education. A total 233 questionnaires were gathered from key stakeholders participating in 26 projects of 19 public sector institutions. A structured questionnaires were utilised to obtain data by employing convenience sample approach. This research indicated that project activities factors, human resource, the environmental variables, the procurement factors all positively and substantially affect the project success. This research with identical characteristics or according to the context may be carried out in other place or nation as well as other industry. The investigation offers appealing outcomes for the project managers operating in the building business of Pakistan. Different responsibilities of stakeholders and their acknowledgment and engagement contribute to a project successful since projects success relies on their roles and opinions about success. This research also contributes to academics to concentrate on project management discipline for suggesting link between success variables and success and these should be recognized and work out at the early phase of project
... A pilot study is a small experimental attempt or study that applies to a part of the study population whose characteristics are usually similar to those of the study population [22,23]. According to [24] the pilot research is a test run for the questionnaire, which includes detecting any vague questions, testing the phrasing of questions, testing the data collection technique, etc. The most important challenge that the study faced is the difficulty of communicating with experts directly due to the covid-19 related quarantine, so finishing this stage took a long time. ...
Article
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Controlling cost in construction projects is an essential issue. This study investigates the most critical problems that cause weakness in cost control in Iraqi construction projects. The quantitative technique was used by conducting a survey directed to professionals who work on construction projects. One hundred and sixty-four questionnaire forms were distributed to private sector companies, government companies, and government institutions, and the responses were subjected to the required statistical analysis. The results indicate that the most influential factors are the weakness in keeping up with the use of modern concepts, methods, and technologies, the delay in receiving the amounts due for work done from the owner, fluctuations in market prices, the lack of knowledge and the inefficient use of currently available tools and technology, and the security situation in the country. The results indicate that the Iraqi construction projects suffer from weakness in cost control, which causes them to stop or delay their delivery, and this needs serious and quick solutions. One of the most important solutions is the adoption of modern technologies and their inclusion in the construction sector and the development of special systems for managing costs that are appropriate to the Iraqi construction environment.
... IV. PILOT STUDY Before collecting the final data from the entire sampled population, a pilot study was conducted. The pilot study is a trail run for the questionnaire, which includes checking the wordings of questions, clarifying ambiguous questions, and evaluating the techniques that were utilized to collect the data [20]. The study's main purpose is to identify obstacles and concerns that are more ambiguous than others, allowing remedial actions to be taken and the testing process to be improved. ...
Article
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Financial funding of a construction firm plays an important role in all aspects of the process development. It has been noted that financial crises have a direct impact on the construction industry. The Iraqi government, whether locally or globally, has faced a severe shortage of financing which has resulted in incomplete projects. Due to the financial crisis that Iraq went through which led to the suspension of many residential complex projects and the difficulty of the use of public financing methods, we researched the private financing (public-private partnership) methods instead of public financing methods in residential complex projects implementation. This study verified the financial problems and the factors that relate to the possibility of their occurrence with the use of a questionnaire that was designed and distributed to professionals in the field. Arbitration of the questionnaire, pilot study, questionnaire distribution, and statistical tests were conducted. The T-test (paired samples T-test) was used to find out if there are differences between the public and private financing methods. The results showed that the private financing (public-private partnership) methods, under the current conditions in Iraq, are better than the public financing methods.
... According to Naoum (2013), research strategy can be defined as the way in which the research objectives can be questioned. This research used descriptive research. ...
Chapter
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PPPs are long-term and it means somewhere during the tenure of the contract some of the equipment will be outdated. This obsolescence has not been well research and it needs further scrutiny. This chapter deals with this problem in the context of South Africa.
... where, a i = Constant expressing the weight assigned to i; x i = Variable expressing the frequency assigned to i = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. However, central tendency was determined using median; to reflect the middle for a set of data that has been arranges in order of magnitude (Naoum, 2007). Matthews (2017) stated that median is the best measure of central tendency for ordinal data. ...
Article
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Resourcing post-disaster housing reconstruction (PDHR) entails many drawbacks creating bottlenecks to reconstruction projects. Understanding these vulnerable issues is of utmost to identify the appropriate interventions to mitigate their effects. The devastating aggression in 2014 in Gaza Strip served as a typical example of resources hampers. Based on the quantitative approach, the research employed a self-administrated questionnaire survey to identify the most significant challenges hindering the resourcing for post-2014 aggression housing reconstruction. The questionnaire targeted 55 of the key people in the implementing agencies of post-2014 aggression housing reconstruction. The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics, through frequency distribution and effect index (EI); and using inferential statistics through one sample Wilcoxon signed rank test. Findings indicated that the challenges related to political issues have the most significant effect on resourcing the PDHR. The main key challenges are: (1) Difficulties to obtain permits from the Israeli side to flow the reconstruction materials into the Gaza Strip, (2) Insufficient funds for reconstruction efforts and (3) Refusal of the international community to contact the local de facto government. This research fills the knowledge gap relating to Gaza and provides the basis for more research on resourcing problems. This research has also extended, updated and confirmed the current knowledge regarding challenges hindering the resourcing for PDHR. The results draw attention of the implementing agencies in Gaza to the factors that creating bottlenecks to resource the reconstruction projects in order to overcome them and to mitigate their negative effects.
... By and large, the qualitative approach is concerned with opinion, views, experience and perspectives regarding issues related to objects and circumstances (Amaratunga et al., 2002). Qualitative research is regarded to be "subjective in nature" (Naoum, 2012). This indicates that qualitative research is based on the opinion, experience and insight of persons educated in the field of research, whereas quantitative research examines phenomena that can be quantified and observed in some form through the identification of a set of variables. ...
Article
Purpose There are 29 million homes in the UK, accounting for 14% of the UK's energy consumption. This is given that UK has one of the highest water and energy demands in Europe which needs to be addressed according to the Committee on Climate Change (CCC). Smart homes technology holds a current perception that it is principally used by “tech-savvy” users with larger budgets. However, smart home technology can be used to control water, heat and energy in the entire house. This paper investigates how smart home technology could be effectively utilised to aid the UK government in meeting climate change targets and to mitigate the environmental impact of a home in use towards reducing carbon emissions. Design/methodology/approach Both primary and secondary data were sought to gain insight into the research problem. An epistemological approach to this research is to use interpretivism to analyse data gathered via a semi-structured survey. Two groups of participants were approached: (1) professionals who are deemed knowledgeable about smart home development and implementation and (2) users of smart home technology. A variety of open-ended questions were formulated, allowing participants to elaborate by exploring issues and providing detailed qualitative responses based on their experience in this area which were interpreted quantitatively for clearer analysis. Findings With fossil fuel reserves depleting, there is an urgency for renewable, low carbon energy sources to reduce the 5 tonnes annual carbon emissions from a UK household. This requires a multi-faceted and a multimethod approach, relying on the involvement of both the general public and the government in order to be effective. By advancing energy grids to make them more efficient and reliable, concomitant necessitates a drastic change in the way of life and philosophy of homeowners when contemplating a reduction of carbon emissions. If both parties are able to do so, the UK is more likely to reach its 2050 net-zero carbon goal. The presence of a smart meter within the household is equally pivotal. It has a positive effect of reducing the amount of carbon emissions and hence more need to be installed. Research limitations/implications Further research is needed using a larger study sample to achieve more accurate and acceptable generalisations about any future course of action. Further investigation on the specifics of smart technology within the UK household is also needed to reduce the energy consumption in order to meet net-zero carbon 2050 targets due to failures of legislation. Practical implications For smart homes manufacturers and suppliers, more emphasis should be placed to enhance compatibility and interoperability of appliances and devices using different platform and creating more user's friendly manuals supported by step-by-step visual to support homeowners in the light of the wealth of knowledge base generated over the past few years. For homeowners, more emphasis should be placed on creating online knowledge management platform easily accessible which provide virtual support and technical advice to home owners to deal with any operational and technical issues or IT glitches. Developing technical design online platform for built environment professionals on incorporating smart sensors and environmentally beneficial technology during early design and construction stages towards achieving low to zero carbon homes. Originality/value This paper bridges a significant gap in the body of knowledge in term of its scope, theoretical validity and practical applicability, highlighting the impact of using smart home technology on the environment. It provides an insight into how the UK government could utilise smart home technology in order to reduce its carbon emission by identifying the potential link between using smart home technology and environmental sustainability in tackling and mitigating climate change. The findings can be applied to other building types and has the potential to employ aspects of smart home technology in order to manage energy and water usage including but not limited to healthcare, commercial and industrial buildings.
... RII ranges from 0 to 1 [29]. The higher the value of R, the more important the factors are. ...
Article
The success of optimal system selection depends on many factors, such as the nature of the project itself, design team collaboration, team leader's personality, and client input. Unfortunately, despite numerous existing studies on key impacting factors in various fields of construction design, the majority of them failed to focus on the key factors affecting the structure design decision-making process. This study aims to identify, investigate, and rank factors perceived to affect decision-making for the optimal system in the construction industry, particularly that of buildings, during the early stages of the entire life cycle, in terms of their relative importance. Practitioners and experts from Egypt comprising a statistically representative sample, were invited to participate in a structured questionnaire survey to achieve this objective. The questionnaire was composed of 17 factors classified under three primary stage categories: feasibility study, planning, and design and engineering. The relative importance index and dispersion analysis were used to obtain statistics and calculate the collected data. The results show that “The impact of financial difficulties on the decision-making” is the first key factor, “The impact of errors and omissions due to the lack of communication and coordination on the decision-making” is the second key factor, and “The Impact of inaccurate evaluation of projects duration on the decision-making” and “The impact of design changes upon contractor request on the decision-making?” constitute the third key factors. Therefore, this work can guide decision-makers for effective construction management and help achieve a competitive quality and cost-effective project.
... The relative index technique has been more used in construction research studies to measure attitudes regarding questionnaires factors and items under the research study. RII ranges from 0 to 1 (Naoum, 2007) which is shown in Table 1. ...
Article
This paper attempts to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the construction industry under different investment and economic scenarios in Egypt. The survey was conducted to assess the cost impact of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on the construction industry, considering essential aspects, such as manpower, plant and machinery, and material, and their net effect on overall construction cost. The recommendations covered in this paper address many such measures under short, medium, and long-term categories. These measures underline the need to improve systems and processes for adequately responding to the current changing environment and effectively confronting such disruptions in the future. In addition, the paper serves as a start to thinking about the study of procedures during a future pandemic to inhibit any impact on the project timeline or personnel health.
... As explained in Dawson (2007), quantitative research is characterized by the generation of statistics through large scale surveys and a qualitative approach is a subjective process that aims to explore attitudes, demeanor, experiences, and opinions of the participants. According to Naoum (2012), for fact fact-finding, where in-depth analysis is not required, a quantitative research approach is suitable. Therefore, to identify the key stakeholders in smart city projects and their importance, a quantitative analysis was adopted. ...
... Choosing the right research approach is essential to determine the success of a research. The research approach depends on the nature of the investigation and the type of information that is available or required (Naoum, 1998). The research undertaken was exploratory in nature that aimed to discover something of interest and to give directions for future research. ...
Article
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This paper discusses the greatest challenge facing a pipeline inspection company, SEGA (not the real name) in Malaysia in providing its services to the oil and gas operators based on current practices, protocols and standards. However, the most important issue for SEGA as “new kid on the block” is how it must adopt new business development strategic directions to remain relevant, viable and profitable in the future. This further argues for greater investment in technology, people development and probably going outside of its territory that will enable a long-term drift towards zero tolerance on quality and greater extraction of local skilled field crew. Now, its strategic partners with GE on IP technology and TPS as the marketing arms thriving them to the next level of growth in order to sustain its business continuity and to become a prominent pipeline inspection company in Malaysia as well as in international markets in future.
... The focus groups were guided by few questions that stirred the discussion among participants, all within the context of the first research question, i.e. what are the current inefficiencies in the UK water industry in terms of asset data acquisition for product procurement? These questions are presented as competency questions for the ontology development in Table 4. Description of the participants is presented in Table 2. Additionally, meeting the following conditions helped strengthen the requirements capture process (Naoum, 2014): ...
Article
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The issue of interoperability in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry represents a challenge on a scale that spans across the project life cycle. This is predominant in the infrastructure sector that usually comprises a more versatile Operations and Maintenance (O&M) phase in comparison with the buildings sector. To this end, an important stage in the information life cycle is the asset information capture and validation during product procurement at the O&M phase. The water industry in the United Kingdom relies on Product Data Templates (PDTs) to fulfil such task, which is usually an error prone manual process. This paper presents an ongoing research, which investigates the application of Semantic Web Technologies (SWT) for improving product data exchange during product procurement at the O&M phase for the water industry in the United Kingdom (UK). Therefore, focus group sessions with industry experts were held to discuss current inefficiencies and solution requirements. Based on these results, a semantic common model named Asset Specification Ontology (ASO) was developed to capture and validate asset information during product procurement at the O&M phase. The common model (ontology) is based on available technologies, namely Web Ontology Language (OWL) and Shapes Constraint Language (SHACL). This gives the advantage of semantically rich data which can be linked and queried in a meaningful way to facilitate the exchange and validation of water industry assets’ data. The uniqueness of this paper is manifested in the issue it tackles, as efficient product procurement, and hence, data exchange in the water industry is an industrial challenge that is seldom researched. Results from the focus group sessions showed that information exchange within the UK water industry is impeded due to the lack of structured and semantic data. However, for a robust semantic interoperability, there needs to be a robust semantic data infrastructure, which would require semantic mappings from standards to product properties, from standards to other standards, and from standards to dictionaries. These conclusions were further supported by the common model, which was created from existing schemas, standards, and dictionaries. Generally, this paper recommends a common model/product library for phase-specific product data exchange in the water industry.
... A total of 370 respondents were sampled for the survey exercise. The sample size determination was guided by Naoum's (2007) formula: ...
Article
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In late 2010, city authorities in Ghana began to call attention to the looming danger associated with the expansion of Ghanaian cities—the result of both peri-urban land-use changes and livelihood adaptations. In an attempt to debate the rising phenomenon, scholars have tried to approach the issue from the perspective that connects cause and symptoms. In this article, we move beyond the rhetoric of symptoms to examine how peri-urban farmers who are most affected by the expansion of Wa, an emerging city in Ghana to reconfigure livelihood activities. The article is based on Erdas image 2010 and complemented with other research methods. The results show that the city’s expansion has severely altered land use and existing farming practices. Farmers have therefore been forced to re-organize farming strategies to include the application of both organic and inorganic fertilizers, tree cropping, and crop rotation, albeit at a high cost. Concluding, we argue that urban expansion is an index of transformation and naturally peri-urban agrarian communities are the first to undergo major land use and livelihood transformations. The situation in Wa calls for the need to re-define the urban-peri-urban relationships such that the opportunities associated with urban expansion are collectively shared.
... The study was descriptive as a general overview of the work measurement techniques utilized in the Midlands construction province was sought [26]. The study was carried out on construction companies that are, and those that have undertaken construction projects, within the Midlands province. ...
Article
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The Zimbabwean construction industry, both in the private and public sector, is characterized by cost and time overruns. Whilst the causes are innumerable, labour productivity control, through use of effective work measurement techniques, is paramount as labour constitutes a considerable portion of any construction project. It is therefore expedient that an investigation of the work measurement techniques utilized by the industry be undertaken. Focus was made on the Midlands province, it being resident to a considerable number of mining entities undergoing building construction growth momentum on the back of significant investments since 2009. The survey was undertaken through use of interview administered questionnaires on Construction Industry Federation of Zimbabwe registered companies that are resident in the province and on those that have undertaken or are undertaking construction projects within the same province. Construction companies in the Midlands province have overwhelmingly, albeit inappropriately, used the estimating technique as alluded to by 95% of the respondents. The outputs generated from use of this technique are significantly different from the actual outputs directly causing time overruns on the project sites. The other methods of time study at 33%, work sampling at 10% and synthesis at 5% have been sparingly utilized. The results from the use of time study and work sampling in combination with the estimating technique are within the allowable limits and hence these projects have no time overrun concerns emanating from the use of these techniques.
... The numerical rating scale (5-point Likert scale) was chosen to format the questions of the questionnaire with some common sets of response categories called quantifiers [75]. Those Conduct a risk analysis study before starting the task 0.624 0.000* 3 ...
Article
Purpose: The lean construction techniques have been considered as an effective approach and strategy to reduce accidents in construction projects. This paper aims to investigate the application of the lean construction principle and its impact on occupational health and safety. Materials and Methods: To achieve the aim analytical descriptive method was used. The data was collected through a questionnaire, with 70 respondents who were chosen in a random stratified sample method. The questionnaire evaluated the perception of contractors and consultants about the lean construction important factors and its impact on the construction projects safety. Results and Conclusions There is an agreement that, the application of lean construction techniques can be impeded by challenges like lack of lean construction knowledge, complexity, misconception about lean and difficulties in changing employees. The study identified strategies that could be used to address these challenges which will improve the safety of construction projects. These include enlightenment on benefits of the lean practice, publication of improvements realized from lean practice, training, workers’ involvement and empowerment, persistence, robust planning, and gradual implementation.
... Ninety-six geotechnical experts from across the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were involved in this survey. This number can be considered as sufficient for an expert-based survey, particularly when judgmental sampling is implemented [26,27]. The judgmental sampling was adopted to augment the validity and reliability of the outcomes. ...
Article
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Sustainable building construction in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia is fraught with issues, ranging from groundwater table fluctuation to inappropriate earthwork techniques, particularly in areas that were previously reclaimed. This paper analyzes the geotechnical factors that affect the safety and serviceability of infrastructure construction on reclaimed land. The data were collected mainly from expert-based surveys and semi-structured interviews with geotechnical experts across the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Ten critical factors were identified, and an integrated assessment was conducted using the Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM) technique to examine the hierarchical structure of the relations between the factors. In addition, the Cross-impact Matrix Multiplication Applied to Classification (MICMAC) technique was used to classify the factors from a driving to driven perspective. Findings of the study reveal the driving factors, which have the propensity to affect other factors and are the most crucial factors hindering the safety and serviceability of sustainable building construction. These factors are the presence of low-bearing sabkha soil, shallow and fluctuating depth of the groundwater table, and the lack of soil improvement applications. It is expected that concerned authorities may find the outcomes of this study useful in formulating effective policies, standards, and regulations that will protect infrastructure construction from safety and serviceability problems. While the evidence on which the results of this study are based is from experiences related to coastal areas of Saudi Arabia, the outcomes of this paper could be adopted in other coastal areas in the Gulf region. This paper adds to the current knowledge on safety and serviceability management of infrastructure constructed on reclaimed lands.
... The semi-structured interview approach was selected over a structured or unstructured interview approach as it allowed for the interview to be more casual in nature which resulted in the interview questions being asked in a logical way that flowed with the conversation, rather than in a structured format, that may or may not have had an impact on the ease with which the dialogue was exchanged (Naoum, 2007). According to David and Sutton (2004), semi-structured interviews are frequently used when conducting qualitative analysis and although the researcher typically has a list of key themes, issues to be explored, and questions, the order of the questions can change depending upon the direction of the interview, as determined by either the interviewer or the interviewee (Corbetta, 2003). ...
Article
The belief that primary aged Asian children are superior in their knowledge of mathematical concepts and numerical operations is widespread and prevalent within many educational contexts including early childhood schooling environments. Previous research has confirmed the higher mathematical performance of Asian children over their Western counterparts particularly in the realm of number knowledge and numerical operations within the earliest years of schooling. This study investigates the reality of early numerical differences in a multi-cultural American-based, international school environment in China. It explores the extent to which differences in numerical knowledge and abilities of Chinese- and English-speaking students aged 3 ½ to 4 ½ validate or refute prior research focused on early numerical differences between Asian and Western children. Through the employment of quantitative and qualitative research methods, the study also examines potential factors contributing to the apparent knowledge gap within the linguistically and ethnically diverse early childhood setting, including number-naming languages, parental and cultural influences, as well as teacher background, instructional practices and knowledge surrounding students’ mathematical abilities. The Junior Assessment of Mathematics early numeracy assessment, one-on-one teacher interviews, and a parent questionnaire were implemented, analysed, and interpreted as a means of exploring early numeracy knowledge and the contributing variables to the assumed difference between Chinese- and English-speaking students. The research findings revealed that regardless of age, gender or teacher class placement, the Chinese-speaking students outperformed their English-speaking peers across all modules administered within the assessment. In particular, knowledge related to subitising, number recognition, counting, and cardinality revealed substantial disparities such as a 1.5 to 2.0 stage level difference within early foundational elements of numerical knowledge which ultimately will have a significant impact on students’ long term mathematical and overall academic success as indicated by previous research. Likewise, the findings yielded noteworthy results including the vast similarities in the Chinese- and English-speaking parental perceptions of their children’s mathematical abilities, despite the drastic differences in numerical knowledge displayed by the students. However, in addition to the significant findings gathered within this study’s unique international school context, overall, this thesis confirms existing research that supports the notion that it is likely a combination of factors that contribute to the mathematical achievement gap between Asian and Western students. Based on the findings and confirmations accumulated through this research study, recommendations for future research within international school settings with diverse populations is suggested.
... The questionnaire has a widely accepted data collection technique for conducting surveys either analytical nor descriptive. Moreover, it enhances confidentiality, facilitates analysis and saves resources [219] as cited in [220]. ...
Thesis
Sustainability is becoming essential in the construction supply chain. Because applying the social pillar of sustainability is considered a new trend to research in academia, construction organizations need help to select the suppliers based on social sustainability which has not oftentimes applicable yet. The research proposes a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) model for social supplier selection which is beneficial for sustainable construction projects. This model is developed using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) based on the socially sustainable attributes which are associated with the wellbeing of the society and the future generation. Furthermore, the socially sustainable criteria are gathered from the literature and have been proposed as a form of analytical hierarchy. Moreover, the model analysis was adopted through interviews with professional experts to define the weight of criteria. Also, the computational model was carried out through the application of a case study to point out the optimum supplier who has a positive impact on sustainable construction projects development and society. Afterwards, the model is validated and a sensitivity analysis is conducted to strengthen the results.
... The motive to use questionnaire is the ability to reach a large target group in a practical and efficient way. A pilot study was used to test the quality, clarity, time scale and bias of the questionnaire as pointed by Naoum (2002).The researchers further considered simple random sampling technique in which each individual of the population has equal chance or probability of selection; to this end a total of two hundred and fourty (240) questionnaires were distributed to represent the entirety of the service firms population. The reliability test of the instrument was conducted through the test re-test reliability approach which yielded r = 0.81 and internal consistency was measured by Cronbach Alpha of 0.854. ...
Article
International Corporations globally are seeking ways of being ahead of other competitors in the industry of operations. Companies ranging from production to service firms in globally strive harder to meet the challenges posed to them by environmental changes. Also the consulting industry is an integral part of service industry due to the sum they contribute to the growth of the economy. The study tried to situate positions whether organizational learning could serve as a strategic tool for enhancing organizational performance as regards employee commitment and organizational competitiveness. 240 copies of questionnaire were administered to selected international audit service firms considered for the study in Nigeria to get primary data that treated appropriate research questions and hypotheses were tested accordingly. The study found that opportunity for individual learning makes employees in the global firms to be committed and that organizational conditioning has significant effect on competiveness. The study recommends that international service firms should endeavour to direct more resources to the area of organizational learning in order for them to be able to achieve better global industry relevance.
... The qualitative research method that is used in this paper was chosen as one of the main research methods [16]; compared with other methods, it is faster and more creative [17]. A questionnaire, as one kind of qualitative research method, is a widely used and useful instrument for collecting information, and it is comparatively straightforward to analyze [18]. ...
Article
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The recovery rate of construction materials is only 5% in China, which will lead to environmental and economic problems. Researchers from other countries have recognized the potential of building information modelling (BIM) in optimizing construction material recycling. However, previous research did not take the whole life cycle into consideration and was not practical enough. In this research, a questionnaire was conducted to find out how construction waste is disposed of in construction projects. Then, the existing research results were analyzed to find out how to apply BIM in the whole-life-cycle disposal of construction materials. According to the results of the questionnaire, landfill is the most common way to dispose of construction materials in China; besides this, almost no construction projects use BIM in material recycling. Hence, a BIM-based dynamic recycling model is proposed. Information management of materials, demolition planning, and BIM were all combined in this model for the purpose of optimizing the application of BIM, thus developing a waste material disposal system to achieve higher recovery rates and sustainability. More positive measures should be taken to deal with the problem of construction waste; if not, more environmental and economic problems will follow.
... The numerical rating scale (5-point Likert scale) was picked to structure the inquiries of the survey with some basic arrangements of response characterizations called quantifiers (they reflect the power of the specific judgment included) (Naoum, 2012). Those quantifiers were utilized to encourage grasping as appeared in Table (3.1). ...
Thesis
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Background and Problem: The Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry is viewed jointly of the most sectors that contribute unquestionably to the Palestinian economy but it now suffers from many issues one of them no adoption for new innovation like Building Information Modelling (BIM) which has as of late achieved far reaching consideration in the AEC industry. BIM has been recommended by many experts also specialists as the global solution to deal with the wasteful aspects in the AEC industry. In many cases of various countries, potential advantages also the competitive have been registered. Be that as it may, notwithstanding the advantages and possibilities of BIM innovation, it isn't applied in the AEC industry in Palestine simply like numerous different areas of the world. Consequently, the motivation behind this research was to build up a reasonable comprehension about BIM for recognizing the various factors that give valuable information to consider adopting BIM innovation by the professionals in the AEC industry in Palestine. This goal has been finished by accomplishing two main objectives. Aim and Objectives: The Aim of this research is to understand the contribution of BIM in enhancing the capabilities of Project Managers (PMs) in applying knowledge areas in the AEC industry in Palestine. Also, the objectives: To demonstrate to what extent the knowledge areas of project management are applied in the AEC industry in Palestine and to investigate and rank the impacts of BIM on the application of knowledge areas in the AEC industry in Palestine. Methodology: A quantitative survey was utilized in the study. Three primary steps were utilized to reach to the last correction of the questionnaire: (1) Face validity by exhibiting the questionnaire to 6specialists in the fields of the AEC industry and Statistics in Palestine (Gaza Strip and West bank), (2) pre-testing the questionnaire in two phases with 6 individuals who exemplify the target group, which included the professionals in the AEC industry in Gaza strip in Palestine, and (3) a Pilot study was directed by circulating 30 copies of the questionnaire to respondents from the target group and analyzing them for testing the statistical validity and reliability. After piloting, the questionnaire was embraced and was dispersed to the entire sample (convenience sample) from the target group. 80 copies of the questionnaire were dispersed, and 71 copies of the questionnaire were gotten from the respondents with a response rate = 88.8%. To draw meaningful results, the gathered information has been analyzed by utilizing the quantitative data analysis techniques (which include the RII, Pearson correlation analysis, and others) through the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) IBM version 22. Results and Findings: The study results based on the first objective that the 11- knowledge area sorted as applied and not applied in AEC industry in Palestine for that cost management (CM) as first the respondents agreed that this knowledge area applied also time management (TM), resource management (REM), procurement management (PROM), scope management (SCM), stakeholders management (STM), integration management (IM), quality management (QM) and communication management (COM) but in the contrast risk management (RM) are not applied on another hand safety management (SM) the respondents differ equally between applied or not. But based on the second objective the results are as following: in this side the study search about the agree and disagree of the respondents if BIM enhancing the knowledge areas or not for that starting with CM, BIM was essential for improving applying this knowledge and in the rest knowledges TM, REM, PROM, SCM, STM, IM, QM, COM, RM and SM . At long last, this study offered a lot of suggestions and recommendations for future researchers.
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