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Thi-Qar Medical Journal (TQMJ): Vol( 1); NO( 1); 2007(1-12)
١
Effect of Royal Jelly on male Infertility
Ali E. Al-Sanafi*, Safaa.A. Mohssin**, Senan M. Abdulla***
Abstract
Male infertility may occur due to different causes, therefore , different
therapeutic approaches have been applied in order to improve the ability of
men to get children . Semen analysis is used to determine the fertility
potential in males, but the occurrence of pregnancy is the evidence of sperm
ability for fertilization. Although male fertility is affected by food and
nutrients, but little attention is paid for the use of Royal Jelly and no
previous studies on the use of Royal Jelly in the treatment of male
infertility. Eighty – three infertile men were treated with Royal Jelly,
twenty – two with 100mg Royal Jelly, twenty –one with 50mg Royal Jelly,
twenty with 25mg Royal Jelly and twenty with pure honey. Our study
showed that, the treatments were safe and there were no side effects. After
three months of treatment , the sperm active motility , testosterone level ,
Lutelizing hormones level , sluggishly motile sperm and intercourse / week
increased significantly in infertile men treated with Royal Jelly , while
sperm count and FSH level increased not significantly . On the basis of
results, Royal Jelly is safe and effective in the treatment of male infertility.
Key words: Royal Jelly, male infertility ﺔــــﺻﻼﺨﻟا
لﺎﺟﺮﻟا ةرﺪﻗ ﻦﯿﺴﺤﺘﻟ مﺪﺨﺘﺴﺗ ةﺪﯾﺪﻋ ﺔﯿﺟﻼﻋ ﺞھﺎﻨﻣ نﺄﻓ ﻚﻟﺬﻟو ةﺪﯾﺪﻋ بﺎﺒﺳﻷ رﻮﻛﺬﻟا ىﺪﻟ ﻢﻘﻌﻟا ثﺪﺤﯾ
لﺎﻔطﻷا بﺎﺠﻧإ ﻰﻠﻋ، لﻮﺼﺣ ﻦﻜﻟو رﻮﻛﺬﻟا ﻲﻓ بﺎﺼﺧﻹا ﻰﻠﻋ ةرﺪﻘﻟا ﺪﯾﺪﺤﺘﻟ يﺮﺠﯾ ﻲﻨﻤﻟا ﻞﯿﻠﺤﺗ نإ
ﺑﻮﺼﺧ نا ﻦﻣ ﻢﻏﺮﻟﺎﺑو ، بﺎﺼﺧﻹا ﻰﻠﻋ ﻦﻣﺎﯿﺤﻟا ةرﺪﻗ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻞﯿﻟﺪﻟا ﻮھ ﻞﻤﺤﻟا ﻦﻜﻟو ءاﺬﻐﻟﺎﺑ ﺮﺛﺄﺘﺗ رﻮﻛﺬﻟا ﺔ
ﻲﻓ ﻲﻜﻠﻤﻟا ءاﺬﻐﻟا ماﺪﺨﺘﺳا ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻘﺑﺎﺳ تﺎﺳارد ﺪﺟﻮﺗ ﻻو ﻲﻜﻠﻤﻟا ءاﺬﻐﻟا ﺮﯿﺛﺄﺗ ﺔﺳارﺪﺑ ﻞﯿﻠﻗ مﺎﻤﺘھا كﺎﻨھ
ﻦﯾﺬﻟا ﻢﻘﻌﻟﺎﺑ ﻦﯿﺑﺎﺼﻤﻟا رﻮﻛﺬﻟا جﻼﻋ ﺖﻨﻤﻀﺗ ﺔﯿﻟﺎﺤﻟا ﺔﺳارﺪﻟا نﺄﻓ اﺬﮭﻟ لﺎﺟﺮﻟا ﺪﻨﻋ ﻢﻘﻌﻟا جﻼﻋ
ﺖﯾﺮﻜﺗ ﻲﻓ ﻢﻘﻌﻟا ةدﺎﯿﻋ نﻮﻌﺟاﺮﯾ٨٣ﻋ ﻢﯿﻘﻋ ﺮﻛذ ﻢﮭﻨﻣ ﻲﻜﻠﻤﻟا ءاﺬﻐﻟﺎﺑ اﻮﺠﻟﻮ٢٢ ﺞﻟﻮﻋ ﻢﯿﻘﻋ ﺮﻛذ
ﺔﻋﺮﺠﺑ١٠٠ ، ﻲﻜﻠﻣ ءاﺬﻏ ﻢﻐﻠﻣ٢١ ﺔﻋﺮﺠﺑ ﺞﻟﻮﻋ ﻢﯿﻘﻋ ﺮﻛذ٥٠ ، ﻲﻜﻠﻣ ءاﺬﻏ ﻢﻐﻠﻣ٢٠ ﻢﯿﻘﻋ ﺮﻛذ
ﺔﻋﺮﺠﺑ٢٥ و ﻲﻜﻠﻣ ءاﺬﻏ ﻢﻐﻠﻣ٢٠ ﺔﻋﺮﺠﺑ ﺞﻟﻮﻋ ﻢﯿﻘﻋ ﺮﻛذ١٠ نا ﺎﻨﺘﺳارد تﺮﮭظأ ﺪﻘﻟ ﻲﻘﻧ ﻞﺴﻋ ﻢﻏ
ﺔﯿﺒﻧﺎﺟ ضاﺮﻋأ يأ ﻞﺠﺴﺗ ﻢﻟو ﺔﻨﯿﻣأ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ تﺎﺟﻼﻌﻟا تاذ ﻒﻄﻨﻟا ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ، ﺮﮭﺷأ ﺔﺛﻼﺛ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﻤﮭﻣ
نﻮﻣﺮھ ىﻮﺘﺴﻣو يﻮﺼﺨﻟا نوﺮﯿﺘﺳﻮﺘﺴﺘﻟا نﻮﻣﺮھ ىﻮﺘﺴﻣو ﺔﻟﺎﻌﻔﻟا ﺔﻛﺮﺤﻟاLH ﺔﻛﺮﺤﻟا تاذ ﻒﻄﻨﻟاو
ءاﺬﻐﻟﺎﺑ ﻦﯿﺠﻟﺎﻌﻤﻟا ﻰﺿﺮﻤﻟا ﻲﻓ ﺎﯿﺋﺎﺼﺣإ ظﻮﺤﻠﻣ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ تداز ﺔﯿﻋﻮﺒﺳﻷا عﺎﻤﺠﻟا تاﺮﻣ دﺪﻋو ﺔﺌﯿﻄﺒﻟا
نﻮﻣﺮھ ىﻮﺘﺴﻣو ﻒﻄﻨﻟا دﺪﻋ ﺎﻤﻨﯿﺑ ﻲﻜﻠﻤﻟاFSH ﻢﻟ ﺎﯿﺋﺎﺼﺣإ ظﻮﺤﻠﻣ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ ﺪﯾﺰﺗ
لﺎﺟﺮﻟا ىﺪﻟ ﻢﻘﻌﻟا جﻼﻋ ﻲﻓ لﺎﻌﻓو ﻦﯿﻣأ ﻲﻜﻠﻤﻟا ءاﺬﻐﻟا نﺄﻓ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟا ﻰﻠﻋ ًاءﺎﻨﺑو
*Dept of Pharmacology , Thi qar College of Medicine
**Dept of Surgery Tikrit College of Medicine
***Tikrit College of Pharmacy
Effect of Royal Jelly on male Infertility
٢
Introduction
Male infertility is defined as
inability of the wife to conceive
after one year of continuous
unprotected inter course (1).
Several etiological factors in male
infertility have been identified.
Good nutrition also plays a helpful
role in the continuous production
of sperm cells (2).
Royal Jelly is a cream
product secreted by young nurse
worker bees for feeding to the
queen, queen larvae and other
young larvae. It is totally
synthesized by the bees in the
hypopharangeal and mandibular
glands and is derived from the
proteins of other nutrients in the
pollen ingested by the secreting
bees. Royal Jelly consists of an
emulsion of proteins, sugars of
lipid in water base (3). All larvae
are fed Royal Jelly for three days,
but the queen bee eats royal Jelly
exclusively, which makes her
fertile and able to live for five to
seven years. In contrast, worker
bees are sterile and live for seven
to eight weeks. Royal Jelly has a
reputation for maintaining
youthfulness in humans (4).
Fresh royal Jelly contains
glycolic acid which is mono
unsaturated fatty acid that
protects skin from dehydration (5).
Royal Jelly contains also B- plex
vitamins , pantothenic acid ( B5),
pyridoxine (B6) , acetylcholine and
vitamins (A,C,D and B), minerals ,
enzymes , hormones , 29 amino
acid and antibiotic components .
It has abundance of nucleic acid
(DNA, RNA). Gelatin which is one
of the precursors of collagen,
which is a powerful anti-aging
element that helps preserve the
youth of the body (6) .
Royal Jelly is a hormonal
stimulant of help to keeps
hormones of metabolic function
regulated and normalized and it is
an energy enhancer for all ages
making it in valuable in treating
chronic fatigue of sexual problems
(7). It also has a yeast inhibiting
function, which may prevent
conditions such thrush athlete’s
foot. It is also used to treat
muscular dystrophy. It also is
boosting the body’s resistance to
the harmful side effect of chemo
therapy and radiotherapy.
Royal Jelly also contains the
gamma globulin, which helps the
immune system to fight infections.
A review of controlled studies
concluded that in humans (50-100)
mg Royal Jelly /day decrease total
cholesterol by 14% of
Triglycerides by 10 %(8).
Patients and Methods
This study is a prospective one .
It was conducted on 102 infertile
men, with age range from 20-50
years, from November 2003- May
2004. The patients included where
attends the clinic of urologist .
Nineteen patient were excluded
mainly because of poor
cooperation, leaving "eighty
three" patient who were included
in this study.
Firstly,the gynecological
examination of female partner was
done to exclude any female
partner cause of infertility . Then,
Thi-Qar Medical Journal (TQMJ): Vol( 1); NO( 1); 2007(1-12)
٣
males examined by a specialist for
complete evaluation to exclude
testicular abnormalities A
questionnaire was prepared to
obtain the information from the
infertile men before semen
analysis.
Seminal fluid analysis:
At least 2-3 semen analysis was
done during 3 months of treatment
for each patient before making
final conclusion regarding the base
line sperm parameter.
The semen was collected in the
laboratory by masturbation after
3-5 days of sexual abstinence. The
ejaculate was deposited in a sterile
plastic container.
The seminal fluid was examined
according to WHO (world health
organization) (9), criteria of
seminal fluid analysis:
1- Gross examination:
Liquefaction time, volume,
colour, viscosity (assessed by
slowly pouring the specimen from
the collection bottle into a small
glass- measuring graduate) of PH.
2- Microscopic examination:
Include assessment of motile
and non motile spermatozoa, the
degree of motility, sperm count of
concentration, the percentage and
type of morphologically abnormal
spermatozoa, agglutination and
the identification of other cell type
within the ejaculate .
Hormonal analysis:
The hormonal evaluation was
done by "Al- Bab-Al- Sharqi"
private clinical laboratory by
radio immunoassay using special
bio kit for ( FSH , LH and
testosterone ) . The procedure
mentioned by the company ( CIS
bio inter national ) was followed .
The treatment:
Depending on the previous
investigation of our 83 infertile
men were treated as following:
First group: Twenty two infertile
men were treated with royal Jelly
"100mg" in (10gm) i.e. (one
teaspoonful) honey once daily at
night.
Second group: Twenty one
infertile men were treated with
royal Jelly (50 mg) in (10gm)
honey once daily at night.
Third group: Twenty infertile men
were treated with royal Jelly (25
mg) in (10gm) honey once daily at
night.
Fourth group: Twenty infertile
men were treated with pure honey
(10gm) once daily at night. Any
side effects that appeared during
treatment or partners conceiving
throughout and after the duration
of treatment were recorded.
During the period of the treatment
each patient was advised to attend
the clinic weekly
Statistical analysis:
Arithmetic mean (X) and standard
deviation (SD) were calculated for
all parameters (before and after
treatment) for each group. The
results were expressed as SD.
All data were analyzed by paired
t-test to determine the significance
Results:
Eighty- three patients were
participating in this study . The
occupations of them were soldiers(
13.25% ) workers ( 15.66% ) ,
Effect of Royal Jelly on male Infertility
٤
builders ( 7.22% ) carpenters
(4.8% ) teachers ( 8.43%) ,
merchants ( 10.84% ) , doctors
(2.4%) , farmers (19.27%) and
drivers ( 18.07% ) .
After (3) months of treatment
with Royal Jelly, the results were
follow:
A- Semen analysis:
1Sperm count: Sperm count
was slightly insignificantly
increased in all groups treated by
royal Jelly. Pure honey in a dose of
10gm / day also exerted no
significant effects on sperm count
of there were no significant
variations between the effect of
honey and Royal Jelly (table I) .
2- Active sperm motility:
Active sperm motility was
significantly ( P < 0.01) increased
in patients treated by 25mg, 50mg
and 100mg / day of royal Jelly for
three months . Honey in a dose of
10 g/day for three months exerted
no significant effects on sperm
motility as shown in table number
(II).
3- Sluggishly motile sperms:
Sluggish sperm percentage was
significantly increased ( P < 0.01)
in patients treated by royal Jelly in
a dose and 25mg , 50mg of 100 mg
day for 3 months . Honey also
significantly increased sluggish
sperm percentage when used in a
dose of 10g for 3 months ( P
<0.05), as shown in table number
(III) .
B- Hormonal analysis:
1- Follicular stimulating hormone
Statistical analysis showed that
neither the effect of honey nor that
of Royal Jelly on serum FSH was
statistically significant as showing
in table (IV).
2- L.H. :
Serum LH level was increased
significant by ( P < 0.01) when
infertile men treated by Royal
Jelly in a dose of 25mg for 3
months ( 20.3%). However no
significant changes seen with other
doses of Royal Jelly nor pure
honey as shown in table (V).
3- Testosterone hormone:
Serum testosterone level was
increased significantly ( P < 0.01)
when infertile men were treated by
Royal Jelly in a dose of 25mg for 3
months by a percentage of
22.01% . However no significant
changes seen in other groups as
shown in table number (VI) .
C- Sexual desire (Inter course /
week ) :
The sexual intercourse / week
was significantly increase in
infertile males treated by 25mg /
day and 50mg / day of Royal Jelly
( P < 0.01) and further increased
when the dose of Royal Jelly was
increased to 100mg / day ( P <0.01)
also increased in honey treated
group ( P <0.05) . Royal Jelly was
significantly more effective ( P
<0.01) increasing sexual desire in
comparisom with honey as shown
in table number (VII) .
Thi-Qar Medical Journal (TQMJ): Vol( 1); NO( 1); 2007(1-12)
٥
Discussion
Royal Jelly is a thick ,
extremely nutrition milky white ,
creamy liquid secreted by the
hypopharyngeal glands of the
nurse bees. Queen bees live
exclusively on royal Jelly and it
accounts for their incredible size ,
they are ( 42%) larger of their
weight ( 60%) more than the
worker bee (10) .
Amazingly, they live ( 40)
times longer than worker bee,
seven years as compared to seven
weeks and Queen bees will
produce ( 2000) eggs /day (10).
Royal Jelly belongs to a
group of products generically
described as dietary supplements
(11) , i.e. to supplement the normal
diet with substances in which it
might be deficient .
This study was designedto
investigate the efficacy of royal
Jelly in treatment of male
infertility , because royal Jelly is
known as the diet which increase
size , weight of bees and their
fertility (10) , furthermore , it
traditionally known to prolong
youthfulness , enhance sexual
desire , treatment of impotence
and infertility (11,12).
At first , we will discuss the
hormonal changes which can lead
to understanding of the sperm
count and motility changes .
This study show that there
was no significant changes with
FSH level but no significant
increase in L.H level and
testosterone level after treatment
and this can be attributed to many
factors L.H. level increased
attributed to central effect of
Royal Jelly . Royal Jelly contains
acetylcholine (1 mg /gr) (12). Some
studies confirmed that a
cetycholine helps to stimulate "
HCG" secretion at hypothalamus
level(13). Which in dum stimulate
"LH" secretion but not " FSH"
because " FSH stimulation needs a
level more than that required for
LH stimulation (14) .
Accordingly, L.H. is responsible
for the stimulation of testosterone
secretion from interstitial cells (
cells of Lydig )(15) . Adding to that,
testosterone could be elevated as a
result of exogenous testosterone
supplied by Royal Jelly , as it
contain testosterone in the amount
of 0.012 g/g fresh weight .(16) It
could also be attributed to zinc
found in Royal Jelly . So zinc
deficiency causes low testosterone
level while zinc supplementation
can raise testosterone level and
help increase fertility (17,18).
This study also showed that
Royal Jelly was slightly increased
in sperm count . This effect could
be attributed to increase
testosterone level significantly but
not FSH . Testosterone is essential
for spermatogenesis (15).
Royal Jelly also contains L-
arginine and carnitine amino acids
which were essential for
spermatogenesis (19) .
Zinc could participate in
increasing sperm count and there
are positive relationships between
sperm density and zinc level in
Effect of Royal Jelly on male Infertility
٦
fertile and infertile men(
19,20,21) .
On the other hand our study
showed an increase in
spermatocyte in Royal Jelly-
treated men . This result could be
attributed to elevation of
testosterone but not FSH .
Testosterone is responsible for
spermatogenesis ( division ) , while
FSH is responsible for
spermatogenesis ( maturation ) ,
therefore, appearance of
spermatocytes in seminal analysis
could reflect high level of
testosterone but not enough FSH
hormone to complete maturation
(15).Royal Jelly also significantly
enhanced semen motility and this
is can be explained by the increase
in testosterone level which is
responsible for motility of the
sperms . Furthermore Royal Jelly
enhances the production of
seminal fluid from secondary sex
organs , which play the main role
in the viability and motility of the
sperm through the nutritional
supply (22) .
In addition zinc content of
royal Jelly could play a role in
enhancement of sperm motility (23,
24).
Sexual intercourse was also
increased in Royal Jelly- treated
infertile men . This result could be
attributed to the elevated
testosterone level , the hormone
that stimulates male libido (25).
Furthermore Vit. C, Vit. B
and arginine were increase libido
and that was reflected by the
increase the frequency of sexual
intercourse ( 16,21,28).
Thi-Qar Medical Journal (TQMJ): Vol( 1); NO( 1); 2007(1-12)
٧
Table (I) : The effect of Royal Jelly on sperm count in different doses
for 3 months
Semen
parameter Treatment
with royal
Jelly
Before
treatment
X ± SD
After
treatment
X ± SD
P value Percentage
of change
Active
sperm
motility
%
1
st
group
100 mg 52.4 ± 29.3 55.3 ± 27.8 N.S + 5.24%
2
nd
group
50 mg 50.7 ± 30.6 54.3 ± 30.5 N.S + 6.62%
3
rd
group
25 mg 45 ±25.2 45.6 ± 26.6 N.S +1.31%
4
th
10g pure
honey 39.8 ± 23.7 40.8 ± 24.3 N.S +2.45%
N.S : not significant .
Table (II): The effect of Royal Jelly on active sperm motility.
Semen
paramet
er
Treatment with
royal Jelly Before
treatment
X ± SD
After
treatment
X ± SD
P value Percentage
of change
Active
sperm
motility
%
1
st
group 100
mg 23.7± 13.4 35.2 ± 20.2 P <
0.01 + 32.60%
2
nd
group 50
mg 30± 14.1 41.2 ± 17.6 P <
0.01 + 27.18%
3
rd
group 25
mg 29.1 ± 13.9 39.2 ± 17.6 P <
0.01 + 25.76%
4
th
10g pure
honey 27 ± 12.3 30.5 ± 14 N.S + 11.47%
P value : level of significance between before and after treatment
,N.S : not significant .
Table (III): Effect of Royal Jelly on sluggishly motile sperm
percentage .
Semen
parameter Treatment
with royal
Jelly
Before
treatment
X ± SD
After
treatment
X ± SD
P
value Percentage of
change
Sluggishly
motile %
1
st
group 100
mg 9.41 ± 5.65 13.77 ±
5.46 P <
0.01 + 31.60%
2
nd
group 50
50 mg 12.86 ± 7.23 17.62 ±
7.52 P <
0.01 + 27.00%
3
rd
group 25
25 mg 18.2 ± 6.85 22.50 ±
6.79 P <
0.01 + 19.10%
4
th
10g pure
honey 9.5 ± 4.84 12.50 ±
5.26 P <
0.05 + 24.00%
Effect of Royal Jelly on male Infertility
٨
P value: level of significance between before and after treatment
Table (IV): Serum FSH level before and after 3 months treatment
with Royal Jelly.
Hormonal
level Treatment
with royal
Jelly
Before
treatment
X ± SD
After
treatment
X ± SD
P
value Percentage of
change
FSH
mlU/ ml
1
st
group 100
mg 4.73 ± 2.86 5.05 ± 2.86 N.S + 6.33%
2
nd
group 50
mg 4.6 ± 1.77 5.14 ± 1.91 N.S + 10.5%
3
rd
group 25
mg 5.73 ± 2.17 6.04 ± 1.96 N.S + 5.13%
4
th
10g pure
honey 5.93 ± 5.14 6.55 ± 4.8 N.S + 9.46%
P value : level of significance between before and after treatment
,N.S : not significant .
Table (V): of Royal Jelly on serum LH level before and after 3
months of treatment.
Hormonal
level Treatment with
royal Jelly Before
treatment
X ± SD
After
treatment
X ± SD
P value Percentage
of change
LH
mlU/ml
1
st
group 100 mg 3.7 ± 1.13 4.41 ± 1.14 P <
0.01 + 16%
2
nd
group 50 50
mg 4.28 ± 1.74 5.32 ± 1.47 P <
0.01 + 20.48%
3
rd
group 25 25
mg 4.3 ± 1.54 5.4 ± 2 P <
0.01 + 20.3%
4
th
10g
pure honey 5.25 ± 2.58 5 ± 2.04 N.S - 5%
P value : level of significance between before and after treatment ,
N.S : not significant .
Thi-Qar Medical Journal (TQMJ): Vol( 1); NO( 1); 2007(1-12)
٩
Table (VI): Effect of Royal Jelly on the serum Testosterone level
before and after 3 months of treatment.
Hormonal
level Treatment
with royal
Jelly
Before
treatment
X ± SD
After
treatment
X ± SD
P
value Percentage
of change
Testosterone
ng/ml
1
group 100
mg 4.25 ± 1.64 5.45 ± 2.12 P <
0.01 + 22.01%
2
nd
group 50
50 mg 4.9 ± 1.8 6.11 ± 1.98 P <
0.01 + 19.80%
3
rd
group 25
25 mg 4.72 ± 1.77 5.93 ± 2.07 P <
0.01 + 20.40%
4
th
10g pure
honey 4.51 ± 1.85 4.92 ± 2014 N.S + 8.33%
P value : level of significance between before and after treatment
,N.S : not significant .
Table (VII): Effect of Royal Jelly on serum FSH level.
Treatment with
royal Jelly Before
treatment
X ± SD
After
treatment
X ± SD
P
value Percentage
of change
1
group 100 mg 2.59 ± 1.14 3.63 ± 0.90 P <
0.01 + 28.76 %
2
nd
group 50 50 mg 2.86 ± 1.06 3.61 ± 0.97 P <
0.01 + 20.97%
3
rd
group 25 25 mg 2.70 ± 1.17 3.35 ± 0.87 P <
0.01 + 19.40%
4
th
10g pure honey 2.80 ± .834 3.00 ± 0.64 P <
0.05 + 6.66%
Effect of Royal Jelly on male Infertility
١٠
References
1. Barnouti RN. Human semen and infertility . National
Publication and Distribution company . Baghdad , Iraq: 1993:
19-20 .
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species in semen of infertile patients : level of superoxide
dismutase and catalase like activities in seminal plasma and
spermatozoa. Int.J.Androl. 1993; 16:183-188 .
3. Bullock RJ.; p Rohan A.; and Straatmans JA. ( 1994) Fatal
Royal Jelly induced asthma.Med.J. Australia. 160-44 .
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Effect of Royal Jelly on male Infertility
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... Few human studies investigated the effect of royal jelly. For instance, Al-Sanafi et al. (2007) studied the effect of oral royal jelly on sexual hormones and sperm parameters in men, and reported that the quality of sperm parameters depends on the dose of royal jelly, as men who used a daily dose of 100 grams of the jelly experienced better results (26). Regarding the effect of royal jelly on the fertility rate of women with low-fertility husbands, a study by Abdelhafiz can be cited, which identified a significant difference between royal jelly and IUI in the treatment success rate, such that pregnancy rate was 8.3% in the royal jelly group and 2.6% in the IUI. ...
... Few human studies investigated the effect of royal jelly. For instance, Al-Sanafi et al. (2007) studied the effect of oral royal jelly on sexual hormones and sperm parameters in men, and reported that the quality of sperm parameters depends on the dose of royal jelly, as men who used a daily dose of 100 grams of the jelly experienced better results (26). Regarding the effect of royal jelly on the fertility rate of women with low-fertility husbands, a study by Abdelhafiz can be cited, which identified a significant difference between royal jelly and IUI in the treatment success rate, such that pregnancy rate was 8.3% in the royal jelly group and 2.6% in the IUI. ...
Article
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Background: The popularity of complementary and alternative medicine is on the rise. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the effect of vaginal royal jelly with intrauterine insemination (IUI) on sub-fertility in men. Methods: The sample size was estimated as 27 subjects, based on a study power and confidence interval of 80% and 95%, respectively. The study was conducted in Mashhad, in the Northeast of Iran, from 2015 to 2017. Men with sub-fertility (asthenozoospermia, defined as total sperm motility below 40% and sperm concentration below 20 million/mL), with healthy wives, based on salpingography, participated in this study. Patients were assigned to the royal jelly group, which received 5 grams of royal jelly, and the IUI group, which received 75 units of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) from the second day of the menstrual cycle. Semen samples were collected in sterile plastic caps after 72 hours of sexual abstinence by normal sexual intercourse. Samples were prepared using the standard swim-up technique. Results: This study showed no significant difference between groups concerning spousal age, occupation, education (husband and wife), and social class (P = 0.745). Also, no significant difference was found between groups concerning fertility success rate (P = 0.573). Conclusions: Based on similar treatment success rates of royal jelly and IUI, it seems that royal jelly can be considered as an alternative to IUI.
... Protective effect Protect it from photo-aging by improving collagen production via up-regulation of TGF-β1 expression [105] RJ (Animals and humans) Effect on fertility Increase sperm motility, luteinizing hormones, and testosterone levels [81,[106][107][108] ERJ (Humans) Anti-allergic Significantly reducing IgE-binding capacity of blood [109] Note: RJ (royal jelly); RJPs (purified royal jelly peptides); RJPH (royal jelly protein hydrolysate); MRJP-4 (ajor royal jelly protein 4); 10-HDA (10-hydroxydecanoic acid); 10H∆2DA (10-hydroxy-Delta-2-decenoic acid); 3,10-DDA (3,10-dihydroxy-decanoic acid); MDA (malondialdehyde); GPx (Glutathione peroxidase); SOD (superoxide dismutase); IFN-Υ (interferon-gamma); IL-4 (interleukin-4); TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor); BCL2: (B-cell lymphoma 2); BAX (BCL2 associated X protein); NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2); 2-AF (2-aminofluorene); BACE1 (β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzymes), and IgE (Immunoglobulin E). ...
... RJ administration significantly increases sperm active motility, luteinizing hormones, and testosterone levels in infertile men [106]. Long-term feeding of RJ increases the testosterone levels and spermatogenesis by stopping the age-associated decline in testicular function of male hamsters [108]. ...
Article
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Royal jelly (RJ) is a yellowish-white and acidic secretion of hypopharyngeal and mandibular glands of nurse bees used to feed young worker larvae during the first three days and the entire life of queen bees. RJ is one of the most appreciated and valued natural product which has been mainly used in traditional medicines, health foods, and cosmetics for a long time in different parts of the world. It is also the most studied bee product, aimed at unravelling its bioactivities, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-aging, immunomodulatory, and general tonic action against laboratory animals, microbial organisms, farm animals, and clinical trials. It is commonly used to supplement various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, and Alzheimer's disease. Here, we highlight the recent research advances on the main bioactive compounds of RJ, such as proteins, peptides, fatty acids, and phenolics, for a comprehensive understanding of the biochemistry, biological, and pharmaceutical responses to human health promotion and life benefits. This is potentially important to gain novel insight into the biological and pharmaceutical properties of RJ.
... Moreover, RJ beneficial effects on hormonal treatments are not only restricted to women: further, it is beneficial for treating male infertility. Al-Sanafi et al., (2007) conducted a clinical trial with 83 infertile patients, verifying that RJ increased sperm motility and testosterone levels. Miyata et al. (2020) investigated the effects of RJ ingested by 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma (16 patients treated with RJ and 17 with a placebo), observing decreased levels of cytokines (TNF-α and TGF-β), which correlate with malignant transformation and occurrence of adverse events caused by anti-cancer therapies. ...
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Background Humanity has benefited from bee products over the centuries for treating and preventing various illnesses, and apitherapy has been employed in several countries as a complementary medicine. This review aimed to discuss scientific research and clinical trials using bee products and their relationship with apitherapy. Methods Scientific researches based on studies carried out in vitro using different cell cultures, and in vivo studying mice or other experimental animals are discussed. Clinical trials using bee products are also documented. Results The most common applications of bee products in apitherapy are presented, as well as cases of allergy to bee products and apitherapy for treating allergies. Standardization of bee products and their use in research and apitherapy are discussed. Conclusion Apitherapy is practiced in some parts of the world, bringing benefits for healthy individuals and patients, with no clear consensus on its application according to the world regions or a prevalent use of bee product and treated disease. Different recommendations regarding the use of bee products are found and people ingest different amounts of bee products once or several times a day. Although we have advanced a lot about the knowledge of bee products, it is imperative to exploit their potential and standardize their use, communicating the results in scientific and alternative events to reinforce the exchange of information between beekeepers, researchers, apitherapists, nutritionists, physicians, sellers and consumers of bee products. If not, we will always be working separately, without complementing our expertise.
... The enhancement in the level of testosterone may be attributed to the role of RJ in increasing the concentration of LH, which is considered the most important factor for stimulation secretion of testosterone from interstitial cells (56). Furthermore, Al-Sanafi et al. (57) demonstrated that testosterone could be increased as a result of exogenous supplementation through RJ. Furthermore the RJ contains this hormone in amount 0.20 mg/100 fresh weight (58). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Aluminum (Al) metal is abundantly present in the earth's crust. Aluminum is present in many manufactured foods and medicines and is also added to drinking water during purification purposes, and this has allowed its easy access into the body. Aluminum has been proposed as an environmental factor that may contribute to some diseases. Different forms of aluminum are environmental xenobiotics that induce free radical-mediated cytotoxicity and reproductive toxicity. Royal jelly is a substance produced by worker honey bees. If fed to an ordinary female bee in the larval stage, royal jelly will transform her into the queen bee. Scientific research on royal jelly has revealed that it benefits sexual performance. Methods and Materials: Fifty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were randomly divided into five groups. The first group served as control group (negative group). The second group was received 20 mg AlCl3 /kg body weight (positive group). The other groups were received the same dose of AlCl3 and subdivided into three groups according to the concentration of royal jelly (RJ). Three concentrations of RJ were investigated (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). All treated doses were given orally by gastric intubation and the experiment was continued daily for 60 days. This study included the studying the sperm parameters in tail of epididymis, measuring the values of some hormones including testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and estimate the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood serum. Results: The supplementation of aluminum-treated animals with the royal jelly resulted in an appreciable improvement in all the studied reproductive parameters, hormonal level and MDA. Moreover, increasing degree of amelioration was in correlation with the amount of progressive concentrations of royal jelly. Conclusion: This study showed that RJ has alleviating effect and protective role in the condition of aluminium-induced oxidative stress.
... By these evidences researchers are not only worked in animals, with the positive impact of RJ tried for infertility issue in humans. Al-Snafi et al. [46] had worked on effect of RJ on male infertility. In their study used 83 infertile men and treated with RJ in 10gm pure honey, in 1 st group treated with the 100mg concentration for 22 peoples, in 2 nd group treated 50mg concentration for 21 peoples, in 3 rd group treated 25mg concentration for 20 peoples and in 4 th group treated 10gm pure honey only for 20 peoples for 3 month duration. ...
Article
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Royal Jelly (RJ) is most wanted healthy food supplement that makes lots of health benefits. One of the benefits include that it can act as potent supplement for healthy egg to help women with infertility. This review is focused on the recent developments in use of RJ in the treatment of infertility and boon for them to give a dream child. The healthy egg is very phenomenal key factor for the in vitro fertilization to be successful in sexing with sperm. RJ is traditionally used as health supplement for infertility treatment from the ancient time in Indian traditional system. The recent literature revealed that, scientific and traditional findings are proven it RJ is one of the therapeutic molecule and act as a food supplements that can be used it in to improve egg cell physiology. Although, there is no clinical research studies have been reported yet on RJ. Hence, in this review explored the comprehensive report on health benefits of RJ and its impact on reproductive aspects in particular in egg development of women during ovulation. This article will be the key step to the researchers and scientists who are involved in searching alternative, cost effective and without side effect for treating infertility in global scenario.
... However, LH level was significantly lower in the T+200RJ group compared to the control group, which is in agreement with a previous study in which administration of myoinositol, an insulin sensitizer, in PCOS patients reduced LH level and LH/FSH ratio as well as improved menstrual cycle [60]. In contrast, in another study, LH level was significantly increased in infertile men treated with RJ [61]. Furthermore, in a study of male rats, supplementation of ofloxacin concomitant with RJ led to elevated level of LH [62]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Royal jelly (RJ) has been shown to contribute its positive effects upon imbalance in the reproductive system. However, it remains unknown as to whether RJ has an anti-androgenic effect on reproductive parameters in a polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) animal model. Composition of RJ was assessed by phytochemical screening and the LC–MS method. Forty immature female rats (3 weeks, 40–50 g) were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 per group), i.e., control, testosterone (T), T+100RJ (100 mg/kg/day), T+200RJ (200 mg/kg/day RJ), and T+400RJ (400 mg/kg/day RJ) groups. Hyperandrogenism was induced by daily subcutaneous injection of T propionate for 3 weeks, followed by oral RJ for 4 weeks. The T+200RJ group had a significantly higher follicle-stimulating hormone level, and significantly lower luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels in comparison to the T group. Malondialdehyde level and glutathione peroxidase activity were significantly lower, while total antioxidant capacity level was significantly higher in the T+200RJ group compared to the T group. Histologically, the T+200RJ group showed recovery of various stages of ovarian follicular development. RJ at 200 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks significantly improved reproductive parameters in PCOS rats partly due to its anti-androgenic effect through antioxidant action and probably due to modulation on estrogenic activity, which needs further study to evaluate its exact mechanism of action.
... ± 0.9) in pre-pubertal buck rabbits compared with the control group (70.0 ± 1.1). The motility of sperm was significantly augmented in patient males treated by 25, 50 or 100 mg/day of RJ (Al-Sanafi,Mohssin, & Abdulla, 2007). The improvement in motility of sperm may be due to the increase in the level of testosterone that is responsible for sperm motility. ...
Article
Royal jelly (RJ) is one of the furthermost valuable curative products mentioned by natural medicine scientists due to its promising medical and nutritional purposes. It possesses many impacts, including antioxidants, antimicrobial, antitumor, anti‐inflammatory and immunomodulatory functions in human and animal that benefit their health and welfare, resulting in its widespread use in medical and commercial products and healthy food. Recently, favourable functions of RJ on male fertility have been reported in different animals. According to earlier literatures, the level of RJ supplementation in animal diet ranged from 100 to 200 mg/kg. Oral exposure to RJ has been reported to have oestrogenic influences in the adult female rats. Also, RJ may be influential in improvement of pregnancy and lambing rates of ewes. Oral administration of RJ at 100 mg/kg diet before sexual maturity enhanced sexual behaviour and semen quality of male rabbits. Moreover, RJ administration (up to 400 mg/kg diet once weekly) for male rabbits exposed to heat stress can counteract “summer infertility” and improve physiological responses. Furthermore, supplementation of freezing extender media with 0.1 or 3% RJ had a protective influence on cryopreserved and chilled spermatozoa of buffalo and ram respectively. However, the high dose of RJ oral administration (800 mg/kg) by pubescent male rats for 1 month had an undesirable effect on the reproductive system; however, the somewhat unfavourable influences were mitigated by the discontinuation of the administration. This review shows the chemical composition, favourable applications and health benefits of RJ and its effects on reproductive aspects, semen quality and in vitro fertilization outcomes which are advantageous for scientists, researchers, nutritionists, physiologists, embryologists, pharmacists, veterinarians, pharmaceutical industries and animal's breeders.
... In another study, aluminum chloride (AlCl3) was administered to poisoned rats with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodothyronine (T 3 ), triiodothyronine/ T 4 ) and testosterone levels, and the use of royal jelly weakens these effects (Al-Eisa and Al-Nahari, 2017), while testicular oligospermine leads to the formation of hypoplasia, occluded blood vessels and exfoliation tubules, the use of royal weakens these effects. Royal jelly is a useful treatment for male adult rats receiving hydrogen peroxide (causing oxidative stress), especially on the number of spermatozoons, testosterone hormone level, live spermatozoons percentage and glutathione and malondialdehyde tissue test (Al-Sanafi et al., 2007;Hassan, 2009). It has also been reported that royal jelly may be an alternative for reproductive management which has been found to increase the rate of ovulation until the start of estrus (Al-Eisa and Al-Nahari, 2017; Sosa-Pérez et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
ABSTRACT: Bee products are used as supplements to provide nutrients in prevent or treatment of some health problems. Royal jelly has a rich nutrient contents in bee hive which protects and strengthens the health; compared to other bee products, it has a significant potential and effect. Because of its functional properties, royal jelly is very effective in accelerating the healing process in many diseases. The use of fresh royal jelly in our diets nowadays will help us to be healthy. This review explains the effects of royal jelly on health, animal trials, and clinical studies for human health. Healthy doses are recommended by apitherapist medical doctors based on clinical observation and personal experience on the doses of use of royal jelly on human health. The review also mentions the positive effects of royal jelly consumption in our daily diet. ÖZ: Arı ürünleri içerdiği besin maddeleri ile sağlık koruyucu ve destekleyici olarak kullanılmaktadır. Arı sütü; kovanın zengin besin içeriğine sahip, sağlık koruyucu ve güçlendirici ürünüdür ve diğer arı ürünleriyle karşılaştırıldığında önemli bir potansiyele ve etkinliğe sahiptir. Arı sütü fonksiyonel özellikleri nedeniyle, pek çok hastalıkta başarıyla iyileştirici özelliktedir. Günümüzde beslenmemizde taze arı sütünün kullanımı, vücudumuzun sağlıklı kalmasına yardımcı olmaktadır. Bu derlemede, arı sütünün hayvan deneylerinde ve insan sağlığında klinik çalışmalarda sağlık üzerine etkileri anlatılmıştır. İnsan sağlığında arı sütünün kullanımı ile ilgili doz önerileri özellikle apiterapist tıp hekimleri tarafından klinik gözlemlere ve kişisel deneyimlere dayalı olarak yapılmıştır. Günlük beslenmemizde arı sütü tüketiminin olumlu etkilerine de değinilmiştir.
... Royal jelly is safe and effective in the treatment of male infertility; after three months of treatment infertile men with RJ increased significantly sperm active motility and sperm concentration (Al-Sanafi et al., 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Honeybee products have positive effects on the reproductive performance of mammals. Many honeybee product constituents are biologically active, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antifungal, wound-healing, and cardio-protective properties. Honeybee products also improve male and female fertility rates by enhancing gamete cryopreservation, in vitro maturation and fertilization, and embryo development. Previously published studies confirmed their efficacy for alleviating reproductive toxicity caused by contaminants and lifestyle habits that impair overall health and well-being. However, high-dose oral administration of honeybee products may adversely affect the reproductive system, and unfavorable effects were alleviated by treatment cessation. For this reason, this review proposes that bioactive components from bee products can be used as a strategy for improving the reproductive performance and health of mammals
Article
A new flavonol glycoside, 7-O-methylherbacetin-3-O-sophoroside, has been characterized from Ranunculus sardous pollen, 8-O-methylherbacetin-3-O-sophoroside from Ulex europaeus pollen and 8-O-methylherbacetin8-O-glucoside from Raphanus raphanistrum pollen; all pollens were obtained from bee pollen. It is demonstrated that the unusual UV-visible absorption spectra of 7- and 8-O-methylherbacetin 3-O-glycosides can be used conveniently to distinguish these and their aglycones. The distribution of various flavonol glycosides in pollen is discussed in terms of its significance to the previously established role of flavonols in pollen germination. No evidence for taxa specificity of individual flavonol glycosides was found; however, a case is made for elevating the significance of flavonol glycosides, particularly the 2″-O-glucosides of flavonol-3-O-glycosides in stimulating pollen tube growth.
Article
The material consisted of ejaculates from 152 men who were consulting the laboratory for infertility control. The zinc content of ejaculates was determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Fertility was measured by conventional methods (morphology, motility and the concentration of spermatozoa). It was found that depressed sperm motility was correlated with a high zinc concentration.
Article
Low seminal plasma zinc is an indication of prostatic secretory dysfunction. We have identified a group of patients referred for infertility evaluation who demonstrated low seminal plasma zinc and decreased sperm motility, in the absence of infection. Treatment of these patients with oral zinc sulfate results in improved sperm motility.
Article
C57BL/6J male mice responded to dietary deficiency of vitamin E with reduction in spermatogenesis. Sex behavior and seminal vesicle weight were unaffected. Supplements of alphabeta-tocopherol (vitamin E) at 0.33 or 72 IU per day maintained spermatogenesis but did not affect seminal vesicles or sex behavior.
Article
Identification of the andrological variables most sensitive to zinc depletion would expedite the diagnosis of male reproductive pathology induced by zinc deficiency. Eleven volunteers living on a metabolic ward were fed a diet composed of a mixture of a semisynthetic formula and conventional foods supplemented with ZnSO4 to supply a total of 1.4, 2.5, 3.4, 4.4, or 10.4 mg Zn/d. After an equilibration period of 28 d (10.4 mg Zn/d), all treatments were presented for 35 d each, the first four in random order and the fifth last. Compared with when they were consuming 10.4 mg Zn/d, volunteers consuming 1.4 mg Zn/d exhibited decreased semen volumes (3.30 vs 2.24 mL) and serum testosterone concentrations (26.9 vs 21.9 nmol/L), and no change in seminal zinc concentrations. Compared with 10.4 mg Zn/d, treatments of 1.4, 2.5, and 3.4 mg Zn/d decreased the total semen zinc loss per ejaculate (6.29 vs 3.81, 4.68, and 5.03 mumols/ejaculate). Seminal loss accounted for 9% of total body zinc loss when 1.4 mg Zn/d was consumed. Seminal phosphorus concentrations were elevated during all four phases of zinc depletion (28.4 vs 32.9, 31.0, 34.2, and 33.6 mmol/L). The findings suggest that serum testosterone concentrations, seminal volume, and total seminal zinc loss per ejaculate are sensitive to short-term zinc depletion in young men.
Article
Ingestion of commercially processed honeybee-collected pollen produced potentially fatal consequences in a 19 year old asthmatic male. Symptoms of sore throat, facial itch and swelling, difficulty in breathing and stridor lasted for approximately two hours and was followed by clinical respiratory distress with widespread wheeze on auscultation of his chest. RAST and skin test data suggest that these complications appear to be mediated by IgE antibodies directed against the processed pollen, but not bee venom. Consumption of processed pollen by atopic individuals is, therefore, a potentially hazardous procedure with little therapeutic benefit.
Article
FSH-releasing hormone (FSH-RH) and LH-releasing hormone (LH-RH) activities of three synthetic preparations of (pyro) Glu-His- Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NH2 were compared with that of a homogeneous preparation of natural LH-releasing hormone (LH-RH) of porcine origin. An in vitro system based on release of FSH and LH from normal male rat pituitaries was used to assay FSH-RH and LH-RH. LH-RH activity was also determined in vivo by stimulation of the release of LH in ovariectomized rats pretreated with estrogen and progesterone. Released FSH was measured by specific bioassay as well as by radioimmunoassay for rat FSH. Released LH was measured by radioimmunoassay for rat LH. Quantitatively, the FSH-RH activity and the LH-RH activity of all three synthetic preparations of LH-RH/FSH-RH were identical with those of the natural material. The time courses of the in vitro release of LH and FSH, induced by the synthetic and natural materials, appeared to be identical, suggesting that one hypothalamic hormone may be responsible for the release of both gonadotropins. These results confirm and extend our earlier observations on the inherent FSH-RH activity of LH-RH. Addition of ethinyl estradiol (0.5 μg/ml) to the incubation medium greatly inhibited the stimulation of FSH and LH release by the hypothalamic hormone suggesting a direct effect of this steroid on pituitary cells. (Endocrinology 90: 1561, 1972)
Article
Eighty infertile men and 38 men of known fertility were studied for investigation of both the importance of zinc, copper, cadmium, and lead to fertility and the possible interrelationships between these trace elements. The infertile men had higher mean concentrations of plasma copper than those of proven fertility. The difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.01) but was of small magnitude (approximately 1.5 mumol mean difference). The concentrations of plasma zinc, erythrocyte zinc, whole blood lead and cadmium, and seminal plasma zinc and copper did not differ significantly between infertile and fertile men. There was a significant positive relationship between sperm density and seminal plasma zinc concentration in the fertile, but not in the infertile, men. The infertile men with antisperm antibodies or counts greater than 20 million/ml had significantly higher mean levels of seminal plasma zinc than infertile men with oligospermia. The higher semen zinc in these two groups may reflect an abnormal fragility of the spermatozoa, resulting in the release of zinc, but the absence of significant overall differences between fertile and infertile men suggests that measurement of the concentration of zinc in plasma or zinc and copper in seminal plasma has little value in the routine investigation of infertility.