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Triology Vol. 37, No. 3
Nancy C. Coile, Ph. D., Managing Editor
Wayne N. Dixon, Ph. D., Editor
ENPP Home | Tri-ology Home
Plant Pathology
Compiled by Carlos R. Artaud
For this period, 109 specimens were submitted to Botany for identification, and 446 were received
from other Sections for identification and/or name verification (for a total of 555). Some of the
samples are described below:
Antidesma bunius (L.) K. Spreng., Euphorbiaceae, bignay: Tree to 13.5 m tall, unisexual. Leaves 7.5-
17.5 cm long, evergreen, elliptic to oblong, dark glossy green, alternate, simple, with short
petioles. Inflorescences in spikes 5-17.5 cm long; flowers small, green; calyx imbricate; petals
absent; ovary glabrous, 1-celled, 2-ovules. Fruit a small, red, fleshy, currant-like berry with white
flesh. Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental. The fruits are used for jellies, jams, wine, and
brandy. Native of India, and Malaya. (Palm Beach County; B98-266; Ellen J. Tannehill; 26 May
1998). (Bailey 1976; Huxley 1992; Morton 1987).
Asclepias pedicellata Walt., Asclepiadaceae, savannah milkweed, a native species: Perennial herb,
stem simple, 1-3 dm tall, pubescent. Leaves few, opposite, linear, the largest 2.5-4.5 cm long, 2-7
mm wide, pubescent. Umbels, 1-3, terminal or from upper nodes, 3-6 flowered. Corolla greenish-
cream, the lobes erect, 7-10 mm long; corona 2-3 mm in diameter, and 4 mm or more below the
stipitate gynostegium. Coastal Plain province, Florida to North Carolina. (Jefferson County; B98-
226; James H. Aldrich, University of Florida's North Florida Research and Education Center; 5 May
1998). (Radford et al. 1974).
Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) HBK, Malpighiaceae, golden spoon, craboo, nanchi: Shrub or tree 5-10 m
tall or even higher; young branches covered with a dense or lax tomentum of rufous hairs.
Petioles 8-155 mm long; leaf blades 8-15 cm long, 4-7 cm wide but variable in size, ovate to
elliptic or oblong-elliptic, acute or acuminate, sometimes rounded and apiculate at the apex,
acute or obtuse at the base, usually lustrous and glabrate above, beneath sparsely or densely
tomentose with lax, rufous or grayish hairs. Racemes equaling or longer than the leaves, many
flowered, sparsely or densely rufous tomentose; petals yellow, turning dull red, corolla 1.5-2 cm
across; ovary sparsely sericeous. Fruit a drupe, 8-12 mm in diameter, dull yellow or tinged with
orange, with abundant flesh; with an offensive odor. The wood is used for construction, for fuel,
and charcoal. Fruits are eaten with rice, in soups, in tamales and as preserves. Juice is made into
carbonated drinks and also a rum-like "chicha." Crushed branches used for stupefying fish. Fruit
peels used to dye fabrics. Native to West Indies, and Mexico south to northern South America.
(Dade County; B98-288; Lynn D. Howerton; 12 May 1998). (Morton 1981; Standley and Steyermark
Lachnocaulon minus (Chapm.) Small, Eriocaulaceae, Small's bog-buttons, a native species:
Monoecious herb. Scapes twisted, slender, 8-20 cm long, densely hirtellous; sheaths 3-5 cm long,
foliose at apex. Leaves linear-attenuate, pubescent, 2-5 cm long; tufted on lateral branches of the
rhizome. Mature heads 4-5 mm long, 3-5 mm wide, cylindrical or globose, dull gray-brownish,
with narrow involucral bracts inconspicuous in mature heads; florets small, obscured by copious
trichomes; "chaffy" appearance in late summer. Seeds amber, 0.4 mm long, pointed, cancellate.
Moist to dry pinelands, savannahs, pond edges, bogs. Florida to North Carolina. (Jefferson County;
B98-225; James H. Aldrich, University of Florida's North Florida Research and Education Center; 5
May 1998). (Godfrey and Wooten 1979; Long and Lakela 1971; Wunderlin 1998).
Melaleuca decora (Salisb.) Britt., Myrtaceae, honey myrtle, a paperbark: Shrub or tree to 12 m tall.
Bark many-layered, papery, fibrous. Leaves 15-16 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, scattered, flat or
concave above, linear, oblong or narrowly elliptic, acute, with prominent midrib, 3-veined,
narrowed at base; petiole very short ca. 1 mm. Inflorescence a many-flowered, open, upper
axillary or terminal spike (sometimes leafy so flowers appear axillary). Flowers solitary (or up to
3) within each bract; petals white, broadly ovate-elliptic with a long claw, 2-3 mm long; stamens
white, filaments 20-40, free part to 3.5 mm long. Fruit cup-shaped or truncate ellipsoid, 2-3 mm
long and wide. Native to Queensland, Australia. (Broward County; B98-265; Dennis C. Clinton, Rita
J. Carpenter; 27 May 1998). (Huxley 1992).
Mentha aquatica L., Labiatae, watermint: Subglabrous to tomentose perennial, strong scented.
Stems 15-90 cm tall, simple or branched, often reddish-purple. Leaves 2-6 cm long, 1-4 cm wide,
usually ovate to ovate-lanceolate, petiolate, margins serrate. Inflorescence a terminal head
comprising 2-3 verticillasters sometimes with 1-3 axillary verticillasters below; bracts
inconspicuous, lanceolate; pedicels and calyx hairy; calyx 3-4 mm long, tubular, veins distinct,
teeth subulate; corolla lilac. Nutlets pale brown. Semi-aquatic. A variable species parenting
various hybrids. Native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia. (Orange County: B98-301; Christine M.
Murphy; 26 June 1998). (Bailey 1976; Huxley 1992).
Mimusops elengi L., Sapotaceae, Spanish cherry, medlar: Tree to at least 20 m tall, with a dense,
spreading, rounded crown. Leaves 5-16 cm long, 2-7.5 cm wide, in 1.2-2.5 cm long petioles,
alternate, elliptic or ovate to oblong-elliptic, obtuse or bluntly acute, margins up curled, wavy.
Flowers 1-1.5 cm wide, white, later brown, very fragrant, short pedicellate; petals caducous, acute.
Fruit 2.5-3.5 cm long, 1.2-1.6 cm in diameter, ovoid or oblong, smooth, orange-red when mature,
pulp yellow, floury, edible; seed 1, large, hard, dark brown. From India to Burma, Malaysia and
Pacific Islands. Cultivated for the fragrant flowers. (Palm Beach County; B98-287; Ellen J.
Tannehill; 11 June 1998). (Huxley 1992).
Solanum psedocapsicum L., Solanaceae, Jerusalem cherry: Shrub, 1-2 m tall. Leaves 5-8 cm long, 1-
1.5 cm wide, elliptic, acute or acuminate at apex, cuneate at base, undulate, veins prominent
beneath; petioles 1-1.5 cm long. Inflorescence with up to 10 flowers; peduncle 5-10 mm long;
pedicels 10 mm long, deflexed in flower, erect in fruit; calyx tube 2 mm long, lobes 2-3 mm long;
corolla stellate, 1 cm across, white; anthers thick, 2 mm long; style exceeding anthers. Fruit 1-1.5
cm in diameter, globose, bright orange when ripe, succulent, poisonous; seeds 3 mm in diameter,
pale buff to yellow. Cultivated as an ornamental. Widely naturalized in tropics and subtropics.
Native of Madeira. (Hillsborough County; B98-268; Stacy A. Tyrala; 28 May 1998). (Huxley 1992).
Vitex rotundifolia L. f., Verbenaceae, vitex: Prostrate, creeping or sprawling shrub. Leaves usually
unifoliate to 4.5 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, broadly oblong, suborbicular or obovate-spatulate, base
and apex rounded, densely puberulent above, tomentose to glabrous beneath. Inflorescence short,
usually terminal; flowers blue to purple, fragrant; calyx to 4.5 mm long; corolla tube to 8 mm
long. Fruit to 5 mm in diameter. Native from Asia to Australia. (Alachua County; B98-264; Teresa
Rust Estok; 27 May 1998). (Huxley 1992).
GLOSSARY: cancellate: latticed, with longitudinal lines connected by cross lines;gynostegium:
structure formed by the fusion of the anthers with the stigmatic part of the pistil, characteristic of
Asclepiadaceae; monoecious: having stamens and pistils in separate flowers on the same plant;
rufous: reddish.
L. H. Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus third, a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in
the United States and Canada. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 1,290 p.
Godfrey, R.K. and J.W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and wetland plants of southeastern United
States, Monocotyledons. University of Georgia Press, Athens. 712 p.
Huxley, A. J. (ed.) 1992. New Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 4 vols.
Macmillan Press, London. 3,240 p.
Long, R. W. and O. Lakela. 1971. A flora of tropical Florida. University of Miami Press, Coral
Gables. 962 p.
Morton, J.F. 1981. Atlas of medicinal plants of Middle America, Bahamas to Yucatan. Charles
C. Thomas, Springfield, IL. 1420 p.
Morton, J.F. 1987. Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. 505 p.
Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles and C. R. Bell. 1974. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas.
The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 1,183 p.
Standley, P. C. and J. A. Steyermark. 1976. Flora of Guatemala. Malpighiaceae. Fieldiana. 24
(V): 478-479.
Wunderlin, R.K. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. University Press of Florida,
Gainesville. 806 p.
Book review: Wunderlin's new book (see above) is a Florida first. Not a manual with descriptions
for each species, but does provide keys, common names, habitat, general location, time of
flowering and synonyms for ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms native or naturalized in Florida.
Compiled by Susan E. Halbert, Ph.D
For the month of May, there were 643 samples consisting of 3,503+ specimens. In June, there
were 1,299 samples consisting of 13,314+ specimens. Some of the samples processed are listed
ORNAMENTALS, WOODY PLANTS AND PALMS: Ravenea rivularis (majesty palm)-- Dysmicoccus
brevipes (Cockerell), pineapple mealybug: A moderate infestation involved all of 50,000 plants at a
nursery in Lake Worth (Palm Beach County; E98-1094; Thomas L. Salisbury; 15 April 1998).
Another moderate infestation involved 80% of 4,000 plants at a nursery in Boynton Beach (Palm
Beach County; E98-1150; Ellen J. Tannehill; 30 April 1998).
-- Rhizoecus hibisci Kawai & Takagi, a root mealybug: Infestations involved 50,000 and 3,000
majesty palm plants, respectively, at nurseries in Lake Worth (Palm Beach County; E98-1103, E98-
1097; Thomas L. Salisbury; 23 April 1998, 15 April 1998). This root mealybug has been a
regulatory problem for shipment of plants to California (Dr. Avas B. Hamon).
Sabal palmetto (cabbage palm, a native species)-- Comstockiella sablais (Comstock), palmetto scale:
A moderate infestation was found at a discount store in Davie (Broward County; E98-1633;
William A. Thiel; 22 February 1998). This is a common scale on palmetto and is usually not a
problem in the wild, but it possibly is a problem in cultivation where chemical sprays are used
(Dr. Avas B. Hamon).
Syagrus romanzoffiana (queen palm)-- Nipaecoccus nipae (Maskell), coconut mealybug: A severe
infestation involved all of 800 plants at a nursery in Ft. Lauderdale (Broward County; E98-1139;
Maria S. Quintanilla; 29 April 1998).
ORNAMENTALS, FOLIAGE PLANTS: bamboo-- Antonina pretiosa Ferris, noxious bamboo mealybug:
An infestation was found at a nursery in Coral Gables (Dade County; E98-1891; Gwen H. Myres; 12
June 1998).
Breynia nivosa (snowbush)-- Melanochroia chephise (Cramer), a geometrid moth: A severe
infestation with larvae defoliating a hedge was found at a residence in Pompano Beach (Broward
County; E98-1538; James 'Keith' Harris; 21 May 1998). This is the first time this species has been
recorded as a plant pest (Dr. John B. Heppner).
Ilex x attenuata 'Savannah' (Savannah holly)-- Asterolecanium puteanum Russell, holly pit scale: A
severe infestation was found on established plants in the landscape at a nursery in Jacksonville
(Duval County; E98-1942; Flewellyn W. Podris; 17 June 1998). Gall-like swellings on branches
were caused by scale insects feeding at those sites (Dr. Avas B. Hamon).
Cycas szechuanensis (Sichuan cycad)-- Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, cycad aulacaspis scale: An
infestation was found at a botanical garden in Miami (Dade County; E98-698; Forrest W. 'Bill'
Howard, University of Florida's Ft. Lauderdale Research and Extension Center; 26 February 1998).
Dendrocalamus latiflorus (mei-nung or ma bamboo)-- Chaetococcus bambusae (Maskell), giant
bamboo mealybug: A moderate infestation was found on a plant at a botanical garden in Miami
(Dade County; E98-1635; Don Evans, botanical garden employee; 28 May 1998). Chaetococcus
bambusae (Maskell) is related to the legless mealybug genus Antonina. It is very conspicuous on
bamboo since the adult female is dark brown, large, heavily sclerotized, and with a white fringe
of wax. Although this is the first known infestation in the continental U.S., this mealybug possibly
occurs where giant bamboo is grown (Dr. Avas B.Hamon). NEW RECORD FOR THE CONTINENTAL
Dioöncalifanoi (Califono's cycad)-- Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, cycad aulacaspis scale: An
infestation was found at a botanical garden in Miami (Dade County; E98-696; Forrest W. 'Bill'
Howard, University of Florida's Ft. Lauderdale Research and Extension Center; 26 February 1998).
Dioönmerolae (Merola's cycad)-- Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, cycad aulacaspis scale: An
infestation was found at a botanical garden in Miami (Dade County; E98-697; Forrest W. 'Bill'
Howard, University of Florida's Ft. Lauderdale Research and Extension Center; 26 February 1998).
Dioönrzedowskii (Rzedowski's cycad)-- Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, cycad aulacaspis scale: An
infestation was found at a botanical garden in Miami (Dade County; E98-694; Forrest W. 'Bill'
Howard, University of Florida's Ft. Lauderdale Research and Extension Center; 26 February 1998).
Encephalartos, affine E. lebomboensis (a cycad, similar to Lebombo cycad)-- Aulacaspis yasumatsui
Takagi, cycad aulacaspis scale: An infestation was found at a botanical garden in Miami (Dade
County; E98-706; Forrest W. 'Bill' Howard, University of Florida's Ft. Lauderdale Research and
Extension Center; 26 February 1998). NEW DPI HOST RECORD.
Encephalartos manikensis (Rhodesian cycad)-- Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, cycad aulacaspis scale:
An infestation was found at a botanical garden in Miami (Dade County; E98-500; Forrest W. 'Bill'
Howard, University of Florida's Ft. Lauderdale Research and Extension Center; 19 February 1998).
Microcycas calocoma (palma corcho, or hairy coned cycad)-- Aulacaspis yasumatsui Takagi, cycad
aulacaspis scale: An infestation was found at a botanical garden in Miami (Dade County; E98-703;
Forrest W. 'Bill' Howard, University of Florida's Ft. Lauderdale Research and Extension Center; 26
February 1998). NEW DPI HOST RECORD.
Murraya paniculata (orange-jessamine, or Chinese box)-- Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Asian citrus
psyllid: A slight infestation was found at a residence in Tamarac (Broward County; E98-1846;
James 'Keith' Harris and Dennis C. Clinton; 4 June 1998). NEW DPI COUNTY RECORD.
-- Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Asian citrus psyllid: A severe infestation was found at a discount
store in Oakland Park (Broward County; E98-1911; James 'Keith' Harris; 12 June 1998).
ORNAMENTALS, FLOWERING PLANTS: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (hibiscus, or China-rose)-- Aleurodicus
dugesii Cockerell, giant whitefly: A severe infestation on several plants was found at a bank in
Stuart (Martin County; E98-1901; Kenneth L. Hibbard and Dr. Susan E. Halbert; 8 June 1998). NEW
-- Aleurodicus dugesii Cockerell, giant whitefly: Slight infestations were found at an apartment
complex and a residence in Casselberry (Seminole County; E98-1900, 1902; Anne F. Weathers; 10
June 1998). There were parasites in nearly every specimen; biological control is working
beautifully (Dr. Avas B. Hamon and Dr. Ru Nguyen).
Maranta leuconeura var. erythroneura (red-veined herringbone plant)-- Chaetanaphothrips orchidii
(Moulton), orchid thrips: A moderate infestation was found on 500 of 1500 plants at a nursery in
Apopka (Orange County; E98-1045; Leslie J. Wilber and Anthony N. Capitano; 21 April 1998).
FOREST AND SHADE TREES: Ulmus parvifolia (Chinese elm)-- Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae Matsumura,
an Asian elm aphid: A slight infestation was found on trees growing in the parking lot of the
Tavares DPI office (Lake County; E98-1287; Dr. Susan E. Halbert and Christine M. Murphy; 6 May
1998). This aphid occurs throughout east Asia and is quite common in China. It was detected in
England on bonsai U. parvifolia. Chinese elms are popular bonsai cultivars in the USA, as well.
Since T. ulmiparvifoliae had to have been imported into Florida on a living elm tree, it is quite
possible that it arrived here on bonsai plants from Asia. Tinocallis ulmiparvifoliae is not likely to
become a serious pest in Florida, but high populations may produce enough honeydew to become
a nuisance for parked cars, yard furniture, etc. (Dr. Susan E. Halbert). (Stroyan 1977). NEW
CITRUS: Citrus aurantifolia (key lime)-- Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Asian citrus psyllid: A slight
infestation was found at a residence in Delray Beach (Palm Beach County; E98-1751; Dr. Susan E.
Halbert, Ellen J. Tannehill, Dennis C. Clinton and Dr. Larry G. Brown; 2 June 1998). Asian citrus
psyllid is one of the most important pests of citrus in most of Asia, several islands in the Indian
Ocean, and Saudi Arabia. It causes damage to the crop primarily by transmitting phloem limited
bacteria that cause citrus greening disease. Asian citrus psyllid also occurs in Brazil and
Argentina, but it is regarded as a relatively minor pest because the pathogens are absent. The
status of the greening pathogens in Florida is unknown at this time (Dr. Susan E. Halbert). NEW
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)-- Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Asian citrus psyllid: A slight infestation
was found on a plant in a business landscape in Teguesta (Martin County; E98-1889; Kenneth L.
Hibbard and Dr. Susan E. Halbert; 8 June 1998). A plant sample submitted for greening analysis
was negative (Dr. Richard F. Lee, University of Florida's Citrus Research and Extension Center,
Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)-- Anasa scorbutica (Fabricius), a coreid bug: A specimen was collected
in a sweep-net sample on grapefruit leaves at a citrus nursery in Lithia (Hillsborough County;
E98-1348; Alan R. Haynes and Stacy A. Tyrala; 13 May 1998). This insect breeds on Cucurbita.
-- Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Asian citrus psyllid: A slight infestation was found at a residence in
Delray Beach (Palm Beach County; E98-1753; Dr. Susan E. Halbert, Ellen J. Tannehill, Dennis C.
Clinton, and Dr. Larry G. Brown; 2 June 1998). Adults, eggs and immature were all present on new
shoots in the center of the tree.
Citrus sinensis (sweet orange)-- Praticollela griseola, snails: Large numbers were found covering
trunks of trees in a citrus grove (Hendry County; E98-2005; John McGuire, grove manager, Phillip
A. Stansly, University of Florida's Southwest Florida Research and Extension Center, Immokalee;
18 June 1998). These snails can rasp leaves but normally they are not significant pests (Dr. Lionel
A. Stange).
Citrus spp. (mixed citrus cultivars)-- Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, Asian citrus psyllid: A slight
infestation was found at a discount store in Oakland Park (Broward County; E98-1913; James
'Keith' Harris; 12 June 1998).
WEEDS AND GRASSES: Artemisia ludoviciana (mugwort)-- Coloradoa artemisiae (del Guercio), an
aphid: A moderate infestation was found on a plant at a botanical garden in Gainesville (Alachua
County; E98-972; Dr. Susan E. Halbert and Belén Belliure; 11 April 1998). This is a widely
naturalized Eurasian species (Dr. Susan E. Halbert). NEW DPI FLORIDA STATE RECORD.
BENEFICIAL INSECTS: Aonidiella orientalis (Newstead) (Oriental scale) -- Closterocerus phenacapsia
(Yoshimoto), a eulophid parasitic wasp: The parasite was found in a laboratory colony of Oriental
scale on Cycas circinalis (queen sago) at a United States Department of Agriculture research unit
in Miami (Miami-Dade County; E98-1249; Holly B. Glenn, University of Florida's Tropical Research
and Extension Center, Homestead; 18 March 1998). NEW HOST RECORD FOR THIS PARASITE (Dr.
Gregory A. Evans).
Philephedra tuberculosa Nakahara & Gill (a scale insect)-- Curinus coeruleus Mulsant, a ladybird
beetle: Beetles were found eating scales on Dombeya sp. (a tropical snowball) at a residence in
Deerfield Beach (Broward County; E98-1548-2; M. Ernst, homeowner, and Dennis C. Clinton; 21
May 1998).
-- Diomus sp., a ladybird beetle: Beetles were found eating scales on Dombeya sp. (a tropical
snowball) at a residence in Deerfield Beach (Broward County; E98-1548-3; M. Ernst, homeowner,
and Dennis C. Clinton; 21 May 1998).
-- Exochomus marginipennis (LeConte), a ladybird beetle: Beetles were found eating scales on
Dombeya sp. at a residence in Deerfield Beach (Broward County; E98-1548-1; M. Ernst,
homeowner, and Dennis C. Clinton; 21 May 1998).
(Weidemann), Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly): seven wild flies were detected in a Jackson trap in
a residential area of Bradenton (Manatee County; E98-1324; Frank Brown, United States
Department of Agriculture; 12 May 1998). Surrounding the find, large numbers of detection traps
were placed in a grid according to protocol guidelines. At the time of the last detection (June 14),
a total of 660 flies had been captured at 99 sites in and around Bradenton and Palmetto. Much of
the control operation was conducted on the ground, but three aerial applications of malathion
bait spray were also applied over a total of 40 square miles. The last aerial spray in Manatee
County was 25 June. Sterile flies were initially released in areas surrounding the chemical
treatment areas. Release areas were then expanded into the core infestation areas after
completion of bait treatments and extended to the whole corridor west of I-75 in Hillsborough,
Pinellas, Manatee and Sarasota counties.
No additional wild flies were detected in Miami Springs (Dade County). Release of sterile flies
continued throughout the reporting period for a total duration of nearly three life cycles.
In Lake county, the last wild medfly detection was on 17 June, making a total of 1,315 flies. The
last of seven aerial applications of bait spray over 35 square miles was completed on 13 June.
Ground application of bait spray will continue for four additional weeks only in the one-square
mile surrounding the final detection site (Dr. Gary J. Steck).
Gromphadorhina sp., a hissing cockroach: Sixty-four adults and juveniles in a large container were
seized at a nursery in Bradenton (Manatee County; E98-1243; L. Wayne Clifton and Mark L.
Runnals; 1 May 1998).
INSECT DETECTION: Androchrus femoralis (Olivier), a comb-clawed beetle: A specimen was
collected in Gainesville (Alachua County; E98-1106; Joseph S. Beckwith; 19 April 1998). This is an
interesting and uncommon beetle (Dr. Michael 'Mike' C. Thomas).
Aethina tumida Murray, the small hive beetle: Specimens of this South African honeybee pest were
submitted for identification by a St. Lucie County beekeeper on 1 June 1998. An immediate survey
revealed it to be present in hives in six Central Florida counties: Brevard, Indian River, Lake,
Martin, Polk, and St. Lucie. Although not considered a serious problem in South Africa,
infestations of this beetle have already killed hives in Florida (Dr. Michael 'Mike' C. Thomas). NEW
Cachryphora serotinae (Oestlund), a goldenrod aphid: A specimen was collected in a suction trap in
Quincy (Gadsden County; E98-1090; Dr. Richard K. Sprenkel, University of Florida's North Florida
Research and Extension Center, Quincy, and Dr. Susan E. Halbert; 17 April - 1 May 1998). NEW
Capitophorus jopepperi Corpuz-Raros & Cook, a ragweed aphid: A specimen was collected in a
suction trap in Ft. Pierce (St. Lucie County; E98-1089; Dr. Robert C. Bullock, University of Florida's
Indian River Research and Extension Center, Ft. Pierce; 17-24 April 1998). NEW DPI COUNTY
Stroyan, H.L.G. 1977. Handbook for the identification of British insects 11, pt. 4(a)
Nematology Section Plant Pathology Section
Compiled by Paul S. Lehman, Ph.D.
A total of 2,872 samples were processed in May and June. Details are shown below:
Certification and Regulatory Samples:
Multistate Certification for National and International Export 1,410
California Certification 927
Burrowing Nematode 206
Premovement 110
Site or Pit Approval 21
Other Samples:
Plant Problem 58
Out of state survey, via Florida Interceptions 0
Intrastate Survey, Random 140
NEMATODES NEW TO FLORIDA (JANUARY - JUNE 1998): Based on DPI records, during the past six
months the following nematode was added to the list of nematodes found in Florida. Mixed turf
roots--Caloosia americana (Ray & Das, 1978) Raski and Luc, 1987, a sheath nematode. The sample
was taken from several species of turf. This nematode species was originally described from
Orissa, India (Manatee County; Samuel A. Fuller; N98-00319; 16 March 1998).
NEMATODES OF SPECIAL INTEREST: Carica papaya (papaya)--Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid &
White, 1949) Chitwood, 1949 southern root-knot nematode. This nematode caused galls on the
roots of greenhouse- grown plants (Alachua County; N98-00588; Eric Bjeergaard, homeowner; 6
February 1998). Cycas sp. (a cycad)--Hemicriconemoides wessoni Chitwood & Birchfield, a ring
nematode, and Pratylenchus zeae, Graham, 1951, a lesion nematode. Nematodes were recovered
from the soil around the roots of this cycad (Orange County; N98-00629; Tyson R. Emery; 19 June
1998). Panicum maximum (guinea grass)--Belonolaimus euthychilus Rau, 1963, a sting nematode.
This nematode was associated with the roots of this grass (Alachua County; N98-00601; Dr.
Robert P. Esser; 16 October 1998).
Brodie, Matthew W. 37
Brown, Gregory A. 11
Foe, Shelia J. 95
Fuller, Samuel A. 257
Harris, James K. 84
Inguanzo, Yolanda I. 30
Lawrence, Douglas W. 6
LeBoutillier, Karen W. 266
Podris, Flewellyn, W. 12
Qiao, Ping . 135
Robinson, William L. 'Robbie' 129
Salisbury, Thomas L. 257
Smith, W. Wayne 154
Tyson, Emery R. 7
Tyrala, Stacy A. . 11
Compiled by John W. Miller, Ph.D.
For this period, the Plant Pathology Section received and processed 1,582 specimens. These
included 369 pathology, 11 miscellaneous, 6 soil, and 1,178 Miami, 7 Manatee, 1 Immokalee
suspect canker samples. Some of the samples are shown below.
ORNAMENTALS, WOODY PLANT AND PALMS: Coccoloba uvifera (sea grape, protected by
miscellaneous Florida plant law 370.041)-- Gnomonia pulcherrima Seaver & Waterston, fungi:
Collected at a nursery in Naples (Collier County; P98-0911; Matthew W. Brodie; 14 April 1998).
Myrsine floridana (Florida rapanea, native species)-- Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) C.
T. Wei, fungus: Collected at a nursery in Lake Worth (Palm Beach County; P98-1090; Thomas S.
Everett; 8 May 1998). NEW HOST RECORD.
Phoenix dactylifera (date palm)-- Serenomyces shearii, fungi: Collected at a dooryard in Maitland
(Orange County; P98-1150; Larry W. Smith; 21 May 1998).
Rhapis excelsa (lady palm)-- Gliocladium vermoeseni, fungal spores: Collected at a nursery in Winter
Garden (Orange County; P98-1104; Barbara'Barbie' J. Wilder; 15 May 1998). NEW HOST RECORD.
ORNAMENTALS, FLOWERING PLANTS: Anisodontea scabrosa (South African pink mallow)--
Phytophthora nicotianae, root rot: Collected at a nursery in Archer (Alachua County; P98-1041; Bob
Grant, nurseryman; 4 May 1998). NEW HOST RECORD.
Manettia luteo-rubra (= M. inflata; firecracker vine)-- Pythium splendens, root rot: Collected at a
nursery in Archer (Alachua County; P98-1040; Bob Grant, nurseryman; 4 May 1998). NEW HOST
FOOD OR CROP PLANTS: Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato)-- Oidium sp., powdery mildew:
Collected at a dooryard in Gainesville (Alachua County; P98-1202; Dr. J. J. 'Jack' McRitchie; 1 June
Solanum tuberosum (white potato)-- Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus, virus: Collected at University
of Florida's Hastings Research and Education Center (Putnam County; P98-1069; Dr. David P.
'Pete' Weingartner; 7 May 1998). NEW HOST RECORD.
NATIVE OR NATURALIZED: Mastichodendron foetidissimum (false mastic or jungle plum, native
species)-- Phyllachora halstediana, tar spot: Collected at a nursery in Miami (Dade County; P98-
1116; Edward T. Putland; 13 May 1998).
... In Martinique, D. citri was first reported in 2012, and CLas in 2013 (Cellier et al. 2014). In Florida, D. citri was found in 1998, and CLas was discovered in 2005 (Halbert 1998;Halbert and Manjunath 2004;Grafton-Cardwell et al. 2013); since then, D. citri and Clas have spread across the state, with the notable exception of northern Florida (Martini et al. 2020), and contributed to a 40% yield Communicated by Jarmo K. Holopainen. reduction compared with pre-HLB yield levels (Singerman et al. 2018). ...
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The phytopathogenic bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is the causal agent of huanglongbing (HLB), a destructive disease affecting citrus worldwide. It is vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, an invasive pest that has spread across the Caribbean Islands and Florida over the last 20 years. It has been suggested that intercropping citrus and guava could significantly reduce populations of psyllids and consequently of HLB. Volatiles produced by some varieties of guava were analyzed and were found to be repellent to D. citri; unfortunately, intercropping trials conducted in Florida failed to efficiently reduce the population of D. citri and hence prevent HLB. We hypothesized that repellency against D. citri may depend on the variety and that some wild varieties may be more repellent than domesticated varieties. In Martinique Island, we tested the repellency of four different guava varieties, two commercially available, two found in the wild. Of the four, only one showed significant repellency against D. citri tested in Y-tube olfactometer assays. GC–MS assays revealed a higher concentration of dimethyl disulfide, α-selinene, and β-selinene and α-copaene in the repellant variety. In separate olfactometer assays, α-copaene lures were shown to significantly repel D. citri. Our study may help to develop a better strategy using guava as an intercrop to improve the management of D. citri in Caribbean islands.
... Comments: This Old World species was only recently discovered in North America, so it was not included by Froeschner (1988). This species has been intercepted several times in Florida (Halbert 2014), but it is unclear if it has become established there. ...
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The species of Pentatomidae known to occur north of Mexico, comprising 223 species in 68 genera, are enumerated with taxonomic notes and updated and annotated distributions. Included in this update are 126 new state records reported for 62 pentatomid species in 30 genera. The copious annotations in these distributions and attendant bibliography serve as an extensive compilation of overlooked references that might contain distributional records for other insect, especially heteropteran, species.
... The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is a pest native to tropical and subtropical Asia, but it has spread into the Americas and recently been reported in Africa [8,9]. In the United States, D. citri was first reported in Florida in 1998 [10]; subsequently, it has spread to the states of Arizona, Alabama, California, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas [11][12][13][14]. D. citri is the vector of the of the lethal, phloem-restricted bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and Americanus (CLam) causal agents of the Huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus worldwide [15,16]. ...
Full-text available
Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), commonly known as Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), is an invasive insect pest and the vector of the bacterium causing Huanglongbing (HLB), a lethal disease of citrus. In the United States, ACP has been established in all citrus-producing zones, all of which have different environmental conditions. The spread of ACP and, more importantly, HLB, has progressed differently depending on the state, with more rapid spread in Florida and Texas than in California. Climatic variations between the regions are likely a strong factor in the difference in the rate of spread. Despite this, it is unknown how the flight capacity of D. citri is influenced by high temperatures (>30 °C) and subsequently, low humidity experienced in California but not in Texas or Florida. In this study, by using a custom-made, temperature-controlled flight mill arena, we assessed the effect of high temperatures on the flight capacity and flight propensity of D. citri under low (20–40%) and high (76–90%) relative humidity conditions. We found that temperature and humidity influence the propensity to engage in short or long-distance flight events. Psyllids exposed to temperatures above 43 °C only performed short flights (˂60 s), and a high relative humidity significantly decrease the proportion of long flights (≥60 s) at 26 and 40 °C. The flight capacity for insects who engaged in short and long flights was significantly affected by temperature but not by humidity. For long flyers, temperature (in the 26–43 °C range) was negatively correlated with distance flown and flight duration. The most favorable temperature for long dispersion was 26 °C, with suboptimal temperatures in the range of 32–37 °C and the least favorable temperatures at 40 and 43 °C. In conclusion, D. citri is able to fly in a broad range of temperatures and efficiently fly in high and low humidity. However, temperatures above 40 °C, similar to those experienced in semi-arid environments like Southern California or Arizona, are detrimental for its flight capacity.
... The mealybug was originally described from collections on Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae) in Argentina [6]. Outside of its native range, the mealybug has been reported in Australia, South Africa, United States of America, several European countries, and in the Caribbean [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. The Australian and South African Hypogeococcus populations were deliberately introduced from Argentina for the biological control of several weedy cacti [15,[17][18]. ...
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Hypogeococcus pungens, a mealybug native of southern South America, is devastating native cacti in Puerto Rico and threatening cactus diversity in the Caribbean, and potentially in Central and North America. The taxonomic status of H. pungens is controversial since it has been reported feeding not only on Cactaceae but also on other plant families throughout its distribution range. However, in Australia, where the species had been exported from Argentina to control weedy American cacti, it was never found on host plants other than Cactaceae. These conflicting pieces of evidence not only cast doubt on the species identity that invaded Puerto Rico, but also have a negative impact on the search for natural enemies to be used in biological control programs against this pest. Here we present reproductive incompatibility and phylogenetic evidences that give support to the hypothesis that H. pungens is a species complex in which divergence appears to be driven by the host plants. The nuclear EF1α and 18S and the mitochondrial COI genes were used as markers to evaluate the phylogenetic relationships among H. pungens populations collected in Argentina, Australia and Puerto Rico feeding on Cactaceae and/or Amaranthaceae. Additionally, we conducted reciprocal crosses between mealybugs from both hosts. Species delimitation analysis revealed two well-supported putative species within H. pungens, one including mealybugs feeding on Amaranthaceae (H. pungens sensu stricto), and a new undescribed species using Cactaceae as hosts. Additionally, we found asymmetric reproductive incompatibility between these putative species suggesting recent reproductive isolation. The Bayesian species delimitation also suggested that the Australian mealybug population may derive from another undescribed species. Overall, the patterns of genetic differentiation may be interpreted as the result of recent speciation events prompted by host plant shifts. Finally, the finding of a single haplotype in the Puerto Rico population suggests only one invasive event. We still need to identify the geographical origin of the pest in order to enable the use of biological control to reduce the threat to cacti diversity in the Caribbean.
... Citrus greening disease was first thought to be associated with mineral deficiency and water logging due to its yellow shoot symptoms (Halbert 1998, Sutton et al. 2005. But in China the disease was experimentally transmitted to healthy plant using grafting technique which confirmed that the disease is caused by a pathogen (Lin 1956). ...
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The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) (Asian citrus psyllid) for the EU. D. citri is a key pest of citrus in several countries as it is a vector of serious bacterial pathogens, the putative causal agents of Huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening. Eggs are laid on tips of growing shoots on and between unfurling leaves. Females may lay more than 800 eggs during their lives. Nymphs pass through five instars. The life cycle requires from 14 to 49 days, depending upon the season. There is no diapause, but populations are low in winter. It overwinters as an adult which may live for several months. The species completes 9-10 generations/year; however, under protected conditions, up to 16 generations have been recorded. Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072 (Annex IIA) regulates D. citri, as a quarantine pest not known to occur in the EU territory. Fruits and plants for planting provide potential pathways for entry into the EU. Climatic conditions and the availability of host plants provide conditions to support establishment in the EU. The introduction of D. citri would have an economic impact in the EU through direct but mainly indirect effects due to potential transmission of HLB. Phytosanitary measures are available to reduce the likelihood of entry. D. citri satisfies the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for it to be regarded as a potential Union quarantine pest. D. citri does not meet the criteria of occurring in the EU, nor plants for planting being the principal means of spread, for it to be regarded as a potential Union regulated non-quarantine pest.
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The Southeast Asian xyleborine ambrosia beetle fauna is reviewed for the first time. Thirty-four genera and 315 species are reviewed, illustrated, and keyed to genera and species. Sixty-three new species are described: Amasa cycloxyster sp. nov. , Amasa galeoderma sp. nov. , Amasa gibbosa sp. nov. , Amasa lini sp. nov. , Amasa tropidacron sp. nov. , Amasa youlii sp. nov. , Ambrosiophilus caliginestris sp. nov. , Ambrosiophilus indicus sp. nov. , Ambrosiophilus lannaensis sp. nov. , Ambrosiophilus papilliferus sp. nov. , Ambrosiophilus wantaneeae sp. nov. , Anisandrus achaete sp. nov. , Anisandrus auco sp. nov. , Anisandrus auratipilus sp. nov. , Anisandrus congruens sp. nov. , Anisandrus cryphaloides sp. nov. , Anisandrus feronia sp. nov. , Anisandrus hera sp. nov. , Anisandrus paragogus sp. nov. , Anisandrus sinivali sp. nov. , Anisandrus venustus sp. nov. , Anisandrus xuannu sp. nov. , Arixyleborus crassior sp. nov. , Arixyleborus phiaoacensis sp. nov. , Arixyleborus setosus sp. nov. , Arixyleborus silvanus sp. nov. , Arixyleborus sittichayai sp. nov. , Arixyleborus titanus sp. nov. , Coptodryas amydra sp. nov. , Coptodryas carinata sp. nov. , Coptodryas inornata sp. nov. , Cyclorhipidion amasoides sp. nov. , Cyclorhipidion amputatum sp. nov. , Cyclorhipidion denticauda sp. nov. , Cyclorhipidion muticum sp. nov. , Cyclorhipidion obesulum sp. nov. , Cyclorhipidion petrosum sp. nov. , Cyclorhipidion truncaudinum sp. nov. , Cyclorhipidion xeniolum sp. nov. , Euwallacea geminus sp. nov. , Euwallacea neptis sp. nov. , Euwallacea subalpinus sp. nov. , Euwallacea testudinatus sp. nov. , Heteroborips fastigatus sp. nov. , Heteroborips indicus sp. nov. , Microperus latesalebrinus sp. nov. , Microperus minax sp. nov. , Microperus sagmatus sp. nov. , Streptocranus petilus sp. nov. , Truncaudum bullatum sp. nov. , Xyleborinus cuneatus sp. nov. , Xyleborinus disgregus sp. nov. , Xyleborinus echinopterus sp. nov. , Xyleborinus ephialtodes sp. nov. , Xyleborinus huifenyinae sp. nov. , Xyleborinus jianghuansuni sp. nov. , Xyleborinus thaiphami sp. nov. , Xyleborinus tritus sp. nov. , Xyleborus opacus sp. nov. , Xyleborus sunisae sp. nov. , Xyleborus yunnanensis sp. nov. , Xylosandrus bellinsulanus sp. nov. , Xylosandrus spinifer sp. nov. . Thirteen new combinations are given: Ambrosiophilus consimilis (Eggers) comb. nov. , Anisandrus carinensis (Eggers) comb. nov. , Anisandrus cristatus (Hagedorn) comb. nov. , Anisandrus klapperichi (Schedl) comb. nov. , Anisandrus percristatus (Eggers) comb. nov. , Arixyleborus resecans (Eggers) comb. nov. , Cyclorhipidion armiger (Schedl) comb. nov. , Debus quadrispinus (Motschulsky) comb. nov. , Heteroborips tristis (Eggers) comb. nov. , Leptoxyleborus machili (Niisima) comb. nov. , Microperus cruralis (Schedl) comb. nov. , Planiculus shiva (Maiti & Saha) comb. nov. , Xylosandrus formosae (Wood) comb. nov. Twenty-four new synonyms are proposed: Ambrosiophilus osumiensis (Murayama, 1934) (= Xyleborus nodulosus Eggers, 1941 syn. nov. ); Ambrosiophilus subnepotulus (Eggers, 1930) (= Xyleborus cristatuloides Schedl, 1971 syn. nov. ); Ambrosiophilus sulcatus (Eggers, 1930) (= Xyleborus sinensis Eggers, 1941 syn. nov. ; = Xyleborus sulcatulus Eggers, 1939 syn. nov. ); Anisandrus hirtus (Hagedorn, 1904) (= Xyleborus hirtipes Schedl, 1969 syn. nov. ); Cnestus protensus (Eggers, 1930) (= Cnestus rostratus Schedl, 1977 syn. nov. ); Cyclorhipidion bodoanum (Reitter, 1913) (= Xyleborus misatoensis Nobuchi, 1981 syn. nov. ); Cyclorhipidion distinguendum (Eggers, 1930) (= Xyleborus fukiensis Eggers, 1941 syn. nov. ; = Xyleborus ganshoensis Murayama, 1952 syn. nov. ); Cyclorhipidion inarmatum (Eggers, 1923) (= Xyleborus vagans Schedl, 1977 syn. nov. ); Debus quadrispinus (Motschulsky, 1863) (= Xyleborus fallax Eichhoff, 1878 syn. nov. ); Euwallacea gravelyi (Wichmann, 1914) (= Xyleborus barbatomorphus Schedl, 1951 syn. nov. ); Euwallacea perbrevis (Schedl, 1951) (= Xyleborus molestulus Wood, 1975 syn. nov. ; Euwallacea semirudis (Blandford, 1896) (= Xyleborus neohybridus Schedl, 1942 syn. nov. ); Euwallacea sibsagaricus (Eggers, 1930) (= Xyleborus tonkinensis Schedl, 1934 syn. nov. ); Euwallacea velatus (Sampson, 1913) (= Xyleborus rudis Eggers, 1930 syn. nov. ); Microperus kadoyamaensis (Murayama, 1934) (= Xyleborus pubipennis Schedl, 1974 syn. nov. ; = Xyleborus denseseriatus Eggers, 1941 syn. nov. ); Stictodex dimidiatus (Eggers, 1927) (= Xyleborus dorsosulcatus Beeson, 1930 syn. nov. ); Webbia trigintispinata Sampson, 1922 (= Webbia mucronatus Eggers, 1927 syn. nov. ); Xyleborinus artestriatus (Eichhoff, 1878) (= Xyelborus angustior [ sic ] Eggers, 1925 syn. nov. ; = Xyleborus undatus Schedl, 1974 syn. nov. ); Xyleborinus exiguus (Walker, 1859) (= Xyleborus diversus Schedl, 1954 syn. nov. ); Xyleborus muticus Blandford, 1894 (= Xyleborus conditus Schedl, 1971 syn. nov. ; = Xyleborus lignographus Schedl, 1953 syn. nov. ). Seven species are removed from synonymy and reinstated as valid species: Anisandrus cristatus (Hagedorn, 1908), Cyclorhipidion tenuigraphum (Schedl, 1953), Diuncus ciliatoformis (Schedl, 1953), Euwallacea gravelyi (Wichmann, 1914), Euwallacea semirudis (Blandford, 1896), Microperus fulvulus (Schedl, 1942), Xyleborinus subspinosus (Eggers, 1930).
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Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama), preferentially orient toward citrus hosts infected with the phytopathogenic bacterium, Candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) the agent of citrus greening (Huanglongbing, HLB), compared to uninfected counterparts. We investigated whether this preference for the odors of infected plants could be useful for the development of an attract-and-kill (AK) device for D. citri. Twenty-nine blends of volatile organic compounds derived from the odor of citrus infected with CLas were tested in laboratory olfactometer tests, and two blends were also assessed under field conditions. A seven component blend of tricosane: geranial: methyl salicylate: geranyl acetone: linalool: phenylacetaldehyde: (E)-β-ocimene in a 0.40: 0.06: 0.08: 0.29: 0.08: 0.06: 0.03 ratio released from a proprietary slow-release matrix attracted twice more D. citri to yellow sticky traps compared with blank control traps. The attractive blend was subsequently co-formulated with spinosad insecticide into a slow-release matrix to create a prototype AK formulation against D. citri. This formulation effectively reduced the population density of D. citri up to 84% as measured with tap counts when deployed at a density of eight 2.5 g dollops per tree as compared with untreated controls in small plot field trials conducted in citrus orchards. Psyllid populations were not statistically affected at a deployment rate of four dollops per tree. Our results indicate that an AK formulation incorporating spinosad and a volatile blend signature of citrus greening into a slow-release matrix may be useful to suppress D. citri populations.
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The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama is an economically important pest of citrus because it vectors the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. Biological control is an important component of citrus pest management but requires consistent strengthening of its impact on pest complex. The brown lacewing Sympherobius barberi Banks is a known predator of several insect pests from Asia, Europe, and America. However, there is not much information about its effectiveness against D. citri. We evaluated S. barberi against the D. citri and frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella, the latter is a common diet used for rearing predators in laboratories. Adult S. barberi successfully fed on D. citri eggs and nymphs under both light and dark conditions. Diaphorina citri was also suitable for the development and reproduction of S. barberi except for slightly prolonged larval development compared with E. kuehniella diet. The egg hatch from the total number of eggs laid on D. citri and E. kuehniella diets averaged 65% and 52%, respectively. Females laid 64% eggs on dimpled white paper compared to 36% combined on plain paper and leaves of citrus, orange jasmine, eggplant and cantaloupe. Sympherobius barberi released at densities of 2–6 adults against eggs and nymphs of D. citri on infested orange jasmine plants in the cages provided a reduction of 43–81% in the number of provided eggs or nymphs. In the field tests on D. citri infested citrus trees, reduction averaged 35% in five cohorts in which developing colonies of 28–32 nymphs were provided to one S. barberi per cage. Findings suggest the significant potential of S. barberi as a predator of D. citri and to contribute to reducing huanglongbing.
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Two new species of Geckobia Mégnin, 1878, Geckobia andina n. sp. and Geckobia circumdata n. sp., ectoparasites commonly reported on geckos, are described from the host species Phyllodactylus gerrhopygus (Wiegmann). The specimens were collected in the subtropical region of the Andean Pacific of Peru. The geographic distribution of species of Geckobia in South America and the Caribbean are mapped. Furthermore, a dichotomous key for the species of New World Geckobia is provided.
This is the long-awaited second volume of Godfrey and Wooten's definitive survey of aquatic and wetland plants of the southeastern United States. It focuses on native and naturalized dicotyledons of the region and provides well-written, concise descriptions and keys for the identification of 1,084 species. A glossary of terms, list of references, separate indexes of common and scientific names, and nearly 400 well-executed drawings complete the volume.The first comprehensive survey of the aquatic and wetland plants of the Southeast, the Godfrey and Wooten volumes will prove invaluable to botanists, ecologists, college students, government agencies involved in land-use management, and nonspecialists interested in the plant life and ecology of the region.
Hortus third, a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada
  • L H Bailey Hortorium
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L. H. Bailey Hortorium Staff. 1976. Hortus third, a concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York. 1,290 p.
New Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 4 vols
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Huxley, A. J. (ed.) 1992. New Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. 4 vols. Macmillan Press, London. 3,240 p.
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  • J A Steyermark
Standley, P. C. and J. A. Steyermark. 1976. Flora of Guatemala. Malpighiaceae. Fieldiana. 24 (V): 478-479.
11 PLANT PATHOLOGY Compiled by
  • Stacy A Tyrala
Tyrala, Stacy A.. 11 PLANT PATHOLOGY Compiled by John W. Miller, Ph.D.